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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

It is held in this curve until dry. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. Ontario. grasp it and hold the same as a club. The pieces are then dressed round. --Contributed by J. A piece of plank 12 in. Noble. long will make six boomerangs. 2. 2 -. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . After the piece is thoroughly dried out. until it is bound as shown in Fig.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. as shown in Fig. Fig. 1. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. E. To throw a boomerang. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. apart. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. wide and 2 ft. away. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E.Fig. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. with the hollow side away from you. 1. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. 2. distant. 1. as shown in Fig. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. Toronto. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve.

and with a movable bottom. long. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. the block will drop out. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. forcing it down closely. blocks . Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. which makes the building simpler and easier. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. made of 6-in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. dry snow will not pack easily. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. A wall. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. First. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. 6 in. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. high and 4 or 5 in. however. and it may be necessary to use a little water. but about 12 in. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. If the snow is of the right consistency. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. or rather no bottom at all.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. thick. one inside of the circle and the other outside. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. minus the top. it is not essential to the support of the walls. A very light.

A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. 1. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. Fig. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. 3 -. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. or an old safe dial will do. 2. 1. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. is 6 or 8 in. D. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. Fig. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. Goodbrod. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. It also keeps them out. --Contributed by Geo. Ore. a. which is about 1 ft. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. There is no outward thrust. A little experience will enable one to do this work well.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. A nail. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. long and 1 in. wide. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. above the ground. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. C. and the young architect can imitate them. Fig. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. Union. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. 3.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. which can be made of wood. 2. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. The piece of wood. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown.

The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. Syracuse.When taking hot dishes from the stove. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. as the weight always draws them back to place. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. If ordinary butts are used. New York. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. one pair of special hinges. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. S. Merrill. the box locked . and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. says the Sphinx. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. --Contributed by R.

Place the piece in a vise. It remains to bend the flaps. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. on drawing paper. as shown in Fig. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. allowing each coat time to dry. one for each corner. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. 3. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. proceed as follows: First. 1. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. -Contributed by L. If they do not. smooth surface. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. about 1-32 of an inch. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Augusta. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. All . the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. When the sieve is shaken. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. 2.and the performer steps out in view. as shown. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. With the metal shears. If the measuring has been done properly. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Fig. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. as shown in Fig. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Alberta Norrell. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Ga. To make a design similar to the one shown. draw one-half of it. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth.

and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. After this has dried. R. --Contributed by R. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. from the back end.the edges should be left smooth. When the current is turned off. A piece of porcelain tube. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. if rolled under the shoe sole. causing it to expand. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. as shown at AA. Colo. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. 25 gauge German-silver wire. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. Galbreath. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. about 6 in. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. of No. The common cork. The current. 25 German-silver wire. In boring through rubber corks. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. used for insulation. is fitted tightly in the third hole. H. C. If a touch of color is desired. Denver. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. long. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. A resistance. in diameter. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . in passing through the lamp. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. To keep the metal from tarnishing. should be in the line. and in the positions shown in the sketch. heats the strip of German-silver wire. which is about 6 in. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. B.

Mo. --Contributed by David Brown. 2. between them as shown in Fig. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip.bottom ring. with thin strips of wood. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Kansas City. Fig. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. leaving a space of 4 in. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. 1. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Purchase two long book straps. 3. . but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. as shown in Fig. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs.

Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. These are shown in Fig. Y. C. Syracuse. Fig. one weighing 15 lb. to form a handle. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes.. 1. --Contributed by James M. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Kane. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. When the aeroplane tips. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. 1. 1. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. N. Doylestown. Two strips of brass. 2. --Contributed by Katharine D.An ordinary electric bell. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. and a pocket battery. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. 4. 36 in. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. are mounted on the outside of the box. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. which is the right weight for family use. and tack smoothly. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. 3. and one weighing 25 lb. long. The folds are made over the string. The string is then tied. in diameter.. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. as . Pa. A. Fig. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Morse. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. having a gong 2-1/2 in. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Fig. just the right weight for a woman to use. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box.

four washers and four square nuts. machine screws. The saw. two 1/8 -in. if once used. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. AA. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. 1. Day. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. long. 2. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Frame Made of a Rod . and many fancy knick-knacks. Y. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. 3/32 or 1/4 in.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Floral Park. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. N. 2. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. bent as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Louis J. in diameter. such as brackets. The rod should be 36 or 38 in.

. 1 part nitric acid. the most expensive. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. A. Apply two coats. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. If it colors the metal red. or silver. 1 part sulphuric acid. though almost any color may be obtained. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. allowing each time to dry. green and browns are the most popular. using a swab and an old stiff brush. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. be covered the same as the back. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Detroit. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. --Contributed by W.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. For etching. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. The buckle is to be purchased. it has the correct strength. of water in which dissolve. of course. as well as brass and copper. as well as the depth of etching desired. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. after breaking up. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Drying will cause this to change to purple. File these edges. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. of water.may be made of either brass. copper. therefore. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. An Austrian Top [12] . Rub off the highlights. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. treat it with color. if copper or brass. Michigan. Of the leathers. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Silver is the most desirable but. use them in place of the outside nuts. In the design shown. Watch Fob For coloring silver. Scranton.

hole in this end for the top. Parts of the Top To spin the top. is formed on one end. Bore a 3/4-in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. 5-1/4 in. 3/4 in. Michigan. A handle. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. in diameter. 1-1/4 in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. The handle is a piece of pine. Tholl. A 1/16-in.F. starting at the bottom and winding upward. hole. set the top in the 3/4 -in. When the shank is covered. pass one end through the 1/16-in. long. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. Ypsilanti. --Contributed by J. long. thick. allowing only 1-1/4 in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. wide and 3/4 in. . take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft.

Mich. --A. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. having no sides. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. The baking surface. --Contributed by Miss L. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Augusta. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. For black leathers. Alberta Norrell. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Northville. . the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. tarts or similar pastry. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Houghton. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Ga. A.

A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. says Studio Light. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . Mo. When you desire to work by white light. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Stringing Wires [13] A. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. two turns will remove the jar. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. then solder cover and socket together. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. glass fruit jar. the same as shown in the illustration. Centralia. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar.

--Contributed by Herman Fosel. and not tip over. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. 4 Vertical pieces. so it can be folded up. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. Wis. square by 62 in. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 16 Horizontal bars. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. square by 12 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. They are fastened. . The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post.for loading and development. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. Janesville. 4 Braces. 1-1/4 in. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 1-1/4 in.

and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. --Contributed by Dr. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. C. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. Cincinnati. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. The front can be covered . to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. New York. after filling the pail with water. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. Phillipsburg. If the loop is tied at the proper place. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. -Contributed by Charles Stem. O. from scrap material. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. After rounding the ends of the studs. H. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. and a loop made in the end. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. The whole. Rosenthal.

Baltimore. if you try to tone them afterward. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. By using the following method. by all rules of the game. thoroughly fix. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. and. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. the mouth of which rests against a. Md. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. Wehr. either for contact printing or enlargements. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. The . the color will be an undesirable. principally mayonnaise dressing. sickly one. If the gate is raised slightly. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. Develop them into strong prints. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. FIG. In my own practice. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. you are. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. 1 FIG. --Contributed by Gilbert A. The results will be poor.

as it will appear clean much longer than the white...bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes... Iodide of potassium . Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.. transfer it to a tray of water... wide and 4 in... long to admit the angle support. The blotting paper can . A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.... San Francisco.. --Contributed by T. without previous wetting........ this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain..." Cyanide of potassium . stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.. etc. 2 oz. Cal. A good final washing completes the process..... 2... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.. three times. Water ... 20 gr. L. 16 oz.... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. in size. 1 and again as in Fig. 5 by 15 in. preferably the colored kind.. to make it 5 by 5 in. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. When the desired reduction has taken place....... where it will continue to bleach. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects........ Place the dry print. With a little practice. when it starts to bleach.. It will bleach slowly and evenly... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. Gray. in this solution..... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. but.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.

--Contributed by J. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Monahan. wide. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No.J. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. --Contributed by L. Wisconsin. Make a design similar to that shown. the shaft 1 in. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. 3. 20 gauge. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. wide below the . and a length of 5 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Canada. Oshkosh. the head of which is 2 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Corners complete are shown in Fig.

With files. Pierce a hole with a small drill. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. using a small metal saw. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. using carbon paper. as shown in Fig. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. The metal must be held firmly. Allow this to dry. For coloring olive green. With the metal shears. then coloring. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. 1 Fig. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper.FIG. being held perpendicular to the work. 4. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. which gives the outline of the design Fig. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. then trace the other half in the usual way. Apply with a small brush. 1 part nitric acid. After the sawing. After this has dried. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. freehand. deep. 1. Trace the design on the metal. but use a swab on a stick. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. Make one-half of the design. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. after folding along the center line. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. 2. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. . using turpentine. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. then put on a second coat. 1 part sulphuric acid. 3. Fig. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. Do not put the hands in the solution.

or for serving an invalid's breakfast. M. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. --Contributed by Katharine D. attach brass handles. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. as shown. thick. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Richmond. Conn. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. on a chopping board. New York. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. Carl Cramer. East Hartford. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. After the stain has dried. Cal. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. When this is cold. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. Morse. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Burnett. Syracuse. --Contributed by M. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Ii is an ordinary staple. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. . it does the work rapidly. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. then stain it a mahogany color. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. --Contributed by H.

Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. thick and 4 in. two enameled. about 3/16 in. . not over 1/4 in. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Fig. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. one shaft. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. and several 1/8-in. Cal. saucers or pans.. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Richmond. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. brass. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. Kissimmee. square. in width at the shank. also locate the drill holes. --Contributed by W. A. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. indicating the depth of the slots. Jaquythe. machine screws. holes. 4. some pieces of brass. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. as shown at A. Atwell.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. or tin. --Contributed by Mrs. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Florida. thick. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. as shown in Fig. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. H. 53 steel pens. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. 1/4 in. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. 1. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. L.

it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. 3. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Fig. 2. as shown in Fig. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. with 1/8-in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. with a 3/8-in. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. machine screws and nuts. as in Fig. thick. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. 1. with the face of the disk. in diameter and 1/32 in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. into the hole. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg.. If the shaft is square. about 1/32 in. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. The shaft hole may also be filed square. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. hole is drilled to run off the water. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. thick. can be procured. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. using two nuts on each screw. wide and bend as shown in Fig. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. each about 1 in. brass and bolted to the casing. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. 5. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. wide. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. hole. long by 3/4 in. hole in the center. lead should be run into the segments. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. 2. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. Fig. If metal dishes. 7. a square shaft used. A 3/4-in. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. These are connected to a 3/8-in. machine screws. 3. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. 6. as shown. long and 5/16 in. There should be a space of 1/16 in. Bend as shown in Fig. supply pipe. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. and pins inserted. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. Fig.

