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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Toronto. away. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. distant. as shown in Fig. long will make six boomerangs. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. 1. with the hollow side away from you. until it is bound as shown in Fig. Noble. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. 1.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps.Fig. grasp it and hold the same as a club. --Contributed by J. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. wide and 2 ft. apart. E. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. A piece of plank 12 in. It is held in this curve until dry. Fig. 2. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. 2. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. as shown in Fig. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. 2 -. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. To throw a boomerang. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. Ontario. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. The pieces are then dressed round. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. 1. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown.

but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. but about 12 in. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. First. which makes the building simpler and easier. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. made of 6-in. thick. A very light. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. 6 in. and with a movable bottom. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. dry snow will not pack easily. long. If the snow is of the right consistency. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. A wall. one inside of the circle and the other outside. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. forcing it down closely. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. minus the top. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. blocks . and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. the block will drop out. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. however. or rather no bottom at all. and it may be necessary to use a little water. high and 4 or 5 in. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. it is not essential to the support of the walls.

and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. 2. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. Fig. 3 -. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . --Contributed by Geo. D. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. Union.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. and the young architect can imitate them. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. Fig. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. which can be made of wood. or an old safe dial will do. long and 1 in. C. 1. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. It also keeps them out. Fig. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. 1. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. above the ground. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. is 6 or 8 in. 2. which is about 1 ft. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. A nail. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. a. Goodbrod. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. The piece of wood. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. wide. 3. Ore. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. There is no outward thrust. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding.

he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. as the weight always draws them back to place.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. one pair of special hinges. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. If ordinary butts are used. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. Merrill. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. New York. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. S. Syracuse. says the Sphinx. the box locked . Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. --Contributed by R.

one for each corner. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Make allowance for flaps on two sides.and the performer steps out in view. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Place the piece in a vise. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. 1. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. -Contributed by L. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. It remains to bend the flaps. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. as shown in Fig. 2. draw one-half of it. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Augusta. To make a design similar to the one shown. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. If they do not. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. smooth surface. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. as shown. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. proceed as follows: First. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Alberta Norrell. 3. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. as shown in Fig. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Ga. If the measuring has been done properly. on drawing paper. When the sieve is shaken. about 1-32 of an inch. Fig. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. All . the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. allowing each coat time to dry. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. With the metal shears.

The common cork. 25 German-silver wire. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. and in the positions shown in the sketch. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. should be in the line. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. long. After this has dried. If a touch of color is desired. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . H. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. causing it to expand. from the back end. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. in diameter. When the current is turned off. in passing through the lamp. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. Galbreath. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. of No. C. A piece of porcelain tube. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. B. --Contributed by R. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. about 6 in. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. which is about 6 in. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. The current. is fitted tightly in the third hole. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. Colo. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. A resistance. Denver. used for insulation. 25 gauge German-silver wire. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. heats the strip of German-silver wire. To keep the metal from tarnishing. In boring through rubber corks. R. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. cover it with banana-oil lacquer.the edges should be left smooth. as shown at AA. if rolled under the shoe sole.

leaving a space of 4 in. 3. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. 1. between them as shown in Fig. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. . cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering.bottom ring. Purchase two long book straps. Fig. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. as shown in Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. 2. with thin strips of wood. --Contributed by David Brown. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Mo. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Kansas City.

which is the right weight for family use. Y. to form a handle. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. 1. 3. and one weighing 25 lb. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. 1. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. and a pocket battery. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. 1. The string is then tied. These are shown in Fig. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. 2. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. Pa. When the aeroplane tips. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. long. and tack smoothly. C. The folds are made over the string. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. just the right weight for a woman to use. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well.. Doylestown. --Contributed by Katharine D. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. 4. in diameter. are mounted on the outside of the box. A. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes.. one weighing 15 lb. Syracuse. Fig. having a gong 2-1/2 in. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Two strips of brass. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Fig. Kane. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. --Contributed by James M. 36 in. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Fig. Morse. N. as . as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig.An ordinary electric bell.

becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. N. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. Frame Made of a Rod .Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. two 1/8 -in. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. long. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. 1. AA. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. machine screws. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. Y. Day. if once used. 3/32 or 1/4 in. such as brackets. The saw. bent as shown in Fig. 2. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. --Contributed by Louis J. four washers and four square nuts. Floral Park. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. 2. and many fancy knick-knacks. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. in diameter.

. as well as the depth of etching desired. An Austrian Top [12] . rounding and smoothing with emery paper. green and browns are the most popular. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. be covered the same as the back. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. treat it with color. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. though almost any color may be obtained. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. or silver. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. using a swab and an old stiff brush. Michigan. allowing each time to dry. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. The buckle is to be purchased. In the design shown. Drying will cause this to change to purple. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. copper. If it colors the metal red. For etching. Silver is the most desirable but. 1 part sulphuric acid. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. Detroit. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. --Contributed by W. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. File these edges. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Apply two coats. 1 part nitric acid. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. the most expensive. therefore. A.may be made of either brass. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. of water. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Scranton. if copper or brass. Of the leathers. of course. it has the correct strength. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. use them in place of the outside nuts. Rub off the highlights. after breaking up. as well as brass and copper. Watch Fob For coloring silver. of water in which dissolve.

Michigan. Parts of the Top To spin the top. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. in diameter. The handle is a piece of pine. Ypsilanti. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. --Contributed by J. . Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. 1-1/4 in. Tholl. starting at the bottom and winding upward. set the top in the 3/4 -in. pass one end through the 1/16-in. allowing only 1-1/4 in. long. When the shank is covered. thick.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Bore a 3/4-in. hole in this end for the top. 3/4 in. is formed on one end. 5-1/4 in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. wide and 3/4 in.F. hole. long. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. A handle. A 1/16-in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown.

--Contributed by Miss L. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. . Ga. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. For black leathers. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Northville. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. tarts or similar pastry. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. The baking surface. Alberta Norrell. --A. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Houghton. Mich. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. A. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Augusta. having no sides. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center.

and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. then solder cover and socket together. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. glass fruit jar. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. two turns will remove the jar. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Stringing Wires [13] A. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . --Contributed by Irl Hicks. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. says Studio Light. Mo. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. the same as shown in the illustration. When you desire to work by white light. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Centralia. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar.

A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. . as shown in the cross-section sketch. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. Janesville.for loading and development. square by 62 in. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 16 Horizontal bars. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. so it can be folded up. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 1-1/4 in. and not tip over. They are fastened. 1-1/4 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. 4 Braces. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. Wis. 4 Vertical pieces. square by 12 in.

from scrap material. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. Phillipsburg. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. after filling the pail with water. If the loop is tied at the proper place. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. and a loop made in the end. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. New York. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. -Contributed by Charles Stem. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. --Contributed by Dr. O. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. H. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. Rosenthal. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. After rounding the ends of the studs. The front can be covered . The whole. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. C. Cincinnati.

Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. the color will be an undesirable. The results will be poor. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. sickly one. and. if you try to tone them afterward. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Md. --Contributed by Gilbert A. Develop them into strong prints. by all rules of the game. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. the mouth of which rests against a. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. Baltimore. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. principally mayonnaise dressing. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. The . It consists of a stand to hold a bottle.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. you are. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. FIG. If the gate is raised slightly. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. In my own practice. 1 FIG. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. By using the following method. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. either for contact printing or enlargements. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. thoroughly fix. Wehr.

. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. long to admit the angle support. Gray. 2 oz.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. Water .. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.... 1 and again as in Fig. to make it 5 by 5 in...... in this solution.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper... 2. wide and 4 in. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. Iodide of potassium . The blotting paper can . 20 gr.... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. L... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished........ Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.... etc.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. in size.. without previous wetting... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. A good final washing completes the process... Place the dry print. Cal. transfer it to a tray of water.... San Francisco. where it will continue to bleach....... when it starts to bleach.... It will bleach slowly and evenly.. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. When the desired reduction has taken place..... 16 oz." Cyanide of potassium .. 5 by 15 in..... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. three times..bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. --Contributed by T. but. With a little practice. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. preferably the colored kind..

Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. 20 gauge. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. the head of which is 2 in.J. --Contributed by J. 3. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. wide. the shaft 1 in.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Make a design similar to that shown. wide below the . How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Monahan. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Canada. --Contributed by L. Wilson Aldred Toronto. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. and a length of 5 in. Oshkosh. Wisconsin. having a width of 2-1/4 in.

With files. being held perpendicular to the work. 3. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. which gives the outline of the design Fig. After the sawing. Trace the design on the metal. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. but use a swab on a stick. using a small metal saw. . 1 part nitric acid. 1 Fig. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. Fig. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work.FIG. Do not put the hands in the solution. using turpentine. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. 1 part sulphuric acid. freehand. then coloring. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. Pierce a hole with a small drill. 2. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Allow this to dry. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. using carbon paper. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. After this has dried. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. 4. 1. The metal must be held firmly. With the metal shears. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. deep. then put on a second coat. For coloring olive green. Apply with a small brush. Make one-half of the design. then trace the other half in the usual way. as shown in Fig. after folding along the center line.

--Contributed by H. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. Ii is an ordinary staple. Richmond. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Morse. --Contributed by Katharine D. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Cal. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. When this is cold. M. attach brass handles. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Burnett. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. East Hartford. . The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. on a chopping board. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. After the stain has dried. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. then stain it a mahogany color. --Contributed by M. it does the work rapidly. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Conn. Carl Cramer. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. New York.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Syracuse. thick. as shown.

A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. Fig. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Atwell. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. some pieces of brass. in width at the shank. thick. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. square. about 3/16 in. --Contributed by W. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. and several 1/8-in. 1. brass. 4. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. thick and 4 in. . also locate the drill holes. indicating the depth of the slots. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. holes. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. one shaft. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. not over 1/4 in. saucers or pans. L. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. 53 steel pens. --Contributed by Mrs. as shown in Fig. Jaquythe. Cal. H. 1/4 in. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Richmond. Kissimmee. or tin. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. machine screws. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. two enameled. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Florida.. as shown at A. A.

If metal dishes. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. as shown. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. 3. thick. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. wide and bend as shown in Fig. each about 1 in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. about 1/32 in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. as shown in Fig. 3. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. 1. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. 7. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Fig. brass and bolted to the casing.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. with a 3/8-in. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. thick. machine screws and nuts. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. 5. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The shaft hole may also be filed square. a square shaft used. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. using two nuts on each screw. into the hole. can be procured. If the shaft is square. wide. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. and pins inserted. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. Fig. Bend as shown in Fig. 2. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. long and 5/16 in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. 6. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. as in Fig. machine screws. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. with 1/8-in. A 3/4-in. There should be a space of 1/16 in. in diameter and 1/32 in. 2. with the face of the disk. lead should be run into the segments. hole in the center. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. long by 3/4 in. Fig. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. hole is drilled to run off the water. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. hole. supply pipe.. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg.

Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. using four to each leg. Now you will have the box in two pieces. or more in diameter. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. --Contributed by F. Stain the wood before putting in the .the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. When assembling. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. screws. make these seams come between the two back legs. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Canada. to make the bottom. The four legs are each 3/4-in. 8-1/2 in. V. square and 30-1/2 in. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. we will call the basket. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. deep and 1-1/4 in. Hamilton. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. from the top of the box. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. The lower part. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Be sure to have the cover. long. --Contributed by S. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. from the bottom end of the legs. With a string or tape measure. high and 15 in. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Smith. Cooke. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. three of which are in the basket. Ill. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Fasten with 3/4-in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. La Salle. deep over all. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in.

--Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. -Contributed by Stanley H. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Packard. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. wide and four strips 10 in. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. as shown in the sketch.2 Fig. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. The folded part in the center is pasted together. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Cover them with the cretonne. 2. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Fig. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. and gather it at that point. Baltimore. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. wide. Mass. Sew on to the covered cardboards. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. --also the lower edge when necessary. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. 1. sewing on the back side. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Boston.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. The side. with the crudest of tools and a little practice.lining. Md. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. When making the display. you can.

It is not difficult to . An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Fig. and. L. Crockett. 3. --Contributed by B.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Y. saving all the solid part. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. It is cleanly. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. When through using the pad. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. N. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. --Contributed by H. Orlando Taylor. Cross Timbers. Mo. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. with slight modifications. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Gloversville.

El Paso. it should be new and sharp. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. across the face. Texas. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. remove the contents. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Lane. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Mass. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. If a file is used. --Contributed by Edith E. Lowell. S. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Both of these methods are wasteful. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. are shown in the diagram.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. After this is done. Bourne. -Contributed by C. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. and secure it in place with glue or paste. After stirring. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. and scrape out the rough parts. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. or if desired. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form.

As these were single-faced disk records. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. F. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Greenleaf. A Postcard Rack [25]. He captured several pounds in a few hours. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. After several hours' drying. Ill. --Contributed by Marion P. --Contributed by Geo. The insects came to the light. Turl. The process works well and needs no watching. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Oregon. Wheeler. Des Moines. Those having houses . The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Iowa. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. --Contributed by Loren Ward. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new.cooking utensil. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Ill. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Canton. Oak Park.

but for cheapness 3/4 in. not even with the boards themselves. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. --Contributed by Thomas E. Dobbins. will do as well. Lay the floor next. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Mass.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Only three pieces are required. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Rosenberg.. by 2 ft. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. thick. Both sides can be put together in this way. the best material to use being matched boards. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. Worcester.. one on each side of what will be the . The single boards can then be fixed. Conn. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. plane and pocket knife. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. and the second one for the developing bench. --Contributed by Wm. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. the bottom being 3/8 in. material. 6 in. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Glenbrook. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. and as they are simple in design. and both exactly alike. 6 in. boards are preferable. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them.

3 and 4. brown wrapping paper.. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. The developing bench is 18 in. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. so that the water will drain off into the sink. below which is fixed the sink. 9 by 11 in. 8. 2 in section. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 6 and 9. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. It is shown in detail in Fig. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. and act as a trap for the light. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. 10). At the top of the doorway. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 5. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces.. hinged to it. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. In hinging the door. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. wide. 9). as shown in Figs. and in the middle an opening. which is fixed on as shown . etc. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. 7. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. is cut. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. nailing them to each other at the ridge.doorway. 11. 6. 6. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. and the top as at C in the same drawing. the closing side as at B. so that it will fit inside the sink. and should be zinc lined. of the top of the door for the same reason. The roof boards may next be put on.. by screwing to the floor. Fig. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. and to the outside board of the sides.

Details of the Dark Rook .

if desired. The handle should be at least 12 in. mixing flour and water. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. --Contributed by W. Erie. but not the red glass and frame. 16. 19. 1. 16. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. and a tank stand on it. Fig.in Fig. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. it is better than anything on the market. these being shown in Fig. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. Fig. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. A circular piece about 2 in. four coats at first is not too many. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. Fig. preferably maple or ash. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. as shown in the sections. 2. though this is hardly advisable. 15. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. 17. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. as at M. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. as in Fig. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. hole bored in the center for a handle. 18. 14. 6. Karl Hilbrich. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. The house will be much strengthened if strips. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 13. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. 20. after lining with brown paper. or red light as at K. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. which makes it possible to have white light. as shown in Fig. For beating up an egg in a glass. screwing them each way into the boards. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. or the room may be made with a flat roof. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. 13. as at I. and a 3/8-in. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. are fastened in the corners inside. In use. Fig. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. Pennsylvania. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom.

Ark. Eureka Springs. when put together properly is a puzzle. Smith. Mitchell. G. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Kansas City. Yonkers. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. long. Mo. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. as shown in the sketch. To operate. Schweiger. for a handle. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. --Contributed by Wm.copper should be. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. which. about 3/8 in. L. --Contributed by L. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. New York. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. D. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . -Contributed by E. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed.

need them. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. 3. Each cork is cut as in Fig. Having completed the bare box. to make it set level. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. in order to thoroughly preserve it. . The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. especially for filling-in purposes. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. The corks in use are shown in Fig. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. as shown in Fig. A number of 1/2-in.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. holes should be drilled in the bottom. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. as well as improve its appearance. as is usually the case. for the moment. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. the box will require a greater height in front. the rustic work should be varnished. If the sill is inclined. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. 1. 3. After the box is trimmed. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. which binds them together. as shown in Fig. 2. The design shown in Fig. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box.

This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. as shown in Fig. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. etc. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night.. too dangerous. 4. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. being partly eaten into. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. it's easy. 1. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. and observe results. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. 2. When the corn is gone cucumbers. But I have solved the difficulty. can't use poison. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. Traps do no good. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. share the same fate. life in the summer time is a vexation. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. cabbages. F. Each long projection represents a leg. drilled at right angles.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. 3. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. . One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. to hold the coil on the bottom plate.

26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. strips. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. Iowa. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. . cut some of it off and try again. long. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. the coil does not heat sufficiently. If. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. and made up and kept in large bottles. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. -. of No. The solution can be used over and over again.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. by trial. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. cut in 1/2-in. About 9-1/2 ft. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve.

A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Pa. Texas. Morse. and a strip. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. D. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Doylestown. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. Fig 2. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. to cause the door to swing shut. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. Dallas. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Stir and mix thoroughly. is a good size--in this compound. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Knives. 1) removed. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Kane. Y. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. --Contributed by James M. it falls to stop G. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. In cleaning silver. coffee pot. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. hot-water pot. Syracuse. of gasoline. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. C. --Contributed by Katharine D. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. of whiting and 1/2 oz. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. . The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. N. forks. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. but with unsatisfactory results. Do not wash them.

which is. Pa. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. negatives. Harrisburg. --Contributed by Oliver S. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Fisher. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. New Orleans. . --Contributed by Theodore L. La. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Sprout. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Ill. later fixed and washed as usual. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Waverly. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. of course. but unfixed. using the paper dry. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] .

If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The harmonograph. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. 1. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. then . a harmonograph is a good prescription. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. To obviate this difficulty. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. In this uncertainty lies the charm. metal. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Fig. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales.

A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. A small table or platform. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone.. what is most important. to prevent any side motion. one-fourth. Gaffney. in the center of the circle to be cut. Arizona. for instance. that is. --Contributed by Wm. etc. G. A pedestal. Another weight of about 10 lb. which can be regulated. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. Ingham. Rosemont. Chicago. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. R. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. The length of the short pendulum H.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. with a nail set or punch. as long as the other. of about 30 or 40 lb. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. in diameter. ceiling. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . as shown in Fig. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. and unless the shorter pendulum is. exactly one-third. 1-3/4 by 2 in. K. J. A length of 7 ft. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. 1. one-fifth. such as a shoe buttoner. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. makes respectively 3. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings.. provides a means of support for the stylus. A weight. 1. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. A small weight. Holes up to 3 in. or the lines will overlap and blur. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. Punch a hole. is about right for a 10-ft. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. --Contributed by James T. is attached as shown at H. as shown in the lower part of Fig.

quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. Chicago. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. and proceed as before.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal.J. The two key cards are made alike. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. and 4 as in Fig. --Contributed by J. 6. then 3 as in Fig. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. then put 2 at the top. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Fig. Fig. dividing them into quarters.J. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. Cruger. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. N. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever.H. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. a correspondent of . 5. Morey. 2. of course. Cape May City. 1. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The capacity of the vise. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. distributing them over the whole card. 4. -Contributed by W. 3.

22 gauge German-silver wire. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. of ferricyanide of potash. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. remove the prints. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. If constructed of the former. of 18-per-cent No. Asbestos board is to be preferred. 1/4 in. deep. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. from the top and bottom. of water. the portion of the base under the coil. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. long. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. Cut through the center. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. Wind the successive turns of . How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. says Popular Electricity. Alberta Norrell. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. 6 gauge wires shown. 30 gr. sheet of well made asbestos paper. Ga. respectively. citrate of iron and ammonia. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. Augusta. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. drill 15 holes. After securing the tint desired. After preparing the base and uprights. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. of the uprights. --Contributed by L. 1/2 oz. To assemble. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. wood-screws. acetic acid and 4 oz. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes.

white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Ward. Ampere. which. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. Small knobs may be added if desired. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. --Contributed by Frederick E. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. etc. if one is not a smoker. as they are usually thrown away when empty. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. N. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. Labels of some kind are needed. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. square. rivets. then fasten the upright in place. 16 gauge copper wire. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. 14 gauge. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. Y. screws. but these are not necessary..

After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. California. brass. as shown in the sketch. being careful about the heat. A. zinc. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. Richmond. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. or has become corroded. Ark. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. If the soldering copper is an old one. and one made of poplar finished black. D. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. of glycerine to 16 oz. Wis. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions.. and rub the point of the copper on it. a piece of solder. E and F. Larson. tin. sandpaper or steel wool. then to the joint to be soldered. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. G. it must be ground or filed to a point. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. This is considerable annoyance. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. The material can be of any wood. B. S. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. --Contributed by W. particularly so when the iron has once been used. tinner's acid. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. of water. C. Copper. Eureka Springs. and labeled "Poison. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. Heat it until hot (not red hot). This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. The parts are put together with dowel pins. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. --C. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. --Contributed by A. the pure muriatic acid should be used. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. lead. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. especially if a large tub is used.14 oz. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. Jaquythe. In soldering galvanized iron. . galvanized iron. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. Kenosha. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap.

Fig. Y. with good results. The punch A. in diameter. Six issues make a well proportioned book. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. and drill out the threads. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Troy. This will leave a clear hole.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. B. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . The disk will come out pan shaped. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. thick and 1-1/4 in. nut. The dimensions shown in Fig. N. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. C. I bind my magazines at home evenings. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. W. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. such as copper. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. which gives two bound volumes each year. 2. 7/8 in. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. in diameter. brass and silver. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. The covers of the magazines are removed. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Take a 3/4-in. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Apart from this. wide. Hankin. Fig. 1. a ring may be made from any metal. -Contributed by H. This completes the die. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. however. Brass rings can be plated when finished. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Place the band. D. round iron.

Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. using . The sections are then prepared for sewing. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. 1/8 in. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. is used for the sewing material. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. The covering can be of cloth. C. After drawing the thread tightly. allowing about 2 in. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. is nailed across the top. 1. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. The string No. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. as shown in Fig. 1. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. threaded double. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. size 16 or larger. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. 1 in Fig. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. If started with the January or the July issue. 5. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. Start with the front of the book. Coarse white thread. and then to string No. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. deep. Five cuts. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. The covering should be cut out 1 in. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues.4. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. of the ends extending on each side. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. and a third piece. Place the cardboard covers on the book. which is fastened the same as the first. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. 2. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. and place them against the strings in the frame. then back through the notch on the right side. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. 1.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. 2. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. on all edges except the back. . The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. through the notch on the left side of the string No. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood.

round iron. Divine. at opposite sides to each other. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. --Contributed by Clyde E. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Place the cover on the book in the right position. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. on which to hook the blade. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Encanto. Tinplate. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. and mark around each one. College View. Nebr. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. For the blade an old talking-machine . iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Cal. and.

nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. and a long thread plug. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Make the blade 12 in. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. and 1/4 in. thick. as shown. Then on the board put . Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. thick. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead.. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. by 4-1/2 in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. with 10 teeth to the inch. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. with a steel sleeve.. C. A. and another piece (B) 6 in. Moorhead. On the upper side. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. hydraulic pipe. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. fuse hole at D. E. Miss. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. as it is sometimes called. and 1/4 in. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. by 1 in. bore. F. at the same end. or double extra heavy. long. in order to drill the holes in the ends. B. -Contributed by Willard J. Hays. Summitville. Ohio. and file in the teeth. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise.

Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Connect up as shown. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. using about 8 in. about 5 ft. the jars need not be very large. 4 jars. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. H. some sheet copper or brass for plates. and some No. of wire to each coil. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Boyd. If you are going to use a current of low tension. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. of rubber-covered wire. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. --Contributed by Chas. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . high around this apparatus. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. as from batteries. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. A lid may be added if desired. Philadelphia. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side.

4. 7 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. however. Construct the auto front (Fig. 16-1/2 in. 1. 2 is lower down than in No. direct to wire across jars. Use no screws on the running surface. and plane it on all edges. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. 2. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. For the brass trimmings use No. are important. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. The sled completed should be 15 ft. Their size also depends on the voltage. and for the rear runners: A. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. square by 14 ft. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 1 on switch. wide by 3/4 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. 30 in. long. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. two pieces 34 in. on No. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. First sandpaper all the wood. B and C.. 3 in. 2 and 3. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. Equip block X with screw eyes. by 6 in. long by 22 in. by 1 in. 4) of 3/4-in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. oak boards. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. by 5 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. steel rod makes a good steering rod. B. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. The current then will flow through the motor. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. See Fig. two pieces 30 in. 15-1/2 in. An iron washer. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 1 and so on for No. 11 in. C. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. by 1-1/4 in. gives full current and full speed. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 3 and No. 1 is connected to point No.the way. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. Z. above the ground. long.. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. making them clear those in the front runner. and four pieces 14 in. by 2 in.. by 5 in. two pieces 14 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. is used to reduce friction. thick. thick.. sheet brass 1 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. B. The stock required for them is oak. two for each jar. No. & S. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. as they "snatch" the ice. In proportioning them the points A. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. 34 in. 2 in. The top disk in jar No. wide and 3/4 in. by 2 in. To wire the apparatus. apart. wide and 2 in. wide. 2. On the door of the auto front put the . At the front 24 or 26 in. 27 B. C. 2.. Use no nails. and bolt through. or source of current. Fig. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. 5 on switch. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. as they are not substantial enough. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. beginning at the rear. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. by 1-1/4 in. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. with the cushion about 15 in.. long. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. long. then apply a coat of thin enamel. A variation of 1/16 in. 4 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. The connection between point No. Put arm of switch on point No. . For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft.. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. The illustration shows how to shape it. A 3/4-in. 3. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No.

and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. or with these for $25.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. cheap material. parcels. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. etc. Then get some upholstery buttons. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. by 30 in. lunch. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. long. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. cutting it out of sheet brass. If desired. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. such as burlap. fasten a cord through the loop. If the expense is greater than one can afford. a number of boys may share in the ownership. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. If desired. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. overshoes. a brake may be added to the sled. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . such as used on automobiles. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. brass plated. The best way is to get some strong. to the wheel. to improve the appearance. may be stowed within. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. by 1/2 in. which is somewhat moist. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. Fasten a horn.

--Contributed by Stewart H. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. . Lexington. Leland.tree and bring. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Ill. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.

the cut will be central on the line. though more difficult.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. With no other tools than a hacksaw. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. from F to G. Draw a circle on paper. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. sheet metal. The first tooth may now be cut. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. when flat against it. say 1 in. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. First take the case of a small gearwheel. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. some files. CD. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. Fig. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. The Model Engineer. will be over the line FG. This guide should have a beveled edge. outside diameter and 1/16 in. FC. mild steel or iron. 2. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. which. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. Fig. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. so that the center of the blade. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . with twenty-four teeth. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. 3. by drawing diameters. thick. The straight-edge. 4). may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. the same diameter as the wheel. London. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Fig. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. E. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. made from 1/16-in. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. A small clearance space. a compass. 1.

