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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

grasp it and hold the same as a club. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. 2. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. distant. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. away. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. E. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. A piece of plank 12 in. Practice first at some object about 25 ft.Fig. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. until it is bound as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. To throw a boomerang. 2. 2 -. wide and 2 ft. Toronto. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. It is held in this curve until dry. 1. 1. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. The pieces are then dressed round. apart. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. long will make six boomerangs. Ontario.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. Noble. with the hollow side away from you. as shown in Fig. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Fig. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . --Contributed by J. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. 1. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve.

it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. minus the top. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. made of 6-in. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. If the snow is of the right consistency. the block will drop out. forcing it down closely.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. 6 in. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. and it may be necessary to use a little water. A very light. high and 4 or 5 in. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. however. long. or rather no bottom at all. dry snow will not pack easily. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. thick. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. one inside of the circle and the other outside. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. blocks . it is not essential to the support of the walls. First. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. A wall. which makes the building simpler and easier. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. and with a movable bottom. but about 12 in.

A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. is 6 or 8 in. Union. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. Ore. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. 1. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. It also keeps them out. a. Fig. which can be made of wood. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. Fig. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. and the young architect can imitate them. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. 1. Goodbrod. --Contributed by Geo. above the ground. 3. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. wide. Fig. 2. or an old safe dial will do. which is about 1 ft.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. 3 -. 2. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. long and 1 in. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. D. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. C. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. There is no outward thrust. The piece of wood. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] .throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. A nail.

New York. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. Merrill. says the Sphinx. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. the box locked . as the weight always draws them back to place. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. If ordinary butts are used. S. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. Syracuse. --Contributed by R. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. one pair of special hinges. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up.

Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. If they do not. Ga. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. Augusta. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. draw one-half of it. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. All . It remains to bend the flaps. one for each corner. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. allowing each coat time to dry. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. -Contributed by L. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. With the metal shears. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. proceed as follows: First. 1. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. To make a design similar to the one shown. as shown in Fig. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. 2. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. on drawing paper. If the measuring has been done properly. Place the piece in a vise. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Alberta Norrell. about 1-32 of an inch. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. as shown. When the sieve is shaken. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Fig.and the performer steps out in view. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. as shown in Fig. smooth surface. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. 3.

separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. of No. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. R. Galbreath. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. H. --Contributed by R. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. if rolled under the shoe sole. should be in the line. Denver. If a touch of color is desired. long. 25 gauge German-silver wire. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. A resistance. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. In boring through rubber corks. B. A piece of porcelain tube. as shown at AA. C. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . The common cork. When the current is turned off. 25 German-silver wire. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork.the edges should be left smooth. heats the strip of German-silver wire. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. which is about 6 in. To keep the metal from tarnishing. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. from the back end. After this has dried. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. is fitted tightly in the third hole. The current. in passing through the lamp. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. Colo. and in the positions shown in the sketch. used for insulation. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. in diameter. about 6 in. causing it to expand.

This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Purchase two long book straps. Fig. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Kansas City. --Contributed by David Brown. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal.bottom ring. 3. 1. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. with thin strips of wood. as shown in Fig. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. 2. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. . cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. leaving a space of 4 in. Mo. between them as shown in Fig. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs.

. which is the right weight for family use. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. 3. in diameter. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. to form a handle. --Contributed by Katharine D. 2. and one weighing 25 lb.. Pa. just the right weight for a woman to use. 1. C. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. 1. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. long. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. having a gong 2-1/2 in. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. 1. Fig. Fig. These are shown in Fig. 36 in. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag.An ordinary electric bell. Syracuse. 4. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. as . by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Y. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Kane. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. and a pocket battery. N. Morse. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. A. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. --Contributed by James M. Two strips of brass. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Fig. The string is then tied. Doylestown. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. one weighing 15 lb. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. and tack smoothly. The folds are made over the string. are mounted on the outside of the box. When the aeroplane tips.

N. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. 2. two 1/8 -in. in diameter. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. --Contributed by Louis J. Day. The saw. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. 2. if once used. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. Y. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. 1. machine screws. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. four washers and four square nuts. Floral Park. Frame Made of a Rod . AA. bent as shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. and many fancy knick-knacks. 3/32 or 1/4 in. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. such as brackets. long.

Of the leathers. If it colors the metal red. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. allowing each time to dry. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. 1 part sulphuric acid. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. therefore. Drying will cause this to change to purple. after breaking up. using a swab and an old stiff brush. copper. Michigan. or silver. Apply two coats. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. as well as brass and copper. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. Silver is the most desirable but. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. if copper or brass. it has the correct strength. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. A. though almost any color may be obtained. the most expensive. of water. --Contributed by W. green and browns are the most popular. An Austrian Top [12] . Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Rub off the highlights. File these edges. The buckle is to be purchased. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. In the design shown. of water in which dissolve. be covered the same as the back. 1 part nitric acid.may be made of either brass. Scranton. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. For etching. Watch Fob For coloring silver. as well as the depth of etching desired. Detroit. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. of course. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish.. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. treat it with color.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. use them in place of the outside nuts. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should.

. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. long. Michigan. A handle. thick. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. The handle is a piece of pine. --Contributed by J. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. long. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. When the shank is covered. A 1/16-in. wide and 3/4 in. is formed on one end. 3/4 in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. pass one end through the 1/16-in. set the top in the 3/4 -in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Parts of the Top To spin the top. 5-1/4 in.F. Tholl. in diameter. Bore a 3/4-in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. 1-1/4 in. hole in this end for the top. hole. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. Ypsilanti. allowing only 1-1/4 in.

Ga.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. The baking surface. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. A. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Houghton. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Alberta Norrell. --A. tarts or similar pastry. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Mich. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. --Contributed by Miss L. Northville. . some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. having no sides. Augusta. For black leathers.

then solder cover and socket together. two turns will remove the jar. Centralia. glass fruit jar. says Studio Light. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. When you desire to work by white light. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. Stringing Wires [13] A. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Mo. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. the same as shown in the illustration.

The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. . so it can be folded up. They are fastened. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. 16 Horizontal bars. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. 4 Braces. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. and not tip over. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration.for loading and development. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 4 Vertical pieces. square by 12 in. Janesville. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. 1-1/4 in. Wis. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 1-1/4 in. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. as shown in the cross-section sketch. square by 62 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out.

No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. The whole. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. Phillipsburg. after filling the pail with water. If the loop is tied at the proper place. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. and a loop made in the end. H. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. C. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. -Contributed by Charles Stem. O. from scrap material. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. New York. --Contributed by Dr. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. Cincinnati. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. After rounding the ends of the studs. Rosenthal. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The front can be covered .

if you try to tone them afterward.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. sickly one. the mouth of which rests against a. FIG. Develop them into strong prints. the color will be an undesirable. The results will be poor. The . In my own practice. principally mayonnaise dressing. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. Md. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. you are. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. by all rules of the game. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. and. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. thoroughly fix. Baltimore. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. --Contributed by Gilbert A. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. By using the following method. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. Wehr. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. If the gate is raised slightly. either for contact printing or enlargements. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. 1 FIG. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints.

.. wide and 4 in." Cyanide of potassium .bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. but. Water .. in size. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone... long to admit the angle support.. Place the dry print. --Contributed by T.. 2.... to make it 5 by 5 in... A good final washing completes the process. without previous wetting. 20 gr. 1 and again as in Fig... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. where it will continue to bleach... It will bleach slowly and evenly.. San Francisco. preferably the colored kind. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in... Iodide of potassium .. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished... transfer it to a tray of water... as it will appear clean much longer than the white... The blotting paper can . The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper....... Cal.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. 16 oz....... When the desired reduction has taken place.. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper...... 5 by 15 in. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. when it starts to bleach.. in this solution.. L... etc. 2 oz.... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig..... three times. With a little practice.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. Gray.

Monahan. and a length of 5 in. Make a design similar to that shown. the shaft 1 in. the head of which is 2 in.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. --Contributed by J. Wisconsin. Oshkosh. --Contributed by L. 3. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. wide. wide below the . 20 gauge. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Canada. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Wilson Aldred Toronto. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No.J.

as shown in Fig. The metal must be held firmly. 1 part nitric acid. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Do not put the hands in the solution. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. For coloring olive green. 3. Pierce a hole with a small drill. after folding along the center line. Apply with a small brush. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. After this has dried. but use a swab on a stick. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. then put on a second coat. using turpentine. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. 4. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. 1. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. With the metal shears. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. then trace the other half in the usual way. 2. Trace the design on the metal. freehand. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. .FIG. using a small metal saw. 1 part sulphuric acid. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. then coloring. Allow this to dry. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. which gives the outline of the design Fig. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. being held perpendicular to the work. After the sawing. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. using carbon paper. Make one-half of the design. Fig. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. deep. 1 Fig. With files.

East Hartford. it does the work rapidly. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. After the stain has dried. Morse. --Contributed by Katharine D. When this is cold. thick. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Richmond. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Syracuse. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. New York. . on a chopping board. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Conn. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. as shown. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. --Contributed by M. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Burnett. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. --Contributed by H. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Carl Cramer. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Cal. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. then stain it a mahogany color. attach brass handles. M. Ii is an ordinary staple.

Cal. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. 1/4 in.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. A. H. and several 1/8-in. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. as shown in Fig. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in.. also locate the drill holes. as shown at A. in width at the shank. one shaft. Atwell. Fig. Kissimmee. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. L. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. brass. thick and 4 in. . Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. indicating the depth of the slots. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. two enameled. --Contributed by Mrs. some pieces of brass. --Contributed by W. holes. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. about 3/16 in. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. saucers or pans. Florida. or tin. Jaquythe. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. Richmond. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. 53 steel pens. not over 1/4 in. thick. 1. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. 4. machine screws. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. square. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades.

The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. 5. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. with a 3/8-in. There should be a space of 1/16 in. If the shaft is square. Fig. 3. hole is drilled to run off the water. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. Two nuts should be placed on each screw.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. long and 5/16 in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. each about 1 in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. lead should be run into the segments. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin.. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. 2. using two nuts on each screw. can be procured. a square shaft used. 2. Fig. wide. hole in the center. machine screws. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. into the hole. supply pipe. If metal dishes. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. Fig. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. machine screws and nuts. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. brass and bolted to the casing. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. as shown. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. with the face of the disk. in diameter and 1/32 in. as shown in Fig. The shaft hole may also be filed square. long by 3/4 in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. thick. hole. 1. as in Fig. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. 3. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. about 1/32 in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. thick. A 3/4-in. 7. and pins inserted. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. Bend as shown in Fig. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. 6. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. with 1/8-in. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. and the ends filed round for the bearings. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing.

The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. --Contributed by F. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Canada. high and 15 in. or more in diameter. make these seams come between the two back legs. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. 8-1/2 in. Ill. Cooke. Now you will have the box in two pieces. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. The four legs are each 3/4-in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Be sure to have the cover. When assembling. Stain the wood before putting in the . deep and 1-1/4 in. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. La Salle. Smith. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. we will call the basket. three of which are in the basket. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. using four to each leg. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Fasten with 3/4-in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. With a string or tape measure. screws.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Hamilton. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. The lower part. deep over all. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. --Contributed by S. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. V. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. from the bottom end of the legs. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. square and 30-1/2 in. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. long. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. to make the bottom. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. from the top of the box. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in.

wide. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible.lining. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. 2. you can. The side. sewing on the back side. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Md. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks.2 Fig. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Mass. Sew on to the covered cardboards. -Contributed by Stanley H. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Packard. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Boston. 1.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . --also the lower edge when necessary. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Baltimore. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Fig. as shown in the sketch. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. The folded part in the center is pasted together. When making the display. wide and four strips 10 in. and gather it at that point. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Cover them with the cretonne.

are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Y. It is cleanly. 3. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. --Contributed by B. When through using the pad. --Contributed by H. Orlando Taylor.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. N. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Gloversville. It is not difficult to . with slight modifications. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. saving all the solid part. L. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Crockett. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Cross Timbers. Fig. Mo. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. and.

and scrape out the rough parts. Bourne.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. or if desired. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Lowell. -Contributed by C. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. across the face. --Contributed by Edith E. Texas. Both of these methods are wasteful. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. are shown in the diagram. After this is done. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Lane. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. If a file is used. S. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . After stirring. Mass. remove the contents. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. it should be new and sharp. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. El Paso. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters.

--Contributed by Edwin Marshall. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Wheeler. Ill. Those having houses . air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. F. Greenleaf. Oregon. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Iowa.cooking utensil. Oak Park. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Ill. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Canton. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. The process works well and needs no watching. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. A Postcard Rack [25]. He captured several pounds in a few hours. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. --Contributed by Geo. After several hours' drying. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Turl. Des Moines. As these were single-faced disk records. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. --Contributed by Marion P. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. The insects came to the light. --Contributed by Loren Ward.

thick. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. the best material to use being matched boards. Dobbins. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. the bottom being 3/8 in. 6 in. Glenbrook. will do as well. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Mass. The single boards can then be fixed. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. and the second one for the developing bench. boards are preferable. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. one on each side of what will be the . and both exactly alike. Both sides can be put together in this way. 6 in. Only three pieces are required. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Worcester. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. not even with the boards themselves. Lay the floor next. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. by 2 ft. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. --Contributed by Wm. plane and pocket knife. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1.. --Contributed by Thomas E. Conn. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Rosenberg. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. and as they are simple in design. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way.. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. but for cheapness 3/4 in. material.

and should be zinc lined. In hinging the door. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. wide. 8. and the top as at C in the same drawing. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. by screwing to the floor. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged.. 11. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. 6 and 9. brown wrapping paper. Fig. 6. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. 9 by 11 in. and in the middle an opening. 3 and 4. and to the outside board of the sides. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. etc. below which is fixed the sink. 10). and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. nailing them to each other at the ridge. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. so that the water will drain off into the sink. so that it will fit inside the sink. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 5. as shown in Figs. 7. It is shown in detail in Fig. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. which is fixed on as shown .doorway. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 9). and an arrangement of slats (Fig. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. The roof boards may next be put on. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in.. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. hinged to it. is cut. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. The developing bench is 18 in. At the top of the doorway. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy.. the closing side as at B. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 6. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. of the top of the door for the same reason. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. 2 in section. and act as a trap for the light.

Details of the Dark Rook .

Erie. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. 15. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. In use. 20. Karl Hilbrich. 13. as at M. after lining with brown paper. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. screwing them each way into the boards. though this is hardly advisable. as in Fig. Fig.in Fig. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. hole bored in the center for a handle. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. as shown in the sections. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. 16. 13. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. 1. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. 16. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. Fig. or the room may be made with a flat roof. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. preferably maple or ash. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 2. but not the red glass and frame. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. if desired. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. 18. mixing flour and water. Fig. --Contributed by W. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. these being shown in Fig. A circular piece about 2 in. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. Pennsylvania. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. or red light as at K. For beating up an egg in a glass. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. The house will be much strengthened if strips. 14. and a tank stand on it. and a 3/8-in. Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. it is better than anything on the market. are fastened in the corners inside. The handle should be at least 12 in. 6. as at I. as shown in Fig. four coats at first is not too many. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. 17. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. which makes it possible to have white light. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. 19.

when put together properly is a puzzle. To operate. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. which. long. L. Kansas City. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. for a handle. --Contributed by Wm. Schweiger. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. --Contributed by L. Smith. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Ark. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. New York. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. about 3/8 in. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Mo. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. as shown in the sketch.copper should be. Yonkers. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. G. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. -Contributed by E. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Mitchell. Eureka Springs. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. D.

Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. as is usually the case. holes should be drilled in the bottom. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. 2. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. After the box is trimmed. in order to thoroughly preserve it. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. The corks in use are shown in Fig. Having completed the bare box. as well as improve its appearance. 3. need them. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. the rustic work should be varnished. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. A number of 1/2-in. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 3. the box will require a greater height in front. 1. as shown in Fig. which binds them together. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. especially for filling-in purposes. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. for the moment. If the sill is inclined. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. as shown in Fig. . to make it set level. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. The design shown in Fig. Each cork is cut as in Fig.

too dangerous. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. etc. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. When the corn is gone cucumbers. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. Traps do no good. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. 3. can't use poison. share the same fate. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. drilled at right angles. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. 2. . The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. and observe results. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. being partly eaten into. it's easy. 1. 4. But I have solved the difficulty. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Each long projection represents a leg. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night.. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. life in the summer time is a vexation. as shown in Fig. F. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. cabbages.

To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. cut in 1/2-in. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. About 9-1/2 ft. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. long. . The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. strips. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. and made up and kept in large bottles. cut some of it off and try again. Iowa. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. -.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. If. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. of No. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The solution can be used over and over again. by trial. the coil does not heat sufficiently.

the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. as shown in the sketch.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Knives. N. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. of whiting and 1/2 oz. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. --Contributed by Katharine D. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. of gasoline. of oleic acid with 1 gal. is a good size--in this compound. forks. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Do not wash them. Pa. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. In cleaning silver. coffee pot. D. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Dallas. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Kane. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. --Contributed by James M. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. it falls to stop G. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Fig 2. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Texas. and a strip. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. hot-water pot. Syracuse. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. but with unsatisfactory results. to cause the door to swing shut. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Stir and mix thoroughly. . which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Y. Morse. C. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. Doylestown. 1) removed. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used.

Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. later fixed and washed as usual. La. of course. Pa. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Harrisburg. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Fisher. --Contributed by Theodore L. Sprout. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. . Ill. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Waverly. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. --Contributed by Oliver S. but unfixed. which is. New Orleans. using the paper dry. negatives. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire.

1. The harmonograph. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. Fig. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. then . but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. To obviate this difficulty. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. metal. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. a harmonograph is a good prescription.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest.

An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. A small weight. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. Chicago. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. R. to prevent any side motion. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. Ingham. --Contributed by Wm. one-fourth. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. K.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. and unless the shorter pendulum is. Arizona. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. etc. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. --Contributed by James T. A small table or platform. in diameter. with a nail set or punch. G.. Gaffney. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. 1-3/4 by 2 in. A length of 7 ft. provides a means of support for the stylus. J. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. makes respectively 3. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. A weight. of about 30 or 40 lb. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. what is most important. 1. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. which can be regulated. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. Punch a hole. as shown in Fig. is attached as shown at H. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] .. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. exactly one-third. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. as shown in the lower part of Fig. Rosemont. 1. that is. as long as the other. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. such as a shoe buttoner. ceiling. for instance.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. in the center of the circle to be cut. one-fifth. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. or the lines will overlap and blur. is about right for a 10-ft. Holes up to 3 in. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Another weight of about 10 lb. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. The length of the short pendulum H. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. A pedestal.

Fig. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 5. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. -Contributed by W. Cruger. N. Morey. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. 3. and 4 as in Fig. The two key cards are made alike. The capacity of the vise. dividing them into quarters. and proceed as before. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. then 3 as in Fig. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. 1. Fig. Chicago.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. 6. Cape May City. --Contributed by J. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block.J. of course.J.H. 4. one for the sender and one for the receiver. then put 2 at the top. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. a correspondent of . The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. distributing them over the whole card. 2.

of 18-per-cent No. acetic acid and 4 oz. Augusta. the portion of the base under the coil. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. deep. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. says Popular Electricity. of ferricyanide of potash. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. After preparing the base and uprights. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. of the uprights. 1/2 oz. --Contributed by L. respectively. of water. Asbestos board is to be preferred. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. After securing the tint desired. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. 6 gauge wires shown. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. 22 gauge German-silver wire. Wind the successive turns of . Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. Cut through the center. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Ga. from the top and bottom. 1/4 in. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. wood-screws. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. remove the prints. To assemble. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. citrate of iron and ammonia. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. sheet of well made asbestos paper. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. If constructed of the former. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. drill 15 holes. 30 gr. long. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. Alberta Norrell. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in.

These may be procured from electrical supply houses. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. then fasten the upright in place. which. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding .wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. etc. but these are not necessary. 14 gauge. Y. screws. --Contributed by Frederick E. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. N. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. as they are usually thrown away when empty. Small knobs may be added if desired.. rivets. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Labels of some kind are needed. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Ward. if one is not a smoker. Ampere. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. 16 gauge copper wire. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. square. cut and dressed 1/2 in. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry.

After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. sandpaper or steel wool. Copper. Heat it until hot (not red hot). The parts are put together with dowel pins.. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. D. then to the joint to be soldered. especially if a large tub is used. Kenosha. E and F.14 oz. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. --C. B. tin. of glycerine to 16 oz. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. being careful about the heat. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. lead. Richmond. California. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. --Contributed by A. a piece of solder. and one made of poplar finished black. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. brass. A. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. it must be ground or filed to a point. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. C. Larson. Eureka Springs. galvanized iron. --Contributed by W. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. as shown in the sketch. or has become corroded. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. If the soldering copper is an old one. . The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. The material can be of any wood. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Jaquythe. Wis. particularly so when the iron has once been used. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. S. G. Ark. and rub the point of the copper on it. tinner's acid. and labeled "Poison. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. the pure muriatic acid should be used. of water. zinc. In soldering galvanized iron. This is considerable annoyance." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish.

Fig. This will leave a clear hole. I bind my magazines at home evenings. such as copper. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. brass and silver. The disk will come out pan shaped. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Y. Apart from this. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Troy. N. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. and drill out the threads. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. 1. in diameter. however. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. 7/8 in. Fig. Six issues make a well proportioned book. in diameter. D. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . a ring may be made from any metal. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. This completes the die. Hankin. The covers of the magazines are removed. B. nut. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Take a 3/4-in. Brass rings can be plated when finished. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. round iron. which gives two bound volumes each year.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. -Contributed by H. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. 2. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. with good results. The punch A. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. W. The dimensions shown in Fig. thick and 1-1/4 in. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. wide. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. C. Place the band.

They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. The string No.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. then back through the notch on the right side. is used for the sewing material. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. . 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. on all edges except the back. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. and a third piece. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. The covering should be cut out 1 in. 1. and place them against the strings in the frame. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. 1/8 in. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. After drawing the thread tightly. is nailed across the top. and then to string No. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. Start with the front of the book. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. of the ends extending on each side. If started with the January or the July issue. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. C. 5. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. size 16 or larger. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Coarse white thread. through the notch on the left side of the string No. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. 1. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. which is fastened the same as the first. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. The covering can be of cloth. 2. The sections are then prepared for sewing. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. 1. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 2. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. allowing about 2 in. deep. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Five cuts. threaded double. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared.4. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. Place the cardboard covers on the book. 1 in Fig. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. using .

on which to hook the blade. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. and. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. and mark around each one. Divine. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. For the blade an old talking-machine . Nebr.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. College View. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Place the cover on the book in the right position. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Cal. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Tinplate. at opposite sides to each other. Encanto. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. round iron. --Contributed by Clyde E.

Hays. fuse hole at D. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. and another piece (B) 6 in. -Contributed by Willard J. and file in the teeth. bore. C. Make the blade 12 in. Ohio. by 1 in. Then on the board put . and a long thread plug. E.. or double extra heavy. Moorhead. long. and 1/4 in. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. B. thick. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood.. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Summitville. thick. and 1/4 in. On the upper side. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. in order to drill the holes in the ends. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. with 10 teeth to the inch. by 4-1/2 in. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. at the same end. hydraulic pipe. A. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. with a steel sleeve. Miss. as it is sometimes called. as shown. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. F. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame.

If you are going to use a current of low tension. H. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. of wire to each coil. A lid may be added if desired. some sheet copper or brass for plates. as from batteries. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. about 5 ft. 4 jars. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Boyd. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. --Contributed by Chas. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. high around this apparatus. the jars need not be very large.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Connect up as shown. of rubber-covered wire. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. and some No. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Philadelphia. using about 8 in. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one.

and four pieces 14 in. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. by 1 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 2 in.the way. The illustration shows how to shape it. two pieces 30 in. wide by 3/4 in. . 11 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. long. two for each jar. by 1-1/4 in. An iron washer. 1 on switch. Construct the auto front (Fig. as they "snatch" the ice. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. as they are not substantial enough. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. square by 14 ft. wide. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. however. The sled completed should be 15 ft. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. long by 22 in. 1 is connected to point No. 1 and so on for No. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. To wire the apparatus. The stock required for them is oak. long. 4) of 3/4-in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. & S. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor.. oak boards. and plane it on all edges. making them clear those in the front runner. are important. B. 34 in. thick. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. thick. apart. above the ground. steel rod makes a good steering rod. long. by 2 in. sheet brass 1 in.. direct to wire across jars. Equip block X with screw eyes. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood.. by 5 in. 15-1/2 in. See Fig. long. 4. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. The connection between point No. 5 on switch. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. The top disk in jar No. 1.. by 1-1/4 in. 3 and No. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. 16-1/2 in. by 5 in. Put arm of switch on point No. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 3. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. by 6 in. For the brass trimmings use No. C. and for the rear runners: A. The current then will flow through the motor.. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. two pieces 14 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. wide and 2 in.. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. At the front 24 or 26 in. B and C. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. 4 in. On the door of the auto front put the . 2. wide and 3/4 in. two pieces 34 in. In proportioning them the points A. B. No. Their size also depends on the voltage. 2 is lower down than in No. 30 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. on No. 7 in. is used to reduce friction. C.. gives full current and full speed. Z. Fig. A variation of 1/16 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. with the cushion about 15 in. 3 in. First sandpaper all the wood. 2. by 2 in. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. beginning at the rear. A 3/4-in. 2 and 3. 27 B. Use no screws on the running surface. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. Use no nails. and bolt through. 2. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. or source of current. then apply a coat of thin enamel.

If the expense is greater than one can afford. If desired. lunch. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. parcels. brass plated. cutting it out of sheet brass. or with these for $25. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. overshoes. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. If desired. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. to the wheel. Fasten a horn. may be stowed within. by 1/2 in. a brake may be added to the sled. to improve the appearance. by 30 in. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. etc. a number of boys may share in the ownership. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. Then get some upholstery buttons. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. such as used on automobiles. cheap material. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . which is somewhat moist. fasten a cord through the loop. The best way is to get some strong. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. long. such as burlap.

tree and bring. Ill. . and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. --Contributed by Stewart H. Lexington. Leland.

with twenty-four teeth. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. With no other tools than a hacksaw. London. E. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. so that the center of the blade. 3. This guide should have a beveled edge. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. made from 1/16-in. Fig. some files. though more difficult. the cut will be central on the line. thick. CD. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. The Model Engineer. First take the case of a small gearwheel. which. by drawing diameters. a compass. the same diameter as the wheel. A small clearance space. will be over the line FG. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. when flat against it. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. The straight-edge. Fig. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. mild steel or iron. Draw a circle on paper. FC. say 1 in. outside diameter and 1/16 in. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. 1. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. Fig. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. 2. 4). sheet metal. The first tooth may now be cut. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. from F to G.

place the prepared slide with the corner cut. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. B. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. . or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. No shock will be perceptible. either the pencils for arc lamps. each in the center. If there is no faucet in the house. ground it with a large piece of zinc. Make a hole in the other. some wire and some carbons. 1. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. R. as shown in Fig. Then take one outlet wire. 1. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. as shown in Fig. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house.Four Photos on One Plate of them. and the other outlet wire. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. as shown in Fig. or several pieces bound tightly together. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. electric lamp. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. 2. A bright. B. Focus the camera in the usual manner. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. hold in one hand. transmitter.