The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. The lower part. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. deep and 1-1/4 in. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. deep over all. Canada. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. we will call the basket. --Contributed by F. V. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. screws. long. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. to make the bottom. When assembling. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. or more in diameter. Now you will have the box in two pieces. using four to each leg. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. La Salle. high and 15 in. Smith. Hamilton. from the top of the box. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. from the bottom end of the legs. square and 30-1/2 in. make these seams come between the two back legs. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. three of which are in the basket. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. 8-1/2 in. With a string or tape measure. Stain the wood before putting in the . find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Fasten with 3/4-in. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Ill. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Be sure to have the cover. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. --Contributed by S. Cooke. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in.

chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Packard. Fig. as shown in the sketch. When making the display.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. and gather it at that point. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Baltimore. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Mass. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. --also the lower edge when necessary. 1. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things.2 Fig. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. The side. sewing on the back side. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Md. If all the parts are well sandpapered. -Contributed by Stanley H.lining. you can. Cover them with the cretonne. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Boston. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. wide and four strips 10 in. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. 2. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. wide. Sew on to the covered cardboards. The folded part in the center is pasted together.

Y. Fig. When through using the pad.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. N. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Crockett. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. with slight modifications. and. Orlando Taylor. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. It is not difficult to . --Contributed by B. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Mo. Gloversville. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Cross Timbers. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. It is cleanly. 3. --Contributed by H. L. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. saving all the solid part.

Bourne. Mass. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Texas. --Contributed by Edith E. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. or if desired. -Contributed by C. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Both of these methods are wasteful. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the .Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. are shown in the diagram. After this is done. remove the contents. If a file is used. Lowell. S. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. El Paso. After stirring. across the face. it should be new and sharp. and scrape out the rough parts. Lane.

circled over the funnel and disappeared. Ill. Oregon. As these were single-faced disk records.cooking utensil. Iowa. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. The insects came to the light. Greenleaf. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. Those having houses . it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. The process works well and needs no watching. F. Ill. Canton. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. He captured several pounds in a few hours. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. --Contributed by Loren Ward. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. --Contributed by Geo. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Des Moines. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. A Postcard Rack [25]. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. After several hours' drying. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Turl. Oak Park. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler.

screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. not even with the boards themselves. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. thick.. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. the best material to use being matched boards. the bottom being 3/8 in. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Dobbins. will do as well. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Glenbrook. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. The single boards can then be fixed. boards are preferable. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. --Contributed by Thomas E. Mass.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. material. Worcester. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. plane and pocket knife. by 2 ft. Lay the floor next.. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. Only three pieces are required. Rosenberg. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. 6 in. and both exactly alike. but for cheapness 3/4 in. Conn. --Contributed by Wm. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. and as they are simple in design. one on each side of what will be the . Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. 6 in. Both sides can be put together in this way. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. and the second one for the developing bench. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in.

8. 10). 6) and another as F in the same drawing. hinged to it. At the top of the doorway. 5. The roof boards may next be put on. It is shown in detail in Fig. 11. 7. below which is fixed the sink. is cut. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. and act as a trap for the light. as shown in Figs. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. In hinging the door. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 2 in section. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. 6. etc. and to the outside board of the sides.. the closing side as at B. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 6.. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. Fig. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. nailing them to each other at the ridge. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. and should be zinc lined. and the top as at C in the same drawing. by screwing to the floor. 6 and 9.doorway. wide. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. 9 by 11 in. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. which is fixed on as shown . A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs.. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. of the top of the door for the same reason. brown wrapping paper. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. so that the water will drain off into the sink. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. so that it will fit inside the sink. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. The developing bench is 18 in. 9). The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. and in the middle an opening. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. 3 and 4.

Details of the Dark Rook .

and a 3/8-in. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. 13. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. 13. For beating up an egg in a glass. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. are fastened in the corners inside. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. A circular piece about 2 in. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. after lining with brown paper. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. these being shown in Fig. 6. if desired. 14. which makes it possible to have white light. or the room may be made with a flat roof. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. hole bored in the center for a handle. preferably maple or ash. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. The house will be much strengthened if strips. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above.in Fig. Fig. 17. Erie. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. In use. it is better than anything on the market. as shown in the sections. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. though this is hardly advisable. Fig. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. mixing flour and water. Pennsylvania. Fig. 19. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. 15. 16. 16. 2. four coats at first is not too many. screwing them each way into the boards. but not the red glass and frame. as in Fig. --Contributed by W. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. The handle should be at least 12 in. 20. as shown in Fig. 1. as at I. 18. as at M. and a tank stand on it. Karl Hilbrich. or red light as at K. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted.

File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. which. D. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. about 3/8 in. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. for a handle. Schweiger. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Smith. Eureka Springs. L. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. --Contributed by L. New York. To operate. Mitchell. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. when put together properly is a puzzle. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. -Contributed by E. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Ark. G. Mo. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. as shown in the sketch. Kansas City. long. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood.copper should be. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Yonkers. --Contributed by Wm.

as shown in Fig. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. If the sill is inclined. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. which binds them together. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. for the moment. in order to thoroughly preserve it. need them. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. holes should be drilled in the bottom. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. the box will require a greater height in front. especially for filling-in purposes. as shown in Fig. The corks in use are shown in Fig. . why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. as is usually the case. 3. Each cork is cut as in Fig. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. After the box is trimmed. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. to make it set level. The design shown in Fig. 2.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. 1. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. Having completed the bare box. 3. the rustic work should be varnished. A number of 1/2-in. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. as well as improve its appearance. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads.

Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. Each long projection represents a leg. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. life in the summer time is a vexation. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. But I have solved the difficulty. being partly eaten into. as shown in Fig. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. Traps do no good. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. 3. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. can't use poison. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. . too dangerous. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. When the corn is gone cucumbers. 2. cabbages. etc. drilled at right angles. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. share the same fate.. it's easy. and observe results. F. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. 4. 1.

The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. by trial. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. long. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. Iowa. -. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. . the coil does not heat sufficiently. strips. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. of No. If. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. cut some of it off and try again. cut in 1/2-in. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. and made up and kept in large bottles. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. About 9-1/2 ft.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The solution can be used over and over again. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in.

Syracuse. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. --Contributed by James M. --Contributed by Katharine D. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Pa. hot-water pot. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. coffee pot. and a strip. Stir and mix thoroughly. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Knives. Doylestown. Morse. 1) removed. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Fig 2. In cleaning silver. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. C. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. N. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Texas. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. of whiting and 1/2 oz. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. but with unsatisfactory results. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. . Do not wash them. it falls to stop G. Dallas. as shown in the sketch. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. of gasoline. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. forks. is a good size--in this compound. Y. Kane. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. to cause the door to swing shut. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. D. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel.

of course. Pa. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. negatives. --Contributed by Oliver S. New Orleans. --Contributed by Theodore L. Sprout. which is. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Waverly. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. later fixed and washed as usual. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Harrisburg. Fisher. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. La. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Ill. . but unfixed. using the paper dry.

Fig. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. To obviate this difficulty. The harmonograph. 1. then . The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. metal. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling.

The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. Gaffney. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. as shown in the lower part of Fig. Punch a hole. and unless the shorter pendulum is. Holes up to 3 in. is about right for a 10-ft. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. exactly one-third. 1. A weight. of about 30 or 40 lb. --Contributed by Wm. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. or the lines will overlap and blur. Ingham. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. that is. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. to prevent any side motion. as shown in Fig. ceiling. G. etc. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction.. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. A small table or platform. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work.. provides a means of support for the stylus. J. K. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. Another weight of about 10 lb. A length of 7 ft. is attached as shown at H. as long as the other. in diameter. with a nail set or punch. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. A small weight. R. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. --Contributed by James T. 1.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. which can be regulated.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. such as a shoe buttoner. what is most important. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . for instance. 1-3/4 by 2 in. A pedestal. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. Chicago. one-fifth. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. one-fourth. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. The length of the short pendulum H. Arizona. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. makes respectively 3. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. in the center of the circle to be cut. Rosemont. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise.

quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Cruger. Fig. 2. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The two key cards are made alike. and 4 as in Fig.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. dividing them into quarters. of course. Chicago. 3. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made.J. Cape May City. a correspondent of . 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. N.H. and proceed as before. then put 2 at the top. --Contributed by J. 5. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. The capacity of the vise. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case.J. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. -Contributed by W. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 1. then 3 as in Fig. 6. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Fig. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. 4. distributing them over the whole card. Morey.

from the top and bottom. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. the portion of the base under the coil. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Ga. remove the prints. of the uprights. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. of water. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. sheet of well made asbestos paper. If constructed of the former. Augusta. 22 gauge German-silver wire. After securing the tint desired.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. respectively. deep. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. drill 15 holes. acetic acid and 4 oz. citrate of iron and ammonia. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. of ferricyanide of potash. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. 6 gauge wires shown. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. Cut through the center. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. 1/2 oz. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. 30 gr. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. After preparing the base and uprights. 1/4 in. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. --Contributed by L. of 18-per-cent No. long. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Wind the successive turns of . into the inside face of each upright to support the No. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. Alberta Norrell. says Popular Electricity. wood-screws. To assemble. Asbestos board is to be preferred. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil.

as they are usually thrown away when empty. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. Small knobs may be added if desired. if one is not a smoker. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. Ampere. rivets. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. 14 gauge. which. etc. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Labels of some kind are needed. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Ward. N. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. 16 gauge copper wire. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No.. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. then fasten the upright in place. screws. but these are not necessary. --Contributed by Frederick E.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Y. square. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places.

This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. --Contributed by W. Richmond. or has become corroded. --C. This is considerable annoyance. Ark." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. If the soldering copper is an old one. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. tin. brass. sandpaper or steel wool. zinc. C. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. Wis. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. California. galvanized iron. of water. being careful about the heat. a piece of solder. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. lead. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab.14 oz. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. and rub the point of the copper on it. tinner's acid. . In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. as shown in the sketch. then to the joint to be soldered. it must be ground or filed to a point. particularly so when the iron has once been used. The material can be of any wood. S. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. and labeled "Poison. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Copper. Eureka Springs. Heat it until hot (not red hot). The parts are put together with dowel pins. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. Larson. Jaquythe. E and F.. A. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Kenosha. In soldering galvanized iron. of glycerine to 16 oz. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. B. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. and one made of poplar finished black. D. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. especially if a large tub is used. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. G. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. --Contributed by A.