To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. some wire and some carbons. 1. A bright. or several pieces bound tightly together.Four Photos on One Plate of them. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. each in the center. hold in one hand. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. 2. 1. If there is no faucet in the house. Focus the camera in the usual manner. as shown in Fig. electric lamp. Then take one outlet wire. either the pencils for arc lamps. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. Make a hole in the other. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. and the other outlet wire. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. transmitter. as shown in Fig. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. as shown in Fig. No shock will be perceptible. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. . place the prepared slide with the corner cut. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. R. ground it with a large piece of zinc. B. B. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide.

Ashland. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Dry batteries are most convenient. If desired. serves admirably. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. are also needed. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. A is a wooden block. --Contributed by Geo. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. or more of the latter has been used. and again wind the wire around it. as indicated by E E. by 12 in. D D are binding posts for electric wires. and about that size. But in this experiment. Wrenn. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. and will then burn the string C. B is an iron weight attached to the string C.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . Ohio. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. as shown. Emsworth. B. J. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. Pa. under the gable. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. one at the receiver can hear what is said. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. leaving about 10 in. One like a loaf of bread. They have screw ends. of course. Then set the whole core away to dry. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Several battery cells. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. 36 wire around it. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. by 1 in. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. at each end for terminals. For a base use a pine board 10 in. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Slattery.

Jr. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. These should have hollow ends. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. Fig. D. and the lamps. B B. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. for the . B B. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. 1. connecting lamp receptacles. and switch. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. Connect these three to switch. 2. 14 wire. and one single post switch. F. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane.wire. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. Newark. From the other set of binding-posts. as shown. Place 16-cp. in series with bindingpost. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. At one side secure two receptacles. D. as shown. The oven is now ready to be connected. 12 or No. while C is open. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board.. The coil will commence to become warm. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. run a No. Ohio. Turn on switch. Fig. in parallel. until the hand points to zero on the scale. First make a support. E. C. The apparatus is now ready for operation. C. the terminal of the coil. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC.

At a point a little above the center. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. long. Dussault. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. This is slipped on the pivot. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. long. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. D.or 4-way valve or cock. 7. 2. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. Fig. D. and D. E. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. drill through the entire case and valve. a battery. 1. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. 4. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. a standard ammeter. After drilling. Fig. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. B. Montreal. 5. drill a hole as shown at H. as shown in the cut. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. deep.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. thick. wind with plenty of No. although brass is better. The pointer or hand. high. although copper or steel will do. This may be made of wood. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. Mine is wound with two layers of No. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. 36 magnet wire instead of No. 14 wire. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. to prevent it turning on the axle. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. 4 in. It is 1 in. The core. a variable resistance. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. To make one. long and make a loop. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument.E.. --Contributed by J. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. 10 turns to each layer. drill in only to the opening already through. remove the valve. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. is then made and provided with a glass front. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. 1/2 in. 3 amperes. wide and 1-3/4 in. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. 3. etc. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. 5. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. The box is 5-1/2 in. inside measurements. where A is the homemade ammeter. A wooden box. 1/4 in. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. from the lower end. Fig. Fig. but if for a 4way. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. 6. 4 amperes. C. until the scale is full.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. is made of wire. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . 14. is made of iron. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. If for 3-way. 1.

D. E. and the other connects with the water rheostat.performing electrical experiments. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. provided with a rubber stopper. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. as shown. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. A. B. in thickness . C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. One wire runs to the switch. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. making two holes about 1/4 in. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. F. in diameter. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. which is used for reducing the current. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. By connecting the motor. high. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. and a metal rod. and the arc light. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. To start the light. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. This stopper should be pierced.

Fig. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. 1. As there shown. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. If the interrupter does not work at first. Y. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. To insert the lead plate. where he is placed in an upright open . Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. long. Having finished the interrupter. Fig. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Having fixed the lead plate in position. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. --Contributed by Harold L. 1. N. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. A. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Carthage. B. Jones. A piece of wood. Fig. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. as shown in C. One of the audience is invited onto the stage.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. If all adjustments are correct. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. 2. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. as shown in B. Turn on the current and press the button. 2. 1. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Fig.

The skeleton is made of papier maché. with the exception of the glass. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. figures and lights. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. within the limits of an ordinary room. If everything is not black. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. Its edges should nowhere be visible. A white shroud is thrown over his body. could expect from a skeleton. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. and must be thoroughly cleansed. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. inside dimensions. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. and can be bought at Japanese stores. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone.. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. the illusion will be spoiled. The lights. dressed in brilliant. All . which can be run by three dry cells. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. should be colored a dull black. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. as the entire interior. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. The model. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. light-colored garments. L and M. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. If it is desired to place the box lower down. They need to give a fairly strong light. by 7 in. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. giving a limp. and wave his arms up and down. until it is dark there. from which the gong has been removed. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. A. especially the joints and background near A. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. especially L. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. to aid the illusion. high. The glass should be the clearest possible. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. is constructed as shown in the drawings. loosejointed effect. by 7-1/2 in. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes.coffin. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. should be miniature electric lamps. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary.

Two finishing nails were driven in. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. as shown in the sketch. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. If a gradual transformation is desired. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. Cal. Fry. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. after which it assumes its normal color.that is necessary is a two-point switch. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. fat spark. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. W. placed about a foot apart. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. San Jose. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. --Contributed by Geo. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . square block.

When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. and should be separated about 1/8 in. If a lighted match . and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. with two tubes. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. 1. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. or a solution of sal soda. In Fig. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. B and C. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. to make it airtight. as shown. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. soldered in the top. the remaining space will be filled with air. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. F. into the receiver G. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. One of these plates is connected to metal top. The plates are separated 6 in. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. A (see sketch). and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. -Contributed by Dudley H. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. This is a wide-mouth bottle. Cohen. In Fig. New York. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. hydrogen gas is generated. by small pieces of wood.

P. then a suitable burner is necessary. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. London. of No. A piece of 1/8-in. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. should be only 5/16 of an inch. Fig. from the bottom. The distance between the nipple. in diameter and 6 in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. 36 insulated wire. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. A. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . is made by drilling a 1/8in. 1. A 1/64-in. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. C C. Fig. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. A nipple. 1/2 in. long. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. If desired.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. as is shown in the illustration. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. and the ends of the tube. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. long. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. by means of the clips. A. 1-5/16 in. says the Model Engineer. or by direct contact with another magnet. A. A. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. B. One row is drilled to come directly on top. 2 shows the end view. N. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. is then coiled around the brass tube. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. either by passing a current of electricity around it. copper pipe. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. copper pipe. which forms the vaporizing coil. N. which is plugged up at both ends.

With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Take two strips of stout cloth. at the front and back for fly leaves. this makes a much nicer book. cut to the size of the pages. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. longer and 1/4 in. boards and all. 3.lamp cord. Fig. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Fig. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. 1/4 in. about 8 or 10 in. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. A disk of thin sheet-iron. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. should be cut to the diameter of the can. smoothly. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. 1. trim both ends and the front edge. duck or linen. leaving the folded edge uncut. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). fold and cut it 1 in. with a fine saw. taking care not to bend the iron. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Cut four pieces of cardboard. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Fig. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. larger all around than the book. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. 2).

is turned on it. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. is perforated with a number of holes. as shown in the sketch. Parker. the joint will be gas tight. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. of tank A is cut a hole. Va. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. Noble. A. Another can. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Bedford City. without a head. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Toronto. or rather the top now. B. D. C. which will just slip inside the little can. deep. . This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. In the bottom. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. 18 in. is made the same depth as B.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. and a little can. Ont. in diameter and 30 in. This will cause some air to be enclosed. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. but its diameter is a little smaller. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. as shown. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. E. is fitted in it and soldered. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. H. 4). is soldered onto tank A. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. --Contributed by Joseph N. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Another tank. pasting them down (Fig. --Contributed by James E. A gas cock. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry.

should be 3/8 in.. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. thus adjusting the . and sewed double to give extra strength. Beverly. are shown in detail at H and J. If the pushbutton A is closed. by 1/2 in. A A. If the back armature. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. H is a square knot. B. C. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. The diagonal struts. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. 2. long. Fig. and the four diagonal struts.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. N. exactly 12 in. as shown at C. The small guards. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. making the width. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. Fig. The armature. E. D. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. The wiring diagram. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. S. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. D. -Contributed by H. which may be either spruce. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. The longitudinal corner spines. B. to prevent splitting. fastened in the bottom. when finished. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. tacks. and about 26 in. The bridle knots. should be cut a little too long. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. which moves to either right or left. with an electric-bell magnet. long. J. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. basswood or white pine. should be 1/4 in. Bott. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. A. square by 42 in. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. shows how the connections are to be made. B. 1.

Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. --Contributed by Edw. If the kite is used in a light wind. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. Clay Center. as shown. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Stoddard. D. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. can be made of a wooden . and. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. with gratifying results. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. shift toward F. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Harbert. however. Kan.lengths of F and G. for producing electricity direct from heat. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Closing either key will operate both sounders. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. and if a strong wind is blowing. --Contributed by A. to prevent slipping. E. A bowline knot should be tied at J. that refuse to slide easily. Chicago. the batteries do not run down for a long time.

Fasten a piece of wood. When the cannon is loaded. C. A and B. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. Then. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. placed on top. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. 16 single-covered wire.frame. with a number of nails. A. D. and the current may then be detected by means. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. with a pocket compass. The wood screw. which conducts the current into the cannon. in position. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. 14 or No. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. to the cannon. E. spark. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. C. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. and also holds the pieces of wood. by means of machine screws or. Chicago. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . or parallel with the compass needle. B. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. A. E. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. --Contributed by A. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. A. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. C. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. F..

screw is bored in the block. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. A hole for a 1/2 in. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. B. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. within the reach of the magnet. H. To reverse. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. 1. --Contributed by Henry Peck. when in position at A'. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders.the current is shut off. 1. Ohio. . In Fig. press the button. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. A and S. A. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. requiring a strong magnet. Chicago. where there is a staple. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. Mich. L. with the long arm at L'. Fig. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. A and S. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. --Contributed by Joseph B. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. to receive the screw in the center. 1. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Connect as shown in the illustration. Bend the strips BB (Fig. in this position the door is locked. Big Rapids. now at A' and S'. but no weights or strings. To unlock the door. Marion. square and 3/8 in. To lock the door. Keil. Fig. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense.

makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. Thread the other end of the pipe. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. West Somerville. and C is a dumbbell. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. gas-pipe.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. put in the handle. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. --Contributed by C. hole. The standard and base. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. are enameled a jet black. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. if enameled white on the concave side. long. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. and if desired the handles may . When ready for use. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and may be made at very slight expense. When the holes are finished and your lines set. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. Rand. Mass. pipe with 1-2-in. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. about 18 in. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. J. or for microscopic work.

and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. B. which shall project at least 2 in.be covered with leather. Mass. Fig. 1. with a cover. This peculiar property is also found in ice. as shown at A in the sketch. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Fig. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. across. 8 in. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. 1. E. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . long and 8 in. A. across. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. Make a cylindrical core of wood. D. --Contributed by C. M. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Warren. high by 1 ft. North Easton. Any old pail which is thick enough will do.. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. inside the pail. while a new one will cost about 80 cents.

long. and 3/4 in. In like manner make the cover of the kiln.-G. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. E. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. and varnish. 2 in. 1). 2. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. 3) with false top and bottom. and with especial caution the first time. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. W. thick. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. If the cover of the pail has no rim. or make one yourself. the point of the blue flame. 60%. as is shown in the sketch. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos.. Cover with paper and shellac as before. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. strip of sheet iron. full length of iron core. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. 15%. This done. Fit all the parts together snugly. carefully centering it. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. After finishing the core. layer of the clay mixture. sand. pipe 2-ft. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. say 1/4 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. C. make two wood ends. such . kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. if you have the materials. Whatever burner is used. and cut it 3-1/2 in.. 1390°-1410°. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. the firing should be gradual. projecting from each end (Fig. and on it set the paper wrapped core. Set aside for a few days until well dried. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. hotel china. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. but it will burn a great deal of gas. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. The 2 in. hard porcelain. C. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. to hold the clay mixture. about 1 in. and graphite. of fine wire. if there is to be any glazing done. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. thick. as dictated by fancy and expense. When lighted. 1).. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. L. and 3/8 in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. let this dry thoroughly. in diameter. in diameter. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. diameter. Wind about 1/8 in. It is placed inside the kiln. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. cutting the hole a little smaller. wider than the kiln. bottom and sides. C. 25%. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. Line the pail. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. pipe. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. long over the lid hole as a chimney. but will be cheaper in operation. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. 1330°. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. which is the hottest part. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. and your kiln is ready for business.mixture of clay. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. pack this space-top. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. Fig. After removing all the paper. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in.

2.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. and discharges into the tube. about 1/16 in. procure a new deck. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. B. a regulator must be had for the vibrator.53 in. Next restore all the cards to one pack. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. C. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. R.. . A. bind tightly with black silk. 2). Then take the black cards. around the coil. with a plane. length of . we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. T. Chicago. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. the next black. D. The funnel. C. 8 in. 2. Take the red cards. and divide it into two piles. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Then. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. Of course. --Contributed by J. overlaps and rests on the body. as in Fig. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. and so on. taking care to have the first card red. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. You can display either color called for. 1. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. Washington. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. diameter. square them up and place in a vise. as in Fig. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. every alternate card being the same color. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. all cards facing the same way. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. as shown in the sketch herewith. red and black. and plane off about 1/16 in. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. square them up. leaving long terminals. C.

It is well not to attempt building a very large one. 1. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. When the glass is put in the frame a space. B. the first thing to decide on is the size. 1 gill of fine white sand. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. 1 gill of litharge. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. and this is inexpensive to build. to form a dovetail joint as shown. Fig. D. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. stove bolts. The cement. so that when they are assembled. and then the frame is ready to assemble. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. as the difficulties increase with the size. B. B. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. thus making all the holes coincide. E. A. The bottom glass should be a good fit. F. N. angle iron for the frame. the same ends will come together again. about 20 in. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. stove bolts. of the frame. The upright pieces. Long Branch.C. E. To find the fall of snow. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. C. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. Drill all the horizontal pieces. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents.. All the horizontal pieces.J. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. A. It should be placed in an exposed location. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. through the holes already drilled. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. Let .

In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. A. B. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. a centerpiece (A. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. on the door by means of a metal plate. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. Fasten the lever. and. having a swinging connection at C. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . D. Fig. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. if desired. Aquarium Finished If desired. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. to the door knob.

1 . wide by 1 in. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. They are shown in Fig. 2 ft. I referred this question to my husband. several lengths of scantling 3 in.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. screwed to the door frame. thus doing away with the spring. long. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. 2 at GG. will open the door about 1/2 in. long. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Two short boards 1 in. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. To make the frame. to form the main supports of the frame. B. PAUL S. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. from the outside top of the frame. Fig. long. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. White. and Fig. N. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. for the top. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. Fig. D. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. which is 15 in. 6 in. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. long. with a water pressure of 70 lb. to keep the frame from spreading. 26 in. 3 shows one of the paddles. Cut two of them 4 ft. A small piece of spring brass. Do not fasten these boards now. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. Fig. as at E. Cut two pieces 30 in. E. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. 1. wide . showing the paddle-wheel in position. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. 1 is the motor with one side removed. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Fig. Buffalo. another. --Contributed by Orton E. C. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. 1. 2 is an end view. F. soldered to the end of the cylinder. according to the slant given C. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. Fig. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. approximately 1 ft. another. Y. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. and another. to form the slanting part. AA. Fig. but mark their position on the frame..

Fasten them in their proper position. 24 in. iron. 2) form a substantial base. hole through its center.burlap will do -. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. by 1-1/2 in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Drill 1/8-in. (I. steel shaft 12 in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. holes. long and filling it with babbitt metal. iron 3 by 4 in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. after which drill a 5/8 in. Take the side pieces. 2) and another 1 in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. and drill a 1/8-in. and a 1/4 -in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. in diameter. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. then drill a 3/16-in. remove the cardboard. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. to a full 1/2 in. These are the paddles. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. GG. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. hole through their sides centrally. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Fig. Fig. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. 4. tapering from 3/16 in. with the wheel and shaft in place. and drill a 1-in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. thick (HH. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. that is.along the edges under the zinc to form . long to the wheel about 8 in. 1. take down the crosspieces. hole through them. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Fig. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Now block the wheel. 2) with a 5/8-in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Tack one side on. as shown in Fig. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Next secure a 5/8-in. thick. Make this hole conical. pipe. When it has cooled. hole to form the bearings. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. from one end by means of a key.

Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and the subject may move. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. Correct exposure depends. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. light and the plate. It is obvious that. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean.a water-tight joint. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Raise the window shade half way. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. and as near to it as possible. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. it would be more durable. Focus the camera carefully. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Darken the rest of the window. The best plate to use is a very slow one. shutting out all light from above and the sides. any window will do.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. as this makes long exposure necessary. . of course. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. as shown in the sketch at B. start the motor. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. If the bearings are now oiled. but now I put them in the machine. and leave them for an hour or so. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. drill press. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. on the lens. If sheet-iron is used. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. ice-cream freezer. or what is called a process plate. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. but as it would have cost several times as much. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. remove any white curtains there may be. sewing machine. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. Do not stop down the lens. Drill a hole through the zinc. place the outlet over a drain. says the Photographic Times.

an empty pill bottle may be used. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. until the core slowly rises. full of water. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. and a base. C. 2. 2. a glass tube. and without fog. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. by twisting. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The glass tube may be a test tube. a core. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. With a piece of black paper. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. hard rubber. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. B. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. with binding posts as shown. D. as a slight current will answer. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. The current required is very small. the core is drawn down out of sight. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. as shown in Fig. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. which is made of iron and cork. A. without detail in the face. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. The core C. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. or can be taken from an old magnet. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. or an empty developer tube. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. or wood. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. On completing .In developing get all possible density in the high lights.

Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. and make a pinhole in the center. according to his control of the current. white lead. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. finest graphite. and are changed by reversing the rotation. 1. The colors appear different to different people. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. whale oil. and one not easy to explain. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. is Benham's color top. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. 1 lb. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. 1 pt.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. This is a mysterious looking instrument. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. water and 3 oz. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows .

hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. A. especially if the deck is a new one.B. thus partly filling bottles A and C. when the action ceases. or three spot.L. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. fan-like. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. deuce. C. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. B. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. In prize games. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. before cutting. As this device is easily upset. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. Chicago. nearly every time. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. -Contributed by D. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. In making hydrogen. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out..

connecting the bottom by cross pieces. as shown in Fig. Detroit. Fig. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. 10 in. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. S. in length and 3 in. Form a cone of heavy paper. Fig. . Dak. that will fit loosely in the tube A. --Contributed by C.. long and 3 in. W. Jr. 4. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. J. 3). S. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Detail of Phonograph Horn . --Contributed by F. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. 1.. Huron. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Make a 10-sided stick. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. 2. 12 in. 9 in. Bently. long. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. (Fig. in diameter. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation.

4 and temporarily fastened in position. will cause an increased movement of C. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. Cut out paper sections (Fig. long. C. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. and walk in. on one side and the top. --Contributed by Reader. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. bend it at right angles throughout its length. making it three-ply thick. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. allowing 1 in. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. Fig. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. A piece of tin. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. with a pin driven in each end. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. push back the bolt. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. about the size of a leadpencil.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. A second piece of silk thread. Denver. 6. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. Fortunately. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. E. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. A. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. Remove the form. it is equally easy to block that trick. but bends toward D. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket.

B. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. are 7 ft. Fremont Hilscher. and rest on a brick placed under each end. is connected each point to a battery.. Minn. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. posts.strip. long. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. The feet. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. Jr. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. long. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. Paul. The 2 by 4-in.. while the lower switch. W. A. The upper switch. S. B. put together as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by J. S. S S. The reverse switch. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Two wood-base switches. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. or left to right. R. By this arrangement one. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . West St. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. 4 ft. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. will last for several years. as shown. are made 2 by 4 in.

or anything available. The piston is made of a stove bolt. The hose E connects to the boiler. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. 3/8 in. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. which will be described later. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. thick. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. is an old bicycle pump. which is made of tin. FF. and in Fig. The base is made of wood. the size of the hole in the bearing B. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The valve motion is shown in Figs. E. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. 2 and 3. and valve crank S.every house. with two washers. 1. and a cylindrical . 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. pulley wheel. Fig. H and K. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. either an old sewing-machine wheel. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. In Fig. and the crank bearing C. 2. The steam chest D. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. Fig. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. and has two wood blocks. cut in half. and the bearing B is fastened by staples.

Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. The valve crank S. Fig. is cut out of tin. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. J. Cal. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. and a very amusing trick. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. of Cuba. using the positive wire as a pen. can be an old oil can. Wis. San Jose. C. at that. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Eustice. . Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. and the desired result is obtained. G. to receive the connecting rod H. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Fig. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. as it is merely a trick of photography. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. This engine was built by W. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. or galvanized iron. First. as shown in Fig. 3. 4. Schuh and A. W. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. and saturated with thick oil. powder can. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. --Contributed by Geo. The boiler. 1. This is wound with soft string.piece of hard wood. Fry. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. G.

as shown at AA. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. and pass ropes around . must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 1 will be seen to rotate. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. The smaller wheel. and Fig.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. as shown. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. B. diameter. B. They may be of any size. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. 1 by covering up Figs. Fig. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. to cross in the center. C. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. When turning. Cut half circles out of each stave. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. and place a bell on the four ends. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. Fig. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Fig. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in.

The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones.. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera.G. which accounts for the sound. St. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. To make this lensless microscope. This in turn will act on the transmitter. procure a wooden spool. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry.M.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. such as clothes lines. Louis. A (a short spool. but not on all. W. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. as shown in the illustration. From a piece of thin . from the transmitter. produces a higher magnifying power). --Contributed by H. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. long. Mo. which allows the use of small sized ropes. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end.

which are pieces of hard wood. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. A. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. and so on. An innocent-looking drop of water. the diameter will appear twice as large.. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. D. The lever. cut out a small disk. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. H. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. bent as shown. otherwise the image will be blurred. held at arm's length. 3. can be made of brass and the armature. To use this microscope. Viewed through this microscope. Fig. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. which costs little or nothing to make. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. C. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. or 64 times. D. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms.) But an object 3/4-in. 2. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. in which hay has been soaking for several days. as in all microscopes of any power. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. . It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. if the distance is reduced to one-half. i. C. The spring. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. and at the center. e. the diameter will appear three times as large. the object should be of a transparent nature. (The area would appear 64 times as large. The pivot.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. place a small object on the transparent disk. is made of iron. if the distance is reduced to one-third. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. darting across the field in every direction. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder.. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. is fastened at each end by pins. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. E. B. 1. fastened to a wooden base. and look through the hole D. by means of brads. B.

F. wood: F. or a single piece. can be made panel as shown. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. wood: C. K. brass or iron soldered to nail. . fastened near the end. binding posts: H spring The stop. The binding posts. or taken from a small one-point switch. long. A switch. soft iron. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. D. D. long by 16 in. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. C.SOUNDER-A. similar to the one used in the sounder. coils wound with No. Fig. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. AA. HH. brass. KEY-A. wide and set in between sides AA. wide. nail soldered on A. should be about 22 in. K. thick. brass: E. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. Cut the top. 1. A. long and 14-1/2 in. between the armature and the magnet. FF. in length and 16 in. 26 wire: E. connection of D to nail. 16 in. brass: B. The back. wide. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. Fig. The door. and are connected to the contacts. wide. B. C. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. 2. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. which are made to receive a pivot. DD. wood. Each side. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. is cut from a board about 36 in. D. wide and about 20 in. B. The base of the key. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. 16 in. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. E. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. wide.

This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. AA. material. brads. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. 2 and made from 1/4-in. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. as shown. as shown in the sketch. Make 12 cleats. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. Garfield. cut in them. --Contributed by Carl Formhals.. long. Ill. E. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. 13-1/2 in. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. In operation. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. When the electrical waves strike the needle. with 3/4-in. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. the only materials necessary being a glass tube.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig.

is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. Pushing the wire. A.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. --Contributed by R. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. pulls down the armature. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. F. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. E. B. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. in order to increase the surface. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. through which a piece of wire is passed. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Ridgewood. Brown. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. when used with a motor. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. and thus decreases the resistance. the magnet. Fairport. Y. The cord is also fastened to a lever. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. N. --Contributed by John Koehler. A. A fairly stiff spring. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. A (see sketch). filled with water. and. will give a greater speed. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. When the pipe is used. J. C. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. N.

When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. B. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. if desired. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . even those who read this description. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Of course. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. --Contributed by Perry A. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Borden. Gachville. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. N. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring.for the secret contact. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm.

as shown in Fig. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. E. East Orange. Jr. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. D. With about 9 ft. Nails for stops are placed at DD. Washington. Two drawers are fitted in this space. where the other end of wire is fastened. 2.. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. Connect switch to post B. records. wide. Dobson. --Contributed by Dr. in a semicircle 2 in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. J. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. wide. Compton. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. records and 5-5/8 in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. for 6-in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. thick and 12-in. wide. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. long and 5 in. C. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. long and full 12-in. C. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. The top board is made 28-in. H. 1. apart.whenever the bell rings. --Contributed by H. From a piece of brass a switch. N. wide. The three shelves are cut 25-in. deep and 3/4 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Mangold. and on both sides of the middle shelf. . -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. A. wide. Cal. from the bottom. for 10in.

E. 1. When the cord is passed over pulley C. Roanoke. which in operation is bent. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. Va. A. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . closed. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. --Contributed by Douglas Royer.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. B. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. to which is fastened a cord. as shown in Fig. as shown by the dotted lines. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel.

having the same center as the first circle (Fig. in diameter. in diameter. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. but a larger one could be built in proportion. holes (HH. CC. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. they will let the air through. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. These wheels should be 3/4 in. In the sides (Fig. The crankpin should fit tightly.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. one in each end. Cut two grooves. 4 shows the wheel-holder. If the wheels fit too tightly. apart. thick (A. E. square and 7/8 in. 3). 1 in. 1. Put the rubber tube. wide. deep and 1/2 in. in diameter. B. Figs. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. long. against which the rubber tubing. Now put all these parts together. Bore two 1/4 in. deep. Do not fasten the sides too . through one of these holes. thick. it too loose. in diameter. E. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 3. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. Fig. Notice the break (S) in the track. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. wide. D. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. is compressed by wheels. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. to turn on pins of stout wire. Fig. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. excepting the crank and tubing. which should be about 1/2 in. they will bind. Figs. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. In these grooves place wheels. 5) when they are placed. as shown in the illustration. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Fig. 1 in.

from each end. iron. mark for hole and 3 in. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. To use the pump. 1. 1. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. because he can . from each end. of material. B. from the bottom and 2 in. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Hubbard. --Contributed by Dan H. AA. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. beyond each of these two. as shown in Fig. though a small iron wheel is better. The screen which is shown in Fig. 17-1/2 in. and 3-1/2 in. a platform should be added. If the motion of the wheels is regular. The animal does not fear to enter the box. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. stands 20 in. AA. and are 30 in. 1. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. Fig. 15 in. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Two feet of 1/4-in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. 2. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. Take the center of the bar. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Fig. tubing. A in Fig. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. In the two cross bars 1 in. is all the expense necessary. Idana. long. Cut six pieces. costing 10 cents. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. Then turn the crank from left to right. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. the other wheel has reached the bottom. For ease in handling the pump. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. mark again. Fig. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. from each end. 1. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. from that mark the next hole. and mark for a hole. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. 2. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. as it gives steadiness to the motion. 1. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. Fig. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. The three legs marked BBB. the pump will give a steady stream. Kan.