They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. serves admirably. For a base use a pine board 10 in. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. 36 wire around it. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. of course. If desired. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. as indicated by E E. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. and about that size. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. are also needed. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. Then set the whole core away to dry. one at the receiver can hear what is said. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. under the gable. and again wind the wire around it. Emsworth. as shown. by 12 in. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. at each end for terminals. --Contributed by Geo. Dry batteries are most convenient. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. A is a wooden block. One like a loaf of bread. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. B. or more of the latter has been used. by 1 in. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Ohio. and will then burn the string C. Wrenn. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. D D are binding posts for electric wires. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. They have screw ends. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Several battery cells. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. J. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Pa. Ashland. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Slattery.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. leaving about 10 in. a transmitter which induces no current is used. But in this experiment. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E.

To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. and the lamps. F. The coil will commence to become warm. First make a support. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. B B. The apparatus is now ready for operation. Place 16-cp. 1. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. These should have hollow ends. The oven is now ready to be connected. Connect these three to switch. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. Turn on switch. Fig. C. 2. Ohio. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. 14 wire. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. in parallel. E. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. B B. run a No. D. Fig. 12 or No. At one side secure two receptacles. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. as shown. and switch. From the other set of binding-posts. the terminal of the coil.wire. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. for the . and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C.. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Jr. C. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. until the hand points to zero on the scale. Newark. D. as shown. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. while C is open. connecting lamp receptacles. and one single post switch. in series with bindingpost.

and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. long and make a loop. as shown in the cut. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. 4 amperes. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. thick. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. A wooden box. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. is made of wire. The pointer or hand. 1. 5. inside measurements. to prevent it turning on the axle. drill a hole as shown at H. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. Fig. This may be made of wood. Montreal. D. until the scale is full. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . B. a variable resistance. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. wide and 1-3/4 in. long. It is 1 in. If for 3-way. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. drill in only to the opening already through. from the lower end. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. although brass is better. 7. The box is 5-1/2 in. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. 4 in. a battery. 1/2 in. After drilling. drill through the entire case and valve. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. long. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. 36 magnet wire instead of No. 14 wire. 6. wind with plenty of No. D.E. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. is then made and provided with a glass front. a standard ammeter. This is slipped on the pivot. high. although copper or steel will do. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. C. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. To make one. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. Dussault. 10 turns to each layer. where A is the homemade ammeter. Fig.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. remove the valve. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. Mine is wound with two layers of No. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. The core. 2. etc. 3 amperes. At a point a little above the center. --Contributed by J. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. deep. 5. 4. Fig.. 1/4 in. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale.or 4-way valve or cock. E. and D. is made of iron. Fig. 14. 3. but if for a 4way. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. 1. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. wide and 1/8 in.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire.

Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. in diameter. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. F. To start the light. and the other connects with the water rheostat. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. high. One wire runs to the switch. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. D.performing electrical experiments. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. as shown. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. E. making two holes about 1/4 in. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. in thickness . provided with a rubber stopper. and the arc light. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. and a metal rod. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. which is used for reducing the current. B. This stopper should be pierced. A. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. By connecting the motor. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained.

Fig. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. 1. B. If the interrupter does not work at first. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Fig. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. as shown in B.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. 1. Fig. where he is placed in an upright open . there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. As there shown. If all adjustments are correct. --Contributed by Harold L. as shown in C. N. Having fixed the lead plate in position. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. long. 2. Having finished the interrupter. A. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Jones. To insert the lead plate. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. 2. A piece of wood. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Fig. Turn on the current and press the button. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. 1. Y. Carthage. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around.

The box containing the stage should be 14 in. The lights. If it is desired to place the box lower down. The model. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. until it is dark there. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. by 7-1/2 in. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. to aid the illusion. by 7 in. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. within the limits of an ordinary room. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. A white shroud is thrown over his body. especially the joints and background near A. L and M. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. especially L. and can be bought at Japanese stores. as the entire interior. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. should be colored a dull black. from which the gong has been removed. is constructed as shown in the drawings. high.coffin. Its edges should nowhere be visible. They need to give a fairly strong light. and must be thoroughly cleansed. inside dimensions. The skeleton is made of papier maché. dressed in brilliant. with the exception of the glass. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. loosejointed effect. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down.. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. the illusion will be spoiled. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. figures and lights. All . thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. A. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. should be miniature electric lamps. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. could expect from a skeleton. giving a limp. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. light-colored garments. and wave his arms up and down. which can be run by three dry cells. If everything is not black. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. The glass should be the clearest possible. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig.

placed about a foot apart. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. San Jose. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. Two finishing nails were driven in. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. square block. --Contributed by Geo. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. after which it assumes its normal color. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. as shown in the sketch. If a gradual transformation is desired. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. fat spark. Fry. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. W. Cal. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype.that is necessary is a two-point switch. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps.

the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. hydrogen gas is generated. A (see sketch). which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. or a solution of sal soda. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. -Contributed by Dudley H. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. with two tubes. as shown. the remaining space will be filled with air. This is a wide-mouth bottle. 1. In Fig. and should be separated about 1/8 in. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. F. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. to make it airtight. soldered in the top. by small pieces of wood. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. B and C. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. into the receiver G. New York. In Fig. Cohen. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. If a lighted match . With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. The plates are separated 6 in. One of these plates is connected to metal top. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. which is filled with melted rosin or wax.

P. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. in diameter and 6 in. 36 insulated wire. from the bottom. of No. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. which is plugged up at both ends. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. London. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. A. should be only 5/16 of an inch. Fig. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. C C. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. A nipple. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. 1-5/16 in. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. A. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. N. Fig. A 1/64-in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. One row is drilled to come directly on top. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. says the Model Engineer. A piece of 1/8-in. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. copper pipe. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. by means of the clips. or by direct contact with another magnet. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. long. as is shown in the illustration. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. is made by drilling a 1/8in. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. 1. which forms the vaporizing coil. 1/2 in. either by passing a current of electricity around it. is then coiled around the brass tube. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. N. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . long. then a suitable burner is necessary. A. copper pipe. and the ends of the tube. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. A. 2 shows the end view.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. The distance between the nipple. B. If desired.

With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Take two strips of stout cloth. duck or linen. smoothly. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. leaving the folded edge uncut. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Fig. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Fig. with a fine saw. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. 1. 3. Cut four pieces of cardboard. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. 1/4 in. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. trim both ends and the front edge. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Fig. this makes a much nicer book. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. longer and 1/4 in. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. 2). cut to the size of the pages. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. A disk of thin sheet-iron. fold and cut it 1 in. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. taking care not to bend the iron. at the front and back for fly leaves. but if the paper knife cannot be used. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips.lamp cord. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. boards and all. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. should be cut to the diameter of the can. about 8 or 10 in. larger all around than the book.

Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. is turned on it. . from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. pasting them down (Fig. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Bedford City. --Contributed by Joseph N. and a little can. in diameter and 30 in. but its diameter is a little smaller. Another tank. as shown in the sketch. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. H. C. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Another can. as shown. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. of tank A is cut a hole. B. E. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. deep. or rather the top now. the joint will be gas tight. Va. which will just slip inside the little can.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. --Contributed by James E. 18 in. Ont. is soldered onto tank A. is fitted in it and soldered. Parker. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. D. is perforated with a number of holes. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. is made the same depth as B. In the bottom. Toronto. without a head. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. A. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Noble. A gas cock. 4). Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge.

How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. Bott. should be 3/8 in. which may be either spruce. Fig. by 1/2 in. The longitudinal corner spines. -Contributed by H. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. tacks. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. should be 1/4 in. to prevent splitting. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. If the pushbutton A is closed. 2. H is a square knot. E. Fig. 1. The armature. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. exactly 12 in. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. The small guards. and the four diagonal struts. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. and sewed double to give extra strength. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. are shown in detail at H and J. The bridle knots. which moves to either right or left. D. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. should be cut a little too long. as shown at C. D. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. B. fastened in the bottom. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. thus adjusting the . N. B. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. basswood or white pine. when finished. square by 42 in. Beverly. J. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands.. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. The wiring diagram. S. B. long. making the width. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. and about 26 in. If the back armature. with an electric-bell magnet. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. A A. A. The diagonal struts. C. shows how the connections are to be made. long.

but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Stoddard. can be made of a wooden . as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high.lengths of F and G. shift toward F. however. and. thus shortening G and lengthening F. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Chicago. Closing either key will operate both sounders. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. for producing electricity direct from heat. Clay Center. and if a strong wind is blowing. with gratifying results. to prevent slipping. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. --Contributed by Edw. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. that refuse to slide easily. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. E. --Contributed by A. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Harbert. D. Kan. the batteries do not run down for a long time. as shown. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. If the kite is used in a light wind.

14 or No. Then. 16 single-covered wire. A and B. E. A. When the cannon is loaded. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. --Contributed by A. which conducts the current into the cannon. C. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. A. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. D. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. spark. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. The wood screw. to the cannon. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. E. in position.. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. placed on top. with a number of nails. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. Chicago. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. B. C. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. and also holds the pieces of wood. F. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . C.frame. and the current may then be detected by means. by means of machine screws or. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. A. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. Fasten a piece of wood. or parallel with the compass needle. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. with a pocket compass.

Big Rapids. A and S. A hole for a 1/2 in. Connect as shown in the illustration. press the button. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. To reverse. Ohio. now at A' and S'. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. A and S. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Bend the strips BB (Fig. A. when in position at A'. square and 3/8 in. 1. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. L. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. To lock the door. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. Mich.the current is shut off. Fig. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Chicago. requiring a strong magnet. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. 1. Fig. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. . Keil. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. --Contributed by Henry Peck. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. 1. screw is bored in the block. in this position the door is locked. within the reach of the magnet. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. To unlock the door. where there is a staple. to receive the screw in the center. with the long arm at L'. H. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Marion. --Contributed by Joseph B. B. but no weights or strings. In Fig.

and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. Thread the other end of the pipe. hole. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. gas-pipe. J. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. Mass. Rand. and if desired the handles may . In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. about 18 in. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. put in the handle. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. West Somerville. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. or for microscopic work. --Contributed by C. and C is a dumbbell. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. When the holes are finished and your lines set. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. if enameled white on the concave side. and may be made at very slight expense. When ready for use. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. are enameled a jet black. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. long.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. pipe with 1-2-in. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. The standard and base.

. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Mass. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. This peculiar property is also found in ice. 1. Fig. Fig. which shall project at least 2 in. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . across. inside the pail. E. as shown at A in the sketch. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. 8 in.be covered with leather. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. --Contributed by C. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. 1. North Easton. Make a cylindrical core of wood. with a cover. D. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Warren. long and 8 in. B. M. across. A. high by 1 ft.

-G. sand. This done.. full length of iron core. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. Whatever burner is used. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. carefully centering it. Fit all the parts together snugly. Set aside for a few days until well dried. The 2 in. 2 in. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. as dictated by fancy and expense. C. Cover with paper and shellac as before. C. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. and varnish. hotel china.mixture of clay. thick. 1330°. strip of sheet iron. in diameter. 1390°-1410°. C. cutting the hole a little smaller. L. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. 60%. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. bottom and sides. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. the point of the blue flame.. or make one yourself. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. and 3/8 in. W. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. After removing all the paper. 1). When lighted. long over the lid hole as a chimney. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. pipe. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. If the cover of the pail has no rim. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. 25%. of fine wire. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. but will be cheaper in operation. thick. which is the hottest part. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. It is placed inside the kiln. and with especial caution the first time. long. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. Fig. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. as is shown in the sketch. and 3/4 in. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. 1). 2. projecting from each end (Fig.. E. pack this space-top. hard porcelain. the firing should be gradual. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. layer of the clay mixture. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. Wind about 1/8 in. Line the pail. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. and your kiln is ready for business. say 1/4 in. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. After finishing the core. if there is to be any glazing done. and on it set the paper wrapped core. let this dry thoroughly. 3) with false top and bottom. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. but it will burn a great deal of gas. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. such . How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. in diameter. to hold the clay mixture. and graphite. about 1 in. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. make two wood ends. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. diameter. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. if you have the materials. and cut it 3-1/2 in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. 15%. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. pipe 2-ft. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. wider than the kiln.

on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. R. Washington. all cards facing the same way. square them up. Chicago. bind tightly with black silk. around the coil. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. Take the red cards. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. square them up and place in a vise. diameter. C. The funnel. Next restore all the cards to one pack. as shown in the sketch herewith. 1. a regulator must be had for the vibrator..53 in. Of course. taking care to have the first card red. Then take the black cards. 2). D. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. as in Fig. and discharges into the tube. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. 2. as in Fig. 8 in. the next black. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. C. C. and so on.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. T. about 1/16 in. red and black. --Contributed by J. and divide it into two piles. . procure a new deck. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. B. leaving long terminals. 2. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. every alternate card being the same color. and plane off about 1/16 in. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. with a plane. length of . Then. overlaps and rests on the body. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. You can display either color called for. A.

1. Fig.C. 1 gill of litharge. The upright pieces. A. C. Let . It should be placed in an exposed location. E. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. Long Branch. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. stove bolts. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. stove bolts. To find the fall of snow. B. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. N. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. 1 gill of fine white sand. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. to form a dovetail joint as shown. angle iron for the frame. thus making all the holes coincide. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. the same ends will come together again. B.. The cement. of the frame. B. the first thing to decide on is the size. and then the frame is ready to assemble. When the glass is put in the frame a space. through the holes already drilled. so that when they are assembled. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. F. D. The bottom glass should be a good fit. Drill all the horizontal pieces. All the horizontal pieces. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. as the difficulties increase with the size. A. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. about 20 in. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. E. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. and this is inexpensive to build. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in.J.

Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. to the door knob. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. A. B. D. Fig. Aquarium Finished If desired. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. having a swinging connection at C. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. on the door by means of a metal plate. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. and. a centerpiece (A.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. Fasten the lever. if desired.

2 ft. another. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. I referred this question to my husband. approximately 1 ft. Fig. A small piece of spring brass. AA.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. F. They are shown in Fig. long. to form the slanting part. D. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. 6 in. 1. wide by 1 in. 1. Fig. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. for the top. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. 26 in. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. 2 is an end view. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Cut two pieces 30 in. hoping it may solve the same question for them. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. will open the door about 1/2 in. which is 15 in. according to the slant given C. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. and Fig. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. another.. White. wide . as at E. To make the frame. Do not fasten these boards now. E. Fig. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. long. thus doing away with the spring. but mark their position on the frame. PAUL S. screwed to the door frame. from the outside top of the frame. to keep the frame from spreading. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Fig. and another. to form the main supports of the frame. --Contributed by Orton E. Buffalo. N. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. several lengths of scantling 3 in. Fig. Cut two of them 4 ft. 2 at GG. with a water pressure of 70 lb. Y. long. Fig. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. 1 . One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. 3 shows one of the paddles. B. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. soldered to the end of the cylinder. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Two short boards 1 in. C. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. long.

This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. 24 in. then drill a 3/16-in.burlap will do -. 1. tapering from 3/16 in. and a 1/4 -in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. holes. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. 2) with a 5/8-in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. pipe. as shown in Fig. Take the side pieces. Drill 1/8-in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. long to the wheel about 8 in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. remove the cardboard. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. thick (HH. hole through their sides centrally. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. after which drill a 5/8 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. GG. iron 3 by 4 in. (I. When it has cooled. 4. Now block the wheel. Fasten them in their proper position. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Tack one side on. hole to form the bearings. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Fig. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. thick. iron. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in.along the edges under the zinc to form . 2) and another 1 in. take down the crosspieces. Next secure a 5/8-in. Fig. and drill a 1/8-in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Make this hole conical. in diameter. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. 2) form a substantial base. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. and drill a 1-in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. to a full 1/2 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. hole through its center. from one end by means of a key. steel shaft 12 in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. that is. Fig. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. hole through them. with the wheel and shaft in place. These are the paddles. by 1-1/2 in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ.

of course. and leave them for an hour or so. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. or what is called a process plate. place the outlet over a drain. but now I put them in the machine. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. ice-cream freezer. drill press. If sheet-iron is used. as this makes long exposure necessary. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. light and the plate. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. sewing machine. but as it would have cost several times as much. it would be more durable. any window will do. Do not stop down the lens. Drill a hole through the zinc. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. start the motor. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. on the lens. and the subject may move. Correct exposure depends. If the bearings are now oiled. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame.a water-tight joint. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Focus the camera carefully. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. . The best plate to use is a very slow one. and as near to it as possible. as shown in the sketch at B. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. remove any white curtains there may be. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. It is obvious that. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. shutting out all light from above and the sides. Raise the window shade half way.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. says the Photographic Times. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Darken the rest of the window.

2. D. B. and without fog. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. full of water. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. A. without detail in the face. The current required is very small. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. an empty pill bottle may be used. hard rubber. with binding posts as shown. the core is drawn down out of sight. or an empty developer tube. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. a core. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. until the core slowly rises. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. C. With a piece of black paper. 2. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. and a base. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. The core C. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. by twisting. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. or can be taken from an old magnet. as shown in Fig. or wood. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The glass tube may be a test tube. which is made of iron and cork. as a slight current will answer. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. a glass tube. On completing .In developing get all possible density in the high lights. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork.

Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. is Benham's color top. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. whale oil. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . white lead. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. 1. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. 1 pt. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. and make a pinhole in the center. 1 lb. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. and one not easy to explain. and are changed by reversing the rotation. according to his control of the current.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. finest graphite. This is a mysterious looking instrument. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. The colors appear different to different people. water and 3 oz. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard.

C. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. As this device is easily upset. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. before cutting. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. or three spot. -Contributed by D. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . In prize games. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. when the action ceases. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. nearly every time. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. thus partly filling bottles A and C. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. fan-like. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. In making hydrogen. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results.L. Chicago. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. deuce. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. especially if the deck is a new one.B. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. A. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. B.. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. and asks an observer to withdraw a card.

2 is also an enlarged sketch. 1. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Fig. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. S. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. 3). S. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue.. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 2. Form a cone of heavy paper. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 10 in. Fig. Detail of Phonograph Horn . at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. --Contributed by C. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Bently. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. long.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Dak. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. in length and 3 in. Jr. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Make a 10-sided stick. 9 in. J. 4. --Contributed by F. Huron. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal.. as shown in Fig. (Fig. Detroit. long and 3 in. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. W. in diameter. 12 in. .

is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. allowing 1 in. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. A piece of tin. making it three-ply thick. E. but bends toward D. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. Fig. long. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. push back the bolt. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. will cause an increased movement of C. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. and walk in. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. about the size of a leadpencil. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. Denver. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. Cut out paper sections (Fig. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. on one side and the top. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. --Contributed by Reader. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. with a pin driven in each end. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. bend it at right angles throughout its length. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. A. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. A second piece of silk thread. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . Remove the form. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 6. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. C. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. it is equally easy to block that trick. Fortunately.

West St. and rest on a brick placed under each end. posts. W. S. Minn. B. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. The upper switch. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. Fremont Hilscher. put together as shown in the sketch.. B. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached.. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. is connected each point to a battery. Jr. are 7 ft. The feet. 4 ft. or left to right. The reverse switch. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. The 2 by 4-in. while the lower switch. A. S S.strip. long. By this arrangement one. will last for several years. long. R. S. Two wood-base switches. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. are made 2 by 4 in. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. --Contributed by J. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . Paul. as shown. The reverse lever when moved from right to left.

and has two wood blocks. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. and in Fig. 2 and 3. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. pulley wheel. and valve crank S. The hose E connects to the boiler. or anything available. and the crank bearing C. is an old bicycle pump. either an old sewing-machine wheel. H and K. cut in half. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. E.every house. Fig. Fig. In Fig. FF. the other parts being used for the bearing B. with two washers. The piston is made of a stove bolt. The steam chest D. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. thick. The base is made of wood. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The valve motion is shown in Figs. 3/8 in. and a cylindrical . and the bearing B is fastened by staples. the size of the hole in the bearing B. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. 2. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. which is made of tin. which will be described later. 1.

First. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. This is wound with soft string. W. as shown in Fig. The boiler. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. The valve crank S. and saturated with thick oil. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Fry. Eustice. 1. Wis. to receive the connecting rod H. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. or galvanized iron. powder can. --Contributed by Geo. 3. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. of Cuba. . and a very amusing trick. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. G.piece of hard wood. can be an old oil can. Cal. and the desired result is obtained. This engine was built by W. Fig. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. is cut out of tin. C. as it is merely a trick of photography. using the positive wire as a pen. 4. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. J. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Schuh and A. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. G. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. San Jose. Fig. at that. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing.

1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. as shown. and pass ropes around .A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. B. Fig. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. diameter. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. and Fig. They may be of any size. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. C. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. and place a bell on the four ends. 1 by covering up Figs. Cut half circles out of each stave. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. When turning. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. B. 1 will be seen to rotate. Fig. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. to cross in the center. The smaller wheel. Fig. as shown at AA.

but not on all.M. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. long. produces a higher magnifying power).Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. St. --Contributed by H. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. such as clothes lines. which allows the use of small sized ropes. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. Mo. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. procure a wooden spool. A (a short spool. which accounts for the sound.G. as shown in the illustration. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. This in turn will act on the transmitter. Louis. from the transmitter. W. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. To make this lensless microscope.. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. From a piece of thin . but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. say 1/2 or 3/4 in.

Viewed through this microscope. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. .Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. and at the center. An innocent-looking drop of water. if the distance is reduced to one-third. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. fastened to a wooden base. The spring. is made of iron. which costs little or nothing to make. and look through the hole D..) But an object 3/4-in. B. is fastened at each end by pins. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. can be made of brass and the armature. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. if the distance is reduced to one-half. D. the object should be of a transparent nature. held at arm's length. place a small object on the transparent disk. C. 2. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. To use this microscope. bent as shown. E. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. cut out a small disk.. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. B. C. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. The lever. 3. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. or 64 times. D. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. The pivot. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. the diameter will appear twice as large. the diameter will appear three times as large. and so on. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. by means of brads. 1. in which hay has been soaking for several days. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. otherwise the image will be blurred. e. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. which are pieces of hard wood. darting across the field in every direction. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. H. i. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. as in all microscopes of any power. Fig. A. (The area would appear 64 times as large. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in.

B. is cut from a board about 36 in. between the armature and the magnet. Each side. B. F. D. A switch. D. brass or iron soldered to nail. HH. wide. C. DD. binding posts: H spring The stop. nail soldered on A. FF. should be about 22 in. wide and set in between sides AA. in length and 16 in. . fastened near the end. A. long and 14-1/2 in. and are connected to the contacts. wood. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. long. wood: F. which are made to receive a pivot. thick. wood: C. K. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. D. The base of the key. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. 16 in. brass: E. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. Fig. 26 wire: E. brass: B. can be made panel as shown. C. wide. 2. KEY-A. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. K. wide and about 20 in. The back. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. Fig. or a single piece. AA. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. The binding posts. similar to the one used in the sounder. The door. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. long by 16 in. wide. 1.SOUNDER-A. or taken from a small one-point switch. connection of D to nail. wide. 16 in. E. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. brass. coils wound with No. soft iron. Cut the top.

with 3/4-in. cut in them. as shown in the sketch.. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. E. AA. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire .How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. 13-1/2 in. long. Make 12 cleats. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Garfield. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Ill. 2 and made from 1/4-in. brads. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. When the electrical waves strike the needle. material. as shown. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. In operation. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one.

when the coil is not provided with a regulator. When the pipe is used. A fairly stiff spring. when used with a motor. A (see sketch). A. The cord is also fastened to a lever. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. filled with water. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. C. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. N. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. and. pulls down the armature. the magnet. Ridgewood. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. B. down into the water increases the surface in contact. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. J. Fairport. --Contributed by R. N.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. F. --Contributed by John Koehler. E. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. will give a greater speed. A. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . Brown. through which a piece of wire is passed. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. in order to increase the surface. Y. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. and thus decreases the resistance. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. Pushing the wire.

Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. even those who read this description. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Borden. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. N. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. B. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . --Contributed by Perry A. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Gachville. if desired. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Of course. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door.for the secret contact.

Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. J. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. East Orange. for 6-in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. and on both sides of the middle shelf. records. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. wide. wide. Connect switch to post B. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. C. wide. as shown in Fig. The top board is made 28-in. 1. N. . records and 5-5/8 in. long and 5 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. With about 9 ft. deep and 3/4 in. 2.whenever the bell rings. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. C. in a semicircle 2 in. --Contributed by Dr. Dobson. The three shelves are cut 25-in. from the bottom. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. for 10in.. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Washington. --Contributed by H. Mangold. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. where the other end of wire is fastened. D. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. H. wide. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. Compton. A. Jr. From a piece of brass a switch. long and full 12-in. apart. wide. Nails for stops are placed at DD. E. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. thick and 12-in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. Cal. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in.

thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. A.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. 1. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . Roanoke. closed. When the cord is passed over pulley C. Va. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. E. to which is fastened a cord. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. B. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. as shown by the dotted lines. which in operation is bent. as shown in Fig. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum.

3). 5) when they are placed. excepting the crank and tubing. they will let the air through. In the sides (Fig. If the wheels fit too tightly. one in each end. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. 1. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. in diameter. Figs. in diameter. 3. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. to turn on pins of stout wire. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. in diameter. wide. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. Put the rubber tube. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. Fig. CC. Fig. The crankpin should fit tightly. Now put all these parts together. E. but a larger one could be built in proportion. E. deep. which should be about 1/2 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. holes (HH. is compressed by wheels. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Bore two 1/4 in. thick. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. 1 in. in diameter. long. deep and 1/2 in. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. 1 in. they will bind. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. In these grooves place wheels. Figs. as shown in the illustration. wide. square and 7/8 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. Fig. B. Cut two grooves. through one of these holes. Do not fasten the sides too . 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. These wheels should be 3/4 in. apart. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. thick (A. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. D. against which the rubber tubing. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. it too loose. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle.