This completes the die. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. 7/8 in. however. which gives two bound volumes each year. round iron. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Take a 3/4-in. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. nut. The punch A. I bind my magazines at home evenings. Place the band. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. This will leave a clear hole. brass and silver. B. Hankin. Troy. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. W. 1. -Contributed by H. Apart from this. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. Fig. 2.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. such as copper. C. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. with good results. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. and drill out the threads. The dimensions shown in Fig. thick and 1-1/4 in. The disk will come out pan shaped. Y. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. in diameter. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. N. wide. in diameter. D. Six issues make a well proportioned book. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. The covers of the magazines are removed. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Brass rings can be plated when finished. a ring may be made from any metal. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Fig.

pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. using . allowing about 2 in. Place the cardboard covers on the book. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. . Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. and place them against the strings in the frame. The covering can be of cloth. then back through the notch on the right side. through the notch on the left side of the string No. Start with the front of the book. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. which is fastened the same as the first. 1. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. is used for the sewing material. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. After drawing the thread tightly. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. The string No. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. 1. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. deep. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. The covering should be cut out 1 in. 2. After the sewing is completed cut the strings.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. and a third piece. C. Coarse white thread. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick.4. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. on all edges except the back. size 16 or larger. 1/8 in. of the ends extending on each side. If started with the January or the July issue. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. 5. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. The sections are then prepared for sewing. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. as shown in Fig. 1. and then to string No. Five cuts. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. is nailed across the top. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. 1 in Fig. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. 2. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. threaded double.

iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. --Contributed by Clyde E. and mark around each one. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. College View. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. at opposite sides to each other. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Cal. round iron. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Divine. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Nebr. For the blade an old talking-machine . Tinplate. Encanto. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Place the cover on the book in the right position. on which to hook the blade. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. and.

If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. as shown. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Then on the board put . Ohio. thick. and file in the teeth. Moorhead. E. Miss. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. and another piece (B) 6 in.. bore. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. hydraulic pipe. -Contributed by Willard J. C. Make the blade 12 in. Hays. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. in order to drill the holes in the ends. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). long. at the same end. and a long thread plug. by 1 in. F. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. and 1/4 in. and 1/4 in. On the upper side. or double extra heavy. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. A. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Summitville. B. thick. as it is sometimes called. with 10 teeth to the inch. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. with a steel sleeve.. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. by 4-1/2 in. fuse hole at D.

4 jars. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. as from batteries. Philadelphia. about 5 ft. using about 8 in. Connect up as shown. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . and some No. some sheet copper or brass for plates. of wire to each coil. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. A lid may be added if desired. the jars need not be very large. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. high around this apparatus. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. H.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. If you are going to use a current of low tension. --Contributed by Chas. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. of rubber-covered wire. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Boyd. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid.

C. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. and for the rear runners: A. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. . Construct the auto front (Fig. Fig.. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. The connection between point No. thick. 2 is lower down than in No. steel rod makes a good steering rod. wide. Put arm of switch on point No. 5 on switch. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. 2 and 3. 3. long. above the ground. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. 2. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. For the front runners these measurements are: A. by 5 in. direct to wire across jars. 1.the way. is used to reduce friction. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 7 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white.. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. two pieces 30 in. 2. 3 and No. 2 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 4. making them clear those in the front runner. A 3/4-in. Z. & S. First sandpaper all the wood. long by 22 in. by 1-1/4 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. on No. C. 16-1/2 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. 27 B. B.. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. with the cushion about 15 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. B. An iron washer. No. 1 on switch. are important. by 2 in. In proportioning them the points A. For the brass trimmings use No. long. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. The sled completed should be 15 ft. and four pieces 14 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. wide and 3/4 in.. by 6 in. 11 in. On the door of the auto front put the . beginning at the rear. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 30 in. square by 14 ft. To wire the apparatus. two pieces 34 in. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. Use no screws on the running surface. 15-1/2 in. 1 is connected to point No. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. as they are not substantial enough. gives full current and full speed. A variation of 1/16 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. long. by 1 in. wide and 2 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. 1 and so on for No. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. as they "snatch" the ice. The top disk in jar No. At the front 24 or 26 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. apart. Use no nails. by 2 in.. See Fig. 4 in.. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. by 5 in. The current then will flow through the motor. B and C. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. two for each jar. 34 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. or source of current. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. The stock required for them is oak. wide by 3/4 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 3 in. 2. thick. however.. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. long. by 1-1/4 in. two pieces 14 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. sheet brass 1 in. 4) of 3/4-in. Their size also depends on the voltage. The illustration shows how to shape it. oak boards. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. and plane it on all edges. and bolt through.

This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. which is somewhat moist. to improve the appearance. Fasten a horn. may be stowed within. such as burlap. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . by 30 in. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. fasten a cord through the loop. cheap material. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. The best way is to get some strong. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. Then get some upholstery buttons. cutting it out of sheet brass. lunch. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. etc. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. or with these for $25. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. to the wheel. such as used on automobiles. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. a number of boys may share in the ownership. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. If the expense is greater than one can afford. a brake may be added to the sled. brass plated. parcels. If desired. long. overshoes. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. If desired. by 1/2 in. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair.

The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Ill. Lexington. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Leland. . --Contributed by Stewart H.tree and bring. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written.

either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. with twenty-four teeth. thick. 2. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. mild steel or iron. when flat against it. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. CD. E. the cut will be central on the line. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. the same diameter as the wheel. outside diameter and 1/16 in. by drawing diameters. 1. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. Draw a circle on paper. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. The Model Engineer. from F to G. This guide should have a beveled edge. a compass. 3. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. The first tooth may now be cut. so that the center of the blade. Fig. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. 4). Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. The straight-edge. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. will be over the line FG. London. A small clearance space. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. With no other tools than a hacksaw. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. say 1 in. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. which. though more difficult. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. First take the case of a small gearwheel. Fig. sheet metal.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Fig. made from 1/16-in. FC. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. some files. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue.

2. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. If there is no faucet in the house. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way.Four Photos on One Plate of them. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. electric lamp. . hold in one hand. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Make a hole in the other. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. either the pencils for arc lamps. each in the center. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. No shock will be perceptible. 1. and the other outlet wire. some wire and some carbons. B. A bright. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Focus the camera in the usual manner. as shown in Fig. ground it with a large piece of zinc. 1. R. transmitter. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. B. or several pieces bound tightly together. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. Then take one outlet wire. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver.

Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Slattery. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. by 12 in. and will then burn the string C. They have screw ends. B. Ohio. For a base use a pine board 10 in. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. at each end for terminals. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. But in this experiment. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. of course. D D are binding posts for electric wires. B is an iron weight attached to the string C.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. and again wind the wire around it. serves admirably. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. by 1 in. Pa. Wrenn. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. A is a wooden block. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. under the gable. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. 36 wire around it. If desired. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. a transmitter which induces no current is used. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Emsworth. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Then set the whole core away to dry. One like a loaf of bread. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. or more of the latter has been used. Several battery cells. and about that size. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. leaving about 10 in. as indicated by E E. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. are also needed. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Ashland. --Contributed by Geo. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. as shown. Dry batteries are most convenient. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. J.

connecting lamp receptacles. C. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. 12 or No. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. Fig. First make a support. in series with bindingpost. while C is open. The apparatus is now ready for operation. At one side secure two receptacles. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. 1. as shown.wire. The coil will commence to become warm. From the other set of binding-posts. for the . run a No. These should have hollow ends. Turn on switch. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. Place 16-cp. B B. Jr. as shown. Newark. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. F. and switch. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. C. until the hand points to zero on the scale. D. and one single post switch. E. in parallel. B B. D. 2. Connect these three to switch. Fig. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. the terminal of the coil. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. and the lamps.. The oven is now ready to be connected. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. 14 wire. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Ohio.

C. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. deep. 1. long and make a loop. This is slipped on the pivot. 1/4 in. drill through the entire case and valve. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. E. 3. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. wide and 1-3/4 in. 4 amperes. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. is made of iron. 14 wire. D. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. 1/2 in.. until the scale is full. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. A wooden box. 2. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. After drilling. The box is 5-1/2 in. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. If for 3-way. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. and D. where A is the homemade ammeter. 3 amperes.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument.E. Mine is wound with two layers of No. --Contributed by J.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. It is 1 in. wide and 1/8 in. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. The pointer or hand. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. but if for a 4way. high. 36 magnet wire instead of No. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. Fig. Fig. The core. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. 5.or 4-way valve or cock. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. from the lower end. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. etc. a variable resistance. although copper or steel will do. 5. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. 6. thick. This may be made of wood. although brass is better. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. To make one. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. drill a hole as shown at H. At a point a little above the center. is then made and provided with a glass front. 4. long. 7. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. inside measurements. B. is made of wire. Montreal. 1. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. remove the valve. wind with plenty of No. 14. Fig. long. drill in only to the opening already through. Fig. to prevent it turning on the axle. as shown in the cut. a standard ammeter. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 10 turns to each layer. D. 4 in. a battery. Dussault.

provided with a rubber stopper. This stopper should be pierced. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. in diameter. and a metal rod. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. and the arc light. B. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. A. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. F. and the other connects with the water rheostat.performing electrical experiments. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. which is used for reducing the current. as shown. making two holes about 1/4 in. high. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. To start the light. D. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. in thickness . By connecting the motor. E. One wire runs to the switch.

A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. A. A piece of wood. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Carthage. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. To insert the lead plate. 1. long. as shown in C. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. 2. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. 1. where he is placed in an upright open . As there shown. If the interrupter does not work at first. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Having finished the interrupter. N. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Fig. B. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. 2. 1. If all adjustments are correct. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Jones. --Contributed by Harold L. as shown in B. Fig. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Y. Turn on the current and press the button. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Fig. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Fig. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in.

should be colored a dull black. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. the illusion will be spoiled. by 7-1/2 in. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. with the exception of the glass. until it is dark there. and must be thoroughly cleansed. A. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The glass should be the clearest possible. high. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. If it is desired to place the box lower down. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. could expect from a skeleton. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. giving a limp. figures and lights. is constructed as shown in the drawings. They need to give a fairly strong light. The lights. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. The model. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. as the entire interior. which can be run by three dry cells. loosejointed effect. and wave his arms up and down. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. should be miniature electric lamps. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass.coffin. L and M. If everything is not black. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. Its edges should nowhere be visible.. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. and can be bought at Japanese stores. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. All . by 7 in. The skeleton is made of papier maché. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. especially the joints and background near A. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. light-colored garments. to aid the illusion. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. from which the gong has been removed. especially L. A white shroud is thrown over his body. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. dressed in brilliant. within the limits of an ordinary room. inside dimensions.

Two finishing nails were driven in. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. fat spark. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. San Jose. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. W. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. Cal. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. Fry. as shown in the sketch. square block. --Contributed by Geo. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for .that is necessary is a two-point switch. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. placed about a foot apart. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. If a gradual transformation is desired. after which it assumes its normal color. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils.