The battery is now ready for use. giving it a bright. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores.see through it: when he enters. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. 1) must be prepared. 2). sulphuric acid. some of it should be poured out. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. stirring constantly. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. add slowly. . of the top. The mercury will adhere. acid 1 part). it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. shuts him in. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. silvery appearance. When the bichromate has all dissolved. long having two thumb screws. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. The battery is now complete. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. When through using the battery. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. If the solution touches the zinc. of water dissolve 4 oz. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. until it is within 3 in. 4 oz. and touches the bait the lid is released and. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. C. 14 copper wire. --Contributed by H. To cause a flow of electricity. there is too much liquid in the jar. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. It is useful for running induction coils. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. and the solution (Fig. dropping. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. however. Place the carbon in the jar. or. but if one casts his own zinc. or small electric motors. rub the zinc well. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. potassium bichromate. If the battery has been used before. Philadelphia. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. If it is wet. The truncated. Meyer.

the jump-spark coil . The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. pressing the pedal closes the door. e.Fig. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. while the coal door is being opened. After putting in the coal. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal.. however. Wis. Madison. If. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. The price of the coil depends upon its size. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. with slight changes. i. the battery circuit.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. which opens the door.

while a 12-in. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". 7. coil. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. as shown in Fig. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. . An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp.7. the full length of the coil. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. After winding. Change the coil described. 7). This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. Fig. which is made of light copper wire. being a 1-in. as shown in Fig. This will make an excellent receiver. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. 6. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. apart. 6. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. W W. in a partial vacuum. diameter. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. made of No. 7. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings.described elsewhere in this book. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. in a straight line from top to bottom. This coil. W W. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. Now for the receiving apparatus. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. 5. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. and closer for longer distances. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig.

B the bed and C the tailstock. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. being at right angles. in the air. No. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. but simply illustrates the above to show that. These circles.The aerial line. to the direction of the current. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). Figs. 90°. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. after all. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. . suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. For an illustration. 90°. are analogous to the flow of induction. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. 1). The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. A large cone pulley would then be required. using an electric motor and countershaft. I run my lathe by power. 1 to 4. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. may be easily made at very little expense. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. at any point to any metal which is grounded. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. above the ground. The writer does not claim to be the originator.6 stranded. which will be described later. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. A. Run a wire from the other binding post. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. being vertical. where A is the headstock. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. only. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. and hence the aerial line. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. as it matches the color well. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. but it could be run by foot power if desired.

2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on .Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. and runs in babbitt bearings. Heat the babbitt well. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 5. but not hot enough to burn it. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. thick. Fig. pitch and 1/8 in. 2 and 3. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. and it is well to have the shaft hot. To make these bearings. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. 4. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. The bearing is then ready to be poured. After pouring. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 6 Headstock Details D. tapered wooden pin. too. If the bearing has been properly made. on the under side of the bed. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. deep. just touching the shaft. 4. and Fig. steel tubing about 1/8 in. Fig. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. which pass through a piece of wood. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. B. A. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 5. 6. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. Fig. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. The bolts B (Fig. which are let into holes FIG. The headstock. Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. one of which is shown in Fig.

--Contributed by Donald Reeves. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. B. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Take up about 5 ft. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. so I had to buy one. lock nut. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Newark. If not perfectly true. they may be turned up after assembling. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. Oak Park. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. of the walk . but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. N. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. A. embedded in the wood. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. FIG. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. Ill.J. If one has a wooden walk. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. the alarm is easy to fix up. This prevents corrosion. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in.other machines.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. and a 1/2-in. The tail stock (Fig. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue.

copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. S. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. leaving a clear solution. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. --Contributed by R. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Fig. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. and the alarm is complete. Do not touch the work with the hands again. (A. Connect up an electric bell. of water. Jackson. hang the articles on the wires. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. add potassium cyanide again. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. before dipping them in the potash solution. to remove all traces of grease. save when a weight is on the trap. Finally. to roughen the surface slightly. Minneapolis. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. so that they will not touch. 2). dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. silver or other metal.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. water. Then make the solution . For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. To avoid touching it. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. clean the articles thoroughly. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Minn.

If more solution is required. from the lower end. The wooden catch. Fig. which is advised. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. about 25 ft. A (Fig. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. Fig. The wooden block C. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. which is held by catch B. 1 not only unlocks. If accumulators are used. make a key and keyhole. 1. Take quick. must be about 1 in. In rigging it to a sliding door. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. 10 in. I. 1). saw a piece of wood. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. a hand scratch brush is good. lead. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. 3) strikes the bent wire L. B should be of the same wood. light strokes. will serve for the key. a circuit is completed. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. nickel and such metals. as at F. 1 in. hole in its center. piece of broomstick. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. thick by 3 in. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. Fig. if one does not possess a buffing machine. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. Repeat six times. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. Then. Where Bunsen cells are used. shaking. 3) directly over the hole. copper. with the pivot 2 in. also. an old electric bell or buzzer. when the point of the key touches the tin. This solution. such metals as iron. and 4 volts for very small ones. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. with water. long. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. A 1/4 in. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. which .5 to 4 volts. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. silver can be plated direct. Can be made of a 2-in. with water. Having finished washing the precipitate. zinc. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. 1). 3. German silver. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. --Model Engineer. use 2 volts for large articles. To provide the keyhole. long. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. With an electric pressure of 3. Screw the two blocks together. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. of clothesline rope and some No. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. Fig. square. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. but opens the door. of water. Before silver plating. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. and then treated as copper. Make a somewhat larger block (E. On brass. and the larger part (F. as shown in Fig. pewter.up to 2 qt. When all this is set up. 18 wire.

the illumination in front must be arranged. Fig. in his shirt sleeves. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. The box must be altered first. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. some black cloth. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. Objects appear and disappear. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. a few simple tools. and finally lined inside with black cloth. which unlocks the door. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. He removes the bowl from the black box. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. cut in one side. 2. and hands its contents round to the audience. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. enlarged. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. heighten the illusion. is the cut through which the rope runs.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. Next. H. Thus. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. On either side of the box. he tosses it into the cave. 1. half way from open end to closed end. Fig.. floor. with the lights turned low. Fig. East Orange. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. One thing changes to another and back again. H. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. the box should be painted black both inside and out. 1. B. and plenty of candles. --Contributed by E. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. H. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. 0. . The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. Fig. such as forks. In front of you. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. and black art reigns supreme. to throw the light toward the audience. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. Next. the requisites are a large soap box. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. Heavy metal objects. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. shows catch B. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. should be cut a hole. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). One end is removed. and a slit. one-third of the length from the remaining end. New Jersey. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. some black paint. no painting inside is required. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. so much the better. he points with one finger to the box. 2. The magician stands in front of this. although a little more trouble. surrounding a perfectly black space. top. Receiving the bowl again. 116 Prospect St. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. with a switch as in Fig. The interior must be a dead black. To prepare such a magic cave. between the parlor and the room back of it. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. or cave. spoons and jackknives. 3. Klipstein. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. sides and end.

of course. as presented by Hermann. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. into the eyes of him who looks. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. was identical with this. only he. The illusion. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. his confederate behind inserts his hand. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. had a big stage. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. the room where the cave is should be dark. is on a table) so much the better. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. of course. Consequently. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. you must have an assistant. and if portieres are impossible. The exhibitor should be . but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. The audience room should have only low lights. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. a screen must be used. But illusions suggest themselves. and several black drop curtains. if. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. which can be made to dance either by strings. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. in which are oranges and apples. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. one on each side of the box. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. which are let down through the slit in the top.Finally. and pours them from the bag into a dish. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms.

terminal c3 will show +. and c4 + electricity. Fig. when handle K is turned to one side. respectively. and c2 to the zinc. vice versa. square. b2. by 4 in. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. b3. by means of two wood screws. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. is shown in the diagram. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. 2. as shown in Fig. A. held down on disk F by two other terminals. 2). c2. Then. making contact with them as shown at y. or b2. f2. About the center piece H moves a disk. their one end just slips under the strips b1. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. at L. and c1 – electricity. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right.a boy who can talk. 1. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. respectively. with three brass strips. b1. e1 and e2. b2. if you turn handle K to the right.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. FIG. d. c3. so arranged that.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. On the disk G are two brass strips. held down on it by two terminals. held down by another disk F (Fig. or binding posts. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. 2. terminal c3 will show . b3.. A represents a pine board 4 in. and a common screw. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. respectively. making contact with them. 1. c1. Finally. c4. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch).

Ohio. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. . jump spark coil. when A is on No.. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 4. from five batteries. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. E. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. when on No. and when on No. Tuttle. when on No. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Joerin. from three batteries. you have the current of one battery. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Jr. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). 5. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. -Contributed by A. and C and C1 are binding posts. B is a onepoint switch. 3. Newark. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. thus making the message audible in the receiver. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . --Contributed by Eugene F. from four batteries. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. 1. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. When switch B is closed and A is on No.

The alarm clock rests on a shelf.. A. as shown in the sketch. per second. so one can see the time. When you do not have a graduate at hand. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. over the bent portion of the rule. and supporting the small weight. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. The device thus arranged. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. per second for each second. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. P. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. Handy Electric Alarm . will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. which may be a button or other small object. A. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. New Orleans.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. rule. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. mark. mark. is the device of H. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Redmond. Thus. traveled by the thread. B. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. and placed on the windowsill of the car. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. A. La. of Burlington. Wis. E. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second.

thus turning on the small incandescent light G. . The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. Then if a mishap comes. but may be closed at F any time desired. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. Crafton. B. and with the same result. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood.which has a piece of metal. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. soldered to the alarm winder. --C. When the alarm goes off. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. --Contributed by Gordon T. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. which illuminates the face of the clock. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. C. Lane. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. S. wrapping the wire around the can several times. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. Pa. for a wetting is the inevitable result. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. Instead.

whence it is soon tracked into the house. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. when it is being prepared.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. The first thing to make is a molding bench. Macey. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. and duplicates of all these. as shown. battery zincs. New York City. and many other interesting and useful articles. L. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. as shown in Fig. engines. small machinery parts. which may. binding posts. but it is a mistake to try to do this. 1. bearings. cannons. A. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. Two cleats. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. AA. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. --Contributed by A. models and miniature objects. C.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. ornaments of various kinds. 1 . If there is no foundry Fig. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. It is possible to make molds without a bench. With the easily made devices about to be described. BE. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings.

will be required. 1. is about the right mesh. H. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. II . Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. the "cope. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. and saw it in half longitudinally. D. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. and this. but this operation will be described more fully later on. J. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors.near at hand. is shown more clearly in Fig. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. makes a very good sieve. A A. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. by 6 in. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. The rammer. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. previous to sawing. high. which should be nailed in. as shown. is nailed to each end of the cope. If the box is not very strong. say 12 in. A wedge-shaped piece. by 8 in. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. If desired the sieve may be homemade. and the "drag. is filled with coal dust. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. and the lower pieces. It is made of wood and is in two halves. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it.How to Make a Mold [96] . 2. try using sand from other sources. An old teaspoon. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. Fig. DD. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. a little larger than the outside of the flask. is made of wood. which can be either aluminum. as shown. which can be made of a knitted stocking. white metal. CC." or lower part. CC." or upper half. The cloth bag. The flask. Fig. E. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. A slight shake of the bag Fig. The dowels. G. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. 2 . are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. and a sieve. 1. F. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal.

as shown at E. where they can watch the molders at work. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. In finishing the ramming. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. as shown. or "drag. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. and thus judge for himself. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. turn the drag other side up. Place another cover board on top.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. After ramming. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. the surface of the sand at . and by grasping with both hands. and if water is added. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. as shown at D. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick." in position. or "cope. and scatter about 1/16 in. as shown at C. as it is much easier to learn by observation. It is then rammed again as before. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. and then more sand is added until Fig. The sand is then ready for molding. as described. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. in order to remove the lumps.

E should be covered with coal-dust. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. deep. thus holding the crucible securely. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. made out of steel rod. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. it shows that the sand is too wet. as shown at H. Fig. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. . A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. Place a brick or other flat. as shown at H. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. After drawing the pattern. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. as shown at J. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. in order to prevent overheating. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. in diameter. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. as shown at F. thus making a dirty casting. The "sprue." or pouring-hole. III. This is done with a spoon. to give the air a chance to escape. as shown in the sketch. place the cope back on the drag. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. as shown at G. is next cut. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. wide and about 1/4 in. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. after being poured. and then pour. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged.

Morton. the following device will be found most convenient. babbitt. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. may be used in either direction. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. and the casting is then ready for finishing. or from any adjacent pair of cells. Although the effect in the illustration . 15% lead. Referring to the figure. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. If a good furnace is available. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. battery zincs. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. white metal and other scrap available. although somewhat expensive. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. --Contributed by Harold S. In my own case I used four batteries. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. but any reasonable number may be used. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. used only for zinc. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. is very desirable. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. and. Minneapolis.

By replacing the oars with paddles. 3/4 in. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. as shown in the illustration. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. as shown at A. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. If desired. 2. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. The brass rings also appear distorted. Chicago. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. shaft made. B. outward. Then replace the table. Fig. Make one of these pieces for each arm. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. --Contributed by Draughtsman. to prevent them from rubbing the hands.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. To make it take a sheet-iron band. which will be sufficient to hold it. B. connected by cords to the rudder. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. backward. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. A. Then walk down among the audience. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. Put a sharp needle point. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. may be made of hardwood. The bearings.

or under pressure. when it will again return to its original state. Fig. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. 2. D. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. being simply finely divided ice. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. spoiling its appearance. Snow. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. W. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. A. or the paint will come off. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. 1. The covers. The hubs. 1. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. should be made of wood. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. as shown in Fig. 3.melted babbitt. C. and a weight. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. but when in motion. as shown in Fig. 2 and 3. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. In the same way. A block of ice. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. If babbitt is used. E. If galvanized iron is used. It may seem strange that ice . becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. 1. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting.

no matter how slow the motion may be. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. sometimes only one or two feet a day. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. or supporting it in some similar way.. whenever there is any connection made at all. Lane. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. Crafton. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. by 2 in. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. and assume the shape shown at B. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. as per sketch. as shown on page 65. brass. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. by 1/4. which resembles ice in this respect. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. The rate of flow is often very slow. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram.should flow like water. square. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. Pressing either push button. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. by 1/2 in. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. Pa. but by placing it between books. in. B. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. it will gradually change from the original shape A. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. by 5 in. --Contributed by Gordon T. P. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. but. thus giving a high resistance contact. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder.

a key or push-button for completing the circuit. and five dry batteries. wooden supports. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. The success depends upon a slow current. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. alarm clock.000 ft. draft chain. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. The parts are: A. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. G. D. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. vertical lever. cord. as shown. the battery. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. K . H. I. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. A is the circuit breaker. draft. --Contributed by A. Indianapolis. J. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. and C. Wilkinsburg. Ward. Pa. furnace. pulleys. G. the induction coil. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. B.thumb screws. weight. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. C. about the size used for automobiles. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. horizontal lever. In the wiring diagram. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. as shown. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. F. E. B.

is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. Artistic Window Boxes The top. 3. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. as well as the bottom. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. will fit nicely in them. Mich. which will provide a fine place for the plants. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. The frame (Fig. where house plants are kept in the home. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. Kalamazoo. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. 2 are dressed to the right angle. such as used for a storm window. material framed together as shown in Fig. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom.

i. --Contributed by Wm. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. N. this must be done with very great caution. Thus. by connecting them in series. Push the needle into the cork. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. A certain number of these. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. one can regulate the batteries as required. However. is something that will interest the average American boy.. so as to increase the current. e. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. after a rest. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. and a suitable source of power. and will give the . By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. This is more economical than dry cells. but maintain the voltage constant. and cost 27 cents FIG. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. 1 each complete with base. multiples of series of three. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. The 1/2-cp. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. It must be remembered. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. for some time very satisfactorily. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Canada. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. S. since a battery is the most popular source of power. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. and the instrument will then be complete. in this connection. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. in any system of lamps. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Halifax. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. 1. a cork and a needle. in diameter. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. as if drawn upon for its total output.. However. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. W. which sells for 25 cents. 1 cp. can be connected up in series.. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. Grant. as indicated by Fig. where they are glad to have them taken away.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also.

Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. 11 series. 18 B & S. lamps. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. as in Fig. by the proper combination of these. lamp. if wound for 6 volts. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. double insulated wire wherever needed. 2 shows the scheme. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. which is the same as that of one battery. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. making. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. especially those of low internal resistance. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. we simply turn on the water. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. or 22 lights. Chicago. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. lamps. Thus.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. 1-cp. However. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. 3. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. and diffused light in a room. and for Christmas trees. each.proper voltage. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. Fig. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. generates the power for the lights. FIG. In conclusion. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and then lead No. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. So. for display of show cases. to secure light by this method. according to the water pressure obtainable. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. and running the series in parallel. Thus.. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. If wound for 10 volts. although the first cost is greater. These will give 3 cp. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. where the water pressure is the greatest. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. .

To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. thus reversing the machine. switch. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. a bait of meat. bars of pole-changing switch. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. B. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. outside points of switch. and C. or a tempting bone. and the sides. Ind.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. A indicates the ground. as shown in the sketch. CC. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. AA. A. Plymouth. we were not bothered with them. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. or from one pattern. Emig. BB. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. DD. After I connected up my induction coil. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. brushes of motor. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. B. Parker. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. --Contributed by F. --Contributed by Leonard E. To reverse the motor. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Cal. center points of switch. simply change the switch. are cut just alike. Santa Clara. field of motor. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. .

. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. merely push the button E. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. thus locking the door. Fry. The button can be hidden. a piece of string. as it is the key to the lock. or would remain locked. Hutchinson. and a table or bench. W. Cal. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. A. 903 Vine St. When the circuit is broken a weight. a hammer. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. To unlock the door. Minn. The experiment works best . The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. If it is not. Melchior. -Contributed by Claude B. which is in the door. San Jose. attached to the end of the armature B. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. one cell being sufficient.

the current flows with the small arrows. which pulls the draft open. where it will remain suspended as shown. 3. When the alarm rings in the early morning. the key turns. Ontario. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. I. releasing the weight. Madison. Wis. Brockville. W. Porto Rico. Canada.Contributed by F. On another block of wood fasten two wires. as shown in Fig. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. 3. run through a pulley. Culebra. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. 4). 1). Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Tie the ends of the string together. Schmidt. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. 2. attached at the other end. A. the stick falls away. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. -. . --Contributed by Geo. forming a loop. C. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. in the ceiling and has a window weight. 18 Gorham St.. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. P. D. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Crawford Curry.

and . The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. Farley. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Use a barrel to work on. made with his own hands. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and the other to the battery. get two pieces of plate glass. The cut shows the arrangement. or from a bed of flowers. and then to the receiver. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. running one direct to the receiver. S. First. thence to a switch. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. thick. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone.. or tree. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. N. D. square and 1 in. R. Connect two wires to the transmitter. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. Camden. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. including the mouthpiece. and break the corners off to make them round. 6 in. --Contributed by Wm. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. Jr. J. which fasten to the horn. J. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. The apparatus is not difficult to construct.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment.

immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. and label. wet till soft like paint. Then warm and press again with the speculum. unless a longer focal length is wanted. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. melt 1 lb. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. Fasten. or it will not polish evenly. and is ready for polishing. so the light . next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Have ready six large dishes. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. with 1/4-in. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. In a dark room. and a large lamp. a round 4-in. also rotate the glass. Fig. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. 2. of water. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. A. 2. spaces. Use a binger to spread it on with.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. then take 2 lb. and the under glass or tool convex. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. 1. L. in length. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. by the side of the lamp. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. wetting it to the consistency of cream. then 8 minutes... Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. set the speculum against the wall. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. the coarse grinding must be continued. Fig.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. and spread on the glass. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. twice the focal length away. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. When done the glass should be semitransparent. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. When dry. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. while walking around the barrel. with pitch. using straight strokes 2 in. or less. as in Fig. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. When polishing the speculum. wide around the convex glass or tool. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in.

and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Solution D: Sugar loaf . add the ammonia solution drop by drop. deep. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. Fig. 25 gr. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke.. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. 100 gr. Place the speculum S. Fig.. Now add enough of the solution A. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp... or hills. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. with distilled water. If not. 4 oz. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. When the focus is found. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center.. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. 840 gr.. touched with rouge. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.……………. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. also how the rays R from a star . Silver nitrate ……………………………. Nitric acid . 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. longer strokes. 2. cement a strip of board 8 in. 39 gr. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. Then add 1 oz. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. Place the speculum. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. that was set aside. must be procured. 2. Then add solution B. long to the back of the speculum. 4 oz.. When dry. then ammonia until bath is clear.100 gr. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia.. the speculum is ready to be silvered. Two glass or earthenware dishes. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. the speculum will show some dark rings. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. Fig. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it.. With pitch. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. from the lamp. fill the dish with distilled water. The polishing and testing done. face down.. as in K.……………………………. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. and pour the rest into the empty dish. if a hill in the center.……………………………….

using strawboard and black paper. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. and proceed as for any picture. About 20. cover with paper and cloth. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Make the tube I of sheet iron. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Mellish. slightly wider than the lens mount. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. My telescope is 64 in. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. Place over lens. . Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Thus an excellent 6-in. Then I made the one described.John E. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. two glass prisms. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. stop down well after focusing. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. long and cost me just $15. deg. which proves to be easy of execution. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. is a satisfactory angle. telescope can be made at home. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. with an outlay of only a few dollars. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. The flatter they are the less they will distort. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black.. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch.

It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. unobstructed light strike the mirror. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. push the button D. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. add the plaster gradually to the water. instead of the contrary. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. 2. Fig. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Zimmerman. . through the lens of the camera and on the board. To unlock. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. The rays of the clear. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. says the Master Painter. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. but will not preserve its hardening. complete the arrangement. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. Boody. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. as shown in Fig. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. or powdered alum. B. then add a little sulphate of potash. Do not stir it. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. and reflect through the negative. Ill. -Contributed by A. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. 1. The paper is exposed. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. D. A. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard.

thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. 2. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. throw . as shown in the sketch. but will remain suspended without any visible support.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. also provide them with a handle. 2. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. so that it can rotate about these points. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. 1). Then blow through the spool. 3. as in Fig. To reverse. Fig. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. Fasten on the switch lever. as at A and B. use a string.

as shown in the sketch. binding posts. Neb. San Antonio. although this is not necessary. carbon sockets. Take out. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. rinse in alcohol. and rub dry with linen cloth. In the sketch. Push one end of the tire into the hole. carbons. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. -Contributed by Morris L. --Contributed by Geo. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. B. Go McVicker. North Bend. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. A is the electricbell magnet. wash in running water. --Contributed by R. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Thomas. the armature. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. L.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. San Marcos. Levy. and E E. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. . Tex. D. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. Tex. C C.

wound evenly about this core. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. long or more. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. 36 magnet wire. 14 or No. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. 16 magnet wire. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Brooklyn. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. By means of two or more layers of No. Bell. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . --Contributed by Joseph B. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy.

If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. The following method of completing a 1-in. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. which is desirable. or 8 in. and the results are often unsatisfactory. long and 5 in. which is an important factor of the coil. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. 2 yd. When cut and laid in one continuous length. at a time. in diameter. wide. but if it is not convenient to do this work. In shaping the condenser. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. then the strip of tin-foil. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. After the core wires are bundled. and finally the fourth strip of paper. 4. as shown in Fig. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. A 7/8-in. in length. 1. diameter. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. The primary is made of fine annealed No. Beginning half an inch from one end. the entire core may be purchased readymade. coil illustrates the general details of the work. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. This makes a condenser which may be folded. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. with room also for a small condenser. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. The condenser is next wrapped . one piece of the paper is laid down. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. about 6 in. as the maker prefers. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury.which would be better to buy ready-made. No. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. hole is bored in the center of one end. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. long and 2-5/8 in. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. a box like that shown in Fig. making two layers. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in.

I. Fig.securely with bands of paper or tape. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. C. The alarm key will turn and drop down. F. to the door.. whole length. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. which allows wiring at the back. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. forms the other pole or terminal. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. round so that the inside . and one from battery. long to key.) The wiring diagram. G. which is insulated from the first. wide. ready for assembling. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. B. D. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. B. 4 in. switch. copper lever with 1-in. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. lines H. go. E. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. the letters indicate as follows: A. by 12 in. spark. and the other sheet. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. one from bell. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. shows how the connections are made. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. A. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. 3. open switch C. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. flange turned on one side. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. long and 12 in. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. shelf for clock. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. battery . after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. V-shaped copper strip. bell. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter.

A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. This is for blowing. Short-circuit for three hours. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. says the Model Engineer. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. 2 in. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. from the bottom. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. Line the furnace. and the battery is ready for use. but with the circuit.diameter is 7 in. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. That is what they are for. but add 5 or 6 oz. of zinc sulphate. do not shortcircuit. The circuit should also have a high resistance. and then rivet the seam. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. Use a glass or metal shade. If desired for use immediately. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. instead of close to it. of blue stone.. . London. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom.

Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. while for others it will not revolve at all. If any or your audience presume to dispute. To operate the trick. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. 2. affects . --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. long. herein I describe a much better trick.. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. g. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. as in the other movement. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. This type of battery will give about 0. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. and therein is the trick. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. for some it will turn one way. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Outside of the scientific side involved. square and about 9 in. porcelain and paper. Ohio. or think they can do the same let them try it. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. the second finger along the side. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. but the thing would not move at all. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. If too low. 1. grip the stick firmly in one hand. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. below the bottom of the zinc.9 of a volt. and then. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. At least it is amusing. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Try it and see. imparting to them a violet tinge. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Enlarge the hole slightly." which created much merriment. for others the opposite way. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. changes white phosphorus to yellow. thus producing two different vibrations. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. oxygen to ozone. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water.

an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. and. a short-focus lens. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. To the front board is attached a box. earth. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. if possible. but this is less satisfactory.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. and one of them is photomicrography. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. however. insects. says the Photographic Times. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. chemicals. but not essential. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. a means for holding it vertical. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. an old tripod screw. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. but small flowers.