The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. tubing. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. from each end. Two feet of 1/4-in. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. from the bottom and 2 in. AA. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. 1. Fig. long. If the motion of the wheels is regular. AA. mark for hole and 3 in. A in Fig. Fig. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. of material. is all the expense necessary. Hubbard. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. a platform should be added. --Contributed by Dan H. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. and are 30 in. Cut six pieces. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. because he can . Idana. beyond each of these two. For ease in handling the pump. The three legs marked BBB. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. iron. In the two cross bars 1 in. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. and 3-1/2 in. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. the pump will give a steady stream. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. Fig. Take the center of the bar. and mark for a hole. from that mark the next hole. Fig. though a small iron wheel is better. the other wheel has reached the bottom. 2. as shown in Fig. as it gives steadiness to the motion. from each end. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. The screen which is shown in Fig. 2. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. 17-1/2 in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. 15 in. B.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. mark again. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. The animal does not fear to enter the box. stands 20 in. 1. 1. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. To use the pump. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. from each end. 1. 1. costing 10 cents. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Then turn the crank from left to right. Kan. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in.

of the top. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. To cause a flow of electricity. The truncated. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. of water dissolve 4 oz. 2). Then pour the solution into the battery jar. giving it a bright. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. and touches the bait the lid is released and. but if one casts his own zinc. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. Philadelphia. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. sulphuric acid. stirring constantly. When through using the battery. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. and the solution (Fig. If it is wet. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. or. 14 copper wire. Meyer. rub the zinc well. C. . it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. If the solution touches the zinc. silvery appearance. Place the carbon in the jar. dropping. long having two thumb screws. 1) must be prepared. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. potassium bichromate. If the battery has been used before. The battery is now complete. acid 1 part). This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. until it is within 3 in. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. some of it should be poured out. The battery is now ready for use. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. The mercury will adhere. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. When the bichromate has all dissolved. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. 4 oz. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. or small electric motors. however. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in.see through it: when he enters. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. --Contributed by H. shuts him in. It is useful for running induction coils. there is too much liquid in the jar. add slowly.

1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. while the coal door is being opened. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. Madison. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. If. which opens the door. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use.. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. however. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W.Fig. Wis. i. pressing the pedal closes the door. the jump-spark coil . When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. The price of the coil depends upon its size. the battery circuit. After putting in the coal. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. with slight changes. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. e.

The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. being a 1-in. . Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. W W. This coil. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. After winding. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. in a straight line from top to bottom. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". Fig. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. coil. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. Change the coil described. This will make an excellent receiver. which is made of light copper wire. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. diameter. as shown in Fig. while a 12-in. Now for the receiving apparatus. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. 5. 6. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. W W. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. apart.described elsewhere in this book. and closer for longer distances. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. in a partial vacuum. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. 7). consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. 7. 7. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. 6. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. made of No. the full length of the coil.7. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line.

only. may be easily made at very little expense. These circles. being vertical. after all. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. which will be described later. A large cone pulley would then be required. Figs. The writer does not claim to be the originator. in the air. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. I run my lathe by power. using an electric motor and countershaft. being at right angles. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. and hence the aerial line. Run a wire from the other binding post. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. at any point to any metal which is grounded. but it could be run by foot power if desired. No. . B the bed and C the tailstock. where A is the headstock. 90°. are analogous to the flow of induction. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. above the ground. 90°. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. as it matches the color well. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them.6 stranded. 1). after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. 1 to 4. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. but simply illustrates the above to show that. to the direction of the current. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. For an illustration. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. A.The aerial line. to the direction of the force that caused the circles.

B. If the bearing has been properly made. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. but not hot enough to burn it. which pass through a piece of wood. Fig.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. 5. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . thick. 4. Fig. Heat the babbitt well. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. 5. 6. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. 2 and 3. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. tapered wooden pin. To make these bearings. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. After pouring. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 6 Headstock Details D. too. and it is well to have the shaft hot. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. deep. steel tubing about 1/8 in. and Fig. and runs in babbitt bearings. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. just touching the shaft. The headstock. pitch and 1/8 in. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. on the under side of the bed. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. The bearing is then ready to be poured. A. The bolts B (Fig. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. 4. Fig. Fig. which are let into holes FIG. one of which is shown in Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig.

but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. they may be turned up after assembling. and a 1/2-in. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. the alarm is easy to fix up. lock nut. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. The tail stock (Fig. embedded in the wood. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig.other machines. of the walk . except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. This prevents corrosion. N. so I had to buy one. Take up about 5 ft. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. If one has a wooden walk. Oak Park. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. A. B. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Ill.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. FIG. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory.J. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. Newark. If not perfectly true.

American ash in 1-1/2 pt. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. water. hang the articles on the wires. so that they will not touch. --Contributed by R. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Then make the solution . about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. to remove all traces of grease. and the alarm is complete. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. To avoid touching it. add potassium cyanide again. of water. (A. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. Jackson. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. leaving a clear solution. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. before dipping them in the potash solution. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Minneapolis. silver or other metal. S. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Minn. save when a weight is on the trap. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Fig. to roughen the surface slightly. Finally. 2). clean the articles thoroughly. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Connect up an electric bell.

Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. This solution. Fig. If more solution is required. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. with water. Fig. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. from the lower end. shaking. and 4 volts for very small ones. 3) directly over the hole. Can be made of a 2-in. silver can be plated direct. an old electric bell or buzzer. 1 in. long. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. Having finished washing the precipitate. which is advised. If accumulators are used. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. To provide the keyhole. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. A (Fig. Then. such metals as iron. The wooden catch. and the larger part (F. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. 10 in. pewter. will serve for the key.5 to 4 volts. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Fig. 18 wire. On brass. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. Before silver plating. With an electric pressure of 3. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. long. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. A 1/4 in. use 2 volts for large articles. with the pivot 2 in. 1). lead. square. Make a somewhat larger block (E. Fig. 1. a hand scratch brush is good. 1 not only unlocks. B should be of the same wood. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. 3) strikes the bent wire L. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. Repeat six times. nickel and such metals. and then treated as copper. I. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. In rigging it to a sliding door. with water. must be about 1 in. when the point of the key touches the tin. of clothesline rope and some No. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. copper. When all this is set up. light strokes. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. but opens the door. also. about 25 ft. as shown in Fig. thick by 3 in. 1). piece of broomstick. Take quick. The wooden block C. which is held by catch B. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. a circuit is completed.up to 2 qt. 3. hole in its center. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. as at F. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. German silver. of water. Screw the two blocks together. Where Bunsen cells are used. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. if one does not possess a buffing machine. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. zinc. --Model Engineer. make a key and keyhole. which . saw a piece of wood. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described.

H. heighten the illusion. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Next. In front of you. one-third of the length from the remaining end. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. 1. B. One end is removed. between the parlor and the room back of it. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. 0. Fig. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. the requisites are a large soap box. New Jersey. He removes the bowl from the black box. 2. enlarged. To prepare such a magic cave. Fig. a few simple tools. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. H. some black paint. and plenty of candles. and hands its contents round to the audience. in his shirt sleeves. --Contributed by E. Klipstein. spoons and jackknives. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. with a switch as in Fig. surrounding a perfectly black space. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. the box should be painted black both inside and out. sides and end. Fig. Objects appear and disappear. half way from open end to closed end. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. floor. shows catch B. some black cloth. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. or cave.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. to throw the light toward the audience. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. 2.. Thus. One thing changes to another and back again. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. Fig. The magician stands in front of this. 1. 3. top. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. and finally lined inside with black cloth. . 116 Prospect St. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. no painting inside is required. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). The interior must be a dead black. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. and a slit. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. H. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. Receiving the bowl again. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. should be cut a hole. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. he tosses it into the cave. the illumination in front must be arranged. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. so much the better. and black art reigns supreme. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. Next. East Orange. Heavy metal objects. cut in one side. although a little more trouble. which unlocks the door. with the lights turned low. The box must be altered first. is the cut through which the rope runs. such as forks. On either side of the box. he points with one finger to the box. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house.

The exhibitor should be . if. and several black drop curtains. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. only he. had a big stage. and the skeleton can change to a white cat.Finally. the room where the cave is should be dark. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. a screen must be used. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. you must have an assistant. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. in which are oranges and apples. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. Consequently. The illusion. which can be made to dance either by strings. one on each side of the box. his confederate behind inserts his hand. of course. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. The audience room should have only low lights. and if portieres are impossible. as presented by Hermann. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. and pours them from the bag into a dish. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. is on a table) so much the better. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. But illusions suggest themselves. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. was identical with this. of course. which are let down through the slit in the top. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. into the eyes of him who looks.

so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. c1. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. Fig. 2). It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. Then. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. square. f2. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. or binding posts. and c1 – electricity. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery.a boy who can talk. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. with three brass strips. respectively. terminal c3 will show +. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. vice versa. held down by another disk F (Fig. FIG. held down on it by two terminals. at L. A. 1. if you turn handle K to the right. their one end just slips under the strips b1. c4. d. c3. respectively. and a common screw. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. is shown in the diagram. e1 and e2. terminal c3 will show . 2. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. b3. held down on disk F by two other terminals. so arranged that. On the disk G are two brass strips. c2. and c4 + electricity. 1. About the center piece H moves a disk. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . making contact with them as shown at y.. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. or b2. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. Finally. and c2 to the zinc. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. b2. A represents a pine board 4 in. b1. by means of two wood screws. b2.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. as shown in Fig. making contact with them. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. 2. by 4 in. b3. respectively. when handle K is turned to one side.

B is a onepoint switch. 5. -Contributed by A. Tuttle. Ohio. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). 1. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. from four batteries. --Contributed by Eugene F. when A is on No. thus making the message audible in the receiver. E. Joerin. 3. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. from three batteries. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . jump spark coil. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. when on No.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. . from five batteries. and when on No. you have the current of one battery. and then hold the receiver to your ear. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. when on No. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. and C and C1 are binding posts. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Newark. 4.. When switch B is closed and A is on No. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Jr.

If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. Thus. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. The device thus arranged. B. P. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. of Burlington. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. La. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. E. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Redmond. per second. When you do not have a graduate at hand. mark.. rule. and supporting the small weight. mark. which may be a button or other small object. A. Handy Electric Alarm . it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. traveled by the thread. so one can see the time. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. A. over the bent portion of the rule. and placed on the windowsill of the car. is the device of H. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. per second for each second. Wis. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. A.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. New Orleans. as shown in the sketch.

Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. When the alarm goes off. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. Then if a mishap comes. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. . but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. Pa.which has a piece of metal. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. --Contributed by Gordon T. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Crafton. --C. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. Lane. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. wrapping the wire around the can several times. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. for a wetting is the inevitable result. C. but may be closed at F any time desired. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. B. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. which illuminates the face of the clock. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. S. Instead. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. soldered to the alarm winder. and with the same result.

bearings. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. Macey. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. small machinery parts. and many other interesting and useful articles. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. It is possible to make molds without a bench. The first thing to make is a molding bench. cannons. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. If there is no foundry Fig. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. New York City. but it is a mistake to try to do this. models and miniature objects. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. battery zincs. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. ornaments of various kinds. Two cleats. and duplicates of all these. AA. A. BE.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . when it is being prepared. engines. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. binding posts. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. as shown. which may. With the easily made devices about to be described. C. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. as shown in Fig. whence it is soon tracked into the house. 1 .Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. --Contributed by A. L. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. 1. which in turn support the mold while it is being made.

A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. as shown." or upper half. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. is filled with coal dust. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. which can be either aluminum. and the "drag. 2 . which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. is nailed to each end of the cope. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other.near at hand. say 12 in. 2. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. The cloth bag. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. If desired the sieve may be homemade. A A. previous to sawing. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. The flask. which should be nailed in. which can be made of a knitted stocking. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. but this operation will be described more fully later on. try using sand from other sources. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. white metal. Fig. is made of wood. DD. the "cope. A wedge-shaped piece. A slight shake of the bag Fig. II . Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. If the box is not very strong. a little larger than the outside of the flask. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. F. and this.How to Make a Mold [96] . The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. will be required. An old teaspoon. makes a very good sieve. CC. and saw it in half longitudinally. CC. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. is about the right mesh. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. by 6 in. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. The rammer. 1. is shown more clearly in Fig. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. D. E. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. 1." or lower part. and the lower pieces. and a sieve. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. Fig. It is made of wood and is in two halves. as shown. high. J. H. G. The dowels. by 8 in.

This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. as shown at D. or "cope. and then more sand is added until Fig. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. as shown. as shown at C. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. After ramming. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. It is then rammed again as before. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. turn the drag other side up. Place another cover board on top. or "drag. as it is much easier to learn by observation. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand." in position.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. In finishing the ramming. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. and scatter about 1/16 in. The sand is then ready for molding. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. in order to remove the lumps. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. and if water is added. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. and by grasping with both hands. where they can watch the molders at work. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. as shown at E. as described. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. and thus judge for himself. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. the surface of the sand at . but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting.

The next operation is that of cutting the gate. Fig. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing." or pouring-hole. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. as shown at H. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. thus making a dirty casting. in diameter. This is done with a spoon. wide and about 1/4 in. after being poured. . as shown at G. Place a brick or other flat. as shown in the sketch. as shown at H. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. thus holding the crucible securely. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. III. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. it shows that the sand is too wet. place the cope back on the drag. made out of steel rod. After drawing the pattern. to give the air a chance to escape. in order to prevent overheating. The "sprue. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. and then pour. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. is next cut. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. as shown at J. as shown at F. from the surface of the mold to the pattern.E should be covered with coal-dust. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. deep. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold.

In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. battery zincs. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. may be used in either direction. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. Although the effect in the illustration . although somewhat expensive. Morton. Referring to the figure. is very desirable. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. or from any adjacent pair of cells. and the casting is then ready for finishing. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. If a good furnace is available. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. used only for zinc. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. the following device will be found most convenient. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. white metal and other scrap available. and. Minneapolis. --Contributed by Harold S. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. 15% lead. babbitt. In my own case I used four batteries. but any reasonable number may be used. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling.

removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. outward. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. shaft made. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. By replacing the oars with paddles. The brass rings also appear distorted. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. A. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. The bearings. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. Then replace the table. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. 2. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. To make it take a sheet-iron band. connected by cords to the rudder. which will be sufficient to hold it. Chicago. B. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. 3/4 in. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. backward. as shown in the illustration. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. --Contributed by Draughtsman. Then walk down among the audience. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. Put a sharp needle point. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. may be made of hardwood. If desired. B. Make one of these pieces for each arm. Fig. as shown at A.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow.

1. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. The hubs. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. Fig. 2. should be made of wood. It may seem strange that ice . and a weight. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. D. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure.melted babbitt. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. when it will again return to its original state. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. A block of ice. C. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. but when in motion. or the paint will come off. If galvanized iron is used. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. spoiling its appearance. as shown in Fig. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. or under pressure. 1. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. being simply finely divided ice. In the same way. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. as shown in Fig. If babbitt is used. E. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. W. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. 3. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. The covers. 1. Snow. A.

should flow like water. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. by 5 in. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. by 1/4. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. --Contributed by Gordon T. but. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. square. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. Lane. which resembles ice in this respect. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. whenever there is any connection made at all. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . it will gradually change from the original shape A. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. P. as per sketch. no matter how slow the motion may be. brass. but by placing it between books. by 1/2 in. or supporting it in some similar way. Pressing either push button. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. Pa. in. B. The rate of flow is often very slow. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. by 2 in. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. the large body of ice has to bend in moving.. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. and assume the shape shown at B. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. Crafton. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. sometimes only one or two feet a day. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. as shown on page 65. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. thus giving a high resistance contact. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series.

E. In the wiring diagram. horizontal lever. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. and five dry batteries. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. as shown. K . wooden supports. --Contributed by A. C. B. weight. J. the induction coil. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. pulleys. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. The success depends upon a slow current. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. D. cord. I. and C. the battery. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. H. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. vertical lever. G. F. as shown. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. Ward.000 ft. Pa. The parts are: A. Indianapolis. draft chain. B. furnace.thumb screws. A is the circuit breaker. draft. alarm clock. about the size used for automobiles. G. Wilkinsburg. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two.

where house plants are kept in the home. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. Artistic Window Boxes The top. 3. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. which will provide a fine place for the plants. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. 2 are dressed to the right angle. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. such as used for a storm window. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. The frame (Fig. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. will fit nicely in them. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. as well as the bottom. Mich. material framed together as shown in Fig. Kalamazoo.

but maintain the voltage constant. and the instrument will then be complete. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. A certain number of these. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. by connecting them in series. Thus. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. N. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. 1 each complete with base. since a battery is the most popular source of power. i. It must be remembered. a cork and a needle. 1. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. multiples of series of three. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. after a rest. one can regulate the batteries as required. so as to increase the current. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. in any system of lamps. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. and cost 27 cents FIG. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. Grant.. this must be done with very great caution. is something that will interest the average American boy. as indicated by Fig. e. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. --Contributed by Wm. can be connected up in series. W. Canada. for some time very satisfactorily. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Push the needle into the cork. in this connection. The 1/2-cp. in diameter. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. However. However. which sells for 25 cents.. 1 cp. Halifax. where they are glad to have them taken away. as if drawn upon for its total output. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. and will give the . and a suitable source of power. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary.. This is more economical than dry cells. S.

Chicago. as in Fig. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. especially those of low internal resistance. making. for display of show cases. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. and for Christmas trees. Thus.. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. by the proper combination of these. So. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. In conclusion. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. Fig. . If wound for 10 volts. according to the water pressure obtainable. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. to secure light by this method. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. 3. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. 11 series. 1-cp. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. Thus. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. lamp. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. or 22 lights. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. which is the same as that of one battery. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. each.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. generates the power for the lights. double insulated wire wherever needed. However. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and running the series in parallel. lamps. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. 18 B & S. FIG. These will give 3 cp.proper voltage. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and diffused light in a room. 2 shows the scheme. although the first cost is greater. and then lead No. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. if wound for 6 volts. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. we simply turn on the water. where the water pressure is the greatest. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. lamps. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost.

we were not bothered with them. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. the letters indicate as follows: FF. are cut just alike. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Santa Clara. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. field of motor. Cal. and C. a bait of meat. simply change the switch. To reverse the motor. --Contributed by Leonard E. bars of pole-changing switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. BB. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. After I connected up my induction coil. switch. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. brushes of motor. B. Plymouth. or a tempting bone. and the sides. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. as shown in the sketch. CC. AA. Emig. A. A indicates the ground. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Parker. DD. center points of switch. B. thus reversing the machine. outside points of switch. Ind. . or from one pattern. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. --Contributed by F.

The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. merely push the button E. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. Hutchinson. A. 903 Vine St. Melchior. W. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. as it is the key to the lock. a hammer. thus locking the door.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. San Jose. Fry. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. and a table or bench. or would remain locked. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. which is in the door. Cal. The experiment works best . To unlock the door. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. Minn. one cell being sufficient. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. a piece of string. The button can be hidden. If it is not. When the circuit is broken a weight. attached to the end of the armature B.. -Contributed by Claude B.

the stick falls away. C. Canada. 1). which pulls the draft open. Wis.. 2. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. forming a loop. 18 Gorham St. where it will remain suspended as shown. A. I. in the ceiling and has a window weight. attached at the other end. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Schmidt. --Contributed by Geo. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Culebra. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. releasing the weight. Tie the ends of the string together. . Brockville. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. 3. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. run through a pulley. W. Madison. the current flows with the small arrows. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Ontario. -.Contributed by F.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Porto Rico. On another block of wood fasten two wires. the key turns. 4). The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. P. as shown in Fig. 3. D. Crawford Curry. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig.

thick. Jr. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. S. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. R. thence to a switch. Farley. J. or from a bed of flowers. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. J. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. --Contributed by Wm. N. and break the corners off to make them round.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. get two pieces of plate glass. The cut shows the arrangement. D. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. and the other to the battery. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Connect two wires to the transmitter. 6 in. which fasten to the horn. and then to the receiver. and . or tree. including the mouthpiece. running one direct to the receiver. made with his own hands. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. square and 1 in. Camden. Use a barrel to work on. First..

When dry. and is ready for polishing. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes.. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. L. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. When polishing the speculum. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in.. Fig. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. with 1/4-in. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. then take 2 lb. When done the glass should be semitransparent. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. In a dark room. using straight strokes 2 in. and the under glass or tool convex. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. by the side of the lamp. and a large lamp.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. Have ready six large dishes. Then warm and press again with the speculum. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. while walking around the barrel. Use a binger to spread it on with. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. Fig. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. or it will not polish evenly. twice the focal length away. set the speculum against the wall. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. wetting it to the consistency of cream. then 8 minutes. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. or less. with pitch. unless a longer focal length is wanted. A. also rotate the glass. so the light . wide around the convex glass or tool. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. a round 4-in. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. as in Fig. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. 1. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. the coarse grinding must be continued. Fasten. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. wet till soft like paint. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. and spread on the glass. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. 2. of water. 2. melt 1 lb. and label. in length. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. spaces.

a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. Two glass or earthenware dishes. 39 gr. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. 840 gr. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. longer strokes. and pour the rest into the empty dish.. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. then ammonia until bath is clear. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. face down. must be procured.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. Fig. that was set aside. 4 oz. touched with rouge. Then add solution B.……………………………. from the lamp. 25 gr. Silver nitrate ……………………………. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use.……………. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Place the speculum S. as in K. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. also how the rays R from a star . with distilled water.. Place the speculum. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.………………………………. Now add enough of the solution A.. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. Fig..100 gr. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. With pitch. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. fill the dish with distilled water. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. long to the back of the speculum. Nitric acid . 2. 2.. if a hill in the center. deep. Then add 1 oz. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. The polishing and testing done.. the speculum will show some dark rings. If not. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. When the focus is found. Fig. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. cement a strip of board 8 in. 4 oz. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. 100 gr. The knife should not be more than 6 in. or hills. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center.. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears.. Solution D: Sugar loaf . When dry.. the speculum is ready to be silvered.. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water.

. two glass prisms. Mellish. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. long and cost me just $15. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. cover with paper and cloth. Place over lens.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. Thus an excellent 6-in. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. My telescope is 64 in. deg. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. Make the tube I of sheet iron. using strawboard and black paper. About 20. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. with an outlay of only a few dollars. and proceed as for any picture.John E. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. stop down well after focusing. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. is a satisfactory angle. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. Then I made the one described. telescope can be made at home. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. . slightly wider than the lens mount. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. which proves to be easy of execution.

The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. Zimmerman. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. 1. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. instead of the contrary. D. Ill. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. A. Do not stir it. Boody. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. -Contributed by A. complete the arrangement. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. To unlock. and reflect through the negative. says the Master Painter. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. through the lens of the camera and on the board. The rays of the clear. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. then add a little sulphate of potash.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. 2. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. push the button D. Fig. . The window must be darkened all around the shelf. but will not preserve its hardening. or powdered alum. The paper is exposed. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. as shown in Fig. B. add the plaster gradually to the water. unobstructed light strike the mirror.

If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. as in Fig. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. so that it can rotate about these points. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. as at A and B. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. use a string. also provide them with a handle. 3. Fasten on the switch lever. 1). throw . as shown in the sketch. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. To reverse. Then blow through the spool.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. 2. Fig. but will remain suspended without any visible support. 2.

--Contributed by Geo. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. C C. as shown in the sketch. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. B. Tex. Thomas. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Levy. L. -Contributed by Morris L. . Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. and rub dry with linen cloth. In the sketch. Neb. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. rinse in alcohol. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. the armature. Go McVicker. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. although this is not necessary. and E E.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Take out. San Antonio. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. binding posts. A is the electricbell magnet. wash in running water. --Contributed by R. Tex. North Bend. Push one end of the tire into the hole. carbons. San Marcos. carbon sockets. D.

today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 36 magnet wire. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . wound evenly about this core. By means of two or more layers of No. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Bell. --Contributed by Joseph B. 16 magnet wire. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. Brooklyn. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. 14 or No. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. long or more.

The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. and the results are often unsatisfactory. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. Beginning half an inch from one end. 2 yd. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. about 6 in. In shaping the condenser. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. The condenser is next wrapped . and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. one piece of the paper is laid down. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. The primary is made of fine annealed No. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. which is desirable. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. wide. This makes a condenser which may be folded. as shown in Fig. After the core wires are bundled. as the maker prefers. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. No. 4. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. hole is bored in the center of one end. then the strip of tin-foil. a box like that shown in Fig. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. in diameter. and finally the fourth strip of paper. in length. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. with room also for a small condenser. but if it is not convenient to do this work. the entire core may be purchased readymade. long and 2-5/8 in. which is an important factor of the coil. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. or 8 in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. The following method of completing a 1-in. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. diameter. at a time. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. When cut and laid in one continuous length. 1. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. A 7/8-in. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. making two layers. long and 5 in. coil illustrates the general details of the work. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper.which would be better to buy ready-made.

3. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. ready for assembling. to the door. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. 4 in. wide. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. Fig. D. by 12 in. C. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. The alarm key will turn and drop down. which is insulated from the first. round so that the inside . which allows wiring at the back. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. forms the other pole or terminal. E. whole length. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. battery . Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. spark. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. V-shaped copper strip. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. I. and the other sheet. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. G. shelf for clock. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in.. B.) The wiring diagram. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. flange turned on one side. bell. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. go. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. A. switch. copper lever with 1-in. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. lines H. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. one from bell. long and 12 in.securely with bands of paper or tape. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. B. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. shows how the connections are made. the letters indicate as follows: A. long to key. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. and one from battery. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. open switch C. F.

The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. do not shortcircuit. The circuit should also have a high resistance. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. 2 in. London. of blue stone. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. That is what they are for. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. Short-circuit for three hours. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. This is for blowing.. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries.diameter is 7 in. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. Use a glass or metal shade. says the Model Engineer. from the bottom. . To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. instead of close to it. but with the circuit. of zinc sulphate. If desired for use immediately. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Line the furnace. and the battery is ready for use. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. and then rivet the seam. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. but add 5 or 6 oz. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in.

the thumb and second finger changing places: e. g. the second finger along the side. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. This type of battery will give about 0. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. or think they can do the same let them try it. as in the other movement. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. while for others it will not revolve at all. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Outside of the scientific side involved. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. for others the opposite way. herein I describe a much better trick. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and then. changes white phosphorus to yellow. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. affects . but do not agitate or mix the two solutions.. imparting to them a violet tinge. 2. below the bottom of the zinc. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. oxygen to ozone. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. If any or your audience presume to dispute. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. At least it is amusing. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. If too low. but the thing would not move at all.9 of a volt. Try it and see. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. 1. long. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Ohio. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water." which created much merriment. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. To operate the trick. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. square and about 9 in. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. for some it will turn one way.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. thus producing two different vibrations. Enlarge the hole slightly. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. and therein is the trick. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. grip the stick firmly in one hand. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. porcelain and paper.

insects. says the Photographic Times. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. and one of them is photomicrography. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. earth. an old tripod screw. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. but this is less satisfactory. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. but small flowers. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. a short-focus lens. and. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. To the front board is attached a box. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. a means for holding it vertical. but not essential. chemicals. if possible. however.