When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. New York. by small pieces of wood. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. or a solution of sal soda. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. to make it airtight. and should be separated about 1/8 in. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. into the receiver G. as shown. soldered in the top. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. In Fig. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. Cohen. In Fig. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. If a lighted match . The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. hydrogen gas is generated. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. The plates are separated 6 in. the remaining space will be filled with air. A (see sketch). 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. This is a wide-mouth bottle. -Contributed by Dudley H. F. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. One of these plates is connected to metal top. with two tubes. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. 1. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. B and C.

long. One row is drilled to come directly on top. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. B. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. London. 36 insulated wire. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. then a suitable burner is necessary. 1-5/16 in. or by direct contact with another magnet. 1. 1/2 in. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. C C. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. N. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. either by passing a current of electricity around it. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. N. which forms the vaporizing coil. A. is then coiled around the brass tube. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. which is plugged up at both ends. as is shown in the illustration. from the bottom. and the ends of the tube. is made by drilling a 1/8in. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. A. A piece of 1/8-in. of No. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. copper pipe. A nipple. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. The distance between the nipple. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. A. in diameter and 6 in.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. Fig. copper pipe. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. If desired. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. long. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. A. should be only 5/16 of an inch. 2 shows the end view. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. A 1/64-in. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. P. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. by means of the clips. Fig. says the Model Engineer. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank.

with a fine saw. 1/4 in. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. taking care not to bend the iron. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. longer and 1/4 in. should be cut to the diameter of the can. boards and all. Cut four pieces of cardboard. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. about 8 or 10 in. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. smoothly. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Fig. 2). such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. trim both ends and the front edge. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . 3. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. duck or linen. larger all around than the book. at the front and back for fly leaves. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. cut to the size of the pages. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. this makes a much nicer book.lamp cord. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. leaving the folded edge uncut. 1. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Take two strips of stout cloth. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Fig. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. Fig. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. A disk of thin sheet-iron. fold and cut it 1 in. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. If you have access to a printer's paper knife.

as shown. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. is turned on it.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Another can. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. C. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Parker. Va. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. A gas cock. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. without a head. pasting them down (Fig. 18 in. of tank A is cut a hole. is fitted in it and soldered. 4). Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. is made the same depth as B. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. . in diameter and 30 in. --Contributed by Joseph N. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. deep. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. D. as shown in the sketch. Ont. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Noble. In the bottom. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. H. but its diameter is a little smaller. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. is perforated with a number of holes. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. This will cause some air to be enclosed. B. is soldered onto tank A. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. and a little can. the joint will be gas tight. E. Another tank. Bedford City. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Toronto. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. which will just slip inside the little can. --Contributed by James E. A. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. or rather the top now.

long. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. The wiring diagram. The small guards. making the width. B. B. with an electric-bell magnet. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. B. J. H is a square knot. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. which may be either spruce. thus adjusting the . A. and the four diagonal struts. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. D. The longitudinal corner spines. should be 3/8 in. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. tacks. and about 26 in. Beverly. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. 2. long. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. S. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. C. Bott. -Contributed by H. basswood or white pine. D. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. Fig. A A. fastened in the bottom. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. to prevent splitting. by 1/2 in. N. exactly 12 in. If the pushbutton A is closed. The armature. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. when finished. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. 1. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. square by 42 in. E. The diagonal struts. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal.. shows how the connections are to be made. The bridle knots. should be 1/4 in. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. which moves to either right or left. should be cut a little too long. If the back armature. and sewed double to give extra strength. are shown in detail at H and J. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. as shown at C. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. Fig. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position.

Kan. Harbert. as shown. A bowline knot should be tied at J. that refuse to slide easily. --Contributed by Edw. D. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. shift toward F. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. the batteries do not run down for a long time.lengths of F and G. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. E. for producing electricity direct from heat. however. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Chicago. Clay Center. and. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Stoddard. --Contributed by A. can be made of a wooden . to prevent slipping. with gratifying results. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. If the kite is used in a light wind. Closing either key will operate both sounders. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. and if a strong wind is blowing.

E. C. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. or parallel with the compass needle. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. placed on top. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. The wood screw. with a pocket compass. and also holds the pieces of wood. Chicago. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in.frame. C. 14 or No. which conducts the current into the cannon. E. in position. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. A and B. D. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. spark. to the cannon. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. F. A. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. 16 single-covered wire. When the cannon is loaded. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. B. and the current may then be detected by means. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. Turn the spool in a north and south direction.. A. with a number of nails. A. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. Then. C. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. by means of machine screws or. Fasten a piece of wood. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. --Contributed by A.

Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. square and 3/8 in. Marion. Keil. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. when in position at A'. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. To reverse. Chicago. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Fig. A and S. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. where there is a staple. A and S. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Big Rapids.the current is shut off. Connect as shown in the illustration. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. in this position the door is locked. To lock the door. now at A' and S'. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. within the reach of the magnet. 1. press the button. with the long arm at L'. --Contributed by Joseph B. 1. In Fig. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Ohio. Bend the strips BB (Fig. H. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. to receive the screw in the center. 1. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. A hole for a 1/2 in. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. A. B. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. but no weights or strings. To unlock the door. . it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. L. screw is bored in the block. requiring a strong magnet. Fig. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Mich.

pipe with 1-2-in. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. When ready for use. about 18 in. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. are enameled a jet black. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. or for microscopic work. Mass. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. When the holes are finished and your lines set.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. gas-pipe. if enameled white on the concave side. J. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and C is a dumbbell. long. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. West Somerville. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. Thread the other end of the pipe. --Contributed by C. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. put in the handle. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. Rand. The standard and base. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. and may be made at very slight expense. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. hole. and if desired the handles may . The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black.

. Warren. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. --Contributed by C. E. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. inside the pail. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. high by 1 ft. B. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . which shall project at least 2 in. long and 8 in. 8 in. 1. North Easton. 1. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. M. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. as shown at A in the sketch. Fig. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. across. with a cover. D. Fig.be covered with leather. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Mass. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. A. across. Make a cylindrical core of wood.

This is a clay cylinder (Fig. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. If the cover of the pail has no rim. W. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. It is placed inside the kiln. When lighted. Wind about 1/8 in. 3) with false top and bottom. sand.. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. or make one yourself. in diameter. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. After removing all the paper. Set aside for a few days until well dried. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. which is the hottest part. the firing should be gradual. 2 in. and with especial caution the first time. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. After finishing the core. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. to hold the clay mixture.. 1). This done. and your kiln is ready for business. hotel china. 2. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. Cover with paper and shellac as before. Fit all the parts together snugly. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. 60%. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. The 2 in. cutting the hole a little smaller. and varnish. as is shown in the sketch. pipe. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. but will be cheaper in operation. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. and cut it 3-1/2 in. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. full length of iron core. long. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. and 3/8 in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. diameter. Whatever burner is used. such . L. C.-G. thick. carefully centering it. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. wider than the kiln. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. 1). The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. if there is to be any glazing done. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. 1390°-1410°. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. strip of sheet iron. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. pipe 2-ft. say 1/4 in. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. projecting from each end (Fig. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. layer of the clay mixture. hard porcelain. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. let this dry thoroughly. and graphite. and on it set the paper wrapped core.mixture of clay. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. 25%. 1330°. about 1 in. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. Line the pail. long over the lid hole as a chimney. pack this space-top. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. Fig. C. make two wood ends. Procure a bundle of small iron wire.. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. of fine wire. thick. E. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. and 3/4 in. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. if you have the materials. but it will burn a great deal of gas. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. C. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. 15%. bottom and sides. in diameter. the point of the blue flame. as dictated by fancy and expense.

red and black. The funnel. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. You can display either color called for. taking care to have the first card red. 2. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. the next black. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. 8 in. Washington. Then take the black cards. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. and divide it into two piles. A. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. diameter. every alternate card being the same color. all cards facing the same way. R. around the coil. as in Fig. Of course. 2. Then. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. about 1/16 in. B. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. 2).. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. square them up and place in a vise. overlaps and rests on the body. 1. and plane off about 1/16 in. and so on.53 in. Chicago.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. D. --Contributed by J. square them up. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. C. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. leaving long terminals. Take the red cards. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. . as in Fig. C. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. bind tightly with black silk. T. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. length of . Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. with a plane. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. and discharges into the tube. as shown in the sketch herewith. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. procure a new deck. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. C. Next restore all the cards to one pack.

The cement. about 20 in. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. N. 1 gill of litharge. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. thus making all the holes coincide. angle iron for the frame. It should be placed in an exposed location. through the holes already drilled.C. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. and this is inexpensive to build. To find the fall of snow. F. of the frame. and then the frame is ready to assemble. Let . B. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. stove bolts. A. C. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. Long Branch.. as the difficulties increase with the size. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. Fig. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. B. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. When the glass is put in the frame a space.J. so that when they are assembled. The upright pieces. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. A. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. 1 gill of fine white sand. E. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. 1. stove bolts. E. to form a dovetail joint as shown. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. the first thing to decide on is the size. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. Drill all the horizontal pieces. D. the same ends will come together again. All the horizontal pieces. The bottom glass should be a good fit. B.

a centerpiece (A. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Fig. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. Fasten the lever. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. D.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. Aquarium Finished If desired. if desired. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. on the door by means of a metal plate. having a swinging connection at C. B. to the door knob. A. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. and. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet .

They are shown in Fig. 1 is the motor with one side removed. screwed to the door frame. from the outside top of the frame. 1 . which is 15 in. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. C. long. To make the frame. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Fig. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Do not fasten these boards now. according to the slant given C. 1. as at E. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. and Fig. soldered to the end of the cylinder. long. Fig. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. long. 26 in. --Contributed by Orton E. I referred this question to my husband. to form the main supports of the frame. will open the door about 1/2 in. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. several lengths of scantling 3 in. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. E. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 2 ft. another. to keep the frame from spreading. Fig. PAUL S. but mark their position on the frame. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Cut two of them 4 ft. wide . The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. approximately 1 ft. hoping it may solve the same question for them.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles.. 3 shows one of the paddles. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. with a water pressure of 70 lb. Two short boards 1 in. for the top. Fig. AA. 2 is an end view. A small piece of spring brass. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. Buffalo. Cut two pieces 30 in. White. F. to form the slanting part. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. 6 in. thus doing away with the spring. 1. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. another. B. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. D. 2 at GG. long. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. N. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. Fig. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. Fig. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. and another. Y. wide by 1 in.