5 ft. in diameter. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 179 11 lb. AB. A line. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 65 4 lb. 10 ft 523 33 lb. long and 3 ft. Madison. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Mass. in Cu.--Contributed by George C. 7 ft. 7-1/2 in. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 1. Ft Lifting Power. 6 ft. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 905 57 lb. or 31 ft. 12 ft. CD. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. or 3 ft. 697 44 lb. while it is not so with the quill. Fig. Cap. If the balloon is 10 ft. 8 ft. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. and a line. 7-1/2 in. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. 11 ft. which is 15 ft. 381 24 lb. The following table will give the size. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 113 7 lb. balloon. 268 17 lb. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 5 in. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. Boston. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 9 ft.

A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. 3. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. 70 thread. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. making a double seam as shown in Fig. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. and so on. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The pattern is now cut. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The cloth segments are sewed together. Procure 1 gal. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. 2. using a fine needle and No. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. of the very best heavy body. on the curved line from B to C. Repeat this operation four times. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. 4. This test will show if the bag is airtight. of beeswax and boil well together. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. cutting all four quarters at the same time. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. The amounts necessary for a 10- . keeping the marked part on the outside. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. This pattern is used to mark the cloth.

About 15 lb. A. Water 1 oz. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. 5 . The outlet. Vegetable oils should never be used. ft. of gas in one hour. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. with water 2 in. balloon are 125 lb.. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. should not enter into the water over 8 in.Green Iron ammonium citrate . 1 lb. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. All FIG. After washing a part. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. this should be repeated frequently. C. 150 gr. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. pipe. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. When the clock has dried. oil the spindle holes carefully. B. of iron borings and 125 lb. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. of sulphuric acid. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. above the level of the water in barrel A.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. using a fine brush. which may sound rather absurd. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. until no more dirt is seen. C. by fixing. of iron. . The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. B. or dusting with a dry brush. but if any grease remains on the hand. it is not fit to use. B. The 3/4-in. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. A. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. capacity and connect them. Fill the other barrel. with the iron borings. with 3/4in. In the barrel. of water will make 4 cu. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. as shown in Fig. 5. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B.ft. leaving the hand quite clean. a clean white rag. or a fan. to the bag. ]. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. 1 lb. A. . if it is good it will dry off. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed.

Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band.. toning first if desired. or carbon. to avoid blackened skin. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. A longer exposure will be necessary. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. The miniature 16 cp. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. The negative pole. or zinc. and a vigorous negative must be used. Port Melbourne. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. 20 to 30 minutes. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Exposure. and keep in the dark until used. This aerial collector can be made in . . The positive pole. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. says the Moving Picture World. dry atmosphere will give best results. Dry in the dark. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. fix in hypo. of any make. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. . at the time of employment. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. A cold. or battery.Water 1 oz.000 ft. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Dry the plates in the dark. Printing is done in the sun.

In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. As the telephone offers a high resistance. The storage cell. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made.various ways. This will complete the receiving station. and as less current will flow the short way. 5 in. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. will soon become dry and useless. long. in diameter. both positive and negative. lead pipe. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. the resistance is less. forming a cup of the pipe. and have the other connected with another aerial line. lay a needle. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. holes . File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. when left exposed to the air. a positive and a negative. If the wave ceases. If the waves strike across the needle. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. as described below. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. making a ground with one wire. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased.

put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. This support or block. B. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. does not need to be watertight. of course. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. and the other to the negative. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. This. an oblong one and a triangular one. or tube C. namely: a square hole. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. a round one. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. by soldering the joint. says the Pathfinder. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. When mixing the acid and water. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. D. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax.as possible. one to the positive. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. or tube B. The other plate is connected to the zinc. on each end. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. except for about 1 in. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. This box can be square. Two binding-posts should be attached.

C. long. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. thick cut two pieces alike. Ill. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. . and has plenty of good seating capacity. leaving about 1/16 in. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. 1. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. 2. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. is built 15 ft. in place on the wood. deep and 4 ft. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. C. wide. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. 1. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. about 20 in. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. back and under. 3. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. as shown in Fig.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. 2. This punt. Chicago. Only galvanized nails should be used. as it is not readily overturned. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. all around the edge. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. wide. were fitted by this one plug. as shown in Fig. and match them together. The third piece of brass. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. A and B.

-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. thick and 3-1/2 in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. In Fig. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. A piece of 1/4-in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. B. is cut 1 in.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. Wash. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. gas pipe. Tacoma. square (Fig 2). The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in.

which the writer has made. without auxiliary phase. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. which can be developed in the usual manner. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. and to consume. no more current than a 16-cp. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . H. no special materials could be obtained. says the Model Engineer. Wagner. with the exception of insulated wire. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens.--Contributed by Charles H. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. lamp. The winding of the armature. or "rotor. In designing. may be of interest to some of our readers. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate." has no connection with the outside circuit. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. it had to be borne in mind that.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. if possible. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C.

probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. while the beginnings . as shown in Fig. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. in diameter were drilled in the corners. 5. 2. and all sparking is avoided. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. B. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. were then drilled and 1/4-in. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. bolts put in and tightened up. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. no steel being obtainable. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. as shown in Fig. 1. They are not particularly accurate as it is. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. to be filed out after they are placed together. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. this little machine is not self-starting. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. and filled with rivets. holes. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. Holes 5-32 in. A. with the dotted line. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. about 2-1/2 lb. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. also varnished before they were put in. The stator is wound full with No. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. wrought iron. 4. being used." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required.the field-magnet. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. C. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. Unfortunately. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. thick. 3. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. or "stator. After assembling a second time.

and all wound in the same direction. having no commutator or brushes. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. If too late for alcohol to be of use. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. E. and as the motor runs at constant speed. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. if applied immediately. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. as a means of illustrating songs. and would not easily get out of order. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. and the other by reduction in the camera. McKinney. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. and as each layer of wire was wound. One is by contact. it would be very simple to build. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. This type of motor has drawbacks. film to film. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print.. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. 2. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. Jr. 3-Contributed by C. The lantern slide is a glass plate. Newark.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. 1. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. a regulating resistance is not needed. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. and especially of colored ones. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. The image should . No starting resistance is needed. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. The rotor is wound with No. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. N. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. J. as before stated. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. as shown in Fig. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. In making slides by contact.

and development should be over in three or four minutes. C.appear in. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. if possible. a little extra work will be necessary. 5. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . 3. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. It is best. A. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. These can be purchased from any photo material store. If the exposure has been correct. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. 1. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. the formulas being found in each package of plates. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. about a minute. to use a plain fixing bath. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. 4. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Being unbreakable. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. except that the binding is different. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. 2. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. they are much used by travelers. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. Select a room with one window. B. as shown in Fig. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. as shown in Fig. and then a plain glass. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. Fig. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. Draw lines with a pencil. D. over the mat. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. also.

Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. Vt. from the ends. wide and 50 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. known as rods and cones. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. These longer pieces can be made square. 1. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. 2. is to be used for the seat. 16 in. long. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. 1. long. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. Hastings. Fig. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. in diameter and 20 in. Fig. in diameter and 40 in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. from the center of this dot draw a star. Corinth. A piece of canvas. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. If the star is in front of the left eye. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. or other stout cloth. as shown in Fig. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] .The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. from the end piece of the chair. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. as shown at A. as shown at B. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. holes bored in the end pieces. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. long. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. while the dot will be in front of the other.

in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. Cal. 2. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. as well as to operate other household machines. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. Auburn. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. as shown in Fig. 1. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. as shown in Fig. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. A disk 1 in. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. J.-Contributed by P. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. A belt. in thickness and 10 in. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. made from an ordinary sash cord. per square inch. O'Gara. . A pitman was attached to the large pulley. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb.

says the Scientific American. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. Bore a 1/4-in. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. screwing it through the nut. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. it serves a very useful purpose. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. The part of a rotation of the bolt. 3/4 in. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. . long. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. Cut out a piece from the block combination. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. will be the thickness of the object. or inconvenient to measure. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. wide. square for a support. A simple. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. with as fine a thread as possible. leaving it shaped like a bench. and the construction is complete. then removing the object. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Put the bolt in the hole. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. direction. to the top of the bench. fairly accurate. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. thick and 2-1/2 in. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer.

from the end that is to be used for the bottom. which show up fine at night. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Bore a 3/4-in. Oal. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. bolt in each hole. The wheel should be open . hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. globe that has been thrown away as useless. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Place a 3/4-in. Santa Maria. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. long. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. material 12 ft. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. beyond the end of the wood. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. long is used for the center pole. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. piece of wood 12 ft. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe.

wide and 1/8 in. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. long. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. from the top end. of the ends with boards. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. square and 3 or 4 in. H and J. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. long. A cross bar. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. to be operated by the magnet coil. long. long. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. and on its lower end a socket. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. P. thick. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. 1/2 in. from the ends. and the lower part 61/2 in. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. B.Side and Top View or have spokes. at the top and 4 in.-Contributed by A. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. pieces used for the spokes. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. C. The spool . wide and 1/8 in. Graham. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. thick. L. made of the same material. thick is used for the armature. at the bottom. C. O. A piece of brass 2 in. Fort Worth. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Tex. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. A. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. in diameter. The boards may be nailed or bolted. is soldered. which should be 1/4 in. The coil.

C. B. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. for insulating the brass ferrule. 1. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. which may be had by using German silver wire. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. D and E. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L.is about 2-1/2 in. 2. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. S. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. R. long. The armature. or a water rheostat heretofore described. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. and in numerous other like instances. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. S. that holds the lower carbon. Randolph. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. then with a firm. one without either rubber or metal end. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. This is a very neat trick if performed right.000 for irrigation work. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. At the bottom end of the frame. F. When you slide the pencil along the casing. and directly centering the holes H and J. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. A.000. do it without any apparent effort. A soft piece of iron. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil.J. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. Mass. --Contributed by Arthur D. by soldering. is drilled. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. . Bradlev. 2 the hat hanging on it. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection.E.--A. and place it against a door or window casing. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. This tie can be used on grain sacks.

About 70 turns of No. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. F. mixed with water to form a paste. Fig. about 1/8 in. The vibrator. long. 1. 2. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. Fig. The vibrator B. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. wide. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. The core of the coil. B. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. A. D. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. in diameter and 1/16 in. about 3/16 in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. long and 1 in. about 1 in. The coil ends are made from cardboard. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. in diameter. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The switch. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. C. S. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. S. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. in diameter. is constructed in the usual manner. is connected to a flash lamp battery. from the core and directly opposite. for the secondary.500 turns of No. 1. hole in the center. leaving the projections as shown. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. thick. Experiment with Heat [134] . It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. for the primary. with a 3/16-in. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. and then 1. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. may be made from a 3/8-in. in diameter and 2 in. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. for adjustment. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections.

which may be filed off and two holes substituted. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. in an ordinary water glass. which is only 3/8-in. wide. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. thick on the inside. 16 in. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. The tin is 4 in. as shown. with which to operate the dial. which seemed to be insufficient. board.Place a small piece of paper. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. brass plate. it laps down about 8 in. and the same distance inside of the new board. The knob on the dial extends out too far. The lock. 2 to fit the two holes. Fig. lighted. 1. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. The hasp. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. and then well clinched. as shown in the sketch. long and when placed over the board. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. between the boards. which is cut with two holes. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. The three screws were then put in the hasp. was to be secured by only three brass screws. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. . 1. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover.

When the rear part is illuminated. square and 10-1/2 in. which completely divides the box into two parts. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . any article placed therein will be reflected in. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. not shiny. or in the larger size mentioned. high for use in window displays. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. square and 8-1/2 in. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. When making of wood. clear glass as shown. but when the front part is illuminated. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. one in each division. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. black color. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. If the box is made large enough. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. the glass. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. and the back left dark.

wide will be about the right size. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. as it appears. . as shown in the sketch. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. When there is no electric current available. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. above the top of the tank. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. alternately. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. When using as a window display. long and 1 ft. as shown at A in the sketch. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. a tank 2 ft. and with the proper illumination one is changed.. into the other. Instead of changing the current operated by hand.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. is the green vitriol.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. dried and mixed with linseed oil. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. A small platform. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. high. square and 40 in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. square. and boring two holes with a 1-in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. lines gauged on each side of each. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. one for each side. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. and a door in front. however. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. then use a red-hot iron to finish. hole bored the full length through the center. two pieces 1-1/8 in. This precipitate is then washed. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. 2 ft. long. is built on the front. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. or ferrous sulphate. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. using a 3/4-in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. wide. bore from each end. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. long. Iron sulphate. 5 ft. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. radius. Shape the under sides first. with a length of 13 in. hole. bit. but with a length of 12 in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. O. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. as shown. wide. each. The 13-in. from the ground. The pieces can then be taken out. under sides together. and a solution of iron sulphate added. 6 in. Columbus. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. and 6 ft. thick and 3 in. This hole must be continued . placed to either side of the 1/2-in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. 1 in. Three windows are provided. gauge for depth. If a planing mill is near.

if shade is purchased. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. hole in each block. When this is dry. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Saw the two blocks apart. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. When the filler has hardened. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. apply two coats of wax. Directions will be found on the filler cans. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. square and drawing a diagonal on each. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect.through the pieces forming the base. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. For art-glass the metal panels are . To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. three or four may be attached as shown. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. The sketch shows one method of attaching." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. thick and 3 in. Electric globes--two. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. If the parts are to be riveted. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. A better way.

and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. such as copper.The Completed Lamp cut out.Construction of Shade . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. METAL SHADE . as brass. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.

This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. as in ordinary devices. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. and Fig.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. the other. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. one way and 1/2 in. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. 2 the front view of this stand. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The arms holding the glass. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . the object and the background. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. Figure 1 shows the side. as shown in the sketch. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube.

and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Put the ring in place on the base. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. as shown in the cut. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. as shown in the sketch. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. If the light becomes dim. in diameter for a base. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. outside diameter. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. wide and 6-5/16 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. Before mounting the ring on the base. An ordinary pocket compass. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. wide and 11 in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. channel in the circumference of the ring. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. thick 5/8-in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. about 1-1/4 in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Cut another circular piece 11 in. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. and swinging freely. long. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. uncork and recork again. pointing north and south. in diameter. thus forming a 1/4-in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. as it is very poisonous. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac.

Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.500 . 1 oz.715 . and mirrors. black oxide of copper. in diameter and 8 in.865 1. B. AA. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. above the half can. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in.289 . A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.600 . from the second to the third. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. The results given should be multiplied by 1. are mounted on a base. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. EE.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.182 . How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. Place on top the so- . into these cylinders. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. and north of the Ohio river. of the top. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. CC. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.420 . For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .088 . Corresponding mirrors.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders.

slender bottle. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. little crystals forming in the liquid. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. 31 gr. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. says Metal Worker. When renewing. 62 gr. In Fig. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. which otherwise remains clear. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. of pulverized campor. the wheel will revolve in one direction. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. University Park. Colo. A Floating Electromagnet [152] .lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. alcohol. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. then they will not rust fast. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. Put the solution in a long. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. always remove the oil with a siphon.

--Contributed by C. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. floating on a solution. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. If zinc and carbon are used. Lloyd Enos. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. A paper-fastener box. If two of them are floating on the same solution. on the under side of the cork. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. Solder in the side of the box . A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. If zinc and copper are used. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. This is used in place of the spoon. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Attach to the wires. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. will allow the magnet to point north and south. about 1-1/4 in.

is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. 1. long. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. E. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. and on the other around the glass tube. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. D. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. F. 10 wire about 10 in. B. Rhamstine. Put ends.Contributed by J. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. glass tubing . hole. The spring should be about 1 in. C. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. D. one on each side of the board. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. A. Take a small piece of soft iron. 14 wire will do. B. A circular piece of cardboard. H. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports.1-in. brass tubing. 3 in. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . and then solder on the cover. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. wide and 6 in. Bore holes for binding-posts. to it.in. wide and 2-1/2 in. Use a board 1/2. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. long that has about 1/4-in. can be made of oak. The standard. stained and varnished. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. E. away. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. of wire on each end extending from the coil. of No. . 1/2. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. 1-1/4 in. G--No.not shorter than 18 in. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. is made from a piece of No. D. Thos. If the hose is not a tight fit. as shown in Fig. A. C. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. To this standard solder the supporting wire. thick.in. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. C. or made with a little black paint. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. Wind evenly about 2 oz.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. The base. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. The bottom of the box. long. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. piece of 1/4-in. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight.

Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. Cuba. E. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. from the right hand. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. in diameter. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. N. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. 1. four hinges. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale.of the coil. two pieces 2 ft. 3 in. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. of 8-oz.--Contributed by Edward M. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. When the glass becomes soft. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. canvas. as shown in Fig. long. . Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. of mercury will be sufficient. About 1-1/2 lb. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. of No. Y. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. D. 3. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. 3-in. Wis. Teasdale.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. long. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested.--Contributed by R. J. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. 5. Smith. is drawn nearer to the coil. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. long are used for the legs. long. about 1 in. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. making a support as shown in Fig. long. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. The iron plunger. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. Milwaukee. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. 2.

Break this thread off about 1/8 in. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. long. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Measure 8 in. The tube now must be filled completely. 3. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] .. Fig. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. expelling all the air. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. of vacuum at the top. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. 2. 6. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. 5. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. This tube as described will be 8 in.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. thus leaving a. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. --Contributed by David A. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. small aperture in the long tube. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Toronto. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. 4. Take 1/2 in. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. holding in the left hand.. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. Can. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Break off the piece of glass. Keys. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. leaving 8 in. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point.

as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. but yellow pine is the best. thick. wide and 5 ft. and the single projection 3/4 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. long. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. 1 in. 7.6 -. from the end of same. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 4 in. thick. wide and 3 in. material 2 in. 2. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. long. thick. wide and 5 ft. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. as shown in Fig. 1 in. and 1/4 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. This forms a slot. as in Fig. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. These are bent and nailed.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. thick. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 3. 3 in. 5. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. 1. The large pulley is about 14 in. FIG. wide and 12 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. Four blocks 1/4 in. thick. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . says a correspondent of Camera Craft. long. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. wide and 5 ft. wood screws. long. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. in diameter. Fig. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. 6. 3 in. with each projection 3-in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. 9 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. 4. A crosspiece 3/4-in. as shown in Fig. joint be accurately put together.

Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. R. Manhattan. first removing the crank. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. by 1-in. attach runners and use it on the ice. . which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. --Contributed by C. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Welsh. Kan. says Photography. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. above the runner level. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Water 1 oz. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. leaving the greater part of the screw extending.

3. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. This is done with a camel's hair brush. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. . After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. The print is washed. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Leominster. of water. 1. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. 1 oz. Newton. and very much cheaper. --Contributed by Wallace C. from an ordinary clamp skate. 2. as shown in Fig. also. --Contributed by Edward M. Printing is carried rather far. Mass. Treasdale. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. as shown in Fig.

wide. hole. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. and bend them as shown in the sketch. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. as shown in the sketch. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. 1. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. The swing door B. high for rabbits. high. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. 1-1/2 ft. and to the bottom. about 10 in. 1 ft. wide and 4 in. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. causing the door to swing back and up. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. and 3 ft. Take two glass tubes. say.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. with about 1/8-in. A. 2. Church. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The thread is broken off at the . F. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. extending the width of the box. Place a 10-in. from one end. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. 1. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. --Contributed by H. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Fig. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. which represents the back side of the door. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. fasten a 2-in. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. long. too. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. Alexandria. Fig. square piece. Va. Then.

Take two pieces of pasteboard. inside of the opening. and go in the holder in the same way. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used.proper place to make a small hole. B. high and 12 in.by 5-in. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. being 1/8 in. D. camera and wish to use some 4. 10 in. Chicago. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. from the edge on each side of these openings. wide. to be used as a driving pulley.. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. 1 in. Paste a piece of strong black paper. A and B. -Contributed by William M. but cut it 1/4 in. 2. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. long. Jr. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. . Fig. in size. shorter at each end. in size. plates. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. This opening. 3. and exactly 5 by 7 in. C. 1. say 8 in. says Camera Craft. shorter. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. horses and dogs. Fig. Cut an opening in the other piece. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. Out two rectangular holes. as shown in Fig. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. wide and 5 in. long. wide. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Crilly. trolley cars. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. automobiles.by 7-in. black surfaced if possible. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders.

The needle will then point north and south.. long and 6 in. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. making a . The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. in diameter. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. wide will be required.in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. A cell of this kind can easily be made.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. if it has previously been magnetized. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. into which the dog is harnessed. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it.

Place the pan on the stove. sal ammoniac. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. . of rosin and 2 oz. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. F is a spool. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. leaving about 1/2-in. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. pine. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. for a connection. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. B is a base of 1 in. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. only the joints. The details of the construction are given in the diagram.watertight receptacle. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding.in. 1 lb. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. plaster of paris. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. A is a block of l-in. short time. when the paraffin is melted. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. beeswax melted together. fodder. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. filter. Do not paint any surface. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. of the top. Form a 1/2-in. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. long which are copper plated. This makes the wire smooth. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. one that will hold about 1 qt. of water. in which P is the pan. zinc oxide. under the spool in the paraffin. 3/4 lb. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. with narrow flanges. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. fuel and packing purposes. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. and a notch between the base and the pan. of the plate at one end. says Electrician and Mechanic. pull out the wire as needed. 1/4 lb. Pack the paste in. in diameter and 6 in. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. File the rods to remove the copper plate.

as in the other movement. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. and therein is the trick. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. 2." which created much merriment. but the thing would not move at all. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. If any of your audience presume to dispute. for some it will turn one way. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Toledo. long. Ohio. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. while for others it will not revolve at all. from vexation.. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. grip the stick firmly in one hand. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. g. Try it and see. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. At least it is amusing. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. square and about 9 in. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. thus producing two different vibrations. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. for others the opposite way. by the Hindoos in India. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and then. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and one friend tells me that they were . Enlarge the hole slightly. let them try it.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. or think they can do the same. and he finally.

with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. If the pressure was upon an edge. 7. m. and I think the results may be of interest. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. 2.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. 5. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. by means of a center punch. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. p. 3. The experiments were as follows: 1. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. the rotation may be obtained. rotation was obtained. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. To operate. 6. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. and. A square stick with notches on edge is best. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. no rotation resulted. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. Speeds between 700 and 1. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. Thus a circular or .100 r. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. 4. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. secondly. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. gave the best results.

is proved by experiments 3 and 4. or greasy. is driven violently away. Minn. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. . A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. --Contributed by G. if the pressure is from the left. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. at first. it will be clockwise. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown.. Sloan. --Contributed by M. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere.D. A wire is tied around the can. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water.. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. and the resultant "basket splash. Duluth. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. unwetted by the liquid. the upper portion is. Washington. Ph. forming a handle for carrying. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. as shown. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. C. a piece of wire and a candle. A. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. and the height of the fall about 6 in. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Lloyd. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). D. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. so far as can be seen from the photographs. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. G.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Each wheel is 1/4 in. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. hole drilled in the center. as shown in Fig. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. axle. with a 1/16-in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. flange and a 1/4-in. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. thick and 1 in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. long. as shown. in diameter.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. 1. about 2-5/8 in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe.

which must be 110 volt alternating current. as shown in Fig. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. lamp in series with the coil. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. is made from a piece of clock spring. 3/4 in. or main part of the frame. is made from brass. Fig. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. 5. The first piece. 3. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. This will save buying a track. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. of No. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Maurice E. bent as shown. 2. are shown in Fig. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. Fig. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. long. with cardboard 3 in. wood. These ends are fastened together. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. 4. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. If the ends are to be soldered. The parts. each in its proper place. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. San Antonio. The motor is now bolted. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. The current. 1 from 1/4-in. wide and 16 in. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. put together complete. 2. A trolley. 3. holes 1 in. Fuller.50. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. bottom side up. Texas. 6.brass. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. and the locomotive is ready for running. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame.

Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. and as this end . The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. the length of a paper clip. and holes drilled in them. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Fig. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. The quarter will not go all the way down. 1. 2. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. then continue to tighten much more. Cincinnati. O. as shown in Fig. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. 3. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. but do not heat the center. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. as shown in Fig. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Fig 1. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. When cold treat the other end in the same way.

a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. A pair of centers are fitted. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. has finished a cut for a tooth. or apparent security of the knot. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. and adjusted . In the sketch. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. or should the lathe head be raised. When the cutter A. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. When the trick is to be performed. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. 2 and 1 respectively.

When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. (5. The frame holding the mandrel. swing lathe. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Bott. book mark. (2. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. dividing it into as many parts as desired. lady's belt bag. twisted around itself and soldered. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. (4. gentleman's card case or bill book. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. long. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). holding it in place with the left hand. (6. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . tea cosey. if but two parts. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). draw center lines across the required space.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. (1. 1.to run true. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made.) Make on paper the design wanted. above the surface. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. coin purse. Second row: -Two book marks. In this manner gears 3 in. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. watch fob ready for fastenings. 2. An ordinary machine will do. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. Brooklyn. Bunker. trace the outline. N. Fig. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. such as brass or marble. at the same time striking light. if four parts are to be alike. --Contributed by Howard S. Fold over along these center lines. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. note book. When connecting to batteries. (3. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. --Contributed by Samuel C.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. about 1-1/2 in. Y. and a nut pick.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. blotter back. tea cosey. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn.) Place the paper design on the leather and. lady's card case.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. or one-half of the design.

some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

The electrodes are made . Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. C. and push it through a cork. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. a distance of 900 miles. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. D.C. Thrust a pin. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. B.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. A. into which fit a small piece of tube. where it condenses.. Florida. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. from Key West. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. If the needle is not horizontal. and bore a hole through the center.

thick. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 3. wide and 3 ft. take the glider to the top of a hill.in. using a high resistance receiver. long. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. 2 in. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. use 10-ft. Four long beams 3/4 in. wide and 3 ft. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. several strips 1/2 in. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. as shown in Fig. free from knots. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. 2. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. by 3/4 in. 1-1/2 in. 16 piano wire. 2. square and 8 ft long. 1. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. Connect as shown in the illustration. as shown in Fig. thick. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. 12 uprights 1/2 in. Powell. lengths and splice them. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. If 20-ft. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The operator can then land safely and . The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. long. 3/4 in. All wiring is done with No. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. D. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 1. and also to keep it steady in its flight. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. 2 arm sticks 1 in. Washington. 1. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. long for the body of the operator. wide and 20 ft. wide and 4 ft. wide and 4 ft long. apart and extend 1 ft. C. both laterally and longitudinally. To make a glide. slacken speed and settle. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. 1/2. or flying-machine. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. which is tacked to the front edge. thick. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. thick. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. long. long. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. wide and 4 ft.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. thick. --Contributed by Edwin L. 1-1/4 in. lumber cannot be procured. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. long. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. as shown in Fig. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted.

The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.gently on his feet. Of course. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. but this must be found by experience. Great care should be . Glides are always made against the wind. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes.