11 ft. AB. If the balloon is 10 ft. 9 ft. in diameter. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. Madison. Boston. Mass. 65 4 lb. 1. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. Cap. 697 44 lb. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 7 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 5 in. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. and a line. while it is not so with the quill. Ft Lifting Power. 7-1/2 in. 113 7 lb. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 12 ft. in Cu. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. which is 15 ft. or 3 ft. 8 ft. CD. or 31 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning.--Contributed by George C. balloon. Fig. wide from which to cut a pattern. The following table will give the size. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 268 17 lb. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 5 ft. 7-1/2 in. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 10 ft 523 33 lb. long and 3 ft.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 381 24 lb. 905 57 lb. A line. 179 11 lb. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 6 ft.

The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. Procure 1 gal. of beeswax and boil well together. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. The pattern is now cut. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. and so on. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. The amounts necessary for a 10- .Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. 2. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. 4. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. making a double seam as shown in Fig. Repeat this operation four times. The cloth segments are sewed together. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. using a fine needle and No. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. cutting all four quarters at the same time. This test will show if the bag is airtight. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. 3. of the very best heavy body. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. on the curved line from B to C. 70 thread. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. keeping the marked part on the outside. This pattern is used to mark the cloth.

Fill the other barrel. capacity and connect them. using a fine brush. with the iron borings. or a fan. if it is good it will dry off. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes.. but if any grease remains on the hand. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. with 3/4in. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. ft. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. The outlet. by fixing. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. balloon are 125 lb.ft. of iron borings and 125 lb. ]. leaving the hand quite clean. a clean white rag. Water 1 oz. The 3/4-in. which may sound rather absurd. 1 lb. A. B. B. A. . as shown in Fig. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. Vegetable oils should never be used. of iron. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. C. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. C. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. of water will make 4 cu. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. of gas in one hour. 150 gr. of sulphuric acid. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. to the bag. 5. this should be repeated frequently.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. 5 . oil the spindle holes carefully. In the barrel. it is not fit to use. 1 lb. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. After washing a part.Green Iron ammonium citrate . About 15 lb. A. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. or dusting with a dry brush. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. should not enter into the water over 8 in. until no more dirt is seen. B. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. pipe. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. above the level of the water in barrel A. When the clock has dried. All FIG. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. . with water 2 in. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal.

Dry the plates in the dark. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. keeping the fingers out of the solution. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. and keep in the dark until used. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Dry in the dark. to avoid blackened skin. toning first if desired. . The positive pole. or carbon. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. or zinc. of any make. Port Melbourne. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Printing is done in the sun. fix in hypo.Water 1 oz. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. or battery. dry atmosphere will give best results. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. at the time of employment. A cold. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry.000 ft. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. This aerial collector can be made in . A longer exposure will be necessary. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. The negative pole. The miniature 16 cp. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Exposure. . of the cell is connected to a ground wire. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. says the Moving Picture World. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. 20 to 30 minutes. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz.. and a vigorous negative must be used. Sliver nitrate 50 gr.

lead pipe. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. holes . the resistance is less. and as less current will flow the short way. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. when left exposed to the air. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. as described below. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. both positive and negative. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. If the wave ceases. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. long.various ways. in diameter. As the telephone offers a high resistance. a positive and a negative. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. 5 in. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. lay a needle. The storage cell. This will complete the receiving station. making a ground with one wire. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. If the waves strike across the needle. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. forming a cup of the pipe. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. and have the other connected with another aerial line. will soon become dry and useless. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty.

This. Two binding-posts should be attached. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. namely: a square hole. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C.as possible. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. on each end. an oblong one and a triangular one. D. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. When mixing the acid and water. of course. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. B. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. This box can be square. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. says the Pathfinder. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. The other plate is connected to the zinc. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. except for about 1 in. by soldering the joint. one to the positive. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. does not need to be watertight. This support or block. a round one. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. or tube B. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. or tube C. and the other to the negative.

Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. C. This punt. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. were fitted by this one plug. C. wide. 1. and match them together. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. as it is not readily overturned. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. long. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. 2. 1. and has plenty of good seating capacity. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. about 20 in. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. wide. 2. The third piece of brass. all around the edge. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. back and under. . square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. as shown in Fig. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. Only galvanized nails should be used. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. deep and 4 ft. as shown in Fig. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. in place on the wood. thick cut two pieces alike. 3. Chicago. is built 15 ft. Ill. A and B. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. leaving about 1/16 in.

Tacoma. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. In Fig. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. gas pipe.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. is cut 1 in. thick and 3-1/2 in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. square (Fig 2). Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. B. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Wash. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. A piece of 1/4-in. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. A. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in.

H.--Contributed by Charles H. no special materials could be obtained. with the exception of insulated wire. The winding of the armature. may be of interest to some of our readers. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. and to consume. or "rotor." has no connection with the outside circuit. says the Model Engineer. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. Wagner. without auxiliary phase. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. which the writer has made. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. it had to be borne in mind that. lamp. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. which can be developed in the usual manner. no more current than a 16-cp. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. In designing.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. if possible.

as shown in Fig. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. were then drilled and 1/4-in." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. and all sparking is avoided. Unfortunately. 3. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. with the dotted line. 2. about 2-1/2 lb. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. holes. 1. C. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints.the field-magnet. 5. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. or "stator. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. also varnished before they were put in. thick. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. as shown in Fig. bolts put in and tightened up. in diameter were drilled in the corners. The stator is wound full with No. and filled with rivets. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. 4. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. A. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. while the beginnings . B. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. this little machine is not self-starting. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. to be filed out after they are placed together. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. After assembling a second time. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. Holes 5-32 in. wrought iron. no steel being obtainable. They are not particularly accurate as it is. being used. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron.

If too late for alcohol to be of use. E. as a means of illustrating songs. 3-Contributed by C. a regulating resistance is not needed. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. In making slides by contact. 1. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. and all wound in the same direction. and would not easily get out of order.. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. it would be very simple to build. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. as shown in Fig. The lantern slide is a glass plate. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. film to film. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. McKinney. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. if applied immediately. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. and as the motor runs at constant speed. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. Jr. The rotor is wound with No. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. and the other by reduction in the camera. The image should . Newark. having no commutator or brushes. One is by contact. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. No starting resistance is needed. 2. This type of motor has drawbacks. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. and as each layer of wire was wound. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. J. N. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. as before stated. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. and especially of colored ones. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density.

C. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. and development should be over in three or four minutes. A. Select a room with one window. as shown in Fig. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. If the exposure has been correct. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. 4. Being unbreakable. D. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. over the mat. about a minute. the formulas being found in each package of plates. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. 1.appear in. if possible. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. Fig. B. a little extra work will be necessary. 3. they are much used by travelers. as shown in Fig. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. Draw lines with a pencil. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. to use a plain fixing bath. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. 5. also. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. 2. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. and then a plain glass. except that the binding is different. It is best. These can be purchased from any photo material store.

The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. from the end piece of the chair.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. Fig. 2. is to be used for the seat. 1. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. as shown at B. in diameter and 20 in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. If the star is in front of the left eye. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. 16 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. as shown at A. Corinth. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. 1. as shown in Fig. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. in diameter and 40 in. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. holes bored in the end pieces. Fig. long. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. known as rods and cones. Hastings. from the ends. from the center of this dot draw a star. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. These longer pieces can be made square. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. while the dot will be in front of the other. wide and 50 in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. long. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. or other stout cloth. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. Vt. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. A piece of canvas. long.

Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. O'Gara. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A belt. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. J. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. 2. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. 1.-Contributed by P.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. A disk 1 in. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. as shown in Fig. in thickness and 10 in. per square inch. . Cal. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. as shown in Fig. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. made from an ordinary sash cord. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. Auburn. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. as well as to operate other household machines. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft.

fairly accurate. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. will be the thickness of the object. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. or inconvenient to measure. screwing it through the nut. to the top of the bench. it serves a very useful purpose. Bore a 1/4-in. leaving it shaped like a bench. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Cut out a piece from the block combination. The part of a rotation of the bolt. wide. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. 3/4 in.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. square for a support. direction. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. Put the bolt in the hole. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. says the Scientific American. . long. with as fine a thread as possible. A simple. and the construction is complete. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. thick and 2-1/2 in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. then removing the object. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it.

yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. beyond the end of the wood. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. The wheel should be open . Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. piece of wood 12 ft. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. material 12 ft. globe that has been thrown away as useless. long. bolt in each hole. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. which show up fine at night.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. long is used for the center pole. Place a 3/4-in. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Santa Maria. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Oal. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Bore a 3/4-in.

and the lower part 61/2 in. C. wide and 1/8 in. long. wide and 1/8 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No.Side and Top View or have spokes. thick. is soldered. P. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. O. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. Fort Worth. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. The spool . long. The boards may be nailed or bolted. A. and on its lower end a socket. of the ends with boards. to be operated by the magnet coil. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. made of the same material. from the ends. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. H and J. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. at the bottom. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. thick is used for the armature. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. from the top end. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. pieces used for the spokes. L. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. Graham. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. A piece of brass 2 in. long. at the top and 4 in.-Contributed by A. square and 3 or 4 in. B. in diameter. which should be 1/4 in. Tex. C. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. The coil. long. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. 1/2 in. A cross bar. thick.

000 for irrigation work. which may be had by using German silver wire. one without either rubber or metal end. F. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. S. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. by soldering. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. 1. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. C. S. and in numerous other like instances. B. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. long. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. for insulating the brass ferrule. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. or a water rheostat heretofore described. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. This tie can be used on grain sacks. --Contributed by Arthur D. is drilled. The armature. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing.--A. .J. Bradlev. Randolph. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. 2 the hat hanging on it. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. then with a firm. and place it against a door or window casing.E.000. This is a very neat trick if performed right.is about 2-1/2 in. At the bottom end of the frame. When you slide the pencil along the casing. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. that holds the lower carbon. R. do it without any apparent effort. A. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. Mass. and directly centering the holes H and J. A soft piece of iron. D and E. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. 2.

24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. is connected to a flash lamp battery. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. in diameter and 1/16 in. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. Fig. is constructed in the usual manner. for the secondary. may be made from a 3/8-in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The vibrator. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. about 1 in. in diameter. wide. leaving the projections as shown. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. F. Fig. in diameter and 2 in. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. S. C. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The core of the coil. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. about 3/16 in. with a 3/16-in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. The switch. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. B. 2.500 turns of No. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The vibrator B. and then 1. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. for adjustment. 1. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. from the core and directly opposite. D. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. hole in the center. about 1/8 in. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. long and 1 in. for the primary. A. About 70 turns of No. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. 1. Experiment with Heat [134] . The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. mixed with water to form a paste. long. thick. S. in diameter. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in.

The hasp. which seemed to be insufficient. board. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. brass plate. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. and the same distance inside of the new board. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. it laps down about 8 in. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. thick on the inside. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. as shown in the sketch. which may be filed off and two holes substituted.Place a small piece of paper. 1. The lock. Fig. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. with which to operate the dial. The knob on the dial extends out too far. The tin is 4 in. was to be secured by only three brass screws. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. The three screws were then put in the hasp. as shown. 2 to fit the two holes. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. . The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. lighted. in an ordinary water glass. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. 1. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. which is cut with two holes. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. wide. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. 16 in. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. long and when placed over the board. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. between the boards. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. which is only 3/8-in. and then well clinched.

square and 10-1/2 in. If the box is made large enough. and the back left dark. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. clear glass as shown. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. high for use in window displays. but when the front part is illuminated. one in each division. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. When making of wood. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. any article placed therein will be reflected in. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. black color.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. or in the larger size mentioned. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. which completely divides the box into two parts. the glass. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. square and 8-1/2 in. not shiny. When the rear part is illuminated.

When there is no electric current available. as shown in the sketch. and with the proper illumination one is changed. as it appears. alternately. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. above the top of the tank. Instead of changing the current operated by hand.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. long and 1 ft. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. or a piece of this width put on the bottom.. into the other. When using as a window display. wide will be about the right size. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. . as shown at A in the sketch. a tank 2 ft.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. as shown. 5 ft. hole. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. O. wide. Iron sulphate. each. using a 3/4-in. This precipitate is then washed. 1 in. 2 ft. and a solution of iron sulphate added. bit. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. is the green vitriol. square and 40 in. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. wide. lines gauged on each side of each. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. with a length of 13 in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. Shape the under sides first. under sides together. This hole must be continued . The pieces can then be taken out. Three windows are provided. thick and 3 in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. The 13-in. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. 6 in. high. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. radius. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. dried and mixed with linseed oil. but with a length of 12 in. one for each side. long. bore from each end. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. and a door in front. is built on the front. long. gauge for depth. from the ground. then use a red-hot iron to finish. however. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. and 6 ft. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. If a planing mill is near. A small platform. Columbus. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. or ferrous sulphate. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. square. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. hole bored the full length through the center.

Electric globes--two.through the pieces forming the base. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. When the filler has hardened. apply two coats of wax. Saw the two blocks apart. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. three or four may be attached as shown." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. When this is dry. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. A better way. The sketch shows one method of attaching. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. If the parts are to be riveted. if shade is purchased. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. thick and 3 in. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. For art-glass the metal panels are . The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. hole in each block. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. No lap is needed when joints are soldered.

Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. as brass.Construction of Shade . and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.The Completed Lamp cut out. METAL SHADE . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. such as copper.

The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. Figure 1 shows the side. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. the object and the background. the other. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. as in ordinary devices. as shown in the sketch. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The arms holding the glass. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. 2 the front view of this stand. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. and Fig. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. one way and 1/2 in.

thus forming a 1/4-in. as shown in the sketch. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. and an inside diameter of 9 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. wide and 11 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Put the ring in place on the base. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. An ordinary pocket compass. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. outside diameter. Before mounting the ring on the base. pointing north and south. as it is very poisonous. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. If the light becomes dim. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. thick 5/8-in. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. long. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Cut another circular piece 11 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. about 1-1/4 in. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. in diameter. in diameter for a base. uncork and recork again. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. as shown in the cut. and swinging freely. wide and 6-5/16 in.

500 .182 . 1 oz. B. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.088 .715 . AA. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. from the second to the third. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. Corresponding mirrors. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . Place on top the so- . but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.600 . A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.289 .865 1. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. and north of the Ohio river. in diameter and 8 in. The results given should be multiplied by 1. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. black oxide of copper.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. are mounted on a base. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. CC. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. of the top. above the half can. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.420 . EE. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. into these cylinders. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. and mirrors. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.

A Floating Electromagnet [152] . When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. 62 gr. says Metal Worker. then they will not rust fast. slender bottle. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. 31 gr. always remove the oil with a siphon. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. University Park. Put the solution in a long. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. little crystals forming in the liquid. which otherwise remains clear. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. of pulverized campor. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. Colo. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. This device makes an attractive advertising sign.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. alcohol. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. the wheel will revolve in one direction. When renewing. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. In Fig. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve.

in diameter will serve very well for the box A. Attach to the wires. If zinc and copper are used. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. --Contributed by C. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. If two of them are floating on the same solution. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. on the under side of the cork. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. Solder in the side of the box .A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. A paper-fastener box. This is used in place of the spoon. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. Lloyd Enos. If zinc and carbon are used. floating on a solution. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. about 1-1/4 in. will allow the magnet to point north and south.

14 wire will do. The standard. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. D. glass tubing . The spring should be about 1 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire.Contributed by J. The base. 10 wire about 10 in. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. and then solder on the cover. wide and 6 in.in. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. can be made of oak. piece of 1/4-in. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. C. away. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. thick. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Wind evenly about 2 oz. Rhamstine. H. E. B. Bore holes for binding-posts. of wire on each end extending from the coil. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. hole. To this standard solder the supporting wire. D. A.not shorter than 18 in. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring.1-in. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. C. Put ends. and on the other around the glass tube. stained and varnished. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. A circular piece of cardboard. 1. long. to it. . If the hose is not a tight fit. 1/2. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. B. or made with a little black paint. E. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. A. Use a board 1/2. long that has about 1/4-in.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. Take a small piece of soft iron. G--No. Thos. brass tubing. The bottom of the box. wide and 2-1/2 in. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. D. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. long. is made from a piece of No. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. F. C. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. 3 in. 1-1/4 in. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose.in. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. as shown in Fig. of No. one on each side of the board. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire.

square of which two pieces are 6 ft. Milwaukee.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. making a support as shown in Fig. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. E. long. long. 2. as shown in Fig. J. long. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft.--Contributed by R. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. Teasdale. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. in diameter. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd.--Contributed by Edward M. N. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. Cuba. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. The iron plunger. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. About 1-1/2 lb. about 1 in. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. of mercury will be sufficient. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. 3-in. two pieces 2 ft. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. canvas. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. of No. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. . Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. 3 in. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. from the right hand. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. D. is drawn nearer to the coil.of the coil. 1. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. Y. four hinges. Wis. When the glass becomes soft. of 8-oz. long. long are used for the legs. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. 3. long. Smith. 5.

If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. expelling all the air. small aperture in the long tube. Break off the piece of glass. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube.. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig.. 2. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Can. of vacuum at the top. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. long. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. 5. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. --Contributed by David A. Take 1/2 in. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Toronto. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. The tube now must be filled completely. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. holding in the left hand. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Measure 8 in. 6. Fig. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. 3. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. thus leaving a. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. leaving 8 in. 4. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. Keys. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. This tube as described will be 8 in. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly.

wide and 5 ft. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. thick. from the end of same.6 -. material 2 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 9 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. long. long. 5.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. long. with each projection 3-in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. thick. 1 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. thick. This forms a slot. 4. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 3 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. FIG. and 1/4 in. 1. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 6. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. thick. cut in the shape shown in Fig. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. as in Fig. wide and 3 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. Four blocks 1/4 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 3. 1 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. wide and 5 ft. but yellow pine is the best. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. The large pulley is about 14 in. wood screws. long. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. thick. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 7. in diameter. 4 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. as shown in Fig. wide and 5 ft. 2. wide and 12 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. 3 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. Fig. joint be accurately put together. These are bent and nailed.

Welsh. by 1-in. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Kan. first removing the crank. Water 1 oz. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. says Photography. attach runners and use it on the ice. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. above the runner level. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. R. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Manhattan. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. --Contributed by C. . which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. The runners can be made from 1/4-in.

This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. 3. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. also. Newton. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. --Contributed by Wallace C. and very much cheaper. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Treasdale. 2. . Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. as shown in Fig. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. of water. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Mass. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. The print is washed. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. 1 oz. This is done with a camel's hair brush. 1. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. --Contributed by Edward M. Leominster. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. from an ordinary clamp skate. Printing is carried rather far. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. as shown in Fig. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat.

the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. wide and 4 in. as shown in the sketch. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. A. which represents the back side of the door. Va. Church. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Take two glass tubes. 1 ft. extending the width of the box. hole. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. with about 1/8-in. wide. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. F. 2. fasten a 2-in. long. Place a 10-in. too. 1. 1-1/2 ft. square piece.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. --Contributed by H. Then. and to the bottom. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. causing the door to swing back and up. 1. from one end. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Fig. and bend them as shown in the sketch. say. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. about 10 in. The thread is broken off at the . Fig. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. high for rabbits. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Alexandria. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. high. and 3 ft. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. The swing door B.

proper place to make a small hole. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. horses and dogs. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. say 8 in. 3. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. -Contributed by William M. high and 12 in. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in.by 7-in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape.by 5-in. inside of the opening. B. says Camera Craft. Paste a piece of strong black paper. and go in the holder in the same way. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Fig. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. This opening. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. in size. 1. A and B. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Cut an opening in the other piece. wide. shorter at each end. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. wide and 5 in. trolley cars. to be used as a driving pulley. and exactly 5 by 7 in. shorter. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. long. D. as shown in Fig. in size. automobiles. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Chicago. Jr. 1 in. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. Out two rectangular holes. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. black surfaced if possible. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. plates. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera.. C. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. wide. . being 1/8 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. long. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. but cut it 1/4 in. 10 in. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. Crilly. Fig. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. 2. camera and wish to use some 4.

A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. if it has previously been magnetized. The needle will then point north and south. in diameter. making a . and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon.in. A cell of this kind can easily be made. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. long and 6 in.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. into which the dog is harnessed. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. wide will be required. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed.. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod.

All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Place the pan on the stove. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Pack the paste in. A is a block of l-in. beeswax melted together. of rosin and 2 oz. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Form a 1/2-in. long which are copper plated. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. of the top. filter. pull out the wire as needed. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. 1 lb. This makes the wire smooth. pine. plaster of paris. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. under the spool in the paraffin. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. of the plate at one end. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. in which P is the pan. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. Do not paint any surface. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. sal ammoniac. zinc oxide. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. of water. only the joints. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. short time. 1/4 lb. leaving about 1/2-in. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. F is a spool.watertight receptacle. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A.in. fodder. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. when the paraffin is melted. says Electrician and Mechanic. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. with narrow flanges. in diameter and 6 in. and a notch between the base and the pan. . for a connection. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. fuel and packing purposes. one that will hold about 1 qt. 3/4 lb. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. B is a base of 1 in.

You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. If any of your audience presume to dispute. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Try it and see. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Ohio. grip the stick firmly in one hand. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and one friend tells me that they were .Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. 2. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. square and about 9 in. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. and therein is the trick. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. and then. At least it is amusing. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. thus producing two different vibrations. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. or think they can do the same. for some it will turn one way. let them try it. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. while for others it will not revolve at all." which created much merriment. and he finally. g.. but the thing would not move at all. by the Hindoos in India. Enlarge the hole slightly. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. as in the other movement. for others the opposite way. long. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Toledo. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. from vexation. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make.

A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. by means of a center punch. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. gave the best results. p. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. rotation was obtained. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. Speeds between 700 and 1. 6. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. A square stick with notches on edge is best. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. The experiments were as follows: 1. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. 5. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. the rotation may be obtained. and. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. m. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. 3. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. To operate. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path.100 r. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. 2. 7. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. Thus a circular or . and I think the results may be of interest. secondly. If the pressure was upon an edge. 4. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. no rotation resulted. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring.

Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can.. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. and the resultant "basket splash. Sloan. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. if the pressure is from the left. . at first. G. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Duluth. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. the upper portion is. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. a piece of wire and a candle. unwetted by the liquid. is driven violently away. Washington. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. --Contributed by G." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. so far as can be seen from the photographs. forming a handle for carrying. Ph. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Minn.. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. and the height of the fall about 6 in. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. --Contributed by M. C. D. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can.D.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. or greasy. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. A wire is tied around the can. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. as shown. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. A. it will be clockwise. Lloyd.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

axle. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. in diameter. with a 1/16-in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. hole drilled in the center. 1.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Each wheel is 1/4 in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. as shown in Fig. about 2-5/8 in. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. thick and 1 in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. flange and a 1/4-in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. as shown. long. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button.

from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. or main part of the frame. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. is made from brass. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. is made from a piece of clock spring. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . with cardboard 3 in. wood. Fig. 1 from 1/4-in. lamp in series with the coil. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. as shown in Fig. 3. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. 2. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. each in its proper place. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. --Contributed by Maurice E. A trolley. put together complete. If the ends are to be soldered. wide and 16 in. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. are shown in Fig. 3/4 in. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. San Antonio. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. The motor is now bolted. This will save buying a track. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. long. Fig.brass. holes 1 in. 5. The parts. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. Fuller. These ends are fastened together. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. 2. as shown in Fig. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. 3. and the locomotive is ready for running.50. The first piece. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. bottom side up. Texas. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. 6. The current. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. 4. bent as shown. which must be 110 volt alternating current. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. of No. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration.

--Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. as shown in Fig. O. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. 3. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Fig. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. the length of a paper clip. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Fig 1. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. 2. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. and holes drilled in them. Cincinnati. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. as shown in Fig. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. but do not heat the center. then continue to tighten much more. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. 1. The quarter will not go all the way down. and as this end .

9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. 2 and 1 respectively. A pair of centers are fitted. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. has finished a cut for a tooth. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. When the trick is to be performed. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. In the sketch. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. When the cutter A. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. or apparent security of the knot. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. or should the lathe head be raised. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. and adjusted .belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel.

The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. long. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Second row: -Two book marks. Brooklyn. tea cosey. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. Fig. When connecting to batteries. In this manner gears 3 in. and a nut pick. --Contributed by Samuel C. Fold over along these center lines. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. --Contributed by Howard S. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal.) Make on paper the design wanted. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . (6. twisted around itself and soldered. watch fob ready for fastenings. (1. note book. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. lady's belt bag. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. book mark.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. gentleman's card case or bill book. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within).) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Bunker. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. trace the outline. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. (5. above the surface. blotter back. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. coin purse. or one-half of the design. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. With such objects as coin purses and card cases.to run true. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. Bott. (4. dividing it into as many parts as desired. about 1-1/2 in. 2. N.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. (3. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. The frame holding the mandrel. if four parts are to be alike.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. tea cosey. such as brass or marble. swing lathe. 1. lady's card case. if but two parts. holding it in place with the left hand. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. at the same time striking light. Y. An ordinary machine will do. (2.) Place the paper design on the leather and. draw center lines across the required space.

and an ordinary bottle. Secure . some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

B.C. C. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. into which fit a small piece of tube. and push it through a cork. and bore a hole through the center. where it condenses. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. D. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. If the needle is not horizontal. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. Thrust a pin.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. a distance of 900 miles. A. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle.. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. Florida. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The electrodes are made . from Key West.

which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. 1. use 10-ft. 2. Powell. If 20-ft. 1/2. or flying-machine. and also to keep it steady in its flight. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. thick. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. 2 arm sticks 1 in. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. The operator can then land safely and . the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. Washington. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. 1-1/4 in. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. as shown in Fig. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. 3. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. thick. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. 16 piano wire. 2. long. thick. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. --Contributed by Edwin L. long. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. Connect as shown in the illustration. All wiring is done with No. 1. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. To make a glide. slacken speed and settle. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. as shown in Fig. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. lumber cannot be procured. thick. C. long. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. 1. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. long for the body of the operator. wide and 4 ft long. 12 uprights 1/2 in. wide and 20 ft. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. using a high resistance receiver. wide and 4 ft. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. by 3/4 in. wide and 3 ft. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. free from knots. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. lengths and splice them. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. both laterally and longitudinally. 1-1/2 in. 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. thick. long. several strips 1/2 in. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards.in. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. square and 8 ft long. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. wide and 4 ft. D. Four long beams 3/4 in. take the glider to the top of a hill. which is tacked to the front edge. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. apart and extend 1 ft. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. long. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. 2 in. wide and 3 ft. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires.

The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Great care should be . Glides are always made against the wind. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps.gently on his feet. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. but this must be found by experience. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Of course. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.

Olson. 1. --Contributed by L. as shown in Fig. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. Bellingham. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. 2. a creature of Greek mythology. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. M. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur.exercised in making landings. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. When heated a little. half man and half horse. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. which causes the dip in the line. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb.

Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. The light from the . in diameter. 14 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. about the size of stove pipe wire. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. will complete the material list. a piece of brass or steel wire. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. outside the box. this will cost about 15 cents. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. about the size of door screen wire. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. at the other. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. long and about 3/8 in. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. square. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. making it 2-1/2 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. of small rubber tubing. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. long. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp.

The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. as shown in Fig. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. . This is very simple when you know how. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. as shown in Fig. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. Dayton. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. 1. M. while others will fail time after time.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Hunting. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. --Photo by M. O. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. as shown in the sketch. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. If done properly the card will flyaway. 2.

" or the Chinese students' favorite game. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. as before. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. If a certain color is to be more prominent. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. place the other two. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. then put it on the hatpin head. hold the lump over the flame. closing both hands quickly. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. as described. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. Cool in water and dry. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. When the desired shape has been obtained. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. as shown. This game is played by five persons. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly.

Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. passing through neutralizing brushes. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. these sectors. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. or more in width. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. distribute electric charges . square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator.

material 7 in. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. 1 in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. are made from 7/8-in. 3. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. and 4 in. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. 1. Fig. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. The plates are trued up. turned wood pieces. and the outer end 11/2 in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. These pins. D. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. 3/4 in. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The two pieces. brass tubing and the discharging rods. Two pieces of 1-in. The drive wheels. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. The collectors are made. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. as shown in Fig. 3. as shown in Fig. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. GG. in diameter. at the other. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. and of a uniform thickness. Fig. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. long. are made from solid. and this should be done before cutting the circle. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. in diameter. to which insulating handles . the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. C C. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. wide at one end. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. RR. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. 4. in diameter. long and the shank 4 in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. in diameter and 15 in. Two solid glass rods. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. long. long and the standards 3 in. 1-1/2 in. after they are mounted. the side pieces being 24 in. in diameter. EE. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The fork part is 6 in. The plates. and pins inserted and soldered. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. in diameter. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. or teeth. 2. from about 1/4-in. free from wrinkles. wide. in diameter. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve.

The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. D. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . long. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Colorado City. --Contributed by C. and the work was done by themselves. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence.are attached.. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. 12 ft. one having a 2-in. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. which are bent as shown. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Lloyd Enos. KK. wide and 22 ft. Colo. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. in diameter. ball and the other one 3/4 in.

They can be used to keep pins and needles. deep. string together. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. bit. The key will drop from the string. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. as at A. pens . Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread.is a good one. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. and bore a hole 1/2 in. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. yet such a thing can be done. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. using a 1-in. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch.

then the other side. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. When the stamping is completed. 3. Draw one-half the design free hand. 2. The second oblong was 3/4 in. Having determined the size of the tray. This is to make a clean. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. file. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. etc. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. very rapid progress can be made. 23 gauge. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. or cigar ashes. two spikes. 9.. slim screw.and pencils. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. Raise the ends. 7. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. they make attractive little pieces to have about. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. Proceed as follows: 1. extra metal on each of the four sides. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. using a nail filed to chisel edge. 4. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. etc. unless it would be the metal shears. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. sharp division between background and design. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 5. inside the second on all. and the third one 1/4 in. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. also trace the decorative design. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off.. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. 6. stamp the background promiscuously. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Inside this oblong. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. 8. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. Use . above the metal. inside the first on all. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. flat and round-nosed pliers. about 3/4-in. They are easily made.

nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. 7. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 8. In the first numbering. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. first fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. and fourth fingers. 9. The eyes. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. third fingers. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. 10. second fingers. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. 6. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. and the effect will be most pleasing.

then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. the product of 12 times 12. Two times one are two. above 20 times 20.. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. there are no fingers above. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. In the second numbering. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired.. Put your thumbs together. or 60. and the six lower fingers as six tens. viz. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. etc. 11. if we wish. At a glance you see four tens or 40. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. 400. renumber your fingers. 2 times 2 equals 4. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. etc. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. or the product of 8 times 9. Still. first fingers. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. Let us multiply 12 by 12. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. which would be 70. thumbs. as high as you want to go. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. or the product of 6 times 6.. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. which tens are added. 25 times 25. or 80. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. etc. above 15 times 15 it is 200. or numbers above 10. which would be 16. 600. but being simple it saves time and trouble. . Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. 12.

7. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. the lump sum to add. 3. 75 and 85. It takes place also. For example. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives.. in the case of a nearsighted person. 8. thirties. or what. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. the revolution seems to reverse. the value which the upper fingers have. adding 400 instead of 100. being 80). In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. first finger 17. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. the inversion takes place against his will. at the will of the observer. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. etc. twenties. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. whether the one described in second or third numbering. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. which is the half-way point between the two fives. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. beginning the thumbs with 16. not rotation. 2. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. when he removes his spectacles. . The inversion and reversion did not take place. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. and so on. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. thumbs. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. 21. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. however. as one might suppose. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. or from above or from below. and. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. Proceed as in the second lumbering. first fingers 22. lastly. forties. And the lump sum to add. about a vertical axis. any two figures between 45 and 55. Take For example 18 times 18. the value of the upper fingers being 20.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. For figures ending in 6. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. further.

The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. tee. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. sometimes the point towards him. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. A flat slide valve was used. and putting a cork on the point. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The ports were not easy to make. Looking at it in semidarkness. the other appearance asserts itself. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. as . one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. when he knows which direction is right.

Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. pipe 10 in. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. pipe. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. Ill. and make in one end a hollow. apart. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. If nothing better is at hand. The tools are simple and can be made easily. Fasten the block solidly. Next take a block of wood. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. about 2 in. such as is shown in the illustration. if continued too long without proper treatment. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection.. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. H. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. While this engine does not give much power. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. across and 1/2 in. Springfield. The steam chest is round. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. . inexpensive. as in a vise. in diameter. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. secure a piece of No. across the head. -Contributed by W. it is easily built. Kutscher. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. bottom side up. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. saw off a section of a broom handle. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. The eccentric is constructed of washers.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. deep.

This process is called annealing. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. To produce color effects on copper. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. --Contributed by W. To overcome this hardness. as it softens the metal. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. the other to the left. and. O. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. especially when the object is near to the observer. Vinegar. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. S. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated.will cause the metal to break. C. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. Camden. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. Hay.

In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. the one for the left eye being blue. not two mounted side by side. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. while both eyes together see a white background. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. the left eye sees through a blue screen. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. they must be a very trifle apart. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. in the proper choice of colors. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. would serve the same purpose. The red portions of the picture are not seen. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. as for instance red and green. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. It is just as though they were not there. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. diameter. however.stereoscope. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. the further from the card will the composite image appear. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. because. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. So with the stereograph. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. But they seem black. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. disappears fully. only the orange rays may pass through. it. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. The further apart the pictures are. In order to make them appear before the card. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. because of the rays coming from them. . orange. that for the right. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. and lies to the right on the picture. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. although they pass through the screen. with the stereograph. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. and without any picture. from the stereograph. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum.

Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. wireless. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. Cal. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. or the middle of the bottle. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. San Francisco. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. 1/4 in. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. This should only be bored about half way through the block. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. A No. The weight of the air in round . The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. long and a hole drilled in each end. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. wide and 1 in. etc. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. 12 gauge wire. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Place a NO. in diameter. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. in the shape of a crank. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. thick. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece.

a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. inside diameter and 2 in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. and a slow fall. high. or. a glass tube 1/8 in. square. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. the contrary. wide and 4 in. But if a standard barometer is not available. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. The 4 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. high. if you choose. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. square. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. long.numbers is 15 lb. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. In general. 34 ft. a bottle 1 in. long. pine 3 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. if accurately constructed. but before attempting to put in the mercury. Only redistilled mercury should be used. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. high. internal diameter and about 34 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. will calibrate itself. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. 30 in.. .6) 1 in. the instrument. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. wide and 40 in. thick. Before fastening the scale. long. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. or a column of mercury (density 13. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled.

which is slipped quickly over the end. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. long. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. Number the pieces 1. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. a cover from a baking powder can will do. 3. 5. Procure a metal can cover. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. 2. 1. wide and 10 in. and place them as shown in Fig. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Mark out seven 1-in. the size of the outside of the bottle. thick. 6 and 7. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and .

3. 5's place. 5's place. 7 over No. 7 over No. as shown in Fig. Move 4-Jump No. 7. 2. Move 6-Move No. 2's place. using checkers for men. Move 12-Jump No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 3 over No. N. Move 10-Move No. procure unbleached tent duck. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Move 15-Move No. 5. in diameter. Woolson. 6 into No. Move 14-Jump No. l over No. Move 13-Move No. Move 3-Move No. 1. 3. 3. each 10 ft. long and 2 ft. 1. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 5 over No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Cape May Point. 2 . shaped like Fig. L. 3 to the center.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 3 into No. Move 9-Jump No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft.J. 5 over No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 2 over No. Move 8-Jump No. This can be done on a checker board. To make such a tent. 2's place. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Make 22 sections. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer.-Contributed by W. 6 in. Move ll-Jump No. 1 to No. 6. which is the very best material for the purpose. 6. 6 over No. 6 to No. 2 over No. 2. Move 7-Jump No. 1 into No. Move 2-Jump No. Move 5-Jump No. 7's place. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No.

Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Emsworth. in diameter. Nail a thin sheet of brass.in. wide by 12 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. After transferring the design to the brass. as in Fig. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. high. long and 4 in. 6. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. 9 by 12 in. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. 5. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. to a smooth board of soft wood. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. round galvanized iron. Punch holes in the brass in . How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. will do. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. back of the rice paper and before a bright light.J. about 9 in. from the top. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. fill with canvas edging. In raising the tent. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. long. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. 6-in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Fig. wide at the bottom. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Have the tent pole 3 in. added. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. 5) stuck in the ground. Fig. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. As shown in the sketch. Use blocks. leaving the rest for an opening. These are ventilators. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. wide at the bottom. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. diameter. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. --Contributed by G. made in two sections. Tress. Pa. 2. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine.. 2 in. 3 in.

I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes.the spaces around the outlined figures. apart. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. . --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. but before punching the holes. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. bend into shape. It will not. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. Chicago. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. Corr. excepting the 1/4-in. The pattern is traced as before. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. cut out the brass on the outside lines. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. When the edges are brought together by bending. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. around the outside of the pattern. When all the holes are punched. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone.

This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Dunham. These pipes are . but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. between which is placed the fruit jar. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making.. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. A cast-iron ring. Que. Stevens. allowing 2 ft. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. or. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. better still. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. G. If a wheel is selected. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. A 6-in. partially filled with cream. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. or center on which the frame swings. or less. --Contributed by Geo. Oregon. pipe is used for the hub. E.however. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. Badger. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. Mayger. pipe. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. --Contributed by H.

The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . pipe. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. bent to the desired circle.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. An extra wheel 18 in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. pipe clamps. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel.

He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The performer. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. and the guide withdrawn. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . 1. while doing this. as shown in Fig. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. which was placed in an upright position. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. 3. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. and dropped on the table. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box.

St. 1. Mo. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. D. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Louis. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. White.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. in diameter on another piece of tin. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. and second. Colo. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. --Contributed by H. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. The box can be made of selected oak or . in a half circle. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Harkins. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. 2. it requires no expensive condensing lens. first. -Contributed by C. F. Denver.

These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. and 2 in. from each end of the outside of the box. 3-1/2 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. 2. Two or three holes about 1 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. as shown in Fig. high and 11 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. long. wide and 6-1/2 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. long and should be placed vertically. 1. The door covering this hole in the back. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. and.mahogany. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. wide and 5 in. wide. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. AA. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. This will be 3/4 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. fit into the runners. If a camera lens is used. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. 5-1/2 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. from each end. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. wide by 5 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. high and must . but not tight. long. focal length. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. wide and 6-1/2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. An open space 4 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in.

Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. and extending the whole height of the lantern. Bradley. as it requires an airtight case. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. the article may be propped up . The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. and so on. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. then the second knuckle will be March. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. This process is rather a difficult one. calling that knuckle January. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. April. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. 1. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. Ohio. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. calling this February." etc. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. West Toledo. C. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. --Contributed by Chas. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. provided it is airtight. June and November. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached..

The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. Y. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. one of lead and one of aluminum. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. and the lead 24 sq. but waxed. --Contributed by J. . the lid or cover closed. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. or suspended by a string. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. fruit jars are required. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. N. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. running small motors and lighting small lamps. In both Fig. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. The top of a table will do. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. Schenectady. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. giving it an occasional stir. and set aside for half a day. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. in. Pour in a little turpentine. taking care to have all the edges closed. in.with small sticks. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. In each place two electrodes. 2. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. 1 and 2. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. Crawford. 1. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. H. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A.

You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. as you have held it all the time. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. You have an understanding with some one in the company. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. This trick is very simple. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. Cleveland. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. as well as others. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . He. you remove the glass. O. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. he throws the other. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. which you warm with your hands. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine..A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. After a few seconds' time. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture.

Colo. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. . and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. put it under the glass. Crocker. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. but in making one. on a table. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. in diameter in the center. Victor. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. near a partition or curtain. if any snags are encountered. Pull the ends quickly. J. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. leaving a hole about 3/4 in.take the handiest one. Be sure that this is the right one.-Contributed by E. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. but by being careful at shores.

1 piece. 1 mast. The keelson. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. by 16 ft. selected pine. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. for the stern piece. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. long. long. wide and 12 ft. 1. of 1-1/2-yd. are as follows: 1 keelson. by 2 in. by 10 ft. 8 in. thick and 3/4 in. screws and cleats. by 8 in. Both ends are mortised. drilled and fastened with screws. for center deck braces. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 1 piece. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 2 and braced with an iron band. 3 in. 2 gunwales. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. at the ends. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. for the bow.. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. from each end to 1 in. 8 yd. is 14 ft. apart. clear pine. 14 rib bands. by 15 ft. 1 in. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. long. as illustrated in the engraving. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. and. by 16 ft. Paint. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. for cockpit frame. 7 ft. by 2 in. one 6 in. square by 16 ft. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 1 in. by 12 in. 1/4 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 50 ft. from the stern. from the bow and the large one.. and fastened with screws. ducking. wide and 12 ft. 1 in. wide unbleached muslin. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 3 and 4. 1/8 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. long. 4 outwales. and is removed after the ribs are in place. of rope. and the other 12 in. 3 in. 11 yd. 9 ft. 2 in. wide. Fig. of 1-yd. wide 12-oz. 1 in.

Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. Fig. 6. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. 1/4 in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. wide. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. wide and 24 in. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. These are put in 6 in. A block of pine. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. The deck is not so hard to do. long. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. wide and 14 in. thick. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. also. 5. length of canvas is cut in the center. long. is a cube having sides 6 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. screws. A piece of oak. long. 4 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. wood screws. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. The trimming is wood. 3-1/2 ft. 7 and 8. in diameter through the block. 1 in. 6 and 7. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. thick and 1/2 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. wide and 3 ft. Figs. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. Before making the deck. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. corner braces. They are 1 in. wide. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. thick. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. a piece 1/4 in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. 1 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. from the bow. long is well soaked in water. 9. 6 in. The 11-yd. The block is fastened to the keelson. Fig. thick and 12 in. . gunwales and keelson. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. Braces. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. A seam should be made along the center piece. A 6-in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. apart. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. doubled. and fastened to them with bolts. thick 1-1/2 in. This block.

Fig. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. E. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. long. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. apart in the muslin. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. long. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The mast has two side and one front stay. in diameter and 10 ft. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. each 1 in. The keel. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. Ill. thick by 2 in. at the other. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The house will accommodate 20 families. wide. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. 12. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. is 6 in. 10 with a movable handle. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. A strip 1 in. Wilmette. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. --Contributed by O. The sail is a triangle. . The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. are used for the boom and gaff. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. Tronnes. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. wide at one end and 12 in. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. 11.

After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. with the ends and the other side rounding. long and five 1/2-in. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. long. Take this and fold it over . 2-1/2 in. Bevel both sides of the pieces. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. Tronnes. 1. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. E. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. five 1/2-in. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Fig. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. Wilmette. thick. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. 2. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. long. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. about 5/16 in.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. 2 in. flat headed screws. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. flat on one side. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. 4. and 3 ft.into two 14-in. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. long. one 11-1/2 in. square. 5. as shown in Fig. flat-headed screws. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. wide. 1 yd. 3. wide. thick. and the other 18 in. Cut the maple. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. wide and 30 in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. 2-1/2 in. thick. --Contributed by O. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. wide and 2 ft. Ill.

long. as well as the edges around the opening. 5 from 1/16-in. A. When the glue is set. forming an eye for a screw. wide and 6-1/2 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. Louis. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. 1. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. long.once. C. and the four outside edges. F. thick. long. wide . Fig. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. 6-1/2 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. Make a double stitch all around the edge. then centered. square. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. wide and 4-1/2 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. Figs. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. --Contributed by W. 1-1/4 in. The sides are 3-1/4 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. The bag is then turned inside out. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. B. the mechanical parts can be put together. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. wide and 2-3/4 in. are rounded. Mo. square. and make a turn in each end of the wires. D. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. the top and bottom. Cut another piece of board. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. Another piece. wide and 5 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. About 1/2 in. St. E. long. thick. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. A. Bliss. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. wide and 6-3/4 in. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. and take care that the pieces are all square. long. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. After the glue. about 3/8 in. long. this square box is well sandpapered. wide and 3 ft. of each end unwound for connections. thick and 3 in. long. C. soaked with water and blown up. Wind three layers of about No. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. 3 in. Glue a three cornered piece. wide and 2-1/2 in. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. long. is set. The front. pieces 2-5/8 in. If carefully and neatly made. 2 and 3. but can be governed by circumstances. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. leaving a small opening at one corner. 3-1/4 in. 3/8 in.

W. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. long. 1/4 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. G. so it will just clear the tin. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. Chapman. wide and 9 in. These wires should be about 1 in. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. I. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. wide and 2-1/2 in. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle.A. Yorkshire. long. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. The end of the polar axis B.S. showing a greater defection of the pointer. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. thick. Another strip of tin. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. the part carrying the pointer moves away. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. When the current flows through the coil. from the spindle. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. and as the part Fig. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. 5. C. from one end. hole is fastened to the pointer. bored in the back. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. long. L. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. that has the end turned with a shoulder. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. 4. A pointer 12 in. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. --Contributed by George Heimroth. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. 5-1/2 in. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. F. and fasten in place. 4. 4 is not movable.R. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. Richmond Hill. Like poles repel each other. 1/16 in. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. The stronger the current. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. Austwick Hall. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. in diameter. and the farther apart they will be forced. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. Fig. Place the tin. the same size as the first. board. R. The base is a board 5 in.and 2-5/8 in. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. Fig. The resistance is now adjusted to show . The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut.

1881. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. say Venus at the date of observation. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. and vice . thus: 9 hr. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. at 9 hr. A. 10 min. 10 min. shows mean siderial. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. The following formula will show how this may be found. M. 30 min. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr.

Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. New Haven. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. and then verify its correctness by measurement.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Hall. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch.m. if one of these cannot be had. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. owing to the low internal resistance. or. . --Contributed by Robert W.f. Conn. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances.

When the follower is screwed down. and heap the glowing coals on top. 1. 1-3/4 in. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. long. Then. 3/8 in. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. as shown in the accompanying picture. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. of alum and 4 oz. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. thick. especially for cooking fish. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Fig. The boring bar. fresh grass. put the fish among the ashes. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Wet paper will answer. cover up with the same. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. leaves or bark. inside diameter and about 5 in. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. arsenic to every 20 lb.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream.

A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. thick. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. pipe. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. and threaded on both ends. when they were turned in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. fastened with a pin. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. pipe. about 1/2 in. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off.

was then finished on an emery wheel. Fig. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Fig. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. wide. Iowa. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. 5. Fig. The rough frame. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. 4. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. labor and time. Clermont. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. and which gave such satisfactory results. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. long. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. however. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. If the valve keeps dripping. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. It . 3. as the one illustrated herewith. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. a jump spark would be much better. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. the float is too high.valve stems. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. but never one which required so little material. then it should be ground to a fit. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. 30 in. 2. This plate also supports the rocker arms. bent in the shape of a U. thick and 3 in. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. A 1-in. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. square iron. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running.

" little and big. completes the merry-go-round. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. so it must be strong enough. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. with no trees or buildings in the way. timber. square and 2 ft. and. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. A 3/4 -in. This makes an easy adjustment. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . It looks like a toy. strengthened by a piece 4 in. from all over the neighborhood. butting against short stakes. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. Nieman. long. A malleable iron bolt. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. The crosspiece is 2 in. As there is no bracing. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. in diameter and 15 in. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. rope is not too heavy. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. extending above. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. square and 5 ft. 3/4 in. The illustration largely explains itself. If it is to be used for adults. square. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. and a little junk. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. --Contributed by C. W. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. no matter what your age or size may be. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. for the "motive power" to grasp. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. hole bored in the post. long. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. in the ground with 8 ft. long is the pivot. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. strong clear material only should be employed. from the center. The seats are regular swing boards. long. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. in fact. being held in position by spikes as shown. Use a heavy washer at the head. 12 ft. set 3 ft. On this depends the safety of the contrivance.

and sent to earth. a wreck.2 emery. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. one for the backbone and one for the bow. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. The bow is now bent. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated.the fingers. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. away. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. Both have large reels full of . A reel is next made. Having placed the backbone in position. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. The backbone is flat. as shown in Fig. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. long. and 18 in. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. then it is securely fastened. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. 4. 1.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. These ends are placed about 14 in. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. square. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. To wind the string upon the reel. 2. if nothing better is at hand. light and strong. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. 1/4 by 3/32 in. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand.

Bunker. often several hundred yards of it. The handle end is held down with a staple. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Y. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. First. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Brooklyn. he pays out a large amount of string. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. --Contributed' by Harry S. N.string. Mass.-Contributed by S. or glass-covered string. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Newburyport. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. the balance. C. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. common packing thread. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. If the second kite is close enough. Moody.

then a dust protector. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Vt. such as mill men use. length of 2-in. then draw the string up tight. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Hastings. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. each the size of half the table top. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. lengths (Fig. If the table is round. square (Fig. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. --Contributed by Earl R. must be attached to a 3-ft. make the pad as shown in the illustration.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Corinth. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad.

The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Calif. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. 2-1/4 in. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work.-Contributed by H. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. from C to D.. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. 17-1/2 in. 16-1/4 in. from E to F. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Make the other half circular disk in the same way.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. and E to G.9-1/4 in.. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. which spoils the leather effect. trace the design carefully on the leather. E. 6-1/4 in. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. G to H. . Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.. Moisten the . A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Use a smooth. Oakland. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. Wharton. hard pencil.

A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. and corresponding lines on the other side. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Trace the openings for the handles. about 1/8 in. get something with which to make a lining. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. To complete the bag. place both together and with a leather punch. Now cut narrow thongs. if not more than 1 in. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. is taken off at a time. I made this motor . also lines A-G. H-B. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. G-J. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. apart.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. wide. and E-G. and lace through the holes. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. with the rounded sides of the tools. Cut it the same size as the bag.

The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. long. Calif. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. B. . 1. 1. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. each being a half circle. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. --Contributed by J. iron. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. of No. D. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Shannon. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. as shown in Fig. Pasadena.M. in length. 2-1/4 in. 24 gauge magnet wire. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. 2. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger.

or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. near the center. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. 1. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. pasted in alternately. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. balloon should be about 8 ft. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. The gores for a 6-ft. high. are the best kind to make. from the bottom end. and the gores cut from these.

having the ends bent into hooks as shown. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. somewhat larger in size. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. coming through the small pipe A. These are to hold the wick ball. Fig. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. The steam. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. 5. in diameter. As the boat is driven forward by this force. After washing. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. B. In removing grease from wood. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. leaving the solution on over night. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. so it will hang as shown in Fig. leaving a long wake behind. saturating it thoroughly. If the gores have been put together right. 4. 1. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. 3. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. after which the paint will adhere permanently. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. Staunton. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. using about 1/2-in.widest point. 2. as shown in Fig. E. In starting the balloon on its flight. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. --Contributed by R. The boat soon attains considerable speed. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. lap on the edges. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. as shown in Fig. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . A.

wide by 6 in. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. Second. In using either of the two methods described. apart on these lines. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. if you have several copies of the photograph.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. as is shown in Fig. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The blocks are about 6 in. There are three ways of doing this: First. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. high and 8 in. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. Third. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. long and each provided with a handle. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. in bowling form. long. 1.

2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. 2. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. not pointed down at the road at an angle. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. being careful not to dent the metal. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig.Fig. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. --Contributed by John A. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Hellwig. Albany. N. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Fig. Y. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. thick. Rinse the plate in cold water. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal.

It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. A circular piece of wood. wide and 8 in. --Contributed by R. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. and. which is 4 in. Paine. A. are screwed to the circular piece. A. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. and not produce the right sound. In Fig. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. 1 Fig. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. S. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles.upon any particular object. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. and Fig. Richmond. long for the base. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. thick. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. 2 the front view. with a set screw. B. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. With this device. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. is fastened to a common camera tripod. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Va. CC. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. in diameter. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . the set screws will hold the telescope in position. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. These corner irons are also screwed to. through which passes the set screw S. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Break off the frame. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. wide and of any desired height. Corner irons. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. 5 in. 6 in.

Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Ill. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. This horn. it can be mounted on the inside of the can.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. R. This will make a very compact electric horn. pine boards. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. La Salle. D. . Lake Preston. as only the can is visible. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. in diameter of some 1-in. S. Kidder. thus producing sound waves. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. -1. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. I made a wheel 26 in. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal.

they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Fig. --Contributed by James R. Ghent. If there is a large collection of coins. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Purdy. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. the same thickness as the coins. thick and 12 in. 1. If the collection consists of only a few coins. B. A. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. square. 1.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . O. 2. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Kane. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. The frame is made of a heavy card. --Contributed by C. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Doylestown. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it.

melted and applied with a brush. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. of developer. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. Smith. border all around. Noble. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. a hammer or mallet. Milwaukee. Cal. several large nails. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. though not absolutely necessary. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. --Contributed by August T. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. The material required is a sheet of No.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much.E. A lead pencil. Wis. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. It will hold 4 oz. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. thick. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. If desired. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. for after the slides have been shown a few times. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. and then glued together as indicated. --Contributed by R. Canada. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. A rivet punch is desirable. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. plus a 3/8-in. One Cloud. cut and grooved. Neyer. Toronto. into which to place the screws . --Contributed by J.J. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. they become uninteresting.

Take the nail. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. both outline and decoration. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . like the one shown. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. screws placed about 1 in. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. draw one part. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. never upon the metal directly. and file it to a chisel edge. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. There are several ways of working up the design. Remove the screws. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. using 1/2-in. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom.

Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. About 1/2 yd. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. up from the lower end. for the top. Provide four lengths for the legs. The pedal. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. 3/4 in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. each 1 in. long. of 11-in. Do not bend it over or flatten it. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. long. 2. two lengths. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. 3. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in.wall. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. . square. in the other. long. 1. and two lengths. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. as shown in Fig. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. being ball bearing. Rivet the band to the holder. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. for the lower rails. square and 11 in. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. using a 1/2in. l-1/8 in. square and 181/2 in.

The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . New York City. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. having quite a length of threads.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. --Contributed by John Shahan. Ala. Quackenbush. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. F. --Contributed by W. Attalla.

The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. Two pieces of felt. and the other 2-3/4 in. each 1-1/4 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob.. long. from the end. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. stitched on both edges for appearance. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. Mich. long. and two holes in the other. Ironwood. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. college or lodge colors. using class. Luther. in depth. from one end. Assemble as shown in the sketch. The desired emblem. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. wide and 4-1/4 in. one about 1 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. and 3/8 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. something that is carbonated. making a lap of about 1 in. long. initial. the end of the other piece is folded over. --Contributed by C. D.

Ind. 1/4 in. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Punch two holes A.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Fig. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. if desired by the operator. Schatz. which can be procured from a plumber. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. This method allows a wide range of designs. A piece of lead. from the center and opposite each other. Indianapolis. or more in height. in the cover and the bottom. as shown in the sketch. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. 2. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. or a pasteboard box. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. as shown at B. --Contributed by John H. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . and the cork will be driven out. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. in diameter and 2 in. about 2 in. 1. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators.

A piece of thick glass. The pieces of tin between the holes A. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. allowing the two ends to be free. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper.Rolling Can Toy lead. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. 3. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. . metal. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. When the can is rolled away from you. it winds up the rubber band. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. 5. 1. Columbus. 4. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. and the ends of the bands looped over them. O. as shown in Fig. are turned up as in Fig. Fig. or marble will serve. putting in the design. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. on both top and bottom.

thick. wide and 20 in. A pencil may be used the first time over. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. 3 in. or more thick on each side. New York City. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. The edges should be about 1/8 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. long and bored a 1/2-in. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. After this has been done. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. thicker than the pinion. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . Next place the leather on the glass. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. hole through it. I secured a board 3/4 in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. from each end. and. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. mark over the design. deep in its face. 1 in. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. face up.

--Contributed by A. pieces for the vise slides. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Rice. 1 top board. M. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1 top board. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Now fit up the two clamps. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 1 piece. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. Syracuse. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. in diameter. 1 piece for clamp. 3 by 3 by 6 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Y. Make the lower frame first. 1 screw block. 1 piece for clamp. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 1. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. Cut the 2-in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 1 back board. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. New York. 2. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. N. much of the hard labor will be saved. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 2 end rails. thick top board. 1 by 9 by 80 in. lag screws as shown. 3 by 3 by 36.in the board into the bench top. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 4 guides. Fig. 2 side rails. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 2 crosspieces. Brooklyn. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Fasten the end pieces on with screws.

1 nail set. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 3 and 6 in. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 set gimlets. 1 countersink. Only the long run. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 rip saw. 1 pair dividers. 1 wood scraper. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 claw hammer. . as well as the pattern maker. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 pair pliers. 24 in.screws. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 brace and set of bits. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 24 in. in diameter. 1 monkey wrench. The bench is now complete. 1 bench plane or jointer. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 2 screwdrivers. They can be purchased at a hardware store. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 2-ft... 1 marking gauge. The amateur workman. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 set chisels. rule. 1 compass saw. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 cross cut saw. 1 pocket level. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools..

the projecting point A. Doylestown. 3. Pa. 1 oilstone. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. try square. will sink into the handle as shown at D. No.1. but will not make . 2. Fig. becomes like A. 2 and 00 sandpaper. 1. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. ---Contributed by James M. Fig. being softer. after constant use. will be easier to work. 1. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump.1 6-in. The calf skin. Fig. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. Fig. Kane.

and the length 6-5/8 in. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. -Contributed by Julia A. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Turn the leather. First draw the design on paper. when dry. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. . Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. Two pieces will be required of this size. White. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. New York City. then prepare the leather. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. will do just as well. water or heat will not affect. lay the design on the face. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. If cow hide is preferred. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side.as rigid a case as the cow skin. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. cover it completely with water enamel and. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. The form can be made of a stick of wood. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Having prepared the two sides. If calf skin is to be used. such as copper or brass. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. but a V-shaped nut pick. which steam. After the outlines are traced. secure a piece of modeling calf. the same method of treatment is used. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. This will make a perfectly impervious covering.

Jaquythe. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Maine. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. New York City. C. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. . Cal. Richmond. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. A. Cobb. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. and an adjustable friction-held loop. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Portland. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by Chas. Herrman. --Contributed by Chester L. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. as shown in the sketch.

The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop.. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. --Contributed by Geo. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. A thick piece of tin. Wright. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. an inverted stewpan. . Mass. --Contributed by Wm. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Middletown. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. for instance. Roberts. Conn. was marked out as shown. Cambridge. This was very difficult. B.

A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Herbert. When dry. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. pulverized and applied. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. . of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. The next morning there was no trace of oil. well calcined and powdered. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. and the grease will disappear. used as part of furniture. F. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Illinois. such as chair seats. L. but only an odor which soon vanished. and quite new. apply powdered calcined magnesia. so some bones were quickly calcined. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease.. If the article is highly polished. A beautifully bound book. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Indianapolis. --Contributed by C. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. --Contributed by Paul Keller. as shown. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. Chicago. on a clear piece of glass. If any traces of the grease are left. but not running over. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. Ind. of boiling water. which has been tried out several times with success. Bone. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. face down. There was no quicklime to be had. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. then immerse the print in it and squeegee.

Howe. soft steel with the opening 6 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. the pieces . A. high and are bolted to a block of wood. Tarrytown. long. --Contributed by Geo. This coaster is simple and easy to make. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The pieces marked S are single. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. set and thumbscrews. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. 2 in. 6 in. New York. thick. If properly adjusted.. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. deep and 5 in. says Scientific American. wide and 12 in..

If the letters are all cut the same height. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. to the underside of which is a block.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. A sharp knife. for sending to friends. Their size depends on the plate used. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. no doubt. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. they will look remarkably uniform. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. albums and the like. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. The seat is a board. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. says Camera Craft. E.

these letter pictures can be made with a black border. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. So arranged. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. photographing them down to the desired size. after. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. The puzzle is to get . in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. for example. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. mount them on short pieces of corks. pasting the prints on some thin card. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. using care to get it in the right position. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. and. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. In cutting out an 0. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. So made. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year.

jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. N. long that will just fit are set in. G.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. hung on pivots. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. squeezes along past the center of the tube.-Contributed by I. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. of its top. says the American Thresherman. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. He smells the bait. the tube righting itself at once for another catch.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. A hole 6 or 7 in. Bayley. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. Cape May Point. Old-Time Magic . By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. so they will lie horizontal.J. snow or anything to hide it. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. with the longest end outside.

Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. E. then spread the string. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. then expose again.faced up. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. --Contributed by L. N. --Contributed by L. Brooklyn. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Pocatello. Rhode Island. Press the hands together. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Pawtucket. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Y. Szerlip. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Parker. or rub the hands a little before doing so. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Idaho.

dark red. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. wipe the blade . When the glue is thoroughly dry. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The pieces. wide and 2 in. 1. or green oil paint. 3 Fig. The handle is next made. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. near the point end. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. they will look very much like the genuine article. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. if any. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. using a straightedge and a pencil.. says the English Mechanic. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. or a complete suit of armor. long. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. in width. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. 4 on the blade. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. and if carefully made. in building up his work from the illustrations. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. end of the blade. 2 Fig. The blade should be about 27 in. narrower. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. 1 Fig. When the whole is quite dry. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. full size. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side.Genuine antique swords and armor.. thick. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. whether he requires a single sword only. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. Glue the other side of the blade.

using a soft and dry piece of cloth. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. 3. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. the other is flat or half-round. should be about 9 in. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine.. preferably of contrasting colors. the length of the blade 28 in. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. In making this scimitar. shows only two sides. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. 3. follow the directions as for Fig. take two pieces of wood. This sword is about 68 in. in diameter. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. 2. the other is flat or halfround. about 1-1/2 in. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. 1. 2. In making. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. the other two are identical. of course. 1. Both edges of the blade are sharp.with light strokes up and down several times. and 3 in. 1. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. allowing for a good hold with both hands. as it is . 1. in the widest part at the lower end. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. In the finished piece. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. 4. long. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. 1/8 in. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. Fig. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. The length of the handle. the illustration. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory.. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. square and of any length desired. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. thick and 5 in.

can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. long. Mass. as shown in the sketch. and. and if so. --Contributed by John Blake. A piece of mild steel. 2 in. The thinness of the plank. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. On each edge of the board. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. A cold . thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. as can the pitch bed or block. at the lower end. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. in an attempt to remove it. piping and jackets by hard water. as there was some at hand. Syracuse. Both can be made easily. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. square. about 3/8 in. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. --Contributed by Katharine D. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. however. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. N. each about 1 ft. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. It is made of a plank. Doctors probed for the button without success. Morse. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Franklin. or an insecure fastening. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Y.

5 lb. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. When the desired form has been obtained. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. secure a piece of brass of about No. tallow.. on the pitch. 18 gauge. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. a file to reduce the ends to shape. 5 lb. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. design down. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown.. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. Trim up the edges and file them . To remedy this. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. plaster of Paris. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. To put it in another way. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. When this has been done. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. using a small metal saw. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. The metal will probably be warped somewhat.

and hang a bird swing. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. 3. in one minute or 550 lb. using powdered pumice with lye. 30 ft. space between the vessels with water. or 550 ft. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. per second. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. --Contributed by Harold H. make an unusual show window attraction. and still revolve. lb. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. over the smaller vessel. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. it may be well to know what horsepower means. in diameter (Fig. but not to stop it. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. The smaller is placed within the larger. Before giving the description. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. one 18 in. Fig. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. 2). living together in what seems like one receptacle. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor.smooth. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. 1) and the other 12 in. or fraction of a horsepower. in the center. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. That is lifting 33. in one second. lb.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. A.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft.000 ft. . Cutter. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. This in turn divided by 33.000 lb. to keep it from floating. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Clean the metal thoroughly. 1 ft. 1 ft. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. per minute. Fill the 3-in. in diameter (Fig.

A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Mass. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. or on a pedestal. --Contributed by J. 1 Fig. Somerville. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. by L. The effect is surprising. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Szerlip.18 in. F. Diameter 12 in. Diameter Fig. Y. 2 Fig. N. --Contributed. Campbell. Brooklyn.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water.3 Fig. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes.

and then. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Rivet the cup to the base. which. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. with other defects. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. is. and the clay . With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. unsatisfactory. In riveting. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. often render it useless after a few months service. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. the same as removing writing from a slate. away from the edge. with the pliers. This compound is impervious to water. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. which may be of wood or tin. keeping the center high. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. as a rule. and cut out the shape with the shears. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. Do not be content merely to bend them over. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. to keep the metal from tarnishing. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad.copper of No. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Polish both of these pieces. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. using any of the common metal polishes. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. then by drawing a straightedge over it. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. after which it is ready for use.

Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. It is made of a glass tube. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Scotland. in diameter and 5 in. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch.can be pressed back and leveled. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Shettleston. --Contributed by John T. Mich. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Mich. . the device will work for an indefinite time. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. 2. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. -Contributed by Thos. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Northville. DeLoof. Grand Rapids. Houghton. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. long. The siphon is made of glass tubes. --Contributed by A. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. 1. A. Dunlop.

in width and 2 in. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. 1. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. put up as ornaments. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. This sword is 4 ft. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. stilettos and battle-axes. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.FIG. London.1 FIG. long. As the handle is to . A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.

The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. one about 1/2 in. the upper part iron or steel. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. This axe is made similar to the one . steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. When dry. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The lower half of the handle is of wood. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. This weapon is about 1 ft. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. A German stiletto. narrower. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. 4. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. which is about 2-1/2 ft. When the whole is quite dry. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. In Fig. 6. 3 is shown a claymore. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. in length. in width. long. 7. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. with both edges of the blade sharp. with wire or string' bound handle. The crossbar and blade are steel. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. the axe is of steel. 11 were used. 5. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. is shown in Fig. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. In Fig. Both handle and axe are of steel. A German poniard is shown in Fig. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. 20 spike. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. This stiletto has a wood handle. studded with brass or steel nails. long with a dark handle of wood. This weapon is also about 1 ft. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. very broad. glue and put it in place. 8. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. with both edges sharp. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. paint it a dark brown or black. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. in length. Three large. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. small rope and round-headed nails. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. the same as used on the end of the handle. This sword is about 4 ft. sometimes called cuirass breakers. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. sharp edges on both sides. The sword shown in Fig. 9. These must be cut from pieces of wood.represent copper. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. The handle is of wood. firmly glued on. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. string. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. In Fig. The ball is made as described in Fig. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. wood with a keyhole saw. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. then glued on the blade as shown. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay.

2. such as braided fishline.described in Fig. . high. This will make a very good flexible belt.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. so the contents cannot be seen. When wrapped all the way around. Old-Time Magic . 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. together as shown in Fig. W. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. Davis. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. will pull where other belts slip. 10. --Contributed by E. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. Chicago. the ends are tied and cut off. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper.

To make the flowers grow in an instant.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Macdonald. with the circle centrally located. an acid. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. four glass tumblers. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Before the performance.J. filled with water. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. 1 and put together as in Fig. Oakland. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. about one-third the way down from the top. in a few seconds' time. These wires are put in the jar. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . causing the flowers to grow. N. or using small wedges of wood. held in the right hand. Calif. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. The dotted lines in Fig. S. some of the liquid. There will be no change in color. apparently. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Bridgeton. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. 2. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. --Contributed by A.

and kept ready for use at any time. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . and equally worthy of individual treatment. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. --Contributed by W. 4 for width and No. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. Richmond. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. A. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. This outlines the desired opening. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. not only because of the fact just mentioned. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. says a correspondent of Photo Era. practical and costs nothing. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. unless some special device is used. Jaquythe. When many slides are to be masked. If the size wanted is No. which are numbered for convenience in working. Cal. 2 for height. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size.

In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. but they can be easily revived. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . about half and half. using the carbon paper. and the extreme length 7 in. 16 gauge. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. When etched to the desired depth. too. is about right for the No. may be changed. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. With a stick. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. This done. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. and do not inhale the fumes. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. The one shown is merely suggestive. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. a little less acid than water. possibly. the margin and the entire back of the metal. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. Draw a design. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. or.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. The decoration. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. which is dangerous. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. not the water into the acid. or a pair of old tongs. Secure a sheet of No. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. the paper is folded along the center line. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. paint the design. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer.

Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. The connections are simple: I. with the wires underneath. through it. Fig. Fig. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. as shown in Fig. A. J is another wire attached in the same way. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. thick. 3/8 in. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. and about 2-1/2 ft. in diameter and 1/4 in. When the button S is pressed. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. the bell will ring. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. 2. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Nail a board. 0 indicates the batteries. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. 5. wide and of the same length as the table. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. about 8 in. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. 1. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. wide.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. . it will touch post F. repeat as many times as is necessary. It may be either nailed or screwed down. long. high. to the table. so that when it is pressed down. long and 1 ft. 2. attached to a post at each end. or more wide. as in Fig. 3. Fig. as at H. Fig. 5. Paint the table any color desired. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. C and D. 4. about 2-1/2 in. about 1 in. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. 2. Cut out a piece of tin. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. and bore two holes. about 3 ft. as shown in the illustration. Fig. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. 24 parts water. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. Then get two posts.

long. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. After the glue is dry. The circle is marked out with a compass. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. A wood peg about 2 in. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. such as . is to appear as steel. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. This weapon is about 22 in. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The imitation articles are made of wood. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. handle and all. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together.Imitation Arms and Armor . the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. long serves as the dowel. 1.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. says the English Mechanic. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. thick. The entire weapon. These rings can be carved out.. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. 2. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. the wood peg inserted in one of them.

The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. flowers. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. also. 2. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. the hammer and spike. long. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. is shown in Fig. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.ornamental scrolls. All of these axes are about the same length. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The lower half of the handle is wood. . The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. used at the end of the fifteenth century. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The handle is of steel imitation. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. 8. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. If such a tool is not at hand. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. studded with large brass or steel nails. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The axe is shown in steel. The upper half of the handle is steel. covered with red velvet. 3. 5. The handle is of wood. 6. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. Its length is about 3 ft. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. as shown. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. with a sharp carving tool. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. This weapon is about 22 in. leaves. The entire handle should be made of one piece. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. as described in Fig. The spikes are cut out of wood. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. as before mentioned. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. or the amateur cannot use it well. etc.

7) calls for one out. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 5. 6. Each person plays until three outs have been made. as shown in Fig. 1. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 4).Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. as in Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. then the other plays. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. the knife resting on its back. Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. calls for a home run. . and so on for nine innings. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. a three-base hit. 2. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The knife falling on its side (Fig. Chicago. 3.

with the rope laced in the cloth. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Somerville.-Contributed by J. as shown in Fig. while the committee is tying him up. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. If it is spotted at all. It may be found that the negative is not colored. of the rope and holds it. F.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. Old-Time Magic . the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. 2. one of them burning . as shown in Fig. hypo to 1 pt. Campbell. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. of water for an hour or two. 1. 3. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. Mass. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. This he does. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass.

Contributed by Andrew G. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. The magician walks over to the burning candle. of plumbago. showing that there is nothing between them. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. the other without a light. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. etc. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. shades the light for a few seconds. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Lebanon. --Contributed by C. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. --Contributed by L. 4 oz.brightly. of sugar. bolt. of turpentine. Ky. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Brown.. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. He then walks over to the other candle. 3/4 in. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. Thome. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. Evans. 4 oz. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. thick. and. New York City. with which he is going to light the other candle. of water and 1 oz. thus causing it to light. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. Ky. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. B. invisible to them (the audience). . Drill Gauge screw. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Louisville.

but is not so good. diameter. --Contributed by C. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. Pulteney. To make the porous cell. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. Y. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. into a tube of several thicknesses. N. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. Its current strength is about one volt. In making up the solution. H. long. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Denniston. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. steady current. long with an internal diameter of 2 in.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. or blotting paper. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. about 5 in. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. 5 in. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . for the material. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. thick. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. which will give a strong. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Do not add water to the acid. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used.

The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. long with a bearing at each end. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. steel. the other holding them apart. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument.) may be obtained. To insure this. steel. One hole was bored as well as possible. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. a positive adjustment was provided. The . The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. carrying the hour circle at one end. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. one drawing them together. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. Finally. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. while the other end is attached by two screws.station. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. After much experimentation with bearings. As to thickness. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. steel. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. but somewhat lighter. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in.

" Only a rough setting is necessary. Point it approximately to the north star. All set screws. excepting those on the declination axis. 45 min. are tightened. subtract 24. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The pole is 1 deg. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. and 15 min. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. is provided with this adjustment. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result." When this is done. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. Cassiopiae. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. save the one in the pipe. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. All these adjustments. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. When properly set it will describe a great circle. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. If the result is more than 24 hours. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. To locate a known star on the map. The aperture should be 1/4 in. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. Set the declination circle to its reading. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg.. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. Instead. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. Each shaft. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. To find a star in the heavens. apart. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. turn the pointer to the star. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. once carefully made. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. It is. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Declination is read directly..axis is adjusted by turning these screws. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . and if it is not again directed to the same point. need not be changed.

long. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. then add 1 2-3 dr. Strosnider. cannon balls. which is the one examined. The dance will begin. benzole.. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. The ball is found to be the genuine article. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. taking care not to add too much. La. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. Plain City. a great effect will be produced. -Contributed by Ray E. is the real cannon ball.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. of ether. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. New Orleans. Ohio. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. If this will be too transparent. In reality the first ball. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. add a little more benzole. as shown in the sketch. is folded several times. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. 3 or 4 in. the others .

The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box.. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Somerville. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. 1). etc. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Cal. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. as shown in the illustration. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Fig. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. F. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. 2. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. San Francisco. Wis. taps. In boxes having a sliding cover. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Return the card to the pack. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. --Contributed by J. without taking up any great amount of space. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. Milwaukee. Mass. Campbell. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. small brooches. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card.

The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. This box has done good service.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. thus giving ample store room for colors. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. . from the bottom of the box. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. prints. slides and extra brushes. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. as shown in the illustration. Beller. Hartford. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Connecticut. round pieces 2-1/4 in. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B.

FIG. 1). 2). then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. will answer the purpose. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. Fill the upper tub. When the ends are turned under.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. tacking the gauze well at the corners. holes in the bottom of one. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. Darke. or placed against a wall. Mass. -Contributed by C. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. West Lynn. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. O. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. with well packed horse manure. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. costing 5 cents. about threefourths full. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. . it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center.

with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. when they are raised from the pan. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. Chicago. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. cutting the cane between the holes. M. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. If the following directions are carried out. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. and each bundle contains . if this is not available. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. --Contributed by L. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. they should be knocked out. Eifel. oil or other fluid. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. If plugs are found in any of the holes.

put about 3 or 4 in. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. In addition to the cane. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. a square pointed wedge. as it must be removed again. it should be held by a plug. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. 1. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. after having been pulled tight. No plugs . as shown in Fig. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. held there by inserting another plug. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. then across and down. and. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom.

2+. lat. Patrick. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal.= 4. R.075 in. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. 5. using the same holes as for the first layer. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. No weaving has been done up to this time. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. 1. 1. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. 40°. we have 4. During the weaving. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. for 2°. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . it is 4. the next smallest. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair.15 in. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. After completing the second layer. as shown in Fig. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. -Contributed by E.075 in. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. Michigan. 41 °-30'. the height of the line BC. 3. stretch the third one. 1. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. 5 in. and the one we shall describe in this article. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. Even with this lubrication. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. This will make three layers. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. It consists of a flat circular table. as the height of the line BC for lat. the height of which is taken from table No. --Contributed by M. D.42 in. 4. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. 42° is 4. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. When cool. as for example. as it always equals the latitude of the place. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig.3 in. called the gnomon.2 in. If handled with a little care. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. is the base (5 in. and for lat. All added to the lesser or 40°. or the style. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. but the most common. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired.15+. is the horizontal dial. Fig. and for 1° it would be .5 in. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. as shown in Fig. Fig. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. 1 lat. in this case) times the . Detroit. 3. From table No. The style or gnomon. 41°-30'.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. There are several different designs of sundials. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. W. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. Their difference is . trim off the surplus rosin. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. If you have a table of natural functions. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day.

02 1. For latitudes not given. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.66 1.03 3. according to the size of the dial.57 3.56 .93 2. with a radius of 5 in.06 2.10 6.76 1. 1.00 40° 4. To layout the hour circle. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.55 5.82 2.68 5-30 6-30 5. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .87 1.49 3.42 45 .42 1.50 26° 2.81 4.63 56° 7. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. and for this size dial (10 in.49 30 . gives the 6 o'clock points.57 1. or more.89 50° 5. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.38 . Height of stile in inches for a 5in.88 36° 3.82 3. Its thickness.11 3. Chords in inches for a 10 in.18 28° 2. long. an inch or two. using the points A and C as centers. Fig. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.12 52° 6.82 5.42 . circle Sundial.tangent of the degree of latitude. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.66 latitude.91 58° 8. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.37 54° 6. 2.66 48° 5. which will represent the base in length and thickness. 2.28 .23 6. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.85 1. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.33 .96 32° 3. 2 for given latitudes.37 5. Draw the line AD.46 3.26 4.14 5.46 . and intersecting the semicircles.39 .40 1.93 6.55 30° 2. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.29 4-30 7-30 3.77 2.55 46° 5. base.85 35 . or if of stone.64 4 8 3.55 4.20 60° 8.19 1. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.27 2.83 27° 2.16 40 .30 2.16 1. Table NO.99 2. and perpendicular to the base or style. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.40 34° 3.44 44° 4. Draw two semi-circles.33 42° 4. .97 5 7 4.32 6.87 4.79 4.94 1.30 1. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.07 4.41 38° 3. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. if of metal.59 2.

98 4. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.06 2. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. will enable one to set the dial.add those marked + subtract those Marked . if west.72 5.82 3. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.93 6. 900 Chicago. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.50 . and for the difference between standard and local time..60 4. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . 3. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.68 3. 2 and Dec.77 3. London. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.24 5. and the .49 3. Mitchell.57 1. adding to each piece interest and value. E. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. Iowa. after allowing for the declination. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.49 5.12 5. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. Sun time to local mean time. 25. --Contributed by J. The + means that the clock is faster. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.30 2. Each weapon is cut from wood.10 4. says the English Mechanic. Sioux City.from Sundial lime. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.79 6.54 60 . it will be faster. April 16. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.63 1.08 1. As they are the genuine reproductions. then the watch is slower. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. June 15. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This correction can be added to the values in table No.21 2.34 5.14 1.89 3. 3.means that the dial is faster than the sun.19 2. Sept. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.37 2.71 2.52 Table No.46 4.53 1. An ordinary compass. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.50 55 . each article can be labelled with the name.46 5. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.01 1.87 6.

The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. 1. When putting on the tinfoil. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. Partisan. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. 3. the length of which is about 5 ft. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.. . The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long from the point where it is attached to the handle.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in.

The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. press it well into the carved depressions. The spear is steel. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. A gisarm or glaive. 7. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. It is about 6 ft. which are a part of the axe. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. sharp on the outer edges. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. long with a round staff or handle. 5. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. long with a round wooden handle. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. in diameter. The length of this bar is about 5 in. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The extreme length is 9 ft. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. the holes being about 1/4 in. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. used about the seventeenth century. about 4 in. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. 6 ft. . is shown in Fig. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. 8. long. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood.which is square. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. This weapon is about 6 ft. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on.. long. The edges are sharp. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails.

They can be made of various materials. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. 4. This is important to secure neatness. In Figs. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. H. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. Ohio. 5. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. 1. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. Loudonville. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. 2 and 3. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. the cross cords. or in holes punched in a leather strap. Workman. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance.-Contributed by R. B. used for spacing and binding the whole together. the most durable being bamboo. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. are less durable and will quickly show wear. apart. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. Cut all the cords the same length. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. Substances such as straw. The twisted cross cords should . are put in place. as shown in Fig.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig.

and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. Harrer. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. 3 in. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. wide. -Contributed by Geo. New Orleans. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . as shown at B. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. in which was placed a piece of glass. This was turned over the top of the other can. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. shaped as shown at C. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. Four V-shaped notches were cut. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The first design shown is for using bamboo. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. M. of the bottom. for a length extending from a point 2 in. bamboo or rolled paper. A slit was cut in the bottom. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. La. New York. below the top to within 1/4 in. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. To remedy this.be of such material. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Lockport. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place.