On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Take the side pieces. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. 2) form a substantial base. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. GG. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. thick. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. iron 3 by 4 in. 1. long to the wheel about 8 in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Fig. Drill 1/8-in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. 2) with a 5/8-in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. hole through its center. as shown in Fig. hole from the tops to the 1-in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. When it has cooled. in diameter. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. and drill a 1/8-in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. take down the crosspieces. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. hole through the exact center of the wheel. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. hole through their sides centrally. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. (I. 24 in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. after which drill a 5/8 in. and drill a 1-in. Fasten them in their proper position. with the wheel and shaft in place. thick (HH. These are the paddles.along the edges under the zinc to form . holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. remove the cardboard. iron. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. steel shaft 12 in. hole through them. Next secure a 5/8-in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. tapering from 3/16 in. Now block the wheel. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. pipe. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Make this hole conical. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in.burlap will do -. and a 1/4 -in. then drill a 3/16-in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. holes. hole to form the bearings. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. 2) and another 1 in. Fig. from one end by means of a key. that is. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Fig. to a full 1/2 in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. by 1-1/2 in. 4. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. Tack one side on.

and the subject may move. drill press. and leave them for an hour or so. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. Do not stop down the lens. on the lens. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. or what is called a process plate. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. light and the plate. but now I put them in the machine. place the outlet over a drain. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. shutting out all light from above and the sides. of course. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. any window will do. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame.a water-tight joint. If the bearings are now oiled. it would be more durable. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. The best plate to use is a very slow one. sewing machine. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. and as near to it as possible.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. start the motor. It is obvious that. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. remove any white curtains there may be. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. as this makes long exposure necessary. If sheet-iron is used. Raise the window shade half way. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. says the Photographic Times. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. Darken the rest of the window. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Correct exposure depends. Focus the camera carefully. Drill a hole through the zinc. as shown in the sketch at B. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. . ice-cream freezer. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. but as it would have cost several times as much.

the core is drawn down out of sight. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. without detail in the face. full of water.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. an empty pill bottle may be used. C. with binding posts as shown. as shown in Fig. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. or wood. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. until the core slowly rises. or an empty developer tube. 2. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. which is made of iron and cork. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. by twisting. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. D. 2. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. The glass tube may be a test tube. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. as a slight current will answer. and a base. The core C. and without fog. a core. With a piece of black paper. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. hard rubber. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. On completing . any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The current required is very small. a glass tube. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. A. B. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. or can be taken from an old magnet.

or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. and make a pinhole in the center. water and 3 oz. and one not easy to explain. according to his control of the current. 1. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. and are changed by reversing the rotation. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. is Benham's color top. The colors appear different to different people. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. 1 lb. white lead. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. finest graphite. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. 1 pt. whale oil. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard.

B. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. or three spot. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. Chicago. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. when the action ceases. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. fan-like. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. As this device is easily upset. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. thus partly filling bottles A and C. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which .Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. -Contributed by D.L. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced.B. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. A.. especially if the deck is a new one. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. In prize games. deuce. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. C. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. nearly every time. In making hydrogen. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. before cutting. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out.

--Contributed by C... Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. 10 in. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. W. in diameter. S. 1. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. long and 3 in. 2. Jr. as shown in Fig. Detroit. Bently. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 3). in length and 3 in.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Detail of Phonograph Horn . long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Make a 10-sided stick. long. Huron. Fig. . 4. Fig. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. that will fit loosely in the tube A. S. --Contributed by F. 9 in. Form a cone of heavy paper. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Dak. (Fig. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. 12 in. J.

which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. about the size of a leadpencil. on one side and the top. 6. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. --Contributed by Reader.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. push back the bolt. Cut out paper sections (Fig. Fortunately. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . with a pin driven in each end. C. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. but bends toward D. long. A piece of tin. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. bend it at right angles throughout its length. A. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. Denver. will cause an increased movement of C. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. allowing 1 in. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. and walk in. Fig. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. E. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. making it three-ply thick. A second piece of silk thread. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. it is equally easy to block that trick. Remove the form.

Paul. and rest on a brick placed under each end. By this arrangement one. long. are made 2 by 4 in. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. as shown. Two wood-base switches. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. The reverse switch. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. The upper switch. B. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. 4 ft. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. W. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. --Contributed by J. Fremont Hilscher.. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. are 7 ft. while the lower switch. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. A. S S. will last for several years.strip. S. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. Minn. is connected each point to a battery.. West St. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Jr. The 2 by 4-in. or left to right. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. B. S. put together as shown in the sketch. posts. R. The feet. long.

Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. and a cylindrical . 2 and 3. which is made of tin. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The piston is made of a stove bolt. and has two wood blocks. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. The base is made of wood. and in Fig. The steam chest D. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The hose E connects to the boiler. and valve crank S. which will be described later. either an old sewing-machine wheel. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. the size of the hole in the bearing B. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. FF. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. with two washers. In Fig. The valve motion is shown in Figs. E. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. or anything available. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. pulley wheel. thick. is an old bicycle pump. H and K. 3/8 in. and the crank bearing C. Fig. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. 1. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. Fig. cut in half. 2.every house. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust.

. This engine was built by W. G. The valve crank S. and a very amusing trick. powder can. 4. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Schuh and A. Eustice. Fry. using the positive wire as a pen. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. Wis. San Jose. and saturated with thick oil. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. --Contributed by Geo. Fig. at that. 1. of Cuba. or galvanized iron. C. Fig. The boiler. to receive the connecting rod H. G. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E.piece of hard wood. as it is merely a trick of photography. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. W. First. This is wound with soft string. is cut out of tin. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Cal. as shown in Fig. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. and the desired result is obtained. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. 3. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. J. can be an old oil can.

On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. 1 will be seen to rotate. as shown.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Fig. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Cut half circles out of each stave. The smaller wheel. When turning. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. as shown at AA. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. diameter. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. B. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. They may be of any size. and pass ropes around . 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. to cross in the center. 1 by covering up Figs. Fig. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. and place a bell on the four ends. Fig. B. and Fig. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. C.

long. produces a higher magnifying power). --Contributed by H. procure a wooden spool. from the transmitter. From a piece of thin . say 1/2 or 3/4 in. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury..G. To make this lensless microscope. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. St. which allows the use of small sized ropes. This in turn will act on the transmitter. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. A (a short spool. which accounts for the sound. Louis. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. as shown in the illustration. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. W. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. such as clothes lines.M. Mo. but not on all.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope.

) But an object 3/4-in.. in which hay has been soaking for several days. The lever. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. if the distance is reduced to one-half. (The area would appear 64 times as large. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. place a small object on the transparent disk. and so on. can be made of brass and the armature. if the distance is reduced to one-third. An innocent-looking drop of water.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. Viewed through this microscope. Fig. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. the diameter will appear three times as large. 3. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. the object should be of a transparent nature. D. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. which are pieces of hard wood. or 64 times. as in all microscopes of any power. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. B. 1. 2. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. held at arm's length. The spring. i. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. B. fastened to a wooden base. and look through the hole D. otherwise the image will be blurred. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. D. . e. which costs little or nothing to make. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. is fastened at each end by pins. The pivot. by means of brads. is made of iron. E. darting across the field in every direction.. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. H. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. A. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. cut out a small disk. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. C. To use this microscope. bent as shown. and at the center. C. the diameter will appear twice as large.

HH. fastened near the end. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. brass. The base of the key. or taken from a small one-point switch. long. DD. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. D. wood. B. similar to the one used in the sounder. between the armature and the magnet. nail soldered on A. soft iron. Each side. wide. and are connected to the contacts. in length and 16 in. A. wood: C. wide and set in between sides AA. brass: E. wide. which are made to receive a pivot. 1. B. long by 16 in. K. coils wound with No. wide. should be about 22 in. E. C. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. brass: B. long and 14-1/2 in. KEY-A. connection of D to nail. D. Fig. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. Cut the top. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. 16 in. K. A switch. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. FF. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. F. Fig. The binding posts. wide and about 20 in. 16 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. wide. or a single piece. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. can be made panel as shown. D. 26 wire: E. binding posts: H spring The stop.SOUNDER-A. C. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. is cut from a board about 36 in. thick. AA. brass or iron soldered to nail. The door. 2. wood: F. The back. . may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base.

This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. long. as shown in the sketch. brads. Garfield. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. cut in them. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. In operation. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. material. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. When the electrical waves strike the needle. as shown. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. Make 12 cleats. E.. Ill. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. with 3/4-in. AA. 2 and made from 1/4-in. 13-1/2 in. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides.

will give a greater speed. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. A fairly stiff spring. C. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. A (see sketch). when used with a motor. B. A. filled with water. pulls down the armature. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. N. The cord is also fastened to a lever. Y. Ridgewood. down into the water increases the surface in contact. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. F. N. and. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . Fairport. through which a piece of wire is passed. When the pipe is used.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. and thus decreases the resistance. J. Brown. Pushing the wire. E. --Contributed by John Koehler. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. A. the magnet. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. --Contributed by R. in order to increase the surface. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock.

the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. even those who read this description. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Gachville. N. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Borden. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. --Contributed by Perry A. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Of course. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. if desired. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. B. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7.for the secret contact. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder.

--Contributed by Dr. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in.whenever the bell rings. D.. deep and 3/4 in. C. 1. Two drawers are fitted in this space. for 6-in. E. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. wide. From a piece of brass a switch. East Orange. N. 2. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. wide. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. as shown in Fig. The top board is made 28-in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Compton. as shown in Fig. Mangold. in a semicircle 2 in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. wide. Jr. wide. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. J. Dobson. wide. With about 9 ft. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. apart. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. --Contributed by H. and on both sides of the middle shelf. thick and 12-in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. The three shelves are cut 25-in. Cal. from the bottom. C. H. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. long and 5 in. long and full 12-in. Washington. for 10in. where the other end of wire is fastened. . Cut the end pieces each 36-in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. records and 5-5/8 in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. records. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. Connect switch to post B. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. A.

An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Va. B. as shown in Fig. closed. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. 1. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Roanoke. as shown by the dotted lines. to which is fastened a cord. which in operation is bent.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. When the cord is passed over pulley C. A. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. E. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc.