Bellingham. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. --Contributed by L. M. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover.exercised in making landings. Olson. a creature of Greek mythology. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. 2. which causes the dip in the line. When heated a little. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. half man and half horse. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. 1. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . as shown in Fig.

about the size of door screen wire. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. making it 2-1/2 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. will complete the material list. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. 14 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. this will cost about 15 cents. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. at the other. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. about the size of stove pipe wire. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. in diameter. While at the drug store get 3 ft. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. of small rubber tubing. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. long and about 3/8 in. a piece of brass or steel wire. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. long. The light from the .Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. outside the box. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. square.

while others will fail time after time.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Dayton. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. --Photo by M. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. . as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. This is very simple when you know how. O. 1. If done properly the card will flyaway. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. as shown in the sketch. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. 2. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. M. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. Hunting. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord.

Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. If a certain color is to be more prominent. as before. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick." or the Chinese students' favorite game. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Cool in water and dry. as described. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. closing both hands quickly. place the other two. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. as shown. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. hold the lump over the flame. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. This game is played by five persons. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. When the desired shape has been obtained. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. then put it on the hatpin head.

How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. or more in width. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. passing through neutralizing brushes. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. these sectors. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. distribute electric charges . A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through.

The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. 1-1/2 in. in diameter. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. and pins inserted and soldered. and the outer end 11/2 in. C C. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. in diameter. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. and 4 in. 1 in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. in diameter. Fig. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. free from wrinkles. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. 3. turned wood pieces. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. in diameter. long. and of a uniform thickness. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. 4. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. These pins. in diameter and 15 in. The drive wheels. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The fork part is 6 in. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. are made from solid. The two pieces. D. long and the shank 4 in. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. are made from 7/8-in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. from about 1/4-in. long. the side pieces being 24 in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. 3/4 in. wide. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. GG. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. at the other. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. in diameter. as shown in Fig. 2. EE. Two solid glass rods. after they are mounted. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. Two pieces of 1-in. 1. The collectors are made. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. wide at one end. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The plates are trued up. in diameter. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. to which insulating handles . material 7 in. RR. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. or teeth. 3. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. Fig. long and the standards 3 in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. The plates. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling.

These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. 12 ft. Lloyd Enos. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. KK. long. wide and 22 ft. Colo. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. and the work was done by themselves. one having a 2-in. D. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . ball and the other one 3/4 in. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk.are attached. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods.. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. which are bent as shown. in diameter. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. Colorado City. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. --Contributed by C.

"The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. as at A. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. pens . deep. yet such a thing can be done. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. using a 1-in. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. bit. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. They can be used to keep pins and needles. string together. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb.is a good one. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. The key will drop from the string. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft.

Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. 23 gauge. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 5. they make attractive little pieces to have about. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. then the other side. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. using a nail filed to chisel edge. or cigar ashes. about 3/4-in. When the stamping is completed. flat and round-nosed pliers. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. 8... extra metal on each of the four sides. etc. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 3. Having determined the size of the tray. 9. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. 6. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. Raise the ends. and the third one 1/4 in. file. stamp the background promiscuously.and pencils. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. sharp division between background and design. Use . inside the second on all. unless it would be the metal shears. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. etc. This is to make a clean. 2. Inside this oblong. inside the first on all. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. 7. The second oblong was 3/4 in. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. 4. slim screw. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. They are easily made. very rapid progress can be made. above the metal. also trace the decorative design. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. Draw one-half the design free hand. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. two spikes. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Proceed as follows: 1.

You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. 10. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. and the effect will be most pleasing. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. third fingers. and fourth fingers. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. 8. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 6. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 9. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 7. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. second fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. first fingers. The eyes. In the first numbering. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs.

but being simple it saves time and trouble.. 12. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Still.. as high as you want to go. At a glance you see four tens or 40. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. which tens are added. the product of 12 times 12. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. which would be 70. and the six lower fingers as six tens. or the product of 6 times 6. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. 2 times 2 equals 4. 11. or the product of 8 times 9. viz.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. thumbs. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. or 80. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. In the second numbering. above 20 times 20. there are no fingers above.. or numbers above 10. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. 25 times 25. or 60. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. 600. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Put your thumbs together. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. etc. first fingers. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. . renumber your fingers. which would be 16. above 15 times 15 it is 200. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. 400. etc. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. Two times one are two. etc. Let us multiply 12 by 12. if we wish. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing.

further. Take For example 18 times 18. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. etc. 75 and 85. and so on. first finger 17. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. lastly. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. as one might suppose. the lump sum to add. It takes place also. thumbs. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge.. and. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. beginning the thumbs with 16. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. any two figures between 45 and 55. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. Proceed as in the second lumbering. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. which is the half-way point between the two fives. the inversion takes place against his will. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. twenties. the value which the upper fingers have. adding 400 instead of 100. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. For example. the value of the upper fingers being 20. thirties. in the case of a nearsighted person. first fingers 22. 8. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. however. being 80). and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. at the will of the observer.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. about a vertical axis. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. not rotation. . when he removes his spectacles. The inversion and reversion did not take place. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. And the lump sum to add. the revolution seems to reverse. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. For figures ending in 6. 3. 7. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. or what. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. 2. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. 21. or from above or from below. forties. whether the one described in second or third numbering.

sometimes the point towards him. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. A flat slide valve was used. when he knows which direction is right. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. tee. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. the other appearance asserts itself. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. as . Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. and putting a cork on the point. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. The ports were not easy to make. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. Looking at it in semidarkness. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When.

saw off a section of a broom handle. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. about 2 in. as in a vise. inexpensive. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. pipe 10 in. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. if continued too long without proper treatment.. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. -Contributed by W. it is easily built. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. bottom side up. Fasten the block solidly. and make in one end a hollow. across the head. secure a piece of No. deep. The steam chest is round. across and 1/2 in. in diameter. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Kutscher. If nothing better is at hand. apart. Next take a block of wood. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. The tools are simple and can be made easily. Beating copper tends to harden it and. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. such as is shown in the illustration. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. While this engine does not give much power.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. Ill. Springfield. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. The eccentric is constructed of washers. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. H. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. . pipe. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration.

O. --Contributed by W. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good.will cause the metal to break. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. Vinegar. S. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. as it softens the metal. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. and. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. To overcome this hardness. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. the other to the left. To produce color effects on copper. Camden. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. especially when the object is near to the observer. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. Hay. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. C. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. This process is called annealing. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot.

only the orange rays may pass through. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. the further from the card will the composite image appear. So with the stereograph. because. the one for the left eye being blue. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. In order to make them appear before the card. they must be a very trifle apart. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. in the proper choice of colors." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. and lies to the right on the picture. while both eyes together see a white background. But they seem black.stereoscope. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. and without any picture. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. orange. with the stereograph. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. would serve the same purpose. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. diameter. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. from the stereograph. although they pass through the screen. however. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. . The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. The red portions of the picture are not seen. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. as for instance red and green. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. that for the right. disappears fully. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. because of the rays coming from them. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. It is just as though they were not there. not two mounted side by side. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. the left eye sees through a blue screen. The further apart the pictures are. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. it. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result.

Place a NO. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. Cal.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. or the middle of the bottle. 1/4 in. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. wireless. 12 gauge wire. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. etc. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. The weight of the air in round . A No. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. long and a hole drilled in each end. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. wide and 1 in. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. thick. This should only be bored about half way through the block. San Francisco. in diameter. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. in the shape of a crank.

The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. internal diameter and about 34 in. long. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. or. or a column of mercury (density 13. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. Before fastening the scale. In general. . Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. pine 3 in. 30 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. high. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. and a slow fall. if accurately constructed. will calibrate itself. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. inside diameter and 2 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. thick. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. square. 34 ft. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. square. The tube is now to be filled with mercury.numbers is 15 lb. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. wide and 4 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. but before attempting to put in the mercury.. a glass tube 1/8 in. But if a standard barometer is not available. high. wide and 40 in. if you choose. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in.6) 1 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. long. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. a bottle 1 in. long. The 4 in. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. the instrument. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. the contrary. high. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost.

2. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. thick. 6 and 7. and place them as shown in Fig. Number the pieces 1. Procure a metal can cover. a cover from a baking powder can will do. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. long. which is slipped quickly over the end. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . 1. the size of the outside of the bottle. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. wide and 10 in. 5. Mark out seven 1-in.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. 3. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle.

To make such a tent.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 3. using checkers for men. Move 10-Move No. 3 to the center. 7's place. in diameter. 2's place. 6 to No. Cape May Point. 1. 5 over No. 7 over No. Move 5-Jump No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. each 10 ft. 7. Move 15-Move No. Move 9-Jump No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. L. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Move 14-Jump No. l over No. 1. 3 over No. 5. long and 2 ft. 1 into No. 2 . Move 12-Jump No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 3 into No. 2 over No. Move 8-Jump No. 6 over No. 2. 3. as shown in Fig. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Make 22 sections. 5's place. Move 2-Jump No. Move ll-Jump No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Move 6-Move No. Move 3-Move No. 6 in. 7 over No. 1 to No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Woolson. 3. Move 4-Jump No. 6 into No. shaped like Fig.J. 6. which is the very best material for the purpose. This can be done on a checker board.-Contributed by W. 6. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. procure unbleached tent duck. 5 over No. 2's place. Move 7-Jump No. 2 over No. 2. 5's place. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. N. Move 13-Move No.

. fill with canvas edging. After transferring the design to the brass.in. wide at the bottom. to a smooth board of soft wood. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. round galvanized iron. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Tress. made in two sections. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. --Contributed by G. Emsworth. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Use blocks. Have the tent pole 3 in. about 9 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. will do. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Pa. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. long. In raising the tent. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. 6-in. 5. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised.J. 9 by 12 in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. as in Fig. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. As shown in the sketch. leaving the rest for an opening. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. high. Punch holes in the brass in . making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. These are ventilators. 3 in. 6. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. wide at the bottom. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Fig. 2. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. diameter. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. from the top. 5) stuck in the ground. added. 2 in. long and 4 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Fig. wide by 12 in. in diameter.

A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. Chicago. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in.the spaces around the outlined figures. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. The pattern is traced as before. . Corr. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. bend into shape. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. around the outside of the pattern. When the edges are brought together by bending. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. apart. excepting the 1/4-in. It will not. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. but before punching the holes. cut out the brass on the outside lines. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. When all the holes are punched.

a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. Mayger. or center on which the frame swings. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. between which is placed the fruit jar. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. If a wheel is selected. or less. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. pipe. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. or. These pipes are . better still.. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. pipe is used for the hub. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. Stevens. Dunham. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. --Contributed by Geo.however. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. A 6-in. G. A cast-iron ring. --Contributed by H. allowing 2 ft. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. E. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Oregon. Badger. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. partially filled with cream. Que.

The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. An extra wheel 18 in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. bent to the desired circle. pipe clamps. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange.

The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. 3. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. and the guide withdrawn. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. as shown in Fig. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. which was placed in an upright position. and dropped on the table. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. The performer. 1. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. while doing this. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can.

cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Harkins. 2. first. --Contributed by H. 1. Denver. Mo. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. in diameter on another piece of tin. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. it requires no expensive condensing lens. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Louis. White. in a half circle. Colo. D. The box can be made of selected oak or . Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. and second. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. St. F. -Contributed by C. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover.

The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. fit into the runners. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. long. 2. from each end of the outside of the box. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. represented by the dotted line in Fig. 1. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. This will be 3/4 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. wide and 6-1/2 in. long.mahogany. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. but not tight. wide and 6-1/2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. If a camera lens is used. and 2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. high and 11 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. AA. wide by 5 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. 3-1/2 in. high and must . deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. long and should be placed vertically. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. wide and 5 in. An open space 4 in. and. from each end. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. Two or three holes about 1 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. as shown in Fig. 5-1/2 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. wide. focal length.

calling this February. West Toledo.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. April. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. and so on. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. June and November.. calling that knuckle January. as it requires an airtight case. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. the article may be propped up . then the second knuckle will be March. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. Ohio. provided it is airtight. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand." etc. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. --Contributed by Chas. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. C. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. This process is rather a difficult one. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. and extending the whole height of the lantern. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. Bradley. 1. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days.

The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. Pour in a little turpentine. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. 1 and 2. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. running small motors and lighting small lamps. and set aside for half a day. 2. and the lead 24 sq. In each place two electrodes. but waxed. one of lead and one of aluminum. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. . Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. Crawford. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. in. In both Fig. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. giving it an occasional stir. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. 1. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. the lid or cover closed. fruit jars are required. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier.with small sticks. H. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. in. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. or suspended by a string. Y. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. The top of a table will do. taking care to have all the edges closed. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. Schenectady. N. --Contributed by J. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market.

tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. as well as others. you remove the glass. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . After a few seconds' time. You have an understanding with some one in the company. This trick is very simple. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. and take the handkerchief and unfold it.. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. He. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. which you warm with your hands. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. O. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Cleveland. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. as you have held it all the time. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. he throws the other. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons.

. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. but by being careful at shores. Crocker. Victor. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Colo. in diameter in the center. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. on a table. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Pull the ends quickly. J. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. near a partition or curtain. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use.take the handiest one. but in making one. Be sure that this is the right one.-Contributed by E. put it under the glass. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. if any snags are encountered.

they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 1 piece. 1 in. clear pine. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. selected pine. 3 and 4. The keelson. 7 ft. 2 gunwales. long. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . by 15 ft. long. and fastened with screws. 14 rib bands. screws and cleats. Paint. 8 yd. thick and 3/4 in. for center deck braces. 1. long. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. at the ends. 8 in. 1 mast. and the other 12 in. for the bow. and. drilled and fastened with screws. from the bow and the large one. one 6 in. 3 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. for cockpit frame. 2 and braced with an iron band. 9 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 1/8 in. for the stern piece. of rope. of 1-yd. is 14 ft. by 2 in. by 12 in. 11 yd. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 2 in. by 16 ft. 1/4 in. wide and 12 ft. as illustrated in the engraving. by 16 ft. 4 outwales. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. by 2 in. by 8 in. square by 16 ft. 1 in.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. Both ends are mortised. from each end to 1 in. Fig. 50 ft. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. ducking. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. wide 12-oz. apart. the smaller is placed 3 ft. of 1-1/2-yd. 1 in.. long. wide unbleached muslin. wide. by 10 ft. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 1 piece.. 1 in. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 3 in. from the stern. are as follows: 1 keelson. wide and 12 ft.

After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. long is well soaked in water. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. wide and 24 in. . is cut to fit under the top boards. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. thick. Fig. A seam should be made along the center piece. 7 and 8. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. Fig. length of canvas is cut in the center. wide and 14 in. wide and 3 ft. A block of pine. 1 in. 6 and 7. 1/4 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. 4 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. These are put in 6 in. A 6-in. long. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. wide. in diameter through the block. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. also. wood screws. The 11-yd. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. gunwales and keelson.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. 1 in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. wide. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. thick 1-1/2 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. The trimming is wood. long. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. is a cube having sides 6 in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. and fastened to them with bolts. thick. thick and 12 in. Before making the deck. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. thick and 1/2 in. a piece 1/4 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. 3-1/2 ft. 6. 5. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. apart. A piece of oak. corner braces. from the bow. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. This block. The deck is not so hard to do. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. Figs. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. doubled. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. 6 in. They are 1 in. long. screws. Braces. 9. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side.

. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. --Contributed by O. thick by 2 in. 11. each 1 in. wide at one end and 12 in. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. long. in diameter and 10 ft. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The sail is a triangle. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. wide. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. Ill. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The keel. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. E. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. 12. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. Wilmette. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. at the other. Fig. A strip 1 in. The mast has two side and one front stay. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. Tronnes. are used for the boom and gaff. 10 with a movable handle. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. long. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The house will accommodate 20 families. is 6 in. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. apart in the muslin.

2. wide. Tronnes. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. long. flat-headed screws. 3. long. and the other 18 in. 2 in. thick. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. as shown in Fig. Bevel both sides of the pieces. Ill. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. wide and 2 ft. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. long. one 11-1/2 in. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. five 1/2-in. E. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. wide and 30 in. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. thick. about 5/16 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. and 3 ft. 5. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Cut the maple. 2-1/2 in. flat on one side. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. Wilmette. 1. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. square. thick. 2-1/2 in. with the ends and the other side rounding. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. Fig. wide. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. flat headed screws. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. long and five 1/2-in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy.into two 14-in. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Take this and fold it over . pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. 4. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. --Contributed by O. 1 yd. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin.

brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. 2 and 3. 1-1/4 in. long. thick. Cut another piece of board.once. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. but can be governed by circumstances. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. long. When the glue is set. pieces 2-5/8 in. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. square. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. C. Wind three layers of about No. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. long. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. of each end unwound for connections. and take care that the pieces are all square. Mo. then centered. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. E. long. wide and 6-1/2 in. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. F. long. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. soaked with water and blown up. The sides are 3-1/4 in. wide and 5 in. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. is set. wide . 5 from 1/16-in. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. Fig. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. as well as the edges around the opening. 3-1/4 in. wide and 3 ft. A. this square box is well sandpapered. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. St. Louis. leaving a small opening at one corner. Make a double stitch all around the edge. Glue a three cornered piece. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. 3 in. If carefully and neatly made. wide and 2-1/2 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. 3/8 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. thick. Figs. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. After the glue. wide and 6-3/4 in. and the four outside edges. thick and 3 in. B. long. long. D. are rounded. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. the top and bottom. about 3/8 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. The front. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. --Contributed by W. 6-1/2 in. forming an eye for a screw. Bliss. A. long. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. and make a turn in each end of the wires. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. 1. About 1/2 in. wide and 4-1/2 in. C. Another piece. square. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. The bag is then turned inside out. the mechanical parts can be put together.

that has the end turned with a shoulder. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. hole is fastened to the pointer. The base is a board 5 in. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. When the current flows through the coil. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. 4. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. long. R. 5. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. --Contributed by George Heimroth. 4 is not movable. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. in diameter. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose.and 2-5/8 in. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. 5-1/2 in. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. Austwick Hall. Like poles repel each other. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. Richmond Hill. the part carrying the pointer moves away. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. from the spindle.R. 4. so it will just clear the tin. long. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. board. G. wide and 9 in. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. These wires should be about 1 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. bored in the back. W. C. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. from one end. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. The stronger the current. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. Yorkshire. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. L. 1/4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. Fig. The end of the polar axis B. long. thick. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. showing a greater defection of the pointer. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. and as the part Fig. I. the same size as the first. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . 1/16 in. Another strip of tin. F. and the farther apart they will be forced. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. A pointer 12 in. The resistance is now adjusted to show . and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place.A.S. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. Chapman. Place the tin. and fasten in place. Fig.

Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. thus: 9 hr. 1881. 10 min. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. A. 30 min. M. The following formula will show how this may be found. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. say Venus at the date of observation. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. and vice . Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. 10 min. at 9 hr. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. shows mean siderial.

Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Hall. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. New Haven. --Contributed by Robert W. if one of these cannot be had. Conn. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. . and then verify its correctness by measurement. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell.m. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery.f. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. or. owing to the low internal resistance. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down.

of alum and 4 oz. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. 1-3/4 in. Fig. long. leaves or bark. cover up with the same. inside diameter and about 5 in. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. 3/8 in. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. fresh grass. When the follower is screwed down. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. put the fish among the ashes. thick. arsenic to every 20 lb.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Wet paper will answer. as shown in the accompanying picture. Then. The boring bar. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . 1. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. and heap the glowing coals on top. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. especially for cooking fish. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box.

The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. when they were turned in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. pipe. pipe. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. about 1/2 in. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. fastened with a pin. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. thick. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. and threaded on both ends. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head.

Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. was then finished on an emery wheel. square iron. the float is too high. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. 30 in. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws.valve stems. A 1-in. then it should be ground to a fit. Iowa. but never one which required so little material. Clermont. The rough frame. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. Fig. long. a jump spark would be much better. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. If the valve keeps dripping. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. and which gave such satisfactory results. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. 3. Fig. This plate also supports the rocker arms. It . A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. bent in the shape of a U. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. Fig. 5. as the one illustrated herewith. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. wide. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. 4. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. labor and time. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. thick and 3 in. however. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. 2. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig.

" as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. square. in fact. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. square and 5 ft. in diameter and 15 in. A malleable iron bolt. It looks like a toy. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. If it is to be used for adults. set 3 ft. from the center. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. completes the merry-go-round. strengthened by a piece 4 in. The seats are regular swing boards. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. long. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. 12 ft. with no trees or buildings in the way. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. no matter what your age or size may be. The crosspiece is 2 in. 3/4 in. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. long is the pivot. The illustration largely explains itself. being held in position by spikes as shown. Nieman. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. and. in the ground with 8 ft. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. long. Use a heavy washer at the head. from all over the neighborhood. square and 2 ft. long. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. The upright is a 4 by 4-in." little and big. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . As there is no bracing. so it must be strong enough. butting against short stakes. timber. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. This makes an easy adjustment. for the "motive power" to grasp. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. strong clear material only should be employed. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. A 3/4 -in. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. extending above. W. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. rope is not too heavy. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. and a little junk. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. hole bored in the post. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. --Contributed by C.

long.2 emery. Both have large reels full of . Having placed the backbone in position. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. These ends are placed about 14 in. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. one for the backbone and one for the bow. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. and sent to earth. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. a wreck. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. and 18 in. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. then it is securely fastened. 4. 1. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. away. as shown in Fig. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. The bow is now bent. To wind the string upon the reel. 1/4 by 3/32 in. square. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. light and strong. The backbone is flat. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well.the fingers. A reel is next made. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. if nothing better is at hand. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. 2. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately.

Moody. Newburyport. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Brooklyn. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. common packing thread. the balance. often several hundred yards of it. --Contributed' by Harry S. The handle end is held down with a staple. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. C. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. First. Mass.-Contributed by S. he pays out a large amount of string. or glass-covered string. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. N. Y. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. If the second kite is close enough. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Bunker. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration.string.

Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. --Contributed by Earl R. length of 2-in. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. each the size of half the table top. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. square (Fig. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Vt. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Corinth. must be attached to a 3-ft. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. such as mill men use. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. lengths (Fig. Cut four pieces of canton flannel.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. If the table is round. then a dust protector. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Hastings. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. then draw the string up tight. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd.

Wharton. E. . This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Use a smooth. and E to G.. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. Make the other half circular disk in the same way.-Contributed by H. 2-1/4 in. 16-1/4 in. from C to D.. hard pencil. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. 17-1/2 in. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. Calif. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. 6-1/4 in. from E to F. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. Oakland. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring.9-1/4 in. G to H. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather.. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Moisten the . Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. which spoils the leather effect. If leaves are wanted in extending the table.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. trace the design carefully on the leather. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.

Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. also lines A-G. Now cut narrow thongs. Cut it the same size as the bag. place both together and with a leather punch. wide. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. G-J. Trace the openings for the handles. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. and lace through the holes. get something with which to make a lining. and E-G. apart. is taken off at a time. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. with the rounded sides of the tools. To complete the bag. I made this motor . if not more than 1 in. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. H-B. about 1/8 in. and corresponding lines on the other side. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag.

D. each being a half circle. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. 2. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. --Contributed by J. in length. long. Shannon. Calif. 2-1/4 in. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. . Pasadena. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. as shown in Fig. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. of No. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. B. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. 1.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. 24 gauge magnet wire. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig.M. 1. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. iron. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used.

high. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. from the bottom end. balloon should be about 8 ft. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. near the center.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. 1. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. are the best kind to make. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. pasted in alternately. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. and the gores cut from these. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The gores for a 6-ft. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions.

The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. --Contributed by R. somewhat larger in size. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. After washing. as shown in Fig.widest point. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. 2. leaving the solution on over night. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. using about 1/2-in. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. If the gores have been put together right. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. A. in diameter. lap on the edges. E. after which the paint will adhere permanently. The boat soon attains considerable speed. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. 4. 3. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. As the boat is driven forward by this force. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. B. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. In removing grease from wood. These are to hold the wick ball. saturating it thoroughly. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. so it will hang as shown in Fig. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. as shown in Fig. In starting the balloon on its flight. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . Staunton. leaving a long wake behind. The steam. 1. Fig. 5. coming through the small pipe A.

This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. in bowling form. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. Third. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. long. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . There are three ways of doing this: First. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. high and 8 in. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. if you have several copies of the photograph. In using either of the two methods described.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The blocks are about 6 in. apart on these lines. as is shown in Fig. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. Second. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. long and each provided with a handle. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. wide by 6 in. 1. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft.

N. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Y. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. thick. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Fig. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Rinse the plate in cold water. being careful not to dent the metal. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. 2. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Hellwig. --Contributed by John A. Albany. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. not pointed down at the road at an angle.Fig.

1 Fig. Paine. Corner irons. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. in diameter. thick. 6 in. CC. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. Va. and. is fastened to a common camera tripod. long for the base. which is 4 in. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. A circular piece of wood. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. A. --Contributed by R. In Fig. and Fig. With this device. 5 in. 2 the front view. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. A. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. are screwed to the circular piece. and not produce the right sound. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. through which passes the set screw S. S. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. These corner irons are also screwed to. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. Richmond. wide and of any desired height. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. with a set screw. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. wide and 8 in. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns.upon any particular object. B. Break off the frame. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end.

and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. pine boards. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. S. . I made a wheel 26 in. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. R. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. D. in diameter of some 1-in. This will make a very compact electric horn. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Kidder. This horn. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. Ill.-Contributed by John Sidelmier.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. La Salle. Lake Preston. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. as only the can is visible. thus producing sound waves. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. -1. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained.

Purdy. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. 2.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. 1. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. thick and 12 in. Doylestown. square. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Kane. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Ghent. --Contributed by James R. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. O. If there is a large collection of coins. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Feet may be added to the base if desired. 1. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. B. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Fig. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. the same thickness as the coins. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. The frame is made of a heavy card. If the collection consists of only a few coins. --Contributed by C. A.

Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Milwaukee. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. It will hold 4 oz. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Smith. A rivet punch is desirable.E. Cal. a hammer or mallet. Noble. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. and then glued together as indicated. into which to place the screws . a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. though not absolutely necessary. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Neyer. One Cloud. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Canada. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. thick. Wis. A lead pencil. for after the slides have been shown a few times. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. melted and applied with a brush. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. of developer. they become uninteresting. several large nails. plus a 3/8-in. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. --Contributed by J.J. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. The material required is a sheet of No. --Contributed by R. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. --Contributed by August T. border all around. cut and grooved.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. Toronto. If desired. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing.

Remove the screws. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. never upon the metal directly. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. using 1/2-in. screws placed about 1 in. draw one part. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. and file it to a chisel edge. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. both outline and decoration. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. There are several ways of working up the design. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Take the nail. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. like the one shown. Fasten the metal to the board firmly.

square. for the lower rails. Do not bend it over or flatten it. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. two lengths. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. Rivet the band to the holder. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. for the top. and two lengths. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. l-1/8 in. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. 2. long. being ball bearing. 3. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. long. Provide four lengths for the legs. . up from the lower end. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in.wall. About 1/2 yd. each 1 in. as shown in Fig. square and 11 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. 3/4 in. in the other. of 11-in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. 1. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. square and 181/2 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. long. using a 1/2in. The pedal. The lower rails are fitted in the same way.

but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. Attalla. --Contributed by John Shahan. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Quackenbush. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. F. --Contributed by W. having quite a length of threads. New York City. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . Ala. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners.

college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Ironwood. wide and 8-1/4 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . Luther. one about 1 in. long. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. long. and the other 2-3/4 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. Mich. from the end. using class.. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. from one end. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. the end of the other piece is folded over. in depth. D. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. something that is carbonated. making a lap of about 1 in. college or lodge colors. initial. Two pieces of felt. and two holes in the other. --Contributed by C. each 1-1/4 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. and 3/8 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. long. The desired emblem.

or a pasteboard box. if desired by the operator. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. 2. --Contributed by John H. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. in diameter and 2 in. as shown in the sketch. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. Punch two holes A. Fig. from the center and opposite each other. in the cover and the bottom. which can be procured from a plumber. or more in height. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. about 2 in. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. 1. A piece of lead. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. This method allows a wide range of designs. Ind. Indianapolis. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. as shown at B.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. and the cork will be driven out. Schatz. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. 1/4 in.

These tools can be bought for this special purpose. it winds up the rubber band. A piece of thick glass. 5. allowing the two ends to be free. . The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. as shown in Fig. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. putting in the design.Rolling Can Toy lead. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. or marble will serve. metal. are turned up as in Fig. The pieces of tin between the holes A. Fig. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. 3. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. When the can is rolled away from you. 4. and the ends of the bands looped over them. O. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. on both top and bottom. 1. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. Columbus.

3 in. face up. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. I secured a board 3/4 in. New York City. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. thick. The edges should be about 1/8 in. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. or more thick on each side. and. After this has been done. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. A pencil may be used the first time over. Next place the leather on the glass. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. 1 in. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. deep in its face. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. wide and 20 in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. thicker than the pinion. from each end. long and bored a 1/2-in. mark over the design. hole through it. If it is desired to "line" the inside. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side.

Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. much of the hard labor will be saved. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. N. 1 piece. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. Rice. 2 crosspieces. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. in diameter. Y. 1. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1 screw block. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. New York. 2 end rails. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Brooklyn. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Cut the 2-in. 4 guides. Syracuse. 2 by 12 by 77 in. pieces for the vise slides. 2 by 2 by 18 in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 2. lag screws as shown. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 3 by 3 by 36. Fig. 1 piece for clamp. 1 top board. 1 piece for clamp. 1 back board. 2 side rails. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1 top board. Make the lower frame first.in the board into the bench top. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Now fit up the two clamps. M. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. --Contributed by A. thick top board. and fit it in place for the side vise.

1 set chisels. 1 pocket level.. 1 monkey wrench. it can be easily found when wanted. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 cross cut saw. 1 compass saw. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. rule. Only the long run. 1 set gimlets. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 claw hammer. 1 brace and set of bits. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 3 and 6 in. 1 pair dividers.screws. 24 in. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 nail set... They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 pair pliers. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 rip saw. 1 jack plane or smoother. 2 screwdrivers. 1 2-ft. in diameter. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. The bench is now complete. . 1 countersink. 24 in. as well as the pattern maker. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 marking gauge. 1 wood scraper. The amateur workman. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in.

Kane. The calf skin. 3. being softer. No. 1 oilstone. Fig. try square. the projecting point A.1 6-in. 1. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Fig. Doylestown. becomes like A. but will not make . will sink into the handle as shown at D. will be easier to work. Pa. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife.1. 2. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. Fig. after constant use. ---Contributed by James M. 2 and 00 sandpaper. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 1. Fig. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful.

but a V-shaped nut pick. secure a piece of modeling calf. -Contributed by Julia A. the same method of treatment is used. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster.as rigid a case as the cow skin. and the length 6-5/8 in. New York City. Having prepared the two sides. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. water or heat will not affect. then prepare the leather. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. White. If cow hide is preferred. such as copper or brass. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. will do just as well. . and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. If calf skin is to be used. when dry. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Two pieces will be required of this size. After the outlines are traced. which steam. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. The form can be made of a stick of wood. lay the design on the face. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. cover it completely with water enamel and. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. First draw the design on paper. Turn the leather.

. A. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. C. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Herrman. Maine. Cobb. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Richmond. as shown in the sketch. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Jaquythe. and an adjustable friction-held loop. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Portland. New York City. Cal. --Contributed by W. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. --Contributed by Chas.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. --Contributed by Chester L. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B.

. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. for instance. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Cambridge. --Contributed by Geo. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. --Contributed by Wm. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. was marked out as shown. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Middletown. Conn. A thick piece of tin. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Wright. . This was very difficult. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. an inverted stewpan. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. B. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. Mass. Roberts.

The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. but not running over. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. . which has been tried out several times with success. The next morning there was no trace of oil. apply powdered calcined magnesia. and quite new. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Indianapolis. If any traces of the grease are left. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. pulverized and applied. face down. of boiling water. as shown. There was no quicklime to be had. --Contributed by Paul Keller. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. A beautifully bound book. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass.. Chicago. When dry. so some bones were quickly calcined. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. F. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. but only an odor which soon vanished. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. such as chair seats. used as part of furniture. on a clear piece of glass. Bone. --Contributed by C. If the article is highly polished. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Illinois. Ind. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. and the grease will disappear. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. well calcined and powdered. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. L. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Herbert. had oil from a lamp spilled over it.

deep and 5 in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. Howe. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. New York. long. Tarrytown. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. says Scientific American. wide and 12 in. 6 in. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. If properly adjusted. set and thumbscrews. The pieces marked S are single. --Contributed by Geo. 2 in. soft steel with the opening 6 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. This coaster is simple and easy to make. the pieces . A.. high and are bolted to a block of wood. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel.. thick.

A sharp knife. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. to the underside of which is a block. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. for sending to friends. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. says Camera Craft. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. albums and the like. E. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. no doubt. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. they will look remarkably uniform. The seat is a board. If the letters are all cut the same height. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Their size depends on the plate used.

these letter pictures can be made with a black border. after. photographing them down to the desired size. So arranged. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. mount them on short pieces of corks. and. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. The puzzle is to get . mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. In cutting out an 0. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. for example. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. using care to get it in the right position. pasting the prints on some thin card. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. So made. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives.

A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. G. of its top. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. Old-Time Magic . then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. He smells the bait. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. A hole 6 or 7 in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. long that will just fit are set in. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. with the longest end outside. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. Cape May Point. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. hung on pivots. squeezes along past the center of the tube. Bayley.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. so they will lie horizontal. says the American Thresherman. N.-Contributed by I. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. snow or anything to hide it. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand .J. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes.

pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Rhode Island. --Contributed by L. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Parker.faced up. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . or rub the hands a little before doing so. --Contributed by L. Pawtucket. E. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Brooklyn. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Pocatello. Szerlip. Press the hands together. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Idaho. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. then expose again. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. then spread the string. Y. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. N.

Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. narrower. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. When the glue is thoroughly dry. 1 Fig. whether he requires a single sword only. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil.. if any. wipe the blade . in width. The handle is next made. When the whole is quite dry. end of the blade. in building up his work from the illustrations. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. and if carefully made. Glue the other side of the blade. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. or green oil paint. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. says the English Mechanic. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig.Genuine antique swords and armor. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. dark red. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. full size. they will look very much like the genuine article. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. 3 Fig. 2 Fig. or a complete suit of armor. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. The pieces. thick. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. 1. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. wide and 2 in. long. using a straightedge and a pencil.. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. The blade should be about 27 in. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. near the point end. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. 4 on the blade. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in.

follow the directions as for Fig. shows only two sides. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. 1. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. long. about 1-1/2 in. In making this scimitar. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. 1/8 in. the illustration. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side.. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. square and of any length desired. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. preferably of contrasting colors. the length of the blade 28 in. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. of course. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. 3. and 3 in. using a soft and dry piece of cloth.. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. in the widest part at the lower end. The length of the handle. the other two are identical. In the finished piece. 3. as it is . Fig. This sword is about 68 in. allowing for a good hold with both hands. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. in diameter. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. not for use only in cases of tableaux. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. thick and 5 in. 2. In making. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. 1. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. the other is flat or half-round. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. 4. 1. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. take two pieces of wood. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. Both edges of the blade are sharp. the other is flat or halfround. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia.with light strokes up and down several times. 1. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. should be about 9 in. 2.

square. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Morse. Both can be made easily. Franklin. --Contributed by John Blake. A piece of mild steel. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. in an attempt to remove it. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. as shown in the sketch. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. --Contributed by Katharine D. or an insecure fastening. and if so. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. and.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. about 3/8 in. Syracuse. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. It is made of a plank. 2 in. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Doctors probed for the button without success. at the lower end. On each edge of the board. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. N. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. The thinness of the plank. piping and jackets by hard water. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. A cold . Y. Mass. as can the pitch bed or block. each about 1 ft. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. as there was some at hand. however. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. long. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend.

tallow. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. To remedy this. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. When this has been done. 5 lb. 5 lb. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils.. secure a piece of brass of about No. plaster of Paris. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. a file to reduce the ends to shape. design down. using a small metal saw.. on the pitch. To put it in another way. Trim up the edges and file them . 18 gauge. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. When the desired form has been obtained. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again.

This in turn divided by 33. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. and hang a bird swing. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. lb. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. That is lifting 33. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. in one minute or 550 lb. or fraction of a horsepower. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. over the smaller vessel. in the center. 3. Fig. or 550 ft. 1 ft. 30 ft. 1 ft. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Fill the 3-in. 2). Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. The smaller is placed within the larger. . Cutter.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. and still revolve. in one second. in diameter (Fig. in diameter (Fig. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. lb. using powdered pumice with lye. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. to keep it from floating. 1) and the other 12 in. space between the vessels with water. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. --Contributed by Harold H. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. per minute. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor.smooth. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel.000 lb. A. Clean the metal thoroughly. Before giving the description. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. but not to stop it. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. one 18 in. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower.000 ft. make an unusual show window attraction. per second.

1 Fig. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Szerlip.18 in. F. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Diameter 12 in. Mass. by L. N.3 Fig. Somerville. Y. Campbell. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. --Contributed by J. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. or on a pedestal. --Contributed. Brooklyn. 2 Fig. Diameter Fig. The effect is surprising.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water.

then by drawing a straightedge over it. with other defects.copper of No. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. to keep the metal from tarnishing. In riveting. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. away from the edge. unsatisfactory. which. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. the same as removing writing from a slate. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. after which it is ready for use. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. keeping the center high. which may be of wood or tin. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. using any of the common metal polishes. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. and then. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. Do not be content merely to bend them over. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. This compound is impervious to water. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Rivet the cup to the base. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. as a rule. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. and cut out the shape with the shears. is. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. often render it useless after a few months service. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. and the clay . Polish both of these pieces. with the pliers.

then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Northville. Grand Rapids. --Contributed by John T. 2. DeLoof. Mich. in diameter and 5 in. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. long. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. 3/4 in. It is made of a glass tube. -Contributed by Thos. Houghton. 1. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. as shown in Fig. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. the device will work for an indefinite time.can be pressed back and leveled. Mich. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. A. Shettleston. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. --Contributed by A. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Scotland. . The siphon is made of glass tubes. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Dunlop. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig.

This sword is 4 ft. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper.1 FIG. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. long with the crossguard and blade of steel.FIG. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. 1. stilettos and battle-axes. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. put up as ornaments. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. long. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. London. As the handle is to .2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. in width and 2 in.

The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. 8. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. the axe is of steel. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. wood with a keyhole saw. studded with brass or steel nails. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. sharp edges on both sides. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. the upper part iron or steel. 3 is shown a claymore. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. Both handle and axe are of steel. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. The sword shown in Fig. A German poniard is shown in Fig. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. This weapon is also about 1 ft. The handle is of wood. 4. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. in width. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. string. narrower. When the glue is thoroughly dry. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. These must be cut from pieces of wood. This stiletto has a wood handle. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. long with a dark handle of wood. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. 11 were used. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. with both edges sharp. which is about 2-1/2 ft. in length. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. Three large. 7. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. When dry. is shown in Fig. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. When the whole is quite dry. This weapon is about 1 ft. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. This sword is about 4 ft. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. sometimes called cuirass breakers. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. then glued on the blade as shown. In Fig. long. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. The lower half of the handle is of wood. very broad. in length. The crossbar and blade are steel. with wire or string' bound handle.represent copper. one about 1/2 in. with both edges of the blade sharp. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. A German stiletto. small rope and round-headed nails. In Fig. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. In Fig. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. the same as used on the end of the handle. glue and put it in place. paint it a dark brown or black. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. 9. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. 6. firmly glued on. 20 spike. The ball is made as described in Fig. 5. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. This axe is made similar to the one .

2. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. the ends are tied and cut off. together as shown in Fig. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. such as braided fishline. This will make a very good flexible belt. Chicago. When wrapped all the way around. will pull where other belts slip.described in Fig.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. 10. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. W. Davis. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. so the contents cannot be seen. . --Contributed by E. high. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. Old-Time Magic .

The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Oakland. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . causing the flowers to grow. or using small wedges of wood. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. N. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. four glass tumblers. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. apparently. 2. Before the performance. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. To make the flowers grow in an instant. The dotted lines in Fig. in a few seconds' time. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. filled with water.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. --Contributed by A. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. As zinc is much lighter than iron. an acid. These wires are put in the jar. about one-third the way down from the top.J. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. some of the liquid. Calif. There will be no change in color. held in the right hand. Macdonald. with the circle centrally located. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. 1 and put together as in Fig. Bridgeton. S. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher.

Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. This outlines the desired opening. and kept ready for use at any time. Richmond. --Contributed by W. which are numbered for convenience in working.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. A. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. Cal. 2 for height. 4 for width and No. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. If the size wanted is No. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. When many slides are to be masked. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. says a correspondent of Photo Era. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. practical and costs nothing. and equally worthy of individual treatment. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. unless some special device is used. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. not only because of the fact just mentioned. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Jaquythe.

16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. or a pair of old tongs. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. This done. When etched to the desired depth. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. but they can be easily revived. With a stick. and do not inhale the fumes. is about right for the No. 16 gauge. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. which is dangerous. Draw a design. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. the margin and the entire back of the metal. The one shown is merely suggestive. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. not the water into the acid. using the carbon paper. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. the paper is folded along the center line. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . too. paint the design. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. a little less acid than water. possibly. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. and the extreme length 7 in. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. The decoration. Secure a sheet of No. or. about half and half. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. may be changed. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water.

Fig. J is another wire attached in the same way. as in Fig. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. A. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 4. Paint the table any color desired. Fig. as shown in Fig. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. The connections are simple: I. in diameter and 1/4 in. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. about 8 in. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. with the wires underneath. It may be either nailed or screwed down. about 2-1/2 in. the bell will ring. about 3 ft. 3/8 in. 2. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. 2. high. When the button S is pressed. to the table. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. and about 2-1/2 ft. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. 24 parts water. Fig. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. wide and of the same length as the table. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. so that when it is pressed down. Nail a board. or more wide. 5. . 1. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. C and D. 3. as shown in the illustration. long and 1 ft. repeat as many times as is necessary. attached to a post at each end. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. through it. Fig. Fig. 0 indicates the batteries. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. wide. Cut out a piece of tin. 5. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Then get two posts. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. it will touch post F. long. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. 2. about 1 in. as at H. thick. and bore two holes.

the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. long serves as the dowel. A wood peg about 2 in. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. The imitation articles are made of wood. The circle is marked out with a compass. is to appear as steel. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. 1. such as . The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth.. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. but they are somewhat difficult to make. long. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. The entire weapon. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. After the glue is dry.Imitation Arms and Armor . This weapon is about 22 in. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. says the English Mechanic. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. These rings can be carved out. 2. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. thick. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. handle and all. the wood peg inserted in one of them. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue.

as shown. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. etc. with a sharp carving tool. All of these axes are about the same length. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. If such a tool is not at hand. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. . leaves. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. as before mentioned. also. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. The spikes are cut out of wood. 2. as described in Fig. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The upper half of the handle is steel. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. The axe is shown in steel. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. 5. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. 3. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. the hammer and spike. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. 6. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. This weapon is about 22 in. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. 8. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. covered with red velvet. Its length is about 3 ft. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The lower half of the handle is wood. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. long. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. or the amateur cannot use it well. The handle is of steel imitation. The handle is of wood. The entire handle should be made of one piece.ornamental scrolls. used at the end of the fifteenth century. flowers. studded with large brass or steel nails. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. is shown in Fig. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel.

The knife falling on its side (Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. 4). Chicago. 3. 7) calls for one out. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 1. Each person plays until three outs have been made. . --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. and so on for nine innings. 5. the knife resting on its back. as shown in Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. Fig. a three-base hit. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. then the other plays.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. 2. 6. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. as in Fig. calls for a home run.

Old-Time Magic . The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo.-Contributed by J. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. F. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. 2. as shown in Fig. hypo to 1 pt. 1. of the rope and holds it. with the rope laced in the cloth. Somerville. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. Campbell. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. while the committee is tying him up. of water for an hour or two. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. This he does. It may be found that the negative is not colored. as shown in Fig. Mass. 3. If it is spotted at all. one of them burning . Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film.

you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. --Contributed by C. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. thus causing it to light. invisible to them (the audience). shades the light for a few seconds. 4 oz. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. --Contributed by L. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. of turpentine. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. thick. Brown. Ky. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. B. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. with which he is going to light the other candle. of water and 1 oz. 3/4 in. The magician walks over to the burning candle. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. Louisville. of plumbago. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. 4 oz. . Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles.. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. He then walks over to the other candle.brightly. of sugar. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. Drill Gauge screw.Contributed by Andrew G. bolt. Evans. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. Ky. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. and. showing that there is nothing between them. the other without a light. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. New York City. etc. Thome. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. Lebanon.

A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. In making up the solution. into a tube of several thicknesses. To make the porous cell. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. but is not so good. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. thick. N. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. Its current strength is about one volt. steady current. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. which will give a strong. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. Y. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. diameter. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . or blotting paper. for the material. 5 in. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. H. long. Do not add water to the acid. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. Denniston. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Pulteney. about 5 in. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. --Contributed by C. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. but can be made up into any required voltage in series.

To insure this. steel. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. The . It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. long with a bearing at each end. one drawing them together. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. steel. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. but somewhat lighter. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. As to thickness. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces.) may be obtained. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace.station. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. carrying the hour circle at one end. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. the other holding them apart. steel. while the other end is attached by two screws. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. After much experimentation with bearings. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. One hole was bored as well as possible. Finally. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. a positive adjustment was provided. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next.

attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. The aperture should be 1/4 in. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. Cassiopiae. and 15 min. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. Instead.. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. Each shaft. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. To find a star in the heavens. excepting those on the declination axis. need not be changed. To locate a known star on the map. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. is provided with this adjustment. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. once carefully made.. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. All these adjustments. apart. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. 45 min. are tightened. The pole is 1 deg. in each direction from two points 180 deg. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. Point it approximately to the north star. Declination is read directly. The pointer is directed to Alpha. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. save the one in the pipe. turn the pointer to the star. All set screws. If the result is more than 24 hours. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. Set the declination circle to its reading. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. and if it is not again directed to the same point. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. It is. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object." When this is done. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. subtract 24. When properly set it will describe a great circle. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted." Only a rough setting is necessary.

Plain City. add a little more benzole. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. Strosnider. taking care not to add too much. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. the others . The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. a great effect will be produced. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. is folded several times. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. In reality the first ball.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. benzole. cannon balls. If this will be too transparent. -Contributed by Ray E. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. then add 1 2-3 dr. is the real cannon ball. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. La. which is the one examined. Ohio. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. The dance will begin. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. as shown in the sketch.. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. New Orleans. of ether. 3 or 4 in. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The ball is found to be the genuine article. long.

The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Return the card to the pack. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Cal. Milwaukee. without taking up any great amount of space. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. F. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Wis. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. taps. --Contributed by J. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. San Francisco. 2. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Campbell. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. Mass. as shown in the illustration. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . etc.. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. small brooches. In boxes having a sliding cover. Fig. 1). which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Somerville.

Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. . which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. thus giving ample store room for colors. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. This box has done good service. slides and extra brushes. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Hartford. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. as shown in the illustration. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. round pieces 2-1/4 in. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. from the bottom of the box. Connecticut. Beller. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. prints.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned.

Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. FIG. When the ends are turned under. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. Fill the upper tub. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. costing 5 cents. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. . about threefourths full. 2). O. 1).I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. with well packed horse manure. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. tacking the gauze well at the corners. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. holes in the bottom of one. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. Darke. West Lynn. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. Mass. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. or placed against a wall. will answer the purpose. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. -Contributed by C.

If the following directions are carried out. Chicago. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. --Contributed by L. they should be knocked out. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. oil or other fluid. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. M. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. and each bundle contains . he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. when they are raised from the pan. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. Eifel. If plugs are found in any of the holes. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. cutting the cane between the holes.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. if this is not available.

and. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. a square pointed wedge. 1. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. then across and down. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. as shown in Fig. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. held there by inserting another plug. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. as it must be removed again. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. after having been pulled tight. No plugs . Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. it should be held by a plug. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. put about 3 or 4 in. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. In addition to the cane.

Start at one corner and weave diagonally. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. Fig. 41 °-30'. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. If you have a table of natural functions. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. as the height of the line BC for lat. as shown in Fig. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . called the gnomon. and for lat. the height of which is taken from table No. After completing the second layer. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. 1. in this case) times the . can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. lat. 5 in. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. Patrick. trim off the surplus rosin. D. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. 1. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. Detroit.5 in. It consists of a flat circular table. During the weaving. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. 40°. Michigan. and for 1° it would be . The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. is the horizontal dial. From table No. is the base (5 in. Fig. 1.42 in. The style or gnomon. 4. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through.075 in. or the style. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. it is 4. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC.3 in.= 4. --Contributed by M. -Contributed by E. the next smallest. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. as shown in Fig. All added to the lesser or 40°. Even with this lubrication. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. There are several different designs of sundials. for 2°. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. 3. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer.075 in. Their difference is . rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. 41°-30'. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. W. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding.15+. and the one we shall describe in this article. When cool. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. 42° is 4. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. 3. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. 1 lat.2 in. 5.15 in. using the same holes as for the first layer.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. as it always equals the latitude of the place. stretch the third one. but the most common. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. This will make three layers. as for example. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. If handled with a little care. No weaving has been done up to this time. the height of the line BC. R. we have 4. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired.2+.

Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.42 45 .96 32° 3.16 1.87 1.68 5-30 6-30 5. or if of stone.91 58° 8.55 4. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. with a radius of 5 in. Its thickness.56 .27 2.87 4.37 5.02 1.30 2. gives the 6 o'clock points.18 28° 2.63 56° 7.46 3.94 1. and for this size dial (10 in.42 1.07 4. and intersecting the semicircles. 2.85 1.42 .14 5.66 48° 5. or more.33 .00 40° 4.88 36° 3.06 2. and perpendicular to the base or style.40 34° 3. To layout the hour circle. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.76 1. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.50 26° 2.93 6.28 . in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.89 50° 5. 2. Draw two semi-circles.57 3.85 35 . draw two parallel lines AB and CD.82 5.55 5.46 .39 .82 2. Draw the line AD. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.82 3. circle Sundial.57 1. base.38 .55 30° 2.32 6. using the points A and C as centers.49 30 .64 4 8 3.41 38° 3.12 52° 6. according to the size of the dial.23 6. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.93 2. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. long.10 6.26 4. Fig.77 2.49 3.16 40 .19 1.66 1.tangent of the degree of latitude.20 60° 8. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .33 42° 4. which will represent the base in length and thickness.81 4.55 46° 5. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. 2 for given latitudes.97 5 7 4.29 4-30 7-30 3. For latitudes not given.11 3. Table NO. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. . if of metal. an inch or two. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.40 1.30 1.03 3.83 27° 2.99 2.37 54° 6.44 44° 4. Chords in inches for a 10 in.59 2. 1.79 4.66 latitude. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.

Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.63 1. if west. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.24 5. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. it will be faster.from Sundial lime. The + means that the clock is faster.71 2. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.46 5.10 4.21 2. 3. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.89 3.72 5. Each weapon is cut from wood.68 3. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. June 15. Sept.14 1.means that the dial is faster than the sun.82 3. 900 Chicago. Sun time to local mean time. and for the difference between standard and local time.87 6.53 1.49 5.12 5.50 55 . 25. London. As they are the genuine reproductions.19 2. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries..57 1.50 . says the English Mechanic. E.54 60 . adding to each piece interest and value. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.add those marked + subtract those Marked . with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. then the watch is slower.79 6. Sioux City.30 2. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. 3. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.60 4.06 2. and the . each article can be labelled with the name. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.49 3.34 5. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. April 16. 2 and Dec.93 6. An ordinary compass.37 2.46 4. This correction can be added to the values in table No.52 Table No.77 3. Mitchell.98 4. will enable one to set the dial.08 1. --Contributed by J. Iowa.01 1. after allowing for the declination. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.

brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. the length of which is about 5 ft. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. When putting on the tinfoil. 1. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. 3. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in.. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The spear head is of steel about 15 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Partisan. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. .

An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. the holes being about 1/4 in. 5. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. is shown in Fig. The spear is steel. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. This weapon is about 6 ft.. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. press it well into the carved depressions. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. . The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. long. It is about 6 ft. used about the seventeenth century. which are a part of the axe. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. in diameter. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. about 4 in. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The edges are sharp.which is square. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. A gisarm or glaive. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The length of this bar is about 5 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. long with a round staff or handle. sharp on the outer edges. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. 8. The extreme length is 9 ft. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. 6 ft. long. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. 7. long with a round wooden handle.

used for spacing and binding the whole together. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. This is important to secure neatness. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Cut all the cords the same length. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. Ohio. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired.-Contributed by R. In Figs. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. They can be made of various materials. H. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Loudonville. are put in place. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. the most durable being bamboo. Workman. are less durable and will quickly show wear. or in holes punched in a leather strap. 4. Substances such as straw. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. 5. apart. B.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. the cross cords. 1. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. The twisted cross cords should . 2 and 3.

and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. as shown at B. The first design shown is for using bamboo. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. in which was placed a piece of glass.be of such material. To remedy this. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. New Orleans. shaped as shown at C. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. New York. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. A slit was cut in the bottom. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. of the bottom. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. Four V-shaped notches were cut. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. wide. This was turned over the top of the other can. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. Lockport. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. La. Harrer. M. below the top to within 1/4 in. for a length extending from a point 2 in. bamboo or rolled paper. -Contributed by Geo. 3 in. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the .

sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. Ill. do not throw away the gloves. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. H. N. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. --Contributed by Chas. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. the brass is loosened from the block. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Maywood. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. Pasadena. This should be done gradually. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine.tape from sticking to the carpet. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. Sanford. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . about 1/16 in. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. and two along the side for attaching the staff. Schaffner. --Contributed by W. giving the appearance of hammered brass. After this is finished. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. It would be well to polish the brass at first. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Cal. turned over but not fastened. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. wide. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. Y. Shay. Newburgh. This plank. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. --Contributed by Joseph H. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. plank as long as the diameter of the platform.

Ill. the pendulum swings . A. Unlike most clocks. K. bent as shown. --E. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Oak Park. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. in diameter. Jaquythe. -Contributed by W. Marshall.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Richmond. Cal.

The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. is an electromagnet. 3/4 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. about 12 in. wide that is perfectly flat. bearing on the latter. by 1-5/16 in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Two uprights. only have the opposite side up. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Chicago. thick. high. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. bar. on the board B. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. Metzech. Now place the board to be joined. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. about 6 in. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. C. Secure a board. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. B. such as this one. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. In using this method. long and at each side of this. wide. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. A. 5/16 in. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. --Contributed by V. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. . Fasten another board.. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. and the other two 2-5/8 in. The construction is very simple. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. high and 1/4 in. says the Scientific American. high. are secured in the base bar. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. in diameter. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. 7-1/2 in. high. the center one being 2-3/4 in. 6 in. to the first one with screws or glue. away.

Place the cardboard square in the nick B.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. square. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. 1. --Contributed by Elmer A. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. Fig. Pa. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. 3. The trigger. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Phoenixville. wide and 1 in. 4. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. 1. . A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. from one end. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. wide and 5 in. by driving a pin through the wood. as shown at A. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. whose dimensions are given in Fig. long. Vanderslice. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. Fig. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. 1. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. square inside. or more. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. is fastened in the hole A. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. plates should be made 8 in. 2.

Fostoria. rubbing varnish and turpentine.A. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. by weight. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 5 parts of black filler. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. as shown in the illustration. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. -Contributed by J. Ohio. 2 parts of whiting. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. square. which allows 1/4 in. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. one-half the length of the side pieces. Simonis. if only two bands are put in the .

The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. A piece of metal. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. is set at an angle of 45 deg. long. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. A double convex lens. Mass. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. 8 in. DeLoof. In constructing helmets. Michigan. wide and about 1 ft. place tracing paper on its surface. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. is necessary. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. It must be kept moist and well . London. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. A mirror. says the English Mechanic. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. --Contributed by Thos. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. which may be either of ground or plain glass. as shown in Fig.lower strings. keeps the strong light out when sketching. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. G. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. If a plain glass is used. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. in the opposite end of the box. II. 1. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. No. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. Dartmouth. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. and it may be made as a model or full sized. preferably copper. and the picture can be drawn as described. deep. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. In use. Grand Rapids.

The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. 1. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. as shown in Fig. on which to place the clay. as in bas-relief. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. take. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. and continue until the clay is completely covered. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. and the deft use of the fingers. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. with a keyhole saw. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. will be necessary. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. 3. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. brown. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . 4 is the side outline of the helmet. and left over night to soak. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. a few clay-modeling tools. or some thin glue. 1. Scraps of thin. The clay. and over the crest on top. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. the clay model oiled. joined closely together. 2. All being ready. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. shown in Fig. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. After the clay model is finished.kneaded. This being done.

This contrivance should be made of wood. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. Indiana. one for each side. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. 1. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. The center of the ear guards are perforated. owing to the clay being oiled. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. square in shape. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. Indianapolis. a crest on top. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. will make it look neat. In Fig. When the helmet is off the model. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. They are all covered with tinfoil. the piecing could not be detected. 9. as seen in the other part of the sketch. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. The whole helmet. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. --Contributed by Paul Keller. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. which should be no difficult matter. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. When dry. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. When perfectly dry. should be modeled and made in one piece. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. the skullcap. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. and so on. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. The band is decorated with brass studs. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. and the ear guards in two pieces. with the exception of the vizor. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Before taking it off the model.as possible. In Fig. or. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. 5. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. then another coating of glue. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. as shown: in the design. 7. a few lines running down.

holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. long. Fig. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. Fig. 2. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. A round collar of galvanized iron. if this cannot be obtained. Fig. Fig. of No. 4. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . of mineral wool. as it stands a higher temperature. should extend about 1/4 in. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. in diameter and 9 in. This will allow the plate.same size. for connections. and. when they are placed in opposite positions. as shown in Fig. 1. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. also the switch B and the fuse block C. 2. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. above the collar. are allowed to project about 1 in. of fire clay. If asbestos is used. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. 12 in. thick sheet asbestos. 22 gauge resistance wire. the fuse block. 4. JJ. Fig. Fig. FF. about 1/4 in. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. screws. as shown in Fig. GG. to receive screws for holding it to the base. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. one glass tube. and two large 3in. If a neat appearance is desired. The plate. 1. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 4. 3 in. long. 1. The holes B and C are about 3 in. The reverse side of the base. Fig. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. one fuse block. German-silver wire is better. This will make an open space between the plates. is then packed down inside the collar. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. about 1 lb. of the top. and C. 1. about 80 ft. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. long. Fig. Fig. until it is within 1 in. 4. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. each 4-1/2 in. AA. wide and 15 in. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. Fig. or. The mineral wool. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. high. Fig. is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. the holes leading to the switch. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. 4. if the measurements are correct. The two holes. two ordinary binding posts. 2. which can be bought from a local druggist. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. with slits cut for the wires. 1 in. 4 lb. 1. Fig. 3. AA. 4. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 4. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. E and F. AA. thick. Fig. 1. one small switch. one oblong piece of wood.

Can. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. When the tile is in place. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. The clay. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. If this is the case. This point marks the proper length to cut it. apart. H. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. When this is done. Next. as the turns of the wires.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. --Contributed by W. Cnonyn. allowing a space between each turn. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. KK. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. A. Jaquythe. above the rim. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. II. Fig. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Fig. it leaves a gate for the metal. While the clay is damp. and pressed into it. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. Catherines. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. steam will form when the current is applied. when cool. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. Cut a 1/2-in. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. using care not to get it too wet. --Contributed by R. more wire should be added. will slip and come in contact with each other. It should not be set on end. so that the circuit will not become broken. Cal. causing a short circuit. then. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. If it is not thoroughly dry. It should not be left heated in this condition. St. As these connections cannot be soldered. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. Cover over about 1 in. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. A file can be used to remove any rough places. when heated. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. 2. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. 4. deep. Richmond. This completes the stove. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. Removing Pies from Pans [275] .

Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. square material in any size. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Thorne. Louisville. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Then clip a little off the . The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. the pie will be damaged. says the Photographic Times. as shown. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Ky. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. and the prints will dry rapidly. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. constructed of 3/4-in. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. and the frame set near a window. is large enough. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. --Contributed by Andrew G. but 12 by 24 in.

allowing each end to project for connections. at GG. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. slip on two cardboard washers. 1/2 in. Fig. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 4 in. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. wide. 22 gauge magnet wire. 3. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. wide and 7 in. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. thick and 3 in. long. 2. wide and 3 in. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. The board can be raised to place . high. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. 1/2 in. thick. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. which are fastened to the base. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. 2-1/2 in. 1 and 3. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. W. thick and 3 in. The upright B. Two supports. Herron. in diameter and about 4 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. long. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. The driving arm D. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. Fig. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. The connecting rod E. as shown. causing a break in the current.Paper Funnel point. As the shaft revolves. in diameter. each 1/2 in. Iowa. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. 1. each 1 in. long. Fig. 1. Figs. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. 1. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. open out. An offset is bent in the center. high. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. for the crank. 1. high. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. A 1/8-in. Le Mars. -Contributed by S. thereby saving time and washing. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. 14 in. long. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig.

wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Mass. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. making a framework suitable for a roost. --Contributed by William F. on a board. bottom side up. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. as shown in the sketch. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. In designing the roost. 3 in.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. One or more pots may be used. Dorchester. in height. Stecher. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Place the pot. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. .

that it is heated. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. if it is other than straight lines. without any corresponding benefit. The bottom part of the sketch. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. in diameter. when combined. grills and gratings for doors. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. as shown in Fig. adopt the method described. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. and give it time to dry. odd corners. F. ordinary glue. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. will produce the pattern desired. F.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. shelves. windows.. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. 1. Wind the . 1.. paraffin and paint or varnish. etc. Fig. The materials required are rope or. preferably. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments.

Fig. 2. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . -Contributed by Geo. Lockport. Y. N. cut and glue them together. Fig. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Harrer. six designs are shown. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. M. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry.

Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. Pour the water in until the filter is filled.. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. 1. etc. but no farther. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in.. which was used in front of a horse's head. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. says the English Mechanic. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords..Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. when it will be observed that any organic matter. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. London. and the sides do not cover the jaws. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. etc. This piece of horse armor. will be retained by the cotton. As the . The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. chips of iron rust.

Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. In Fig. but the back is not necessary. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. This will make the model light and easy to move around. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. except the thumb and fingers. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. then another coat of glue. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. 2. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. This can be made in one piece. but for . give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. the rougher the better. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. with the exception of the thumb shield. The armor is now removed from the model. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. and will require less clay. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 8. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. An arrangement is shown in Fig. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. which is separate. All being ready. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. and the clay model oiled. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. 2. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. This triangularshaped support. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. 6 and 7. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. and therefore it is not described. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. This being done.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. as the surface will hold the clay. 4. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. the same as in Fig. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. as shown in the sketch. which can be made in any size. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on.

Redondo Beach.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. wide and 1/2 in. If it does not hold a charge. cut into the shape shown in Fig. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. A piece of board. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Buxton. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. 9. Calif. The two pieces of foil. --Contributed by Ralph L. running down the plate. N. are glued to it. will be about right. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. --Contributed by John G. Y. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. and the instrument is ready for use. the two pieces of foil will draw together. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. but 3-1/2 in. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. 2. Goshen. in depth. La Rue. two for the jaws and one a wedge. . The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. fastened to the rod. 1/2 in. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. When locating the place for the screw eyes. long. two in each jaw. the foils will not move. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. the top of the rod. are better shown in Fig. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. each about 1/4 in.

The chipped ice can be removed with a pail.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. from the smaller end. about 15 in. A. The can may be bronzed. At a point 6 in. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. enameled or otherwise decorated. pine board. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. 2-1/2 in. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Corsicana. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. --Contributed by Mrs. silvered. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Texas. Bryan. as indicated in the . hole bored through it. When a fish is hooked. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. long. as this will cut under the water without splashing. M. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. as shown in the illustration. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. is made of a 1/4-in. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel.

Polish the metal. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. and trace upon it the design and outline. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Having completed the drawing. such as basswood or pine was used. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. 3/8 or 1/4 in. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. using a piece of carbon paper. as shown. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. put a coat or two of wax and polish . A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. punch the holes. or even pine. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. take a piece of thin wood. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. long over all. A good size is 5 in. Next prepare the metal holder. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. wide by 6 in. then with a nail. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. using powdered pumice and lye. When it has dried over night. will do as well as the more expensive woods. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Any kind of wood will do. If soft wood. 22 is plenty heavy enough. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Basswood or butternut.Match Holder accompanying sketch. thick.

The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. is used for the base of this instrument. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. are used for the cores of the magnets. can be made on the same standards. 1/2 in. Jaquythe. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Two wire nails. --Contributed by W. wide and 5 in. It is useful for photographers. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. A. long. the whole being finished in linseed oil. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. of pure olive oil. 2 in. If carving is contemplated. If one has some insight in carving. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. Richmond. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. thick. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. long. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. each 1 in. Cal. . Instead of the usual two short ropes. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood.

except that for the legs. at A. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. 1. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. A piece of tin. as shown by the dotted lines. London. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. leaving about 1/4 in. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. when the key is pushed down. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. cut in the shape of the letter T. then covered with red.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. Lynas. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. as shown in Fig. acts as a spring to keep the key open. . in the shape shown in the sketch. --Contributed by W. H. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. 25 gauge. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. the paper covering put on. similar to that used in electric bells. A rubber band. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. All of the parts for the armor have been described. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. 3. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. cloth or baize to represent the legs. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. About 1 in. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. about No. says the English Mechanic. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils.

and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. or ordinary plaster laths will do. flat headed carriage bolt. Instead of using brass headed nails. one to another . holes. 1 in. make the same series of eight small holes and. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. Fig. Take the piece shown in Fig. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. 3 in. not too tight. By moving the position of the bolt from. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. So set up. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. Cut them to a length or 40 in. at each end. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. These can be purchased at a stationery store. A 1/4-in. drill six 1/4-in. and eight small holes. can be made in a few minutes' time. Secure two strips of wood. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. for the sake of lightness. In one end of the piece. says Camera Craft. hole in the center. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. 1 and drill a 1/4in. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. completes the equipment. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. in the other end.. apart. Silver paper will do very well. The two pieces are bolted together. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. 2. apart. about 1 in. long.

makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. taking the same start as for the square fob. 2. of the ends remain unwoven. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. and the one beneath C. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. Then take B and lay it over A. 4. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. 2. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. for instance. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. 2. doubled and run through the web of A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. and lay it over the one to the right. C over D and B. lay Cover B and the one under D.of the larger holes in the strip. as in portraiture and the like. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. In this sketch. 1. A round fob is made in a similar way. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. in Fig. then B over C and the end stuck under A. Then draw all four ends up snugly. the one marked A. A is the first string and B is the second. but instead of reversing . take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. as shown in Fig. Start with one end. long. D over A and C. Fig. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions.

A loop. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. as B. long. Rupp. Monroeville. over the one to its right.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. as at A in Fig. 3. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. --Contributed by John P. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. Other designs can be made in the same manner. Ohio. is to be made of leather. the design of which is shown herewith. is left out at the center before starting on one side. The round fob is shown in Fig. as in making the square fob. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. especially if silk strings are used. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . 1-1/2 in. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. always lap one string. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. 5.

. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. pressing it against the wood. A. it can be easily renewed. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. Mich. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. Northville. Any smooth piece of steel. using the reverse side. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. filling them with wax. door facing or door panel. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. beeswax or paraffin. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. -Contributed by A. Houghton. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. When the supply of wax is exhausted. such as a nut pick.

Y. long. Ill. thick. D. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Enough plaster should. and about 12 in. leaving about 1/4 in. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Fold together on lines C. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. E and F.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Petersburg. place it face down in the dish. if blueprints are used. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. but any kind that will not stick may be used. those on matte paper will work best. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. and after wetting. The tacks should be about 1 in. says Photographic Times. although tin ones can be used with good success. apart and driven in only part way. --Contributed by O. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. remaining above the surface of the board. Select the print you wish to mount. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. J. N. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. . press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. it is best to leave a plain white margin. New York. Thompson. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. nearly as wide as the envelope is long.

One of the . without mixing the solutions. filling the same about onehalf full. violets. bell flowers. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. as shown at the left in the sketch. as shown in the right of the sketch. will be rendered perfectly white. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. roses. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. etc.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water.. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. Lower into the test tube a wire. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized.

The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. Millstown. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. 3. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. 1. about 1/8s in.. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. as shown. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. Shabino. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. made of heavy tin. thick. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. --Contributed by L. or delicate tints of the egg. Fig. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. South Dakota. 1-7/8 in. which should be of thin ferrotype tin.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. as shown in the sketch. The diaphragm. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. 2. long and made of wood. is about 2-1/2 in. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. The first point should be ground blunt. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. turned a little tapering. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The sound box. but which will not wobble loose. long. A rod that will fit the brass tube. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. and at the larger end. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. to keep the core from coming off in turning. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. should be soldered to the box. shading. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. not too tightly. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. in diameter and 1 in. L. The tin horn can be easily made. When soldering these parts together.

is to take a knife with two blades at one end. wondering what it was. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Victor. Ill. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Chicago. mice in the bottom. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. Jr.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. says the Iowa Homestead. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass.Contributed by E. put a board on top. E. Gold. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Colo. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. and weighted it with a heavy stone. and.

Y. Can. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. . Pereira. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Buffalo. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Ottawa.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. --Contributed by Lyndwode. N. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers.

cut round. A. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Cal. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. --Contributed by W. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Grand Rapids. by means of a flatheaded tack. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Richmond. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Put a small nail 2 in. as shown. --Contributed by Thos. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. above the end of the dasher. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. longer than the length of the can. Jaquythe. and at one end of the stick fasten. through which several holes have been punched. De Loof.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. a piece of tin. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. This cart has no axle. as it can be made quickly in any size. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Mich. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration.

apart. 2 in. 2. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. The baseboard and top are separable. 1 ft. thick. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. La. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. Fig. 1. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. screwed it on the inside of a store box. board. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. wide. Pa. as shown. were below the level of the bullseye. Kane. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. wide and 3 ft. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. cut in the center of the rounding edge. New Orleans. The candles. 1-1/2 in. 2. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. of course. Doylestown. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 1/4 in. A wedge-shaped piece of . --Contributed by James M. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. Notches 1/8 in.1. wide and as long as the box. deep and 3 in. wide and 1/8 in. I reversed a door gong. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. long. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. 2. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig.

as one end must be dropped in place before the other. After the glue has dried. After completing the handle. the reason being that if both were solid. This device is very convenient for invalids. stone or wood. to prevent its scratching the desk top. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size.Book Back Holders metal. Cover the block with rubber. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. etc. 1. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. wide into each side of the casing. The block can also be used as a paperweight. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. it can be removed without marring the casing. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. can be picked up without any trouble. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Worcester. 3. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. A. Needles. Mass. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Wood. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. dressing one surface of each piece. West Union. the blade is put back into the groove . wide rubber bands or felt. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. by cutting away the ends. scissors. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. For the handle. when placed as in Fig. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. will.. the shelf could not be put on the window. --Contributed by G. Ia. When not in use. as shown in Fig. take two pieces of hard wood.

If desired. 2. Each one is made of a hardwood block. long. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Pa. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces.and sharpened to a cutting edge. A notch is cut in one side. -Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. . --Contributed by H. Jacobs. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. square and 4 in. thus carrying the car up the incline. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Cleveland. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. A. Ohio. S. 1. Malden. Mass. Hutchins. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Erie. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. 1 in. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down.

. 6 by 9-1/2 in. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. Cape May Point. This will insure having all parts alike. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. Prepare a design for the front. a board on which to work it.. and an awl and hammer. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. N. The letters can be put on afterward. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. If one such as is shown is to be used. One sheet of metal.J. will be needed.

Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. turpentine. says Master Painter. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. 2 parts white vitriol. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. mandolin or guitar." In all appearance. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. 1 part. or. . and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. If any polishing is required. only the marginal line is to be pierced. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. applied by means of a brush. if desired. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. paste the paper design right on the metal. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. to right angles. flat brush. varnish. which is desirable. but weird and distant. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. So impressive are the results. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. a violin. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. behind or through the center of a table leg. Remove the metal. The stick may be placed by the side of. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. placed on a table. On the back. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. in the waste metal. 3/4 part.Fasten the metal to the board. that can be worked in your own parlor. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. The music will not sound natural. as shown. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. 1/4 part. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. One coat will do. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick.

without them. 3. long. it might be difficult. long and spread about 8 in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. says Work. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. across the top.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. apart. long and measuring 26 in. square bar iron. 2. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. each 28 in. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. Two pairs of feet. each 6 in. With proper tools this is easy. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. are shaped as shown in Fig. The longest piece. and is easy to construct. . London. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. wide. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. round-head machine screws. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. thick by 1/2 in. as would be the case with ordinary calipers.

5. The design is formed in the lead. in the grooves of the borders. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. After the glass is cut. and the base border. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. D.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. lead. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. A. cut a long piece of lead. B. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. Place the corner piece of glass. After the joints are soldered. is held by the brads. C. 5. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. the latter being tapped to . 7. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. on it as shown. 6. as shown in Fig. While the piece of lead D. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The glass. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. The brads are then removed. Fig. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. 4. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. special flux purchased for this purpose. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. using rosin as a flux. Fig. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. or. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. better still.

plates. and round the corners of one end for a ring. as shown in Fig. This ring can be made of 1-in. rocker bolt. The center pin is 3/4-in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. in diameter and 1/4 in. Jr. wood screws in each washer. bolt. Fasten the plates to the block B.. then drill a 3/4-in. one on each side and central with the hole. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. not less than 4 in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. H. A and B. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Concrete is much better if it can be secured.the base of the clip. then flatten its end on the under side. Two styles of hand holds are shown. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Bore a 3/4-in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Dreier. J. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Camden. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. and two wood blocks. in diameter and about 9 in. This . This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. bolt. plank about 12 ft. rounded at the top as shown. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. long. square and of the length given in the drawing. 8. long. thick and drill 3/4-in. Secure a post. N. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. --Contributed by W. Bore a 5/8-in. holes through their centers. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Make three washers 3-in. long.

a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. long and 1 piece. If trees are convenient. because it will not stand the weather. 4 in. long. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 1. long. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. 4 in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by 2 ft. 4 filler pieces. long. long. can make a first class gymnasium. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. To substitute small. straight-grained hickory. 3/4 by 3 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. apart for a distance of 3 ft. from one edge. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. La. and some one can swing an axe. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. 1/2 in. square by 9-1/2 ft. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 4 pieces. bit. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. square by 5 ft. long. boards along the side of each from end to end. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. maple. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 3 in. 1-1/4in. of 1/4-in. 50 ft. chestnut or ash. shanks. by 3 ft. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned.will make an excellent cover for a pot. Draw a line on the four 7-in. The four 7-in. hickory. 2-1/2 in. 9 in. in diameter and 7 in. 2 by 4 in. 1 by 7 in. long. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. 16 screws. New Orleans. bolts and rope. 7 in. horse and rings. 4 pieces. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. the money outlay will be almost nothing. by 6-1/2 ft. screws.

then buried to a depth of 2 ft. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. apart. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. piece of wood. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. boards coincide. Bore a 9/16-in. 8 in. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. at each end. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. apart. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground.. deep and remove all loose dirt. so the 1/2-in. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. 2. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. each 3 ft. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut.bored. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. from the end..

and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. disappearing only to reappear again. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. passing through a screweye at either end. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. and then passes in a curve across the base. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. . through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. not much to look at in daytime. W. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. it follows the edge for about 1 in. in an endless belt. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. and ascends the stem. the effect is very striking. And all he used was a black thread. apart. If the tumbler is rotated. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. but most deceptive at dusk." which skimmed along the distant horizon.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. was at its height. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. not even the tumbler. about 100 ft. and materially heightened the illusion.. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. it is taken to the edge of the foot. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. When the interest of the crowd. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. just visible against the dark evening sky. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. which at once gathered. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. He stretched the thread between two buildings.

A wire about No. deep.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 2 by 4 in. long. 8 in. 4 wood screws. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. The cork will come out easily. 2 by 3 in. 2 in. To make the apparatus. preferably cedar. 8 in. 8 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 7 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. by 2 ft. long and 1 doz. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. large spikes. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. long. by 3 ft. La. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 4 bolts. long. and turned in a spiral D. 2 by 4 in. long. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 8 bolts. 4 in. 2 base pieces. wide and 1 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 4 knee braces. 1. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. by 7 ft. square and 6 ft. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. by 10 ft. so the point will be on top. 2 side braces. from either side of the center. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. Bevel the ends of . Fig. square and 51/2 ft. 4 in. New Orleans. 6 in. beginning at a point 9 in. Chisel out two notches 4 in. long. 2 cross braces. long. 2 by 4 in. long. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. long.

of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. and countersinking the heads. etc.. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. but even unpainted they are very durable. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. leave it undressed. using four of the 7-in bolts. Jaquythe. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. equipped with a strainer. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. additional long. except the bars. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. . These will allow the ladle to be turned. Richmond. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. Cal. jellies. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. of 7 ft. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. The wood so treated will last for years. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. A large sized ladle. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. If using mill-cut lumber. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. ( To be Continued.the knee braces. so the bolts in both will not meet. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Two endpieces must be made. which face each other. A. screws. --Contributed by W. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. save the bars. as shown in the diagram. After the trenches are dug. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. leaving the strainer always in position.

Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. A. . it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. thus holding the pail as shown. or various cutting compounds of oil.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. Oil. of sufficient 1ength. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. which seems impossible. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. milling machine. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. In order to accomplish this experiment. it is necessary to place a stick. partly a barrier for jumps. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. drill press or planer. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing.

from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. These are well nailed in place. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 2 by 4 in. 3 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft.. from each end. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. two 1/2-in. long. ten 1/2-in. 2 by 4 in. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. stud cut rounding on one edge. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 7 in. bolts. bolt. by 3 ft. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. apart in a central position on the horse. long. 4 knee braces. The material required is as follows: Two posts. piece of 2 by 4-in. These are placed 18 in. beginning 1-1/2 in. bolts. 2 by 4 in. 4 in. Hand holds must be provided next. Procure from a saw mill. 4 in. 4 in. To construct. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. bolts. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. long. in the ground. long. in diameter--the larger the better. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. square by 5 ft.. and free from knots. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. 1 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. 2 adjusting pieces. wood yard or from the woods. long. but 5 ft. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 2 bases. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. is a good length. long. by 3 ft. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. 1 cross brace. projections and splinters. 4-1/2 in. The round part of this log must be planed. apart. long. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. square by 5-1/2 ft. by 3 ft. long. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth.

Also. pipe and fittings. over and around. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. such as a dent. Such a hand sled can be made in a . When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. but nevertheless. water. A. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. etc. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Cal. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. it is caused by some obstruction. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. no one is responsible but himself.horse top. Jaquythe. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. it is caused by an overloaded shell. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. snow.--Contributed by W. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Richmond. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. then bending to the shape desired. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet.

Joerin. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. are all the tools necessary. then run a string over each part. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Mass. Paris. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. at E and F. which. Toronto. . thick. --Contributed by Arthur E. 2. will give the length. These. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. The end elevation. W. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. in width and 1/32 in. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. --Contributed by James E. Vener. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. 1. when straightened out. is much better than a wood sled. Noble. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. 1/4 or 3/16 in. France. --Contributed by J. Ontario. when complete. Boston.

A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. 3. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. nor that which is partly oxidized. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. AA and BB. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. are nailed. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. It is best to use soft water. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. 4. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. .Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. The method shown in Figs. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe.

the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. as shown in Fig. 2. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. or various rulings may be made. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 1). If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. Percy Ashley in Rudder. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 2.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 4. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 8 and 9. The materials used are: backbone. 3. class ice-yacht. as shown in Fig. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. or unequal widths as in Fig. . Broad lines can be made.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. Both the lower . may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. pins to keep them from turning. out from the collar. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired.Fig. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. about 30 in. The headstock is made of two tees. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. a tee and a forging. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. It can be made longer or shorter. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. 1-Details of Lathe sort. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. but if it is made much longer. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. pipe. bent and drilled as shown. The point should extend about 11/2 in. A good and substantial homemade lathe. long. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. a larger size of pipe should be used. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. 1.

Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Boissevain. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. To do this. 2. or a key can be used as well. else taper turning will result. 2. 1. as shown in Fig. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Fruitvale. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. a corresponding line made on this. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. and will answer for a great variety of work. Cal. It is about 1 in. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. UpDeGraff. --Contributed by W. Laporte. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. M. --Contributed by W. 2. thick as desired. --Contributed by M. as shown in Fig. W. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Man. 3 and 4 are very easy to make.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. Indiana. but also their insulating properties. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 3/4 or 1 in. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Musgrove. a straight line should be scratched Fig. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. . Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Held.

the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. --Contributed by E. Ark. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Ft. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. To obviate this. The handle is of pine about 18 in. as shown. J. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. In use. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. Smith. Cline. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . long. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back.

La. on starting the lathe. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. Denver. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and when once in true up to its size. the drill does not need the tool. if this method is followed: First. which should be backed out of contact. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. White. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. take . by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. centering is just one operation too many. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. This prevents the drill from wobbling. Colo. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. --Contributed by Walter W. face off the end of the piece. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. After being entered. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. New Orleans.

and can be varied to suit the performer. After the wand is removed. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. a bout 1/2 in.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. and this given to someone to hold. by applying caustic soda or . and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. The handkerchief rod. after being shown empty. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. all the better. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. It can be used in a great number of tricks. shown at C. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. The glass tube B. says the Sphinx. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. vanishing wand. In doing this. is put into the paper tube A. the cap is placed over the paper tube. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. a long piece of glass tubing. unknown to the spectators. as shown in D. shorter t h a n the wand. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other.

with the back side rounding. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. The brace at D is 1 in. 1/4 in. preferably hard maple. and glue it to the neck at F. square and 1-7/8 in. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. This dimension and those for the frets . Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. across the front and back to strengthen them. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. long. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. can be made by the home mechanic. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. 2 Sides. as shown by K. Cut a piece of hard wood. End. 3/16. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 1 Bottom. cut to any shape desired. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. As the cement softens. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. thick. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 1. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. Glue the neck to the box. With care and patience. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. Glue strips of soft wood. 1 End. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. 1 Neck. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. giving it an old-fashioned appearance.potash around the edges of the letters. by 14 by 17 in. The sides. and if care is taken in selecting the material.

Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. wide and 11-1/2 ft. E. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. A board 1 in. and beveled . The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. 3/16 in. Norwalk. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig.should be made accurately. toward each end. Frary. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. --Contributed by Chas. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Carbondale. long is used for a keel. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. in diameter.Pa. H. thick and about 1 ft. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. or backbone. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. O. -Contributed by J. but it is not. Six holes. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Stoddard.

3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. such as is used for making chairbottoms. two strips of wood (b. 3/8 in. with long stout screws. slender switches of osier willow. as before described. thick. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. Fig. thick. Fig. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. 2). 1 and 2. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. but before doing this. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. when made of green elm. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. Fig. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. Any tough. as they are apt to do. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. or other place. long are required. B. as shown in Fig. 2. such as hazel or birch. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. b. Osiers probably make the best ribs. . The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. 3. 1. C. Fig. by means of a string or wire. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. twigs 5 or 6 ft. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. long. 4. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. in thickness and should be cut. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. 3). C.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. which are easily made of long. 2). or similar material. Shape these as shown by A. 3). but twigs of some other trees.) in notches. These are better. Fig. Fig. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. wide by 26 in. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. will answer nearly as well. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. are next put in. as shown in Fig. 4). some tight strips of ash. Fig. in such cases. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. buy some split cane or rattan. two twigs may be used to make one rib. and. Green wood is preferable. the loose strips of ash (b. apart. In drying. b. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. b. and are not fastened. 3. 13 in. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. and so.. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. Fig. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. probably. For the gunwales (a. Fig. a. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. The cross-boards (B. procure at a carriage factory. The ribs. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame.

Being made in long rolls. and light oars. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. apply a second coat of the same varnish. and held in place by means of small clamps. 5). This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. When the paper is dry. and as soon as that has soaked in. of very strong wrapping-paper. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Then take some of the split rattan and. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. It should be smooth on the surface. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. and steady in the water. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. When thoroughly dry. preferably iron. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. You may put in . This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. tacking it to the bottom-board. It should be drawn tight along the edges. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. If not. but with less turpentine. but neither stiff nor very thick. B. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. after wetting it. If the paper be 1 yd. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. and very tough. if it has been properly constructed of good material. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. wide. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. The paper is then trimmed. however. Fig. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part.

fore and aft. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. and if driven as shown in the cut. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. Fig. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. We procured a box and made a frame. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. Fig.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. they will support very heavy weights. to fit it easily. 5).Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Drive the lower nail first. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. 2. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. 5. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. 1 and the end in . 1. Fig. and make a movable seat (A. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames.

3. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. this makes the tube airtight. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. Pittsburg. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. and the glass. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. This is an easy . will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. This way has its drawbacks. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. 4. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. and the result is. Pa. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. Close the other end with the same operation. 5. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand.Fig. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. A good way to handle this work. being softer where the flame has been applied. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long.

second. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. Sixth.way to make a thermometer tube. then reverse. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. or six arms. file. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Oswald. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. thin screw. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Seventh. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Give the metal a circular motion. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. -Contributed by A. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. extra metal all around. with a piece of carbon paper. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. fourth. rivet punch. metal shears. fifth. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . The candle holders may have two. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. four. also trace the decorative design. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. 23 gauge. very rapid progress can be made. above the metal. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. After the bulb is formed. third. three. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off.

drip cup. and holder. Having pierced the bracket. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Metal polish of any kind will do. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Small copper rivets are used. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing.

or more copies can be obtained from a single original. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. The boom. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. J. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. F. and it will be ready for future use. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. Twenty cents was all I spent. hammer. alcohol 2 parts. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. thus it was utilized. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. deep. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. using a steel pen. and other things as they were needed. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. Mother let me have a sheet. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. and add the gelatine. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. Heat 6-1/2 oz. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. when it will be ready for use. and water 24 parts. N. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. and in a week . except they had wheels instead of runners. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. The gaff. smooth it down and then remove as before. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. Soak 1 oz. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. the stick at the bottom of the sail. of glycerine to about 200 deg. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. sugar 1 part. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. winding the ends where they came together with wire. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. A saw. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. on a water bath. Shiloh. glycerine 4 parts. is a broomstick. if it has not absorbed too much ink. and brace and bit were the tools used. all the rest I found. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Fifty. I steer with the front wheel. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens .

wire brads. and. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. H.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. or a lens of 12-in. are . or glue. The board is centered both ways. provided the material is of metal. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. at a point 1 in. G. 3. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. at a distance of 24 ft. A and B. well seasoned pine. A table. DD. as desired.. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. This ring is made up from two rings. high. 1. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. but if such a box is not found. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. wide. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. 1/2 to 3/4 in. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. The slide support. long. about 2 ft. Fig. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. and a projecting lens 2 in. If a small saw is used. and 14 in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. E. focus enlarging a 3-in. and the work carefully done. above the center. slide to about 6 ft. wide and 15 in. thick. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. 8 in. and the lens slide. describe a 9-in. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in.

should the glass happen to upset. Paul. JJ. To reach the water. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. and when the right position is found for each. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick.constructed to slip easily on the table. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil.-Contributed by G. apply two coats of shellac varnish. the strips II serving as guides. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. A sheet . St. Minn. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. B. Small strips of tin. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. the water at once extinguishes the flame. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. E. but not long enough. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. of safe. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. P. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. The arrangement is quite safe as. light burning oil. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. placed on the water. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil.

H. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 9 in. 2. from a tent company. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 4. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig.. Fig. Schenectady. 3. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 12 ft. 1. then the corners on one end are doubled over. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. N. I ordered a canvas bag. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. by 12 ft.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. form a piece of wire in the same shape. Crawford. to cover the mattresses. Y. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 3. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. Fig. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 3 in. If one of these clips is not at hand. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together.

The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. and insert two binding-posts. 1. insulating them from the case with cardboard. to keep it from unwinding. 3 to swing freely on the tack. Colo. first mark the binding-post A. open on the edges. so as to form two oblong boxes. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. in the center coil. drill two 3/16 in. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. To calibrate the instrument. 1. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Attach a piece of steel rod. D. 2. wide. thick. 2. Warren. Denver. 1/2 in. An arc is cut in the paper. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Fig. 1/2 in. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. holes in the edge. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. --Contributed by Edward M. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. A rubber band. long and 3/16 in. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. 3/4 in. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. for amperes and the other post. Fasten the wire with gummed label. to the coil of small wire for volts. A Film Washing Trough [331] . apart. C. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. as shown in Fig. V. long. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial.each edge. Do not use too strong a rubber. Pa. White. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. 2. --Contributed by Walter W. 3/4 in. Teasdale. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. Fig. through which the indicator works.

O. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. with the large hole up. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Hunting. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Place this can on one end of the trough. --Contributed by M. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Wood Burning [331] . Dayton. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Cut a 1/4-in. M. as shown. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides.

Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. then into this bottle place. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. mouth downward. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.

Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Auburn. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Ala. many puzzling effects may be obtained. long. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. 1. but not very thick.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. thick. Place the small bottle in as before. 2. provided the bottle is wide. Whitehouse. --Contributed by Fred W. wide and 4 in.Y. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. 3/4 in. N. If the small bottle used is opaque. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. --Contributed by John Shahan. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. If the cork is adjusted properly. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Upper Troy. This will make a very pretty ornament.

pulley. thick. by the method shown in Fig. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. 3. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. pulley F. 1. 4. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. If a transmitter is used. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. in diameter and 1 in. 2 ft. Both bearings were made in this manner. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. 1. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. or ordinary telephone transmitters. 1. Fig. A staple. Fig. 1. --Contributed by D. B. 1. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. Milter. The bearing blocks were 3 in. wide. G. On a 1000-ft. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. Its smaller parts. The 21/2-in. which was nailed to the face plate. K. The wire L was put . line. Fig. was keyed to shaft C. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. sugar pine on account of its softness. The shaft C. Fig. 2. I. was 1/4in. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. which extended to the ground. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. were constructed of 1-in. 1 in. Fig. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. which gave considerable power for its size. iron rod. thick. to the shaft. such as blades and pulleys. thick and 3 in. W. which was 6 in. even in a light breeze. high without the upper half. long. as shown in Fig.

cut out another piece of tin (X. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. H. G. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. The bed plate D. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. There a 1/4-in. in the center of the board P. and was cut the shape shown. 25 ft. for instance. long and 1/2 in. 0. when the windmill needed oiling. 3 in. 1. as. 5. Fig. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. long. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. in diameter. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. with all parts in place. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. R. providing one has a few old materials on hand. a 1/2-in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. 1. through the latter. The smaller one. with brass headed furniture tacks. Fig. square to the board P at the top of the tower. 6. 2. Two washers were placed on shaft C. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. across the thin edge of a board. pine 18 by 12 in. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. strips. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. The power was put to various uses. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. washers were placed under pulley F. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. apart in the tower. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. Fig.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. 1. was 2 ft. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. long and bend it as shown at A. top down also. so that the 1/4-in. hole was bored for it. This board was 12 in. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. To make the key. Fig. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. long. Fig. was tacked. This fan was made of 1/4-in. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. wide and 1 in. Fig. The other lid. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. To lessen the friction here. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. long and bend it as . Fig. If you have no bell. 1. hole for the shaft G was in the center. 1) 4 in. This completes the receiver or sounder. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. long and 3 in. 6. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon.

Now. When tired of this instrument. 2. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. fitted with paddles as at M. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. causing a buzzing sound. like many another device boys make. 1. although it can be made with but two.shown. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. using cleats to hold the board frame. as indicated. Thus a center drive is made. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. -Contributed by John R. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. leaving the other wire as it is. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Going back to Fig. at the front. Before tacking it to the board. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. and. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . The rear barrels are. as shown at Water. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. McConnell. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. By adjusting the coils. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport.

The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. If the journals thus made are well oiled. 3. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. The speed is slow at first. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. as shown in Fig. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. or even a little houseboat. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. there will not be much friction. which will give any amount of pleasure. feet on the pedals. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. can be built. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. copper piping and brass tubing for base. 1. To propel it. There is no danger. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left.

2. Then melt out the rosin or lead. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Fig. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. then the glass disc and then the other ring. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. D. Fig. and so creating a false circuit. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. 1. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Fig. 1. Turn a small circle of wood. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion.of pleasure for a little work. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. 1. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. A. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . B. Place one brass ring in cylinder. C. or it may be put to other uses if desired. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. 2. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. If it is desired to make the light very complete. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. 2. Shape small blocks of boxwood. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. If magnifying glass cannot be had. Fig. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished.

near the bed. long. contact post. When alarm goes off. by having the switch on the baseboard. J. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. Utah. T. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. 3/8 in. wire from light to switch. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . after setting alarm. E. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . The parts indicated are as follows: A. thick. wire from bell to switch. --Contributed by C. Chatland. 5-1/4 by 10 in. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. F. wide and 1/16 in. such as is used for cycle valves. dry batteries. if too small. while lying in bed. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. In placing clock on shelf. long. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot.. Ogden. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. bracket. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. bell. D. Pa.india rubber tubing. C. 4 in. wire from batteries to switch. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. Throw lever off from the right to center. To throw on light throw levers to the left. I. which stops bell ringing. copper tubing. some glue will secure them. S. --Contributed by Geo. brass strip. or 1/4in. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. G. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. switch. 4-1/2 in. key of alarm clock. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. B. and pulled tight. H. shelf. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. C. To get the cylinder into its carriage. after two turns have been made on the key. set alarm key as shown in diagram. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. Brinkerhoff. X. To operate this. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. Swissvale. brass rod. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone.

as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. This is to form the fuse hole. S. beyond the end of the spindle. place stick and all in a pail of sand. 4 in. making it as true and smooth as possible. gives the heater a more finished appearance. Fig.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. 1. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. 2. Pull out the nail and stick. as in Fig. letting it extend 3/4 in. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. as at A. A small lamp of about 5 cp. from one end. Fig. A flannel bag. Make a shoulder. Having finished this. long. 2. as at B. All that is required is a tin covering. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Chapman. being careful not to get the sand in it. in diameter. about 3-1/2 in. about 6 in. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. 3. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. --Contributed by Chas. Fig. 1. Minn. a bed warmer. as at A. Lanesboro. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. which can be made of an old can. 1/4 in. for instance. in diameter. as . Make the spindle as in Fig. wide. will do the heating. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick.

thick. The material must be 1-1/2 in. good straight-grained pine will do. thick. spring and arrows. 1. A piece of tin. 11/2 in. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. 6 in. Joerin. wide and 3/8 in. 3/8 in. --Contributed by Arthur E. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. long. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. ash. long. this is to keep the edges from splitting. A piece of oak. 5/8 in. wide and 3 ft. 1 in. thick. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. but if this wood cannot be procured. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. long. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. wide and 6 ft. or hickory. will be sufficient to make the trigger.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. The illustration shows how this is done. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . deep. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig.

Trownes. and one for the trigger 12 in. thick. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. To throw the arrow. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. which is 1/4 in. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. wide at each end. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. --Contributed by O. 7. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. The stick for the bow. 4. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. or through the necessity of. E. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. from the opposite end.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. 8. 9. Fig. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. When the trigger is pulled. A spring. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. as shown in Fig. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. in diameter. it lifts the spring up. The bow is not fastened in the stock. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. Such a temporary safe light may be . which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. The trigger. 3. place the arrow in the groove. better still. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. 6. as shown in Fig. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. To shoot the crossbow. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. Fig. 2. having the latter swing quite freely. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. Fig. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. Wilmette. from the end of the stock. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. Ill.

respectively. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. The cut should be about 5 ft. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Moreover. C. and nail it in position as shown at A. Remove one end. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. make the frame of the wigwam. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. the bark lean-to is a . An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. from the ground. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. since the flame of the candle is above A. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. making lighting and trimming convenient. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. apart. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. says Photo Era. By chopping the trunk almost through. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. This lamp is safe. it is the easiest camp to make. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. from the ground. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. and replace as shown at B. or only as a camp on a short excursion. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. The hinged cover E. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Remove the bottom of the box. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. is used as a door.

pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. long and 2 or 3 ft. spruce. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. wide and 6 ft. long and 1-1/2 in. are a convenient size for camp construction. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. In the early summer. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. For a permanent camp. selecting a site for a camp. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. 3 ft. long. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. deep and covered with blankets. For a foot in the middle of the stick. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. nails are necessary to hold it in place. Tongs are very useful in camp. Where bark is used. A piece of elm or hickory. . and when the camp is pitched. makes a good pair of tongs. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. 6 ft. wide. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. and split the tops with an ax. thick. piled 2 or 3 ft. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. Sheets of bark. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. will dry flat. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. a 2-in. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. and cedar. make the best kind of a camp bed.

and affording accommodation for several persons. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. hinges. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. .

Doylestown. B. Fig. to another .. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. deep and 4 in. wide. 1. the interior can. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. I drove a small cork. changing the water both morning and night. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Kane. Pa.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. A. --Contributed by James M. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. and provide a cover or door. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. B. about 4 in. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube.

until. if necessary. 3. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. which project inside and outside of the tube. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. The current is thus compelled. This makes . 4 and 5). The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. for instance. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. E. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. C. a liquid. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. for instance. 2. Fig. fused into one side. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. The diagram. such as ether. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. limit. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. 2. to pass through an increasing resistance. shows how the connections to the supply current are made.glass tube.

It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. If the thickness is sufficient. thick. making it 1/16 in. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. therefore. bent at right angles as shown. when several pieces are placed together. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. 2. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. between centers. Then the field can be finished to these marks. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. or pattern. When the frame is finished so far. which will make it uniform in size. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. After cleaning them with the solution. to allow for finishing. Alpena. is composed of wrought sheet iron.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. 3-3/8 in. screws. brass. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. cannot be used so often. These holes are for the bearing studs. which may be of any thickness so that. in diameter. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. they will make a frame 3/4 in. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. in diameter. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. After the template is marked out. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. 1. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. and for the outside of the frame. Fig. as shown in Fig. clamp the template. larger than the dimensions given. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. mark off a space. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. Michigan. assemble and rivet them solidly. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. drill the four rivet holes. The bearing studs are now made. on a lathe. but merely discolored. two holes. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. 3. or even 1/16 in. thick. A 5/8in. 4-1/2 in. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. Before removing the field from the lathe. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. 3-3/8 in. by turning the lathe with the hand. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. set at 1/8 in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. A. brass or iron. hole is . as shown in the left-hand sketch. tap. thicker. Fig.

into which a piece of 5/8-in. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . Fig.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. and build up the solder well. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. solder them to the supports. The shaft of the armature. or otherwise finished. is turned up from machine steel. When the bearings are located. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. 4. brass rod is inserted. soldered into place. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. file them out to make the proper adjustment. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point.

turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 8. When this is accomplished. After they . then clamp the whole in place with the nut. as shown in Fig. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. 3/4 in. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. 9. deep and 7/16 in. and then they are soaked in warm water. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. or segments. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. thick and 1/4 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. 3. thick. thick. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. Armature-Ring Core. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. washers.. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. 3. wide. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. 3/4 in. holes through them for rivets. threaded. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. 6. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. to allow for finishing to size. thick are cut like the pattern. Procure 12 strips of mica. Rivet them together. Find the centers of each segment at one end. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. 6. After the pieces are cut out. as shown in Fig. hole and tap it for a pin. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. as shown in Fig. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. as shown in Fig. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. 1-1/8 in. 7. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. When annealed. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. The sides are also faced off and finished. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. brass rod. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. The pins are made of brass. Make the core 3/4 in. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. by 1-1/2 in. sheet fiber. 1/8 in. being formed for the ends. 5. thick. as shown m Fig. inside diameter. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. as shown in Fig. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. wide. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. then drill a 1/8-in. and held with a setscrew. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig.

long. which will take 50 ft. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. until the 12 slots are filled. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. All connections should be securely soldered. of the end to protrude. 1. about 100 ft. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. they are glued to the core insulation. After one coil. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. The field is wound with No. 6 in. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. after the motor is on the stand. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. 8 in. sheet fiber. Fig. The two ends are joined at B. The source of current is connected to the terminals. This winding is for a series motor. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. the two ends of the wire. The winding is started at A. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. When the glue is set. by bending the end around one of the projections. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. Run one end of the field wire. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. shown at A. or side. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. shown at B. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. Fig. wide and 1 in. In starting to wind. sheet fiber. To connect the wires. 5. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. 1. are soldered together. thick. of the wire. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. of No. yet it shows a series of . 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. being required.have dried. and wind on four layers. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. and bring the end of the wire out at B.

Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. one from each of the eight contacts. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. A 1/2-in. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . or. is fastened to the metallic body. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. Nine wires run from the timer.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. and one. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. as in the case of a spiral. still more simply. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. which serves as the ground wire. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support.

If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. of the dial. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. It should be . The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. board.The Wind Vane. thus giving 16 different directions. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. long. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. 45 deg. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. Without this attachment. circle. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. 6 in. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. Covering these is a thin.

about 6 ft. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. though a special knife." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. called a chip carving knife. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. will be sufficient. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. Cut 3-in. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. -Contributed by James L. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. will answer the purpose just as well. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. Before tacking the fourth side. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. Fill the box with any handy ballast. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. Place the leather on some level. Buffalo. Blackmer. Y. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. will be enough for the two sides. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. and securely nail on the top of the box. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. To make it. also a piece of new carpet. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. high. if not too high. thus making a universal joint. . N. 14 by 18 in. according to who is going to use it. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. is most satisfactory. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. making it heavy or light. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. To work these outlines. or. and about 6 in. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. however. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. long to give the best results. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in.

Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. A good leather paste will be required. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. An ordinary sewing-machine . being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.

as in cases of a sprained ankle. Y. can be thrown away when no longer needed. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. If a fire breaks out. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. or a hip that has been wrenched. and fasten the feathers inside of it. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. --Contributed by Katharine D. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. N. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. B. rather than the smooth side. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. away from it. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. temporary lameness. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in.will do if a good stout needle is used. and tie them together securely at the bottom. of water. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. of common salt and 10 lb. a needle and some feathers. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Morse. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Syracuse. square and tying a piece of . 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap.

My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. and the receiver is ready for use. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. G. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. The diaphragm C. letting it go at arm's length. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. the corners being wired. is cut on the wood. made up of four layers of No. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. deep. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. wide and 1/16 in. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. A. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. long. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. --Contributed by J. The coil is 1 in. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. long. thus helping the rats to enter.J. board all around the bottom on the inside. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. but not sharp. One end is removed entirely. . laying poisoned meat and meal. setting traps. Y. 1/8 in. F.string to each corner. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. which is the essential part of the instrument. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. etc. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. N. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. commonly called tintype tin. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. The end is filed to an edge. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. cut to the length of the spool. There is a 1-in. --Contributed by John A. as shown. The strings should be about 15 in. This not only keeps the rats out. N. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. A small wooden or fiber end. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. Albany. B. Ashland. high. E. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws.. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. Gordon Dempsey. The body of the receiver. and tacked it to the boards. Hellwig. Wis. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. Paterson. wound on the head end. and a coil of wire.

This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. to . placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. wide. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. begin with the smallest scrolls. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. To clean small articles. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. better still. A single line will be sufficient. Take a piece of string or. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. a piece of small wire. The vase is to have three supports. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. and bend each strip in shape. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. gold.

making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. After taking off the pattern. Press or model down the leather all around the design.. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. About 1 in. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. 3-1/4 in. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Work down the outside line of the design. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. 3-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. and does not require coloring. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. from the lines EF on the piece. 4-1/4 in. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. wide when stitching up the purse. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern.. through which to slip the fly AGH. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. using a duller point of the tool. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. from C to D. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. Fold the leather on the line EF. thus raising it.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. 6-3/8 in. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. . A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. sharp pencil.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. from E to F. Trace also the line around the purse.

Procure a thin board 1/4 in.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. with the open side down. thick. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. as shown in Fig. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. the "open" side. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. 1. by 12 ft. Then nail the wheel down firmly. as well as useful. with pins or small nails. Make the lug 1/4 in. leaving the lug a. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and the projections B. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. being cast in wooden molds. deep. deep. When it is finished. 3. This also should be slightly beveled. with the largest side down. Fit this to the two . or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. and cut out a wheel. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. Now take another piece of wood. It can be made without the use of a lathe. 1/2 in. and a model for speed and power. following the dotted lines. all the way around. with a compass saw. 1 was cut. and cut it out as shown in Fig. long. square. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. then nail it. and tack the other piece slightly. 2. and. Cut off six pieces 12 in. First. around the wheel. It is neat and efficient. and which will be very interesting. then place the square piece out of which Fig. b. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife.

as shown by the black dots in Fig. hole bored through its center. After it is finished. hole entirely through at the same place. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. square pieces of wood. and lay it away to dry.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. and clean all the shavings out of it. slightly beveled. one of which should have a 3/8-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. as shown by the . holes through it. bolts. hole 1/4 in. and bore six 1/4-in. then bolt it together. Now put mold No. square pieces of wood. Take the mold apart. 1. and boring a 3/8-in. Now take another of the 12-in. in the center of it. and cut it out as shown in Fig. deep.pieces just finished. place it between two of the 12-in. 4. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in.

Put this together in mold No. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and lay it away to dry. and bore three 1/4-in. so that it will turn easily. long. one in the projections. and the exhaust hole in projection b. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. b. A piece of mild steel 5 in. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. B. Using the Brace . If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. see that the bolts are all tight. lay it on a level place. holes. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. This is the same as Fig. drill in it. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. and drill it entirely through.1. d.black dots in Fig. only the one is left-handed. as shown in illustration. 5. the other right-handed. 1. Let it stand for half an hour.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. one in the lug. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. This will cast a paddle-wheel. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. Pour metal into mold No. Commencing 1-1/2 in. 4. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and 3/8-in. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. This is mold No. Now cut out one of the 12-in. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. and run in babbitt metal again. and the other in the base. holes at d.2. place the entire machine in a vise. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. and pouring metal in to fill it up. until it is full. and connect to the boiler. take an ordinary brace. long. where the casting did not fill out. wide and 16 in. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. place it under the drill. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. 6. fasten a 3/8-in. This is for a shaft. from the one end. After it is fitted in. true it up with a square. Fig. and drill them in the same manner. 6. and pour babbitt metal into it.2. Now take mold No. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. put the top of the brace through this hole. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. instead of the right-handed piece. screw down. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. over the defective part.1. and two 1/4-in. Then bolt the castings together. in diameter must now be obtained.

Your turbine engine is now ready for work.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. while it is running at full speed. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. with a boss and a set screw. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and the other 8 ft. one 6 ft. At each end of the 6ft. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. and. piece and at right angles to it. will do good service. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Then take a knife or a chisel. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Plan of Ice Boat . and the pleasure many times repays the effort. long. turn the wheel to the shape desired. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in.. and with three small screw holes around the edge. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular.

8 a reef point knot. which may come in handy in heavy winds. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. long and 2-1/2 in. leaving 1 ft. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. To the under side of the 8-ft. in front of the rudder block. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. 2 by 3 in. where they often did considerable damage. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. in the top before the skate is put on. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. Make your runners as long as possible. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. Fig. projecting as in Fig. bolt the 8-ft. in diameter in the center. piece and at right angles to it.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. boards to make the platform. distant. and about 8 in. 1. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. as the runners we