The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. Schaffner. and two along the side for attaching the staff. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. turned over but not fastened. --Contributed by W. This plank. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. Sanford. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . --Contributed by Chas. about 1/16 in. giving the appearance of hammered brass. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Shay. is shown in the accompanying sketch. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. Cal. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. do not throw away the gloves. Maywood. the brass is loosened from the block. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. --Contributed by Joseph H. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. Ill. wide. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. H. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Newburgh. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Y. Pasadena. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. N. This should be done gradually. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. It would be well to polish the brass at first. After this is finished. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times.tape from sticking to the carpet.

-Contributed by W. the pendulum swings . A. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. --E. Jaquythe. Oak Park.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. bent as shown. in diameter. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Unlike most clocks. Ill. Cal. Marshall. K. Richmond.

Two uprights. In using this method. high. Fasten another board. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. long and at each side of this. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. by 1-5/16 in. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. in diameter. only have the opposite side up. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. wide. A.. B. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. such as this one. 3/4 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. 7-1/2 in. on the board B. thick. the center one being 2-3/4 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. about 12 in. . C. bar. high. --Contributed by V. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Secure a board. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. high. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. 5/16 in. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. The construction is very simple. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. about 6 in. is an electromagnet.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. and the other two 2-5/8 in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Metzech. away. wide that is perfectly flat. Now place the board to be joined. are secured in the base bar. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. high and 1/4 in. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. 6 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Chicago. bearing on the latter. to the first one with screws or glue. says the Scientific American.

or more. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Vanderslice. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. wide and 5 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. square. 1. square inside. 4. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Fig. .Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. long. The trigger. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. as shown at A. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Phoenixville. wide and 1 in. 1. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. --Contributed by Elmer A. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. 3. whose dimensions are given in Fig. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. by driving a pin through the wood. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 2. is fastened in the hole A. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. from one end. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Fig. plates should be made 8 in. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. 1. Pa.

5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. -Contributed by J. 5 parts of black filler. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Fostoria. Simonis. square. by weight. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. Ohio. as shown in the illustration. 2 parts of whiting. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces.A. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. one-half the length of the side pieces. which allows 1/4 in. if only two bands are put in the .Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. rubbing varnish and turpentine. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed.

and the picture can be drawn as described. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. In use. Michigan. and it may be made as a model or full sized. is necessary. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. --Contributed by Thos. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. A mirror. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. in the opposite end of the box. 1. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. Grand Rapids. Shaw. place tracing paper on its surface. London. DeLoof. preferably copper. Mass. is set at an angle of 45 deg. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. wide and about 1 ft. In constructing helmets. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. 8 in. If a plain glass is used. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. as shown in Fig. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. deep. -Contributed by Abner B. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. keeps the strong light out when sketching. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. A double convex lens. No. If you wish to make a pencil drawing.lower strings. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. says the English Mechanic. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. which may be either of ground or plain glass. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. A piece of metal. II. G. It must be kept moist and well . Dartmouth. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. long. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass.

cut out the shape from a piece of wood. shown in Fig. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. or some thin glue.kneaded. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. as in bas-relief. a few clay-modeling tools. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . on which to place the clay. brown. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. and the deft use of the fingers. This being done. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. as shown in Fig. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. Scraps of thin. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. and over the crest on top. and left over night to soak. with a keyhole saw. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. will be necessary. The clay. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. All being ready. 1. 2. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. After the clay model is finished. take. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. joined closely together. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. 1. 3. and continue until the clay is completely covered. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. the clay model oiled.

The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. When perfectly dry. When dry. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. 1. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. In Fig. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. will make it look neat. 5. Before taking it off the model. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. 7. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. the skullcap. The band is decorated with brass studs. the piecing could not be detected. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. or. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. with the exception of the vizor. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. This contrivance should be made of wood. should be modeled and made in one piece. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. then another coating of glue. and so on. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. Indianapolis. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. The whole helmet. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. a crest on top. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. one for each side. as seen in the other part of the sketch. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. --Contributed by Paul Keller. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. as shown: in the design. which should be no difficult matter. 9. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. square in shape. Indiana. The center of the ear guards are perforated. They are all covered with tinfoil. and the ear guards in two pieces. a few lines running down. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. In Fig. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. When the helmet is off the model. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails.as possible. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. owing to the clay being oiled.

if the measurements are correct. Fig. 1. about 80 ft. Fig. for connections. thick. one small switch. of fire clay. German-silver wire is better. The two holes. 1. one glass tube. and two large 3in. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. 4. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. long. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. long. Fig. high. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. 4 lb. as shown in Fig. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. with slits cut for the wires. one fuse block. until it is within 1 in. about 1 lb. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. JJ. The holes B and C are about 3 in. as shown in Fig. This will allow the plate. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. 4. which can be bought from a local druggist. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 4. of mineral wool. or. of the top. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. in diameter and 9 in. Fig. Fig. 12 in. The mineral wool. and. Fig. when they are placed in opposite positions. Fig. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. each 4-1/2 in. Fig. the holes leading to the switch. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. 2. Fig. 1. 1. Fig. are allowed to project about 1 in. as shown in Fig. 1 in. 4. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. 4. two ordinary binding posts. Fig. FF. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. is shown in Fig. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. If asbestos is used. long. AA. one oblong piece of wood. thick sheet asbestos. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. 3. 22 gauge resistance wire. The reverse side of the base. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. GG. to receive screws for holding it to the base. If a neat appearance is desired. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. Fig. and C. wide and 15 in. Fig. 3 in. AA. to project through the holes D and A of the plate.same size. A round collar of galvanized iron. AA. 4. E and F. is then packed down inside the collar. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. about 1/4 in. above the collar. 1. if this cannot be obtained. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . The plate. 2. 4. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. the fuse block. should extend about 1/4 in. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. 1. as it stands a higher temperature. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. also the switch B and the fuse block C. This will make an open space between the plates. screws. 2. of No. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes.

and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. If this is the case. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. above the rim. allowing a space between each turn. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. 4. It should not be set on end. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. Cut a 1/2-in. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. Fig. then. when cool. A. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. it leaves a gate for the metal. While the clay is damp. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. and pressed into it. Catherines. 2. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. Next. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. Cal. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. when heated. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. As these connections cannot be soldered. deep. steam will form when the current is applied. KK. Jaquythe. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. A file can be used to remove any rough places. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. This completes the stove. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. It should not be left heated in this condition. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. more wire should be added. will slip and come in contact with each other. Richmond. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. If it is not thoroughly dry. Cover over about 1 in. II. Fig. Cnonyn. The clay. St. --Contributed by R. so that the circuit will not become broken. When the tile is in place. --Contributed by W. apart. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. as the turns of the wires. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. H. causing a short circuit. Can. When this is done. This point marks the proper length to cut it. using care not to get it too wet. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed.

Then clip a little off the .Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Ky. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. but 12 by 24 in. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Thorne. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. is large enough. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. and the frame set near a window. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. constructed of 3/4-in. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Louisville. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. says the Photographic Times. square material in any size. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. as shown. and the prints will dry rapidly. --Contributed by Andrew G. the pie will be damaged.

The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights.Paper Funnel point. thereby saving time and washing. Two supports. as shown. Herron. thick and 3 in. 2-1/2 in. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. which are fastened to the base. allowing each end to project for connections. W. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. slip on two cardboard washers. thick and 3 in. causing a break in the current. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. 1. The connecting rod E. thick. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. long. 1/2 in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. wide and 3 in. long. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. Fig. 1. high. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. wide. Iowa. -Contributed by S. The connections are made as shown in Fig. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. The driving arm D. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. in diameter. 1. The upright B. 3. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. for the crank. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. high. 14 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. Le Mars. The board can be raised to place . Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. 1. 4 in. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. 1/2 in. 1 and 3. each 1/2 in. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. Fig. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. each 1 in. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. 2. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. Figs. long. long. wide and 7 in. high. An offset is bent in the center. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. 22 gauge magnet wire. which gives the shaft a half turn. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. As the shaft revolves. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. open out. in diameter and about 4 in. at GG. Fig. A 1/8-in. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft.

making a framework suitable for a roost. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. 3 in. as shown in the sketch. Mass. Dorchester. . The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Place the pot. on a board. In designing the roost. bottom side up.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. --Contributed by William F. in height. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. One or more pots may be used. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Stecher.

Fig. as shown in Fig.. 1. The materials required are rope or. grills and gratings for doors. shelves. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. 1. F. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. ordinary glue. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. that it is heated. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. Wind the . How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. and give it time to dry. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. adopt the method described. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. windows. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. will produce the pattern desired. preferably. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. F. paraffin and paint or varnish. odd corners. in diameter. when combined.. without any corresponding benefit. The bottom part of the sketch. if it is other than straight lines. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. etc. If the meter is warmed 10 deg.

2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. M.Fig. -Contributed by Geo. Y. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Fig. Lockport. cut and glue them together. N. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Harrer. 2. six designs are shown.

Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. As the . The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. etc. which was used in front of a horse's head. London. but no farther. when it will be observed that any organic matter. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. and the sides do not cover the jaws. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. says the English Mechanic. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. etc. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. chips of iron rust. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. This piece of horse armor. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. will be retained by the cotton. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords....Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. 1.

after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. with the exception of the thumb shield. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. 2.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. then another coat of glue. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. All being ready. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. This can be made in one piece. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. the rougher the better. which is separate. 6 and 7. and therefore it is not described. 4. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. but the back is not necessary. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. and the clay model oiled. as the surface will hold the clay. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. This triangularshaped support. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. An arrangement is shown in Fig. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. In Fig. 2. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. but for . a weak solution of glue will do equally well. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. The armor is now removed from the model. as shown in the sketch. which can be made in any size. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. the same as in Fig. This will make the model light and easy to move around. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. This being done. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. and will require less clay. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. except the thumb and fingers. 8. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes.

are glued to it. 9. the foils will not move. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. Goshen. --Contributed by Ralph L. wide and 1/2 in. If it does not hold a charge. 1/2 in. 2. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. A piece of board. Buxton. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. fastened to the rod. When locating the place for the screw eyes. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Fasten a polished brass ball to. . Y. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. long. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. are better shown in Fig. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. Redondo Beach. in depth. the top of the rod. but 3-1/2 in. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. --Contributed by John G. and the instrument is ready for use. N. The two pieces of foil.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. will be about right. La Rue. running down the plate. two in each jaw. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Calif. cut into the shape shown in Fig. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. the two pieces of foil will draw together. each about 1/4 in. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes.

A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. as indicated in the . Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. as this will cut under the water without splashing. 2-1/2 in. as shown in the illustration. enameled or otherwise decorated. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. The can may be bronzed. hole bored through it. --Contributed by Mrs. Bryan. At a point 6 in. about 15 in. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. silvered. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. When a fish is hooked.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. from the smaller end. M. pine board. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Texas. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. A. is made of a 1/4-in. long. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Corsicana. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each.

" Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. take a piece of thin wood. Polish the metal. then with a nail. 22 is plenty heavy enough. 3/8 or 1/4 in. wide by 6 in. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. long over all. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. A good size is 5 in. If soft wood. as shown. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. When it has dried over night. Basswood or butternut.Match Holder accompanying sketch. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. such as basswood or pine was used. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. punch the holes. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Any kind of wood will do. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. using a piece of carbon paper. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. thick. put a coat or two of wax and polish . will do as well as the more expensive woods. or even pine. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. and trace upon it the design and outline. Next prepare the metal holder. using powdered pumice and lye. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. Having completed the drawing.

yet protects the skin from the chemicals. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. . placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Instead of the usual two short ropes. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. can be made on the same standards.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. is used for the base of this instrument. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. of pure olive oil. Cal. If one has some insight in carving. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. each 1 in. It is useful for photographers. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. If carving is contemplated. 2 in. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. long. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. A. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. long. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. thick. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe. 1/2 in. wide and 5 in. Richmond. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. the whole being finished in linseed oil. are used for the cores of the magnets. Two wire nails.

at A. leaving about 1/4 in. as shown by the dotted lines. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. except that for the legs. cut in the shape of the letter T. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. --Contributed by W. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. cloth or baize to represent the legs. . as shown in Fig. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. acts as a spring to keep the key open. A piece of tin. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. in the shape shown in the sketch. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. 1. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. similar to that used in electric bells. Lynas. the paper covering put on. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. London. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. A rubber band.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. About 1 in. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. when the key is pushed down. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. All of the parts for the armor have been described. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. then covered with red. says the English Mechanic. about No. 3. H. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. 25 gauge. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch.

drill six 1/4-in. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. can be made in a few minutes' time.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope.. Fig. These can be purchased at a stationery store. not too tight. 1 in. about 1 in. completes the equipment. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Cut them to a length or 40 in. or ordinary plaster laths will do. for the sake of lightness. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. Take the piece shown in Fig. at each end. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. 3 in. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. and eight small holes. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. 1 and drill a 1/4in. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. hole in the center. The two pieces are bolted together. holes. make the same series of eight small holes and. apart. apart. flat headed carriage bolt. By moving the position of the bolt from. long. A 1/4-in. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. 2. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. in the other end. Instead of using brass headed nails. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. one to another . says Camera Craft. In one end of the piece. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. So set up. Secure two strips of wood. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. Silver paper will do very well.

of the ends remain unwoven. Then take B and lay it over A. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions.of the larger holes in the strip. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. D over A and C. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. 1. and the one beneath C. taking the same start as for the square fob. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. 2. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. C over D and B. In this sketch. then B over C and the end stuck under A. but instead of reversing . 4. doubled and run through the web of A. and lay it over the one to the right. in Fig. Start with one end. the one marked A. A round fob is made in a similar way. long. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Fig. 2. for instance. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. lay Cover B and the one under D. Then draw all four ends up snugly. 2. A is the first string and B is the second. as shown in Fig. as in portraiture and the like.

Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. 5. long. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. as in making the square fob. The round fob is shown in Fig. A loop. Ohio. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. over the one to its right. 1-1/2 in. 3. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Monroeville. as B. Other designs can be made in the same manner. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. is to be made of leather. as at A in Fig. --Contributed by John P. Rupp. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. the design of which is shown herewith. especially if silk strings are used. always lap one string. is left out at the center before starting on one side. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied.

outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. -Contributed by A. door facing or door panel. filling them with wax. When the supply of wax is exhausted.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. such as a nut pick. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. Mich. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Any smooth piece of steel. Northville. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. A. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. beeswax or paraffin. . Houghton. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. using the reverse side. pressing it against the wood. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. it can be easily renewed. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat.

it is best to leave a plain white margin. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Select the print you wish to mount. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. . If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. N. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Y. although tin ones can be used with good success. --Contributed by O. and after wetting. leaving about 1/4 in. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Enough plaster should. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. The tacks should be about 1 in. long. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. but any kind that will not stick may be used. remaining above the surface of the board. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. those on matte paper will work best. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. D. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Fold together on lines C. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. E and F. Thompson. says Photographic Times. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. New York. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. thick. J. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Petersburg. Ill. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. and about 12 in. apart and driven in only part way. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. if blueprints are used. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. place it face down in the dish.

Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. etc. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. roses. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. as shown in the right of the sketch. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution.. filling the same about onehalf full. Lower into the test tube a wire. will be rendered perfectly white. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. bell flowers.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. as shown at the left in the sketch. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. One of the . Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. without mixing the solutions. violets.

A rod that will fit the brass tube. --Contributed by L. The sound box. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. 2. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. or delicate tints of the egg. shading. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. is about 2-1/2 in. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The first point should be ground blunt. 1-7/8 in. as shown. about 1/8s in. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power.. South Dakota. long and made of wood. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. as shown in the sketch. 1. not too tightly. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. made of heavy tin. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. and at the larger end. L.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. long. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. but which will not wobble loose. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. 3. Millstown. Fig. The diaphragm. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. thick. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. should be soldered to the box. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. in diameter and 1 in. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. Shabino. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. When soldering these parts together. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. turned a little tapering. The tin horn can be easily made.

Chicago. Colo. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. Jr. E. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. and.Contributed by E. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. says the Iowa Homestead. and weighted it with a heavy stone. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. put a board on top. wondering what it was. Ill.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Victor. mice in the bottom. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Gold. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle.

-Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. . Buffalo. Ottawa. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. Can. Y. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Pereira. --Contributed by Lyndwode. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. N.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb.

A. cut round. as shown. longer than the length of the can. Put a small nail 2 in.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Grand Rapids. Jaquythe. Mich. a piece of tin. --Contributed by Thos. by means of a flatheaded tack. Richmond. --Contributed by W. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. De Loof. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. and at one end of the stick fasten. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. through which several holes have been punched. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. above the end of the dasher. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Cal. This cart has no axle. as it can be made quickly in any size. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through.

2. thick. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. New Orleans. board. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. --Contributed by James M. of course. wide and as long as the box. wide. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. 1 ft. Doylestown. 1/4 in. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Fig. Notches 1/8 in. wide and 1/8 in. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. Pa. wide and 3 ft. La. 1. I reversed a door gong. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. deep and 3 in. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. apart. were below the level of the bullseye. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood.1. long. as shown. 2. 1-1/2 in. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The baseboard and top are separable. 2. A wedge-shaped piece of . The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. screwed it on the inside of a store box. The candles. 2 in. Kane.

as shown in Fig. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. by cutting away the ends. For the handle. After completing the handle. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Ia.Book Back Holders metal. etc. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. stone or wood. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in.. Needles. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Mass. --Contributed by G. Wood. West Union. wide rubber bands or felt. This device is very convenient for invalids. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. Cover the block with rubber. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. take two pieces of hard wood. the blade is put back into the groove . it can be removed without marring the casing. when placed as in Fig. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Worcester. will. When not in use. After the glue has dried. 3. wide into each side of the casing. scissors. A. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. The block can also be used as a paperweight. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. the shelf could not be put on the window. 1. the reason being that if both were solid. dressing one surface of each piece. can be picked up without any trouble. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants.

1. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. square and 4 in. as shown in Fig. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Mass. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. S. . Ohio. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. A notch is cut in one side. --Contributed by H. A. thus carrying the car up the incline. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Erie. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Hutchins. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. -Contributed by W. Malden. Jacobs. --Contributed by Maud McKee. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Pa. 2. If desired. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. long. 1 in. as shown in Fig.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Cleveland.

The letters can be put on afterward. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy.J. Prepare a design for the front. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. and an awl and hammer.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. If one such as is shown is to be used. 6 by 9-1/2 in. One sheet of metal. This will insure having all parts alike. . a board on which to work it. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. Cape May Point.. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. will be needed. N. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen.

Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. The stick may be placed by the side of.Fasten the metal to the board. if desired. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. paste the paper design right on the metal. flat brush. mandolin or guitar. If any polishing is required. applied by means of a brush. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. but weird and distant. varnish. as shown. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. only the marginal line is to be pierced. that can be worked in your own parlor. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. or. a violin. turpentine. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. 3/4 part. placed on a table. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. . Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. So impressive are the results. One coat will do. which is desirable. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed." In all appearance. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. 2 parts white vitriol. Remove the metal. says Master Painter. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. 1/4 part. 1 part. On the back. to right angles. in the waste metal. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. The music will not sound natural. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. behind or through the center of a table leg.

long. and is easy to construct. wide. The longest piece. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. London. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. square bar iron. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. apart. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. says Work. each 28 in. each 6 in. without them. 2. One thing is always at hand and that is wood.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. are shaped as shown in Fig. long and spread about 8 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. With proper tools this is easy. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. . The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. thick by 1/2 in. it might be difficult. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. long and measuring 26 in. round-head machine screws. Two pairs of feet. 3. across the top. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size.

Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. 7. using rosin as a flux. The glass. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. Fig. as shown in Fig. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. 6. 5. The brads are then removed. B. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. or. cut a long piece of lead. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. The design is formed in the lead. better still. After the glass is cut. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. While the piece of lead D. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. on it as shown. Place the corner piece of glass. and the base border. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. special flux purchased for this purpose. 4. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. After the joints are soldered. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. is held by the brads. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. lead. 5. the latter being tapped to . This method is pursued until the glass is complete. Fig. in the grooves of the borders. A. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. D. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. C.

A and B. as shown in Fig. bolt. wood screws in each washer. and round the corners of one end for a ring.the base of the clip. Bore a 5/8-in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Fasten the plates to the block B. thick and drill 3/4-in. in diameter and about 9 in. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. This ring can be made of 1-in. long. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. Camden. one on each side and central with the hole. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. long. holes through their centers. long. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. not less than 4 in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Two styles of hand holds are shown. rocker bolt. 8. bolt. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. H. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. rounded at the top as shown. in diameter and 1/4 in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. N. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. plank about 12 ft. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. --Contributed by W. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Dreier. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. then flatten its end on the under side. J. and two wood blocks. Make three washers 3-in.. Secure a post. The center pin is 3/4-in. Jr. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. then drill a 3/4-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. plates. This . strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Bore a 3/4-in.

The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. long. by 3 ft. If trees are convenient. 3/4 by 3 in. maple. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 1 by 7 in. in diameter and 7 in. 4 pieces. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. of 1/4-in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. The four 7-in. 1-1/4in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. To substitute small. 2 by 4 in. boards along the side of each from end to end. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 7 in. 4 filler pieces. La. long. 1/2 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. square by 5 ft. Draw a line on the four 7-in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. New Orleans. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. by 6-1/2 ft. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. long. 3 in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 4 in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. from one edge. 2-1/2 in. bolts and rope. 1. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. can make a first class gymnasium.will make an excellent cover for a pot. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. by 2 ft. horse and rings. long. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. because it will not stand the weather. long. 4 in. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 16 screws. chestnut or ash. 9 in. 4 pieces. screws. straight-grained hickory. square by 9-1/2 ft. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. 50 ft. shanks. long. and some one can swing an axe. hickory. long and 1 piece. bit. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood.

Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped.bored. Bore a 9/16-in. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. 2. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. at each end. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. piece of wood. 8 in. from the end. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. so the 1/2-in.. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. each 3 ft. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. apart. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. boards coincide. apart. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire.. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. deep and remove all loose dirt. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in.

" which skimmed along the distant horizon. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. in an endless belt. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. passing through a screweye at either end. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. it follows the edge for about 1 in. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. When the interest of the crowd. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. If the tumbler is rotated. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others.. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. not even the tumbler. apart. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. and ascends the stem. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. it is taken to the edge of the foot. and then passes in a curve across the base. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. . He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. not much to look at in daytime. He stretched the thread between two buildings. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. about 100 ft. W. just visible against the dark evening sky. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. disappearing only to reappear again. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. the effect is very striking. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. but most deceptive at dusk. and materially heightened the illusion. was at its height. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. which at once gathered. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. And all he used was a black thread.

2 by 4 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. long. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 2 side braces. 2 by 4 in. 4 knee braces. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 2 by 4 in. by 10 ft. large spikes. wide and 1 in. by 2 ft.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. long. 4 in. by 3 ft. long and 1 doz. 1. The cork will come out easily. 4 in. 2 cross braces. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 4 bolts. from either side of the center. 7 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. so the point will be on top. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 2 base pieces. preferably cedar. La. long. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 2 in. long. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by 7 ft. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. long. and turned in a spiral D. long. long. Fig. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. New Orleans. square and 6 ft. To make the apparatus. 8 in. square and 51/2 ft. 2 by 3 in. beginning at a point 9 in. A wire about No. 8 in. 6 in. long. Bevel the ends of . deep. 8 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 4 wood screws. 8 bolts.

additional long. Two endpieces must be made. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. leave it undressed. After the trenches are dug. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint.. leaving the strainer always in position. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. ( To be Continued. screws. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. A large sized ladle. Cal. If using mill-cut lumber. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. --Contributed by W. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. . Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. Richmond.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. but even unpainted they are very durable. The wood so treated will last for years. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. of 7 ft. jellies. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. save the bars. which face each other. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. Jaquythe. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. and countersinking the heads. A. as shown in the diagram. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather.the knee braces. These will allow the ladle to be turned. so the bolts in both will not meet. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. using four of the 7-in bolts. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. etc. except the bars. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. equipped with a strainer. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. It is well to paint the entire apparatus.

which seems impossible. In order to accomplish this experiment. milling machine. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. or various cutting compounds of oil.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. A. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. thus holding the pail as shown. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. drill press or planer. Oil. . of sufficient 1ength. it is necessary to place a stick. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. partly a barrier for jumps.

bolts. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. 4 knee braces. and free from knots. in the ground. The round part of this log must be planed. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. is a good length. long. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. bolts. beginning 1-1/2 in. long. 2 adjusting pieces. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. wood yard or from the woods. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. apart. 4 in. ten 1/2-in... 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. in diameter--the larger the better. 4 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. 2 bases. 7 in. 2 by 4 in. bolts. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. projections and splinters. These are placed 18 in. square by 5-1/2 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. 4 in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. by 3 ft. long. 2 by 4 in. 3 in. square by 5 ft. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. by 3 ft. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. These are well nailed in place. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . by 3 ft. long. two 1/2-in. long. bolt. from each end. 1 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 1 cross brace. The material required is as follows: Two posts. stud cut rounding on one edge. long. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. 2 by 4 in. apart in a central position on the horse. 4-1/2 in. long. To construct. Procure from a saw mill. Hand holds must be provided next. long. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. but 5 ft. to fasten the knee braces at the top.

then bending to the shape desired. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Richmond. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. water. A. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. such as a dent. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. etc. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Such a hand sled can be made in a . This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. Also. Jaquythe. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Cal. snow. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating.horse top. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. over and around. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. but nevertheless. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. pipe and fittings. it is caused by an overloaded shell. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. no one is responsible but himself. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle.--Contributed by W. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. it is caused by some obstruction.

Paris. 2. Mass. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. then run a string over each part. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Joerin. W. These. 1.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. --Contributed by Arthur E. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. thick. Noble. when straightened out. when complete. is much better than a wood sled. in width and 1/32 in. Boston. are all the tools necessary. --Contributed by J. will give the length. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. 1/4 or 3/16 in. --Contributed by James E. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. France. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Ontario. which. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Toronto. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. The end elevation. at E and F. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. . Vener.

AA and BB. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. 4.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. 3. It is best to use soft water. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The method shown in Figs. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. are nailed. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. nor that which is partly oxidized. .

or unequal widths as in Fig. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. as shown in Fig. 8 and 9. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. Percy Ashley in Rudder. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 4. or various rulings may be made. 2. class ice-yacht. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. . Broad lines can be made. as shown in Fig. The materials used are: backbone. 1). 3. 2.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired.Fig. 1. bent and drilled as shown. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. a tee and a forging. pins to keep them from turning. long. a larger size of pipe should be used. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. out from the collar. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. It can be made longer or shorter. pipe. but if it is made much longer. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The headstock is made of two tees. Both the lower . Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. 1-Details of Lathe sort. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. about 30 in. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe.