Fig. These wheels should be 3/4 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. E. in diameter. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. against which the rubber tubing. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. thick. deep and 1/2 in. apart. in diameter. holes (HH. thick (A. In the sides (Fig. B. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 1 in. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. as shown in the illustration. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. is compressed by wheels. Cut two grooves. 1. wide. 5) when they are placed. which should be about 1/2 in. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. E. they will bind. Put the rubber tube. The crankpin should fit tightly. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Figs. long. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. deep. they will let the air through. D. 3.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. in diameter. Figs. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. square and 7/8 in. wide. If the wheels fit too tightly. Fig. In these grooves place wheels. 1 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. Fig. in diameter. Do not fasten the sides too . it too loose. 3). if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. CC. through one of these holes. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Now put all these parts together. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. one in each end. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Bore two 1/4 in. but a larger one could be built in proportion. excepting the crank and tubing. Notice the break (S) in the track. to turn on pins of stout wire.

securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. from each end. from each end. tubing. as it gives steadiness to the motion. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Two feet of 1/4-in. Kan. as shown in Fig. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Fig. 15 in. long. beyond each of these two. and are 30 in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. To use the pump. If the motion of the wheels is regular. the pump will give a steady stream. 2. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. 17-1/2 in. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. The animal does not fear to enter the box. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. AA. and mark for a hole. Fig. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. A in Fig. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. costing 10 cents. Take the center of the bar. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. mark again. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. 1. Hubbard. from that mark the next hole. In the two cross bars 1 in. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Then turn the crank from left to right. The three legs marked BBB.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. from each end. stands 20 in. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. 1. 2. the other wheel has reached the bottom. 1. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. Idana. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. For ease in handling the pump. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. because he can . is all the expense necessary. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. though a small iron wheel is better. mark for hole and 3 in. Fig. of material. Cut six pieces. The screen which is shown in Fig. Fig. from the bottom and 2 in. 1. a platform should be added. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. 1. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. iron. and 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by Dan H. AA. B.

shuts him in. stirring constantly. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. giving it a bright. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. Place the carbon in the jar. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. The truncated. 1) must be prepared. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. however. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. acid 1 part). This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. The battery is now complete. there is too much liquid in the jar. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. and touches the bait the lid is released and. sulphuric acid. It is useful for running induction coils. dropping. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. add slowly.see through it: when he enters. of the top. . rub the zinc well. some of it should be poured out. 14 copper wire. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. Philadelphia. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. until it is within 3 in. To cause a flow of electricity. When through using the battery. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. but if one casts his own zinc. potassium bichromate. C. or. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. If the battery has been used before. If it is wet. long having two thumb screws. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. or small electric motors. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. 4 oz. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. The battery is now ready for use. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. Meyer. silvery appearance. and the solution (Fig. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. If the solution touches the zinc. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. The mercury will adhere. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. When the bichromate has all dissolved. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. --Contributed by H. 2). of water dissolve 4 oz.

Madison. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. the jump-spark coil . Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. After putting in the coal. If. i. however. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. The price of the coil depends upon its size.. pressing the pedal closes the door. Wis.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house.Fig. the battery circuit. while the coal door is being opened. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. which opens the door. with slight changes. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. e.

made of No. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. and closer for longer distances. 7). diameter. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. 6. 7. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. which is made of light copper wire. This coil. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. while a 12-in. Change the coil described. Fig. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil.7. coil. W W. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal.described elsewhere in this book. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. being a 1-in. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. in a straight line from top to bottom. 6. W W. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. This will make an excellent receiver. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. in a partial vacuum. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. . After winding. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. apart. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. the full length of the coil. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. Now for the receiving apparatus. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. 7. 5. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in.

No. . B the bed and C the tailstock. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. after all. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. are analogous to the flow of induction. 90°. in the air. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. but it could be run by foot power if desired. Run a wire from the other binding post. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. 1). which will be described later. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. only. above the ground. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. A. 1 to 4. The writer does not claim to be the originator. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. being vertical. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. and hence the aerial line. may be easily made at very little expense.The aerial line. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). These circles. Figs. at any point to any metal which is grounded. 90°. as it matches the color well. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. using an electric motor and countershaft. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. I run my lathe by power. where A is the headstock. being at right angles.6 stranded. but simply illustrates the above to show that. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. A large cone pulley would then be required. For an illustration. to the direction of the current. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig.

and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. 4. and runs in babbitt bearings. tapered wooden pin. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. 5. which are let into holes FIG. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. steel tubing about 1/8 in. 6. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. one of which is shown in Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. Fig. A. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Fig. thick. and Fig. 5. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. on the under side of the bed. pitch and 1/8 in. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. If the bearing has been properly made. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. too. 6 Headstock Details D. Fig. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. 2 and 3. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. which pass through a piece of wood. Fig. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. but not hot enough to burn it. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. deep. The headstock. After pouring. B. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. Heat the babbitt well. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. The bearing is then ready to be poured. 4. To make these bearings. just touching the shaft. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. and it is well to have the shaft hot. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. The bolts B (Fig.

of the walk . FIG. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. embedded in the wood. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. The tail stock (Fig.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. If one has a wooden walk. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. Oak Park. they may be turned up after assembling.other machines. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. B. and a 1/2-in. A. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. Take up about 5 ft. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. the alarm is easy to fix up. Ill. lock nut. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Newark.J. If not perfectly true. This prevents corrosion. N. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. so I had to buy one.

dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Connect up an electric bell. Minn. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Finally. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. (A. leaving a clear solution. save when a weight is on the trap. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. clean the articles thoroughly.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. To avoid touching it. so that they will not touch. --Contributed by R. Fig. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. before dipping them in the potash solution. to roughen the surface slightly. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. of water. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. 2). Then make the solution . S. water. hang the articles on the wires. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. to remove all traces of grease. silver or other metal. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. add potassium cyanide again. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Jackson. Minneapolis. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. and the alarm is complete.

18 wire. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. zinc. 1). nickel and such metals. Then. Can be made of a 2-in. Make a somewhat larger block (E. In rigging it to a sliding door. 3) strikes the bent wire L. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. with the pivot 2 in. If more solution is required. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. 10 in. which is advised. and the larger part (F. when the point of the key touches the tin. must be about 1 in. which is held by catch B. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. Fig. of clothesline rope and some No. with water. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. if one does not possess a buffing machine. thick by 3 in. make a key and keyhole. as at F. 1. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through.up to 2 qt. With an electric pressure of 3. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. about 25 ft. 3. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. but opens the door. hole in its center. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. Repeat six times. A 1/4 in. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. To provide the keyhole. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. The wooden catch. lead. a circuit is completed. 3) directly over the hole. with water. B should be of the same wood. If accumulators are used. shaking. long. Having finished washing the precipitate. Screw the two blocks together. 1 in. square. also. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. --Model Engineer. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. Before silver plating. a hand scratch brush is good. piece of broomstick. which . with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. will serve for the key. such metals as iron. The wooden block C. copper. Fig.5 to 4 volts. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. Fig. Fig. 1). I. of water. an old electric bell or buzzer. German silver. Take quick. When all this is set up. This solution. and then treated as copper. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. Where Bunsen cells are used. light strokes. saw a piece of wood. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. On brass. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. pewter. long. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. use 2 volts for large articles. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. 1 not only unlocks. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. and 4 volts for very small ones. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. from the lower end. A (Fig. silver can be plated direct. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole.

The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. Fig. The box must be altered first. top. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. Heavy metal objects. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. some black cloth. Next. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. B. H. sides and end. One thing changes to another and back again. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. East Orange. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. Next. On either side of the box. floor. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. although a little more trouble. enlarged. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. heighten the illusion. some black paint. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. and hands its contents round to the audience. with the lights turned low. the box should be painted black both inside and out. cut in one side. Receiving the bowl again. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. spoons and jackknives. H. to throw the light toward the audience. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. Fig. should be cut a hole. --Contributed by E. In front of you. no painting inside is required. Klipstein. One end is removed. and finally lined inside with black cloth. To prepare such a magic cave. 1. one-third of the length from the remaining end. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). in his shirt sleeves. . where immediately appears a small white china bowl. a few simple tools. shows catch B. New Jersey.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. so much the better. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. Fig. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. he points with one finger to the box. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. the illumination in front must be arranged.. and a slit. with a switch as in Fig. 3. Thus. H. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. 116 Prospect St. 1. the requisites are a large soap box. Fig. half way from open end to closed end. The interior must be a dead black. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. 2. Objects appear and disappear. between the parlor and the room back of it. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. He removes the bowl from the black box. or cave. he tosses it into the cave. and black art reigns supreme. such as forks. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. which unlocks the door. 0. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. is the cut through which the rope runs. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. surrounding a perfectly black space. The magician stands in front of this. and plenty of candles. 2. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well.

while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. is on a table) so much the better. you must have an assistant. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. of course. and pours them from the bag into a dish. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. the room where the cave is should be dark. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. a screen must be used. only he. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. was identical with this. in which are oranges and apples. which can be made to dance either by strings. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. But illusions suggest themselves. which are let down through the slit in the top. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. The exhibitor should be . but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. had a big stage. if. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. as presented by Hermann. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. and if portieres are impossible.Finally. of course. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The audience room should have only low lights. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. The illusion. into the eyes of him who looks. one on each side of the box. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. his confederate behind inserts his hand. and several black drop curtains. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. Consequently.

b3. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. as shown in Fig. making contact with them as shown at y. c3. respectively. f2. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. A represents a pine board 4 in. 2.. if you turn handle K to the right. c1. square. e1 and e2. or binding posts. 2). and c1 – electricity. making contact with them. 1. c4. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. their one end just slips under the strips b1.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. b2. held down by another disk F (Fig. respectively. d. FIG. respectively. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. and c4 + electricity. On the disk G are two brass strips. b1. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. with three brass strips. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2.a boy who can talk. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. b3. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. A. terminal c3 will show . which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . Finally. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. by 4 in. About the center piece H moves a disk. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. 2. vice versa. by means of two wood screws. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. or b2. at L. so arranged that. 1. c2. is shown in the diagram. b2. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. terminal c3 will show +. and a common screw. Fig. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. and c2 to the zinc. Then. held down on it by two terminals. when handle K is turned to one side. held down on disk F by two other terminals.

thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. 1. When switch B is closed and A is on No. 3. Jr. Joerin. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 4. Tuttle. and C and C1 are binding posts. Ohio. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. . from three batteries. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. 5. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. you have the current of one battery. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. when on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. --Contributed by Eugene F. from four batteries. E. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade).in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) .. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. and when on No. -Contributed by A. Newark. when on No. when A is on No. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. B is a onepoint switch. jump spark coil. from five batteries.

with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. which may be a button or other small object. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. A. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. When you do not have a graduate at hand. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. A. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. mark. and placed on the windowsill of the car. Wis. as shown in the sketch. per second. per second for each second. over the bent portion of the rule. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. is the device of H. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. rule. so one can see the time. Handy Electric Alarm . Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. of Burlington. Thus. traveled by the thread. mark. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. La. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. and supporting the small weight. E. New Orleans. B. P. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. A.. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. Redmond. The device thus arranged.

--C. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. for a wetting is the inevitable result. which illuminates the face of the clock. Crafton. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. When the alarm goes off. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. but may be closed at F any time desired. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. soldered to the alarm winder. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. Lane. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. --Contributed by Gordon T. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. wrapping the wire around the can several times. Pa. B. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. . and with the same result. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. Then if a mishap comes. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon.which has a piece of metal. S. C. Instead. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. It was not long before a big greyhound came along.

as shown in Fig. but it is a mistake to try to do this. With the easily made devices about to be described. binding posts. 1. engines. Two cleats. The first thing to make is a molding bench. when it is being prepared. C. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. bearings. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. If there is no foundry Fig. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. BE. whence it is soon tracked into the house. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. and duplicates of all these. models and miniature objects. ornaments of various kinds. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. small machinery parts. --Contributed by A. It is possible to make molds without a bench. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. Macey. A. which may. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. 1 .Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. AA. New York City. cannons. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. and many other interesting and useful articles. as shown. battery zincs. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. L.

which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. as shown. II . A A. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. The dowels. Fig. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. An old teaspoon. and a sieve. The rammer. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. DD. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. CC. 1. which should be nailed in." or upper half. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. try using sand from other sources. is filled with coal dust. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. and the "drag. H." or lower part. by 8 in. is about the right mesh. makes a very good sieve. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. 2 . The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. If desired the sieve may be homemade.How to Make a Mold [96] . which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. The cloth bag. CC. If the box is not very strong. and the lower pieces. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. E. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. and saw it in half longitudinally. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. which can be either aluminum. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. the "cope. 1. G. A wedge-shaped piece. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. a little larger than the outside of the flask. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. A slight shake of the bag Fig. J. Fig. say 12 in. The flask. It is made of wood and is in two halves. which can be made of a knitted stocking. D. will be required. F.near at hand. white metal. 2. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. is made of wood. as shown. previous to sawing. by 6 in. but this operation will be described more fully later on. and this. is nailed to each end of the cope. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. is shown more clearly in Fig. high.

and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. and if water is added. as shown. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B." in position. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. the surface of the sand at . the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. and then more sand is added until Fig. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. or "cope. Place another cover board on top. as it is much easier to learn by observation. In finishing the ramming. or "drag. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. in order to remove the lumps. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. as shown at C. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. as described. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. After ramming. It is then rammed again as before. where they can watch the molders at work. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. turn the drag other side up. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. and scatter about 1/16 in. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. and thus judge for himself. as shown at E. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. and by grasping with both hands. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. The sand is then ready for molding. as shown at D. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry.

as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. The "sprue. as shown in the sketch. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. after being poured. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. III. Fig. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. After drawing the pattern.E should be covered with coal-dust. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. is next cut. in diameter. wide and about 1/4 in. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. made out of steel rod. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. Place a brick or other flat. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. deep. as shown at H. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. to give the air a chance to escape. This is done with a spoon. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. as shown at J. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. thus holding the crucible securely. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. and then pour. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. in order to prevent overheating. place the cope back on the drag. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. thus making a dirty casting. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. as shown at H. as shown at G. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible." or pouring-hole. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. it shows that the sand is too wet. as shown at F. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. .

The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. battery zincs. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. --Contributed by Harold S. Minneapolis. 15% lead. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. but any reasonable number may be used. the following device will be found most convenient. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. Although the effect in the illustration . The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. is very desirable. and. used only for zinc. If a good furnace is available. although somewhat expensive. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. Morton. babbitt. Referring to the figure. and the casting is then ready for finishing. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. may be used in either direction. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. or from any adjacent pair of cells. In my own case I used four batteries. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. white metal and other scrap available. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw.

to prevent them from rubbing the hands. Fig. backward. --Contributed by Draughtsman. To make it take a sheet-iron band. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. A. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. By replacing the oars with paddles. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. as shown at A. Then walk down among the audience. shaft made. The brass rings also appear distorted. Put a sharp needle point. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. as shown in the illustration. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. may be made of hardwood. If desired. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. which will be sufficient to hold it. Make one of these pieces for each arm. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. B. Then replace the table. outward. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. B. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. Chicago. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. 2. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. connected by cords to the rudder. The bearings. 3/4 in.

The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. Snow. If galvanized iron is used. The hubs. 1. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. 2 and 3. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. 1. 1. when it will again return to its original state. or under pressure. A.melted babbitt. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. spoiling its appearance. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. It may seem strange that ice . it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. being simply finely divided ice. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. E. 3. or the paint will come off. Fig. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. 2. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. A block of ice. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. W. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. and a weight. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. In the same way. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. should be made of wood. but when in motion. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. If babbitt is used. The covers. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. D. C. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost.

by 2 in. by 5 in. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. Pa.should flow like water. as per sketch. but by placing it between books. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. by 1/4. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. no matter how slow the motion may be. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. The current is flowing through both bells all the time.. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. square. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. which resembles ice in this respect. and assume the shape shown at B. in. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. as shown on page 65. P. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. Lane. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. --Contributed by Gordon T. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. B. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. thus giving a high resistance contact. by 1/2 in. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. or supporting it in some similar way. Pressing either push button. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. The rate of flow is often very slow. but. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. whenever there is any connection made at all. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. brass. Crafton. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. it will gradually change from the original shape A. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. sometimes only one or two feet a day.

thumb screws. D. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. vertical lever. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. and C. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. B. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. wooden supports. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. Wilkinsburg. as shown. J. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. E. H. G. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. I. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. Ward. weight. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. the induction coil. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. C. draft. Indianapolis. alarm clock. In the wiring diagram. K . pulleys. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. horizontal lever. cord. the battery. A is the circuit breaker. B. about the size used for automobiles. and five dry batteries. draft chain. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. --Contributed by A. F. as shown. G. furnace. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. Pa. The success depends upon a slow current. The parts are: A.000 ft.

the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. Mich. will fit nicely in them. where house plants are kept in the home. Kalamazoo. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. 3. Artistic Window Boxes The top. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. such as used for a storm window. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. 2 are dressed to the right angle. material framed together as shown in Fig. which will provide a fine place for the plants. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. The frame (Fig. as well as the bottom.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in.

and a suitable source of power. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. e. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. It must be remembered. N. 1 each complete with base. and will give the . However. and cost 27 cents FIG. 1 cp. in diameter. for some time very satisfactorily. is something that will interest the average American boy. can be connected up in series. a cork and a needle. i. since a battery is the most popular source of power. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. in this connection. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. However.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. A certain number of these. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. W.. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. Push the needle into the cork. as if drawn upon for its total output. which sells for 25 cents. --Contributed by Wm. so as to increase the current. multiples of series of three. Halifax. S. where they are glad to have them taken away. this must be done with very great caution. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. Thus. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. Canada. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. The 1/2-cp. This is more economical than dry cells. and the instrument will then be complete. but maintain the voltage constant. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it.. as indicated by Fig. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. one can regulate the batteries as required. Grant. in any system of lamps. after a rest. by connecting them in series.. 1.

and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. Thus. 18 B & S. In conclusion. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. by the proper combination of these. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. to secure light by this method. and diffused light in a room. double insulated wire wherever needed. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. 2 shows the scheme. and running the series in parallel. or 22 lights. If wound for 10 volts. FIG. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. So. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. . and for Christmas trees. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. we simply turn on the water. lamp. and then lead No.proper voltage. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. especially those of low internal resistance. each. although the first cost is greater. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. Thus. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. according to the water pressure obtainable. 1-cp. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. as in Fig. lamps.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. These will give 3 cp. 3. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. Fig. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. for display of show cases. if wound for 6 volts. lamps. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. Chicago. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. which is the same as that of one battery. However. 11 series. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. generates the power for the lights. where the water pressure is the greatest. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. making. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed..

are cut just alike. A indicates the ground. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. outside points of switch. or a tempting bone. . center points of switch.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. Parker. or from one pattern. field of motor. and the sides. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. --Contributed by F. and C. we were not bothered with them. Emig. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. brushes of motor. a bait of meat. DD. as shown in the sketch. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. --Contributed by Leonard E. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Ind. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. BB. simply change the switch. B. bars of pole-changing switch. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Cal. switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. To reverse the motor. CC. After I connected up my induction coil. Santa Clara. A. AA. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. thus reversing the machine. B. Plymouth. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. the letters indicate as follows: FF.

The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. merely push the button E. one cell being sufficient. which is in the door. Minn. Melchior. -Contributed by Claude B. as it is the key to the lock. or would remain locked. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. a hammer. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. The experiment works best . and a table or bench. thus locking the door. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. Cal. The button can be hidden.. 903 Vine St. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. A. Fry. San Jose. a piece of string. When the circuit is broken a weight. Hutchinson. To unlock the door. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. If it is not. attached to the end of the armature B. W. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity.

4). Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Porto Rico. releasing the weight. in the ceiling and has a window weight. attached at the other end. the stick falls away. I. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. 3. --Contributed by Geo.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. W. Tie the ends of the string together. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Culebra. where it will remain suspended as shown. P. -. D..Contributed by F. the key turns. Wis. 2. Brockville. . 1). 18 Gorham St. which pulls the draft open. forming a loop. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. C. Madison. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Schmidt. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. 3. run through a pulley. Crawford Curry. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Canada. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Ontario. as shown in Fig. A. On another block of wood fasten two wires. the current flows with the small arrows.

or tree. running one direct to the receiver. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. S. and then to the receiver. and . R. including the mouthpiece. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. square and 1 in. Jr. Camden. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Connect two wires to the transmitter. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. which fasten to the horn. get two pieces of plate glass. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. The cut shows the arrangement. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. N. and break the corners off to make them round. or from a bed of flowers. J. thence to a switch. 6 in..Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. --Contributed by Wm. J. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. First. Farley. thick. made with his own hands. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. D. Use a barrel to work on. and the other to the battery.

in length. set the speculum against the wall. 30 minutes and 90 minutes.. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. and spread on the glass. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. Fig. L. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. wide around the convex glass or tool. the coarse grinding must be continued. then take 2 lb. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. and is ready for polishing..Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. or it will not polish evenly. melt 1 lb. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. 2. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. of water. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. then 8 minutes. with 1/4-in. wetting it to the consistency of cream. 2. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. so the light . flour emery and mix in 12 qt. and the under glass or tool convex. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. wet till soft like paint. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. twice the focal length away. as in Fig. 1. When dry. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. a round 4-in. When done the glass should be semitransparent. while walking around the barrel. Use a binger to spread it on with. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. In a dark room. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. and a large lamp. also rotate the glass. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. Then warm and press again with the speculum.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. and label. or less. spaces. with pitch. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. A. by the side of the lamp. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. Fasten. unless a longer focal length is wanted. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. using straight strokes 2 in. Have ready six large dishes. When polishing the speculum. Fig.

deep.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. Silver nitrate ……………………………. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. Then add solution B. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Two glass or earthenware dishes. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. the speculum will show some dark rings. that was set aside. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears.. 25 gr. also how the rays R from a star . Fig. the speculum is ready to be silvered. then ammonia until bath is clear. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. with distilled water.……………………………….. longer strokes. Fig.100 gr. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. if a hill in the center. long to the back of the speculum. Then add 1 oz. Place the speculum S... Place the speculum. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. With pitch. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. If not.. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. must be procured. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin.. 4 oz. Now add enough of the solution A. or hills. as in K. face down.……………………………. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. When dry. and pour the rest into the empty dish. 2. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. The knife should not be more than 6 in. touched with rouge. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. from the lamp. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. 840 gr.. Fig. Solution D: Sugar loaf . The polishing and testing done.……………. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. fill the dish with distilled water. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. 4 oz. Nitric acid . 2.. cement a strip of board 8 in. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). 39 gr.. 100 gr. When the focus is found. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade..

then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. slightly wider than the lens mount. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Thus an excellent 6-in. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. About 20. Place over lens. My telescope is 64 in. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. cover with paper and cloth.. deg. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Then I made the one described. and proceed as for any picture. Make the tube I of sheet iron. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. . How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. is a satisfactory angle. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. stop down well after focusing. telescope can be made at home. two glass prisms.John E.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. which proves to be easy of execution. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. with an outlay of only a few dollars. The flatter they are the less they will distort. using strawboard and black paper. long and cost me just $15. Mellish.

If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. but will not preserve its hardening. To unlock. says the Master Painter. Boody. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. Fig. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Do not stir it. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. complete the arrangement. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. D. The rays of the clear. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. 1. as shown in Fig. then add a little sulphate of potash. -Contributed by A. 2. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. The paper is exposed. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. B. unobstructed light strike the mirror. Ill. or powdered alum. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. Zimmerman. through the lens of the camera and on the board. add the plaster gradually to the water. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. . push the button D. instead of the contrary. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. A. and reflect through the negative.

Fasten on the switch lever. as at A and B. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 2. as shown in the sketch. throw . 2. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. so that it can rotate about these points.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Fig. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Then blow through the spool. as in Fig. 1). use a string. but will remain suspended without any visible support. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. To reverse. also provide them with a handle. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. 3. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over.

and rub dry with linen cloth. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Take out. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Go McVicker. wash in running water. --Contributed by Geo. the armature. Thomas. Tex. rinse in alcohol. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Levy. -Contributed by Morris L. North Bend. L. carbon sockets. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. carbons. as shown in the sketch. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. binding posts. A is the electricbell magnet.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. and E E. D. San Marcos. In the sketch. San Antonio. Neb. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Tex. . --Contributed by R. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. B. although this is not necessary. C C.

One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. long or more. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. By means of two or more layers of No. --Contributed by Joseph B. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . 36 magnet wire. Brooklyn. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Bell. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. 16 magnet wire. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. wound evenly about this core. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. 14 or No. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy.

which would be better to buy ready-made. The primary is made of fine annealed No. in length. The condenser is next wrapped . This makes a condenser which may be folded. A 7/8-in. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. then the strip of tin-foil. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. long and 5 in. about 6 in. coil illustrates the general details of the work. but if it is not convenient to do this work. hole is bored in the center of one end. as the maker prefers. 2 yd. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. and the results are often unsatisfactory. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. which is an important factor of the coil. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. at a time. making two layers. Beginning half an inch from one end. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. The following method of completing a 1-in. After the core wires are bundled. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. or 8 in. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. and finally the fourth strip of paper. the entire core may be purchased readymade. No. as shown in Fig. with room also for a small condenser. wide. 4. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. in diameter. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. 1. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. diameter. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. a box like that shown in Fig. long and 2-5/8 in. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. one piece of the paper is laid down. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. which is desirable. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. In shaping the condenser. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. When cut and laid in one continuous length. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired.

Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. G. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. by 12 in. long to key. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. one from bell. D. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. wide.. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. I. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. The alarm key will turn and drop down. forms the other pole or terminal. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. which is insulated from the first. lines H. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. to the door. C. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. and one from battery. B. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board.securely with bands of paper or tape. long and 12 in. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. B. spark. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. E. the letters indicate as follows: A. F. whole length. go.) The wiring diagram. open switch C. round so that the inside . in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. switch. ready for assembling. bell. copper lever with 1-in. which allows wiring at the back. V-shaped copper strip. 3. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. A. flange turned on one side. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. shelf for clock. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. 4 in. Fig. shows how the connections are made. battery . Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. and the other sheet.

but with the circuit. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. If desired for use immediately. of zinc sulphate. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. This is for blowing. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Line the furnace. . and the battery is ready for use. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. and then rivet the seam. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. do not shortcircuit. London.diameter is 7 in. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. but add 5 or 6 oz. Use a glass or metal shade.. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. from the bottom. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. instead of close to it. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. of blue stone. Short-circuit for three hours. That is what they are for. The circuit should also have a high resistance. 2 in. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. says the Model Engineer. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus.

9 of a volt. porcelain and paper. If any or your audience presume to dispute. Very few can make it turn both ways at will.. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. 2. while for others it will not revolve at all. imparting to them a violet tinge. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. herein I describe a much better trick. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Outside of the scientific side involved. Enlarge the hole slightly." which created much merriment. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. for others the opposite way. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. oxygen to ozone. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. grip the stick firmly in one hand. square and about 9 in. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. and therein is the trick. but the thing would not move at all. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. This type of battery will give about 0. long. changes white phosphorus to yellow. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. If too low. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. and then. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. as in the other movement. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. for some it will turn one way.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. Try it and see. below the bottom of the zinc. or think they can do the same let them try it. Ohio. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. g. 1. At least it is amusing. thus producing two different vibrations. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. affects . Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. To operate the trick. the second finger along the side. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body.

earth. insects. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. a short-focus lens. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. however. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. and one of them is photomicrography. but not essential. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. if possible. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. a means for holding it vertical. but small flowers. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. an old tripod screw. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. and. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. To the front board is attached a box.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. says the Photographic Times. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. but this is less satisfactory. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. chemicals. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus.

7-1/2 in. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. which is 15 ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 11 ft. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 179 11 lb. 9 ft. If the balloon is 10 ft. Mass. or 31 ft. Ft Lifting Power. Cap. or 3 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E.--Contributed by George C. 5 in. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. while it is not so with the quill. 381 24 lb. 6 ft. A line. 5 ft. 65 4 lb. 113 7 lb. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. The following table will give the size. 7 ft. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. Madison. CD. Boston. 697 44 lb. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. AB. long and 3 ft. and a line. 1. in diameter. Fig.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 8 ft. 7-1/2 in. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 268 17 lb. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 905 57 lb. 12 ft. in Cu. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. balloon. Divide one-quarter of the circle .

It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. 2. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. and so on. of the very best heavy body. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. The cloth segments are sewed together. Procure 1 gal. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. The pattern is now cut. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. using a fine needle and No. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. 3. on the curved line from B to C. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. Repeat this operation four times. of beeswax and boil well together. making a double seam as shown in Fig. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. 4. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. This test will show if the bag is airtight. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. keeping the marked part on the outside. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. 70 thread. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. The amounts necessary for a 10- .

1 lb. . wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. above the level of the water in barrel A. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. . should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. of gas in one hour. 150 gr. Water 1 oz. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. of iron. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. this should be repeated frequently. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. After washing a part. which may sound rather absurd. 5. it is not fit to use. but if any grease remains on the hand. oil the spindle holes carefully. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. of sulphuric acid. ]. with the iron borings. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. or dusting with a dry brush. B. with water 2 in. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. B. should not enter into the water over 8 in. ft. as shown in Fig. to the bag. Fill the other barrel. In the barrel. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. The outlet. A. 5 . The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. using a fine brush. All FIG. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. a clean white rag. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. balloon are 125 lb. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. until no more dirt is seen. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal.. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. or a fan. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. Vegetable oils should never be used. When the clock has dried.ft. A. About 15 lb. with 3/4in. of iron borings and 125 lb. of water will make 4 cu. B. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. if it is good it will dry off. A. pipe. by fixing. C. leaving the hand quite clean. 1 lb.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris.Green Iron ammonium citrate . The 3/4-in. capacity and connect them. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. C.

Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. Printing is done in the sun. 20 to 30 minutes. dry atmosphere will give best results. or carbon. A longer exposure will be necessary. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry.000 ft. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Exposure. or zinc. toning first if desired. says the Moving Picture World. . * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. The negative pole. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. of any make. fix in hypo. and keep in the dark until used. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use.. or battery. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. to avoid blackened skin. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry.Water 1 oz. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Dry the plates in the dark. A cold. This aerial collector can be made in . of the cell is connected to the aerial line. The positive pole. Port Melbourne. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. at the time of employment. and a vigorous negative must be used. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. . 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Dry in the dark. The miniature 16 cp.

will soon become dry and useless. and as less current will flow the short way. as described below. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. If the wave ceases. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. long. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. a positive and a negative. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. As the telephone offers a high resistance. lead pipe. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid.various ways. lay a needle. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. holes . it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. If the waves strike across the needle. when left exposed to the air. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. in diameter. This will complete the receiving station. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. forming a cup of the pipe. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. The storage cell. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. both positive and negative. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. making a ground with one wire. 5 in. the resistance is less. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. and have the other connected with another aerial line.

put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. an oblong one and a triangular one. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. and the other to the negative. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. except for about 1 in. B. This box can be square. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. one to the positive. The other plate is connected to the zinc. or tube C. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. or tube B. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . by soldering the joint. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. a round one. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. on each end. says the Pathfinder.as possible. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. of course. When mixing the acid and water. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. does not need to be watertight. This support or block. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. This. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. D. Two binding-posts should be attached. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. namely: a square hole. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust.

between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. long. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. in place on the wood. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. A and B. This punt. 2. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. C. Chicago. The third piece of brass.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. and has plenty of good seating capacity. Only galvanized nails should be used. were fitted by this one plug. and match them together. all around the edge. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. is built 15 ft. . Ill. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. 1. back and under. 3. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. 2. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. thick cut two pieces alike. leaving about 1/16 in. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. about 20 in. wide. as shown in Fig. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. C. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. 1. deep and 4 ft. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. wide. as it is not readily overturned.

Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. thick and 3-1/2 in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Tacoma. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Wash. A piece of 1/4-in. square (Fig 2). The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. is cut 1 in.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. B. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . gas pipe. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. A. In Fig.

* * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. without auxiliary phase. it had to be borne in mind that. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate.--Contributed by Charles H. may be of interest to some of our readers. if possible. which can be developed in the usual manner. says the Model Engineer. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure." has no connection with the outside circuit. lamp. no more current than a 16-cp. and to consume. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. no special materials could be obtained.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. The winding of the armature. In designing. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. which the writer has made. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . H. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. with the exception of insulated wire. or "rotor. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. Wagner. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor.

The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. wrought iron. C. 4. this little machine is not self-starting. 1. with the dotted line. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. The stator is wound full with No. no steel being obtainable. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. also varnished before they were put in. and filled with rivets." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. After assembling a second time. A. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. being used. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. in diameter were drilled in the corners. thick. as shown in Fig. bolts put in and tightened up. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. as shown in Fig. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. were then drilled and 1/4-in. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. while the beginnings .the field-magnet. B. 5. 2. or "stator. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. 3. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. about 2-1/2 lb. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. to be filed out after they are placed together. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. holes. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. and all sparking is avoided. Holes 5-32 in. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. They are not particularly accurate as it is. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. Unfortunately. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in.

The lantern slide is