It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. --Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. Laporte. a corresponding line made on this. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Man. thick as desired. To do this. and will answer for a great variety of work. . 3 and 4 are very easy to make. M. or a key can be used as well. a straight line should be scratched Fig. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. UpDeGraff. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. --Contributed by W. 3/4 or 1 in. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. Musgrove. Fruitvale. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Indiana. 1. 2. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. but also their insulating properties. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. --Contributed by M. Boissevain. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. 2. 2. Cal. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. as shown in Fig. else taper turning will result. W. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. It is about 1 in. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Held.

--Contributed by E. as shown. long. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. In use. Smith. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. To obviate this. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Ark. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Ft. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. The handle is of pine about 18 in. J. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Cline. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back.

--Contributed by Walter W. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. the drill does not need the tool. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. on starting the lathe. and when once in true up to its size. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. centering is just one operation too many. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Denver. This prevents the drill from wobbling. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. After being entered. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. face off the end of the piece. White. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. which should be backed out of contact. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. take . it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Colo. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. New Orleans. La. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. if this method is followed: First. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

unknown to the spectators. says the Sphinx. The handkerchief rod. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. a bout 1/2 in. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. all the better.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. In doing this. a long piece of glass tubing. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. vanishing wand. The glass tube B. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. and can be varied to suit the performer. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. shorter t h a n the wand. and this given to someone to hold. After the wand is removed. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. as shown in D. after being shown empty. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. shown at C. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. the cap is placed over the paper tube. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. is put into the paper tube A. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. It can be used in a great number of tricks. by applying caustic soda or . If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip.

End. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. and glue it to the neck at F. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. can be made by the home mechanic. Glue strips of soft wood. Cut a piece of hard wood. 1 Neck. across the front and back to strengthen them. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets.potash around the edges of the letters. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 3/16. 1. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 2 Sides. With care and patience. As the cement softens. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. by 14 by 17 in. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. and if care is taken in selecting the material. with the back side rounding. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. The brace at D is 1 in. square and 1-7/8 in. preferably hard maple. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. long. 1 Bottom. This dimension and those for the frets . Glue the neck to the box. 1 End. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. cut to any shape desired. The sides. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. thick. 1/4 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. as shown by K. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch.

The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. --Contributed by Chas. 1) on which to stretch the paper. O. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. When it is completed you will have a canoe. A board 1 in. E. or backbone. toward each end. wide and 11-1/2 ft. long is used for a keel. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Carbondale. Frary. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Stoddard. thick and about 1 ft. in diameter.Pa. Norwalk. but it is not. Six holes. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. 3/16 in.should be made accurately. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. H. -Contributed by J. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. and beveled .

Fig. Fig. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. as shown in Fig. wide by 26 in. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. Fig. 1. 2. Fig. and so. 13 in. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. or other place. are next put in. C. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. such as hazel or birch. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Fig. 3. when made of green elm. B. but before doing this. Osiers probably make the best ribs. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. and. twigs 5 or 6 ft. two twigs may be used to make one rib. or similar material. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. apart. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. will answer nearly as well. in such cases. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join.. with long stout screws. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. 3). For the gunwales (a. which are easily made of long. and notched at the end to receive them (B. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. 4). Fig. . slender switches of osier willow. Fig. Any tough. probably. Shape these as shown by A. b. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Fig. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. 4. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. The cross-boards (B. 3). so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. and are not fastened. some tight strips of ash. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. 1 and 2. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. a. buy some split cane or rattan. In drying. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. long are required. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. as before described. Green wood is preferable.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. the loose strips of ash (b. The ribs. by means of a string or wire. 3. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. two strips of wood (b. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. These are better. as shown in Fig. but twigs of some other trees. thick. 3/8 in. Fig. C. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. thick. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. as they are apt to do. 2). after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position.) in notches. b. long. procure at a carriage factory. in thickness and should be cut. b. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. 2). For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. such as is used for making chairbottoms. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in.

and as soon as that has soaked in. after wetting it. but neither stiff nor very thick. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. and steady in the water. The paper is then trimmed. preferably iron. but with less turpentine. and light oars. If not. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. You may put in . varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. of very strong wrapping-paper. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. apply a second coat of the same varnish. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. It should be drawn tight along the edges. B. When the paper is dry. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. and very tough. tacking it to the bottom-board. When thoroughly dry. It should be smooth on the surface. Then take some of the split rattan and. if it has been properly constructed of good material. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. If the paper be 1 yd. Fig. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. wide. 5). trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Being made in long rolls. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. and held in place by means of small clamps. however. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost.

Fig. they will support very heavy weights.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. and if driven as shown in the cut. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. Fig. 5. to fit it easily. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. We procured a box and made a frame.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. 2. fore and aft. Fig. 5). where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. and make a movable seat (A. 1 and the end in . The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. 1. Drive the lower nail first. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries.

The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. 5. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. being softer where the flame has been applied. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. Pittsburg. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. A good way to handle this work. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. This is an easy . This way has its drawbacks. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. Pa. 3. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. and the result is. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig.Fig. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. and the glass. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. Close the other end with the same operation. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. 4. this makes the tube airtight. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed.

with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. above the metal. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. third. thin screw. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. 23 gauge. Work from the center along concentric rings outward.way to make a thermometer tube. After the bulb is formed. second. three. then reverse. also trace the decorative design. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. extra metal all around. file. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. or six arms. Seventh. Oswald. fourth. metal shears. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. -Contributed by A. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. rivet punch. fifth. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. four. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Give the metal a circular motion. above the work and striking it with the hammer. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. very rapid progress can be made. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. The candle holders may have two. flat and round-nosed pliers. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. Sixth. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. with a piece of carbon paper. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch.

drip cup. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Having pierced the bracket. Metal polish of any kind will do. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. and holder.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Small copper rivets are used. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.

and other things as they were needed. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. thus it was utilized. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. I steer with the front wheel. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. winding the ends where they came together with wire. Soak 1 oz. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. except they had wheels instead of runners. they were like an ice boat with a sail. the stick at the bottom of the sail. is a broomstick. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. and in a week .Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. all the rest I found. The gaff. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. and it will be ready for future use. and add the gelatine. of glycerine to about 200 deg. N. glycerine 4 parts. J. Twenty cents was all I spent. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. alcohol 2 parts. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. Fifty. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. deep. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Heat 6-1/2 oz. The boom. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. when it will be ready for use. F. and brace and bit were the tools used. on a water bath. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. Shiloh. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Mother let me have a sheet. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. smooth it down and then remove as before. using a steel pen. sugar 1 part. hammer. if it has not absorbed too much ink. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. and water 24 parts. A saw. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.

G. focus enlarging a 3-in. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. or a lens of 12-in. 1. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. E. 1/2 to 3/4 in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. wire brads. high. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. well seasoned pine. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. H. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. This ring is made up from two rings. or glue. 3. The board is centered both ways. wide. The slide support. above the center.. A and B. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. about 2 ft. and a projecting lens 2 in. wide and 15 in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. describe a 9-in. slide to about 6 ft. and. as desired. at a distance of 24 ft. provided the material is of metal. DD. If a small saw is used. and the lens slide. and 14 in. A table. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. but if such a box is not found. at a point 1 in. and the work carefully done. long. Fig. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. thick. 8 in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. are .

and when the right position is found for each. B. A sheet . light burning oil. E.-Contributed by G. Paul. JJ. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. placed on the water. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. The arrangement is quite safe as. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. of safe. St. P. Minn. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. should the glass happen to upset. Small strips of tin. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. the water at once extinguishes the flame.constructed to slip easily on the table. apply two coats of shellac varnish. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. To reach the water. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. but not long enough. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. the strips II serving as guides.

form a piece of wire in the same shape. 9 in. then the corners on one end are doubled over. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. from a tent company. 3. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 2. If one of these clips is not at hand. Schenectady. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig.H. 3. to cover the mattresses. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along .Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Fig. 4. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 12 ft. by 12 ft. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 1. N. I ordered a canvas bag. Fig. Y. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 3 in.. --Contributed by J. Crawford. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer.

Do not use too strong a rubber. V. Pa. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. wide. Colo. White. Warren. An arc is cut in the paper. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. so as to form two oblong boxes. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. 1/2 in. --Contributed by Edward M. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. first mark the binding-post A. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. as shown in Fig. apart. D. 2. to keep it from unwinding. 3/4 in. 3/4 in. long. 2. 1/2 in. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. through which the indicator works. --Contributed by Walter W. To calibrate the instrument. to the coil of small wire for volts. Fig. drill two 3/16 in. Fold two strips of light cardboard. 3 to swing freely on the tack. 1. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. for amperes and the other post. Attach a piece of steel rod. A rubber band. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. 1. long and 3/16 in. open on the edges. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. A Film Washing Trough [331] . thick. Fig. Denver. and insert two binding-posts. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. holes in the edge. Teasdale. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. 2. C.each edge. in the center coil. insulating them from the case with cardboard.

Hunting. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Place this can on one end of the trough. --Contributed by M. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Cut a 1/4-in. M. with the large hole up. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Dayton. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. O. as shown. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Wood Burning [331] .

a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. then into this bottle place. mouth downward. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays.

--Contributed by Fred W. as shown in the sketch. 1. If the cork is adjusted properly. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. --Contributed by John Shahan. thick. Auburn. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Place the small bottle in as before. but not very thick.Y. Upper Troy. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. wide and 4 in. This will make a very pretty ornament. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. If the small bottle used is opaque. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. many puzzling effects may be obtained. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Whitehouse. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. 2. provided the bottle is wide.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. long. Ala. N. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. 3/4 in.

which was 6 in. line. I. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. as shown in Fig. wide. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. Fig. G. W. Fig. Milter. 1. On a 1000-ft. A staple. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. even in a light breeze. 1. long. The bearing blocks were 3 in. 1 in. which was nailed to the face plate. 2. by the method shown in Fig. --Contributed by D. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. 1. 2 ft. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 3. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. 4. was 1/4in. 1. which extended to the ground. If a transmitter is used. The wire L was put . four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. 1. The shaft C. such as blades and pulleys. Fig. Both bearings were made in this manner. pulley. Fig. thick. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. high without the upper half. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. to the shaft. or ordinary telephone transmitters. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. iron rod. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. were constructed of 1-in. which gave considerable power for its size. Its smaller parts. was keyed to shaft C.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. The 21/2-in. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. Fig. thick. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. pulley F. K. sugar pine on account of its softness. in diameter and 1 in. thick and 3 in. B. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running.

was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. long and bend it as shown at A. This completes the receiver or sounder. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. Fig. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. was tacked. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. To lessen the friction here. providing one has a few old materials on hand. long and bend it as . but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. apart in the tower. was 2 ft. Two washers were placed on shaft C. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. 2. 1) 4 in. strips. hole for the shaft G was in the center. Fig. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. Fig. long. 1. G. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. hole was bored for it. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. The smaller one. top down also. Fig. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. across the thin edge of a board. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. through the latter.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. R. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. pine 18 by 12 in. This fan was made of 1/4-in. 25 ft. The other lid. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. 1. If you have no bell. so that the 1/4-in. 3 in. Fig. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. 1. The power was put to various uses. a 1/2-in. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. 0. in the center of the board P. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. long and 3 in. washers were placed under pulley F. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. and was cut the shape shown. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. 5. The bed plate D. 1. Fig. when the windmill needed oiling. in diameter. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. square to the board P at the top of the tower. for instance. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. 6. cut out another piece of tin (X. as. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. Fig. with brass headed furniture tacks. with all parts in place. This board was 12 in. H. long. 6. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. wide and 1 in. To make the key. There a 1/4-in. long and 1/2 in.

although it can be made with but two. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. When tired of this instrument. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. The rear barrels are. 2. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. causing a buzzing sound. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. McConnell. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. -Contributed by John R. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. leaving the other wire as it is. as indicated. at the front. Going back to Fig. 1. Thus a center drive is made. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Now. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Before tacking it to the board.shown. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. like many another device boys make. fitted with paddles as at M. By adjusting the coils. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. as shown at Water. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. using cleats to hold the board frame. and. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. nor can they be made perfectly airtight.

just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. 1. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. The speed is slow at first. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. copper piping and brass tubing for base. 3. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. There is no danger. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. or even a little houseboat. which will give any amount of pleasure. can be built. If the journals thus made are well oiled. there will not be much friction. feet on the pedals. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. as shown in Fig. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. To propel it.

of pleasure for a little work. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Then melt out the rosin or lead. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. 1. 2. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. If magnifying glass cannot be had. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Fig. Turn a small circle of wood. C. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. 2. A. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Place one brass ring in cylinder. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Fig. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Fig. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. D. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. 1. Fig. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. B. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. 1. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. and so creating a false circuit. or it may be put to other uses if desired. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. 2. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired.

D. I. When alarm goes off. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. thick. bracket. B. bell. wire from light to switch. Ogden. E. In placing clock on shelf. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. 4-1/2 in. 5-1/4 by 10 in. wire from bell to switch. brass strip. wide and 1/16 in. such as is used for cycle valves. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. set alarm key as shown in diagram. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . To operate this. and pulled tight. --Contributed by C. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. while lying in bed. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. some glue will secure them. C. copper tubing. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time.india rubber tubing. The parts indicated are as follows: A. 4 in. Pa. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. which stops bell ringing. C. switch. J. S. long. by having the switch on the baseboard. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. contact post. Chatland. dry batteries. Brinkerhoff. after two turns have been made on the key. 3/8 in. T. brass rod. or 1/4in. F. after setting alarm. Utah. Swissvale. if too small. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. H. near the bed. X. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. shelf. --Contributed by Geo. To throw on light throw levers to the left. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . key of alarm clock. long. To get the cylinder into its carriage. G. wire from batteries to switch. Throw lever off from the right to center..

as . Fig. Fig. All that is required is a tin covering. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. This is to form the fuse hole. for instance. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Lanesboro. 2. about 3-1/2 in. S. long. a bed warmer. A flannel bag. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. 4 in. 1/4 in. gives the heater a more finished appearance. 2. will do the heating. as in Fig. 1. making it as true and smooth as possible. --Contributed by Chas. in diameter. wide. Make a shoulder. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. as at B. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. as at A. beyond the end of the spindle. as at A. letting it extend 3/4 in. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. 3. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Make the spindle as in Fig. 1. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. Chapman. in diameter. being careful not to get the sand in it. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. about 6 in. which can be made of an old can. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Pull out the nail and stick. from one end. Having finished this.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Fig. Minn. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand.

long. but if this wood cannot be procured. wide and 6 ft. thick. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. The illustration shows how this is done. long. deep. will be sufficient to make the trigger. 5/8 in. Joerin. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . A piece of tin. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. good straight-grained pine will do. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. thick. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. wide and 3/8 in. this is to keep the edges from splitting. --Contributed by Arthur E. 1. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. 1 in. spring and arrows. A piece of oak. thick.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. 6 in. 3/8 in. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. wide and 3 ft. ash. or hickory. 11/2 in. The material must be 1-1/2 in. long.

wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. 8. as shown in Fig. 4. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. Fig. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Ill.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. which is 1/4 in. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. The bow is not fastened in the stock. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. having the latter swing quite freely. Trownes. from the opposite end. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. in diameter. Wilmette. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. it lifts the spring up. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. --Contributed by O. 9. thick. and one for the trigger 12 in. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. A spring. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. The stick for the bow. To shoot the crossbow. Fig. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. or through the necessity of. better still. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. 6. as shown in Fig. from the end of the stock. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. To throw the arrow. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. place the arrow in the groove. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. Such a temporary safe light may be . is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. 2. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. Fig. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. E. 3. When the trigger is pulled. The trigger. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. wide at each end. 7.

Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. By chopping the trunk almost through. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. This lamp is safe. The cut should be about 5 ft. making lighting and trimming convenient. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. and nail it in position as shown at A. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. says Photo Era. and replace as shown at B. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Remove the bottom of the box. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. it is the easiest camp to make. Remove one end. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. from the ground. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. from the ground. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. apart. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. is used as a door. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. respectively. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. the bark lean-to is a . Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. make the frame of the wigwam. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Branches and brush can easily be piled up.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. The hinged cover E. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. C. since the flame of the candle is above A. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Moreover.

selecting a site for a camp. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. spruce. In the early summer. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. A piece of elm or hickory. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. thick. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. deep and covered with blankets. makes a good pair of tongs. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. will dry flat. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. are a convenient size for camp construction. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. and when the camp is pitched. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. and cedar. Where bark is used. wide. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. piled 2 or 3 ft. and split the tops with an ax. make the best kind of a camp bed. long. wide and 6 ft. For a permanent camp. For a foot in the middle of the stick. Sheets of bark. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. 6 ft. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. a 2-in.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. . 3 ft. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. Tongs are very useful in camp. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. nails are necessary to hold it in place. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. long and 2 or 3 ft. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. long and 1-1/2 in.

Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. . or even a rough lock for the camp larder. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. hinges.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. and affording accommodation for several persons.

At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. A. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. the interior can. and provide a cover or door. Fig.. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. about 4 in. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. to another . Pa. deep and 4 in. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. I drove a small cork. Kane. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. Doylestown. B. B. 1. --Contributed by James M. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. changing the water both morning and night. wide.

fused into one side. if necessary. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. 2. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. for instance. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. E. 4 and 5). such as ether. 2.glass tube. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The diagram. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. a liquid. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. which project inside and outside of the tube. C. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. until. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. 3. Fig. limit. This makes . the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. to pass through an increasing resistance. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. The current is thus compelled. for instance.

and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. If the thickness is sufficient. 4-1/2 in. making it 1/16 in. or pattern. Fig. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. and for the outside of the frame. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. 1. between centers. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. clamp the template. 3-3/8 in. which will make it uniform in size. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. in diameter. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. assemble and rivet them solidly. as shown in Fig. A. bent at right angles as shown. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. Then the field can be finished to these marks. 2. Alpena. cannot be used so often. therefore. mark off a space. hole is . they will make a frame 3/4 in. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. thicker. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. when several pieces are placed together. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. After the template is marked out. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. After cleaning them with the solution. thick. as shown in the left-hand sketch. Before removing the field from the lathe. A 5/8in. larger than the dimensions given. thick. set at 1/8 in. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. Michigan. on a lathe. screws. in diameter. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. 3. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. tap. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. brass or iron. by turning the lathe with the hand. or even 1/16 in. which may be of any thickness so that. but merely discolored. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. When the frame is finished so far. These holes are for the bearing studs. to allow for finishing. 3-3/8 in. brass. drill the four rivet holes. two holes. Fig. The bearing studs are now made.

soldered into place. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. and build up the solder well. When the bearings are located. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. file them out to make the proper adjustment.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The shaft of the armature. Fig. is turned up from machine steel. 4. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. into which a piece of 5/8-in. brass rod is inserted. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. solder them to the supports. or otherwise finished. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed.

The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. Find the centers of each segment at one end. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. threaded. 9. as shown in Fig. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. to allow for finishing to size. wide. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. inside diameter. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. sheet fiber. then drill a 1/8-in. thick. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. deep and 7/16 in. 6. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 7. The pins are made of brass. 1-1/8 in. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. Armature-Ring Core. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. thick. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. Make the core 3/4 in. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. by 1-1/2 in. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. When this is accomplished. Procure 12 strips of mica. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. 3/4 in. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. as shown in Fig. thick and 1/4 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. The sides are also faced off and finished. thick. holes through them for rivets. 6. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. 1/8 in. and then they are soaked in warm water. 3/4 in. as shown m Fig. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. and held with a setscrew. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. washers. 3. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. 3. being formed for the ends. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 8. Rivet them together. wide. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. thick are cut like the pattern.. hole and tap it for a pin. When annealed. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. After the pieces are cut out. as shown in Fig. After they . with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. or segments. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. brass rod. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. 5.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron.

shown at B. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. being required. are soldered together. Fig. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. shown at A. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. All connections should be securely soldered. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. the two ends of the wire. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. wide and 1 in. sheet fiber. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. of No.have dried. 8 in. 6 in. In starting to wind. about 100 ft. of the end to protrude. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. The winding is started at A. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. sheet fiber. Run one end of the field wire. 1. and wind on four layers. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. This winding is for a series motor. which will take 50 ft. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. or side. by bending the end around one of the projections. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. The source of current is connected to the terminals. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. When the glue is set. until the 12 slots are filled. 5. yet it shows a series of . Fig. they are glued to the core insulation. To connect the wires. after the motor is on the stand. of the wire. long. thick. After one coil. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. 1. The field is wound with No. The two ends are joined at B.

The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. still more simply. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. A 1/2-in. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. is fastened to the metallic body. one from each of the eight contacts. or. which serves as the ground wire. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. Nine wires run from the timer. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. as in the case of a spiral. and one. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws.

The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. board. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. It should be . Without this attachment. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in.The Wind Vane. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. 45 deg. of the dial. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. Covering these is a thin. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. long. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. circle. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. thus giving 16 different directions. 6 in.

To make it. 14 by 18 in." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. Buffalo. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. however. will answer the purpose just as well. . To work these outlines. and securely nail on the top of the box. Before tacking the fourth side. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. will be enough for the two sides. N.about 6 ft. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. will be sufficient. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. also a piece of new carpet. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. is most satisfactory. Place the leather on some level. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. called a chip carving knife. long to give the best results. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. thus making a universal joint. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Cut 3-in. Blackmer. -Contributed by James L. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. high. Y. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. or. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. Fill the box with any handy ballast. and about 6 in. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. though a special knife. if not too high. making it heavy or light. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. according to who is going to use it. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used.

A good leather paste will be required.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. An ordinary sewing-machine . fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.

throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. of water. of common salt and 10 lb. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. --Contributed by Katharine D. a needle and some feathers.will do if a good stout needle is used. and fasten the feathers inside of it. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Morse. If a fire breaks out. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. and tie them together securely at the bottom. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. as in cases of a sprained ankle. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Y. temporary lameness. rather than the smooth side. Syracuse. square and tying a piece of . N. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. B. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. can be thrown away when no longer needed. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. away from it. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. or a hip that has been wrenched.

Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. One end is removed entirely. Ashland. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. The body of the receiver. wound on the head end. 1/8 in. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. N. The coil is 1 in. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. wide and 1/16 in. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. long. long. deep. and tacked it to the boards. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. This not only keeps the rats out. made up of four layers of No. Wis. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. Y. B. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. . There is a 1-in. and the receiver is ready for use. Paterson. E. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. commonly called tintype tin. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. Hellwig. is cut on the wood. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. but not sharp. as shown. A small wooden or fiber end. etc. setting traps. thus helping the rats to enter. A. and a coil of wire. The diaphragm C. --Contributed by John A. the corners being wired. G. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. high. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. cut to the length of the spool. Gordon Dempsey. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. F. --Contributed by J. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. which is the essential part of the instrument. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. board all around the bottom on the inside. laying poisoned meat and meal. Albany.J..string to each corner. The end is filed to an edge. N. letting it go at arm's length. The strings should be about 15 in.

This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. The vase is to have three supports. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. Take a piece of string or. better still. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. and bend each strip in shape. begin with the smallest scrolls. to . a piece of small wire. To clean small articles. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. gold.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. A single line will be sufficient. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. wide. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true.

The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. . and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. Fold the leather on the line EF.which the supports are fastened with rivets. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. and does not require coloring. through which to slip the fly AGH. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. using a duller point of the tool. About 1 in. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. from E to F. 3-1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. from C to D. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. sharp pencil. Press or model down the leather all around the design. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. thus raising it. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. After taking off the pattern. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. from the lines EF on the piece. 3-1/2 in. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Trace also the line around the purse. Work down the outside line of the design. 4-1/4 in.. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water.. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. wide when stitching up the purse. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. 6-3/8 in.

1/2 in. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. Fit this to the two . (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. Make the lug 1/4 in. deep. and tack the other piece slightly. leaving the lug a. with the open side down.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. Then nail the wheel down firmly. thick. then nail it. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. by 12 ft. with pins or small nails. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and. then place the square piece out of which Fig. as shown in Fig. and cut out a wheel. and the projections B. It can be made without the use of a lathe. with a compass saw. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. deep. 1. and which will be very interesting. Cut off six pieces 12 in. the "open" side. being cast in wooden molds. all the way around. b. 3. When it is finished. 1 was cut. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. First. Now take another piece of wood. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. It is neat and efficient. following the dotted lines. square. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. and a model for speed and power. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. 2. with the largest side down. long. around the wheel.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. This also should be slightly beveled. as well as useful.

pieces just finished. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and boring a 3/8-in. place it between two of the 12-in. deep. hole bored through its center. hole entirely through at the same place. as shown by the . slightly beveled. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 1. one of which should have a 3/8-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and bore six 1/4-in. and clean all the shavings out of it. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. holes through it. Now take another of the 12-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. 4. in the center of it. After it is finished. square pieces of wood. then bolt it together. Take the mold apart. Now put mold No. square pieces of wood. and lay it away to dry. hole 1/4 in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. bolts.

-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. b. wide and 16 in. After it is fitted in. place it under the drill. and connect to the boiler. and 3/8-in. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. only the one is left-handed. 4. A piece of mild steel 5 in. and the other in the base. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. and pouring metal in to fill it up. over the defective part. Then bolt the castings together. where the casting did not fill out. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. and two 1/4-in. in diameter must now be obtained.2. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Now cut out one of the 12-in. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. true it up with a square. and drill it entirely through. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. as shown in illustration. one in the projections. and bore three 1/4-in. 5. and run in babbitt metal again. This is the same as Fig. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. and drill them in the same manner. lay it on a level place. B. so that it will turn easily. fasten a 3/8-in. Pour metal into mold No.2.black dots in Fig. 1. take an ordinary brace. until it is full. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. Commencing 1-1/2 in. d. holes at d. the other right-handed. 6. Using the Brace . long. Put this together in mold No. and lay it away to dry. one in the lug. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. holes. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. screw down. from the one end.1. This is for a shaft. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Fig. drill in it. see that the bolts are all tight. Let it stand for half an hour.1. and pour babbitt metal into it. put the top of the brace through this hole. long. This will cast a paddle-wheel. This is mold No. instead of the right-handed piece. place the entire machine in a vise. 6. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. Now take mold No. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press.

. and with three small screw holes around the edge. turn the wheel to the shape desired. with a boss and a set screw. while it is running at full speed. and the other 8 ft. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. At each end of the 6ft. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Plan of Ice Boat . Then take a knife or a chisel. and. and if instructions have been carefully followed. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. long. piece and at right angles to it. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. one 6 ft. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. will do good service. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam.

This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. The spar should be 9 ft. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. Run the seam on a machine. as the runners were fastened. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. which may come in handy in heavy winds. boards to make the platform. in diameter in the center. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. so much the better will be your boat. projecting as in Fig. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. The tiller. 3. Make your runners as long as possible. and about 8 in. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. long. where they often did considerable damage.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. 2 by 3 in. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. 1. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. To the under side of the 8-ft. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. Fig. 8 a reef point knot. leaving 1 ft. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. plank nail 8-in. bolt the 8-ft. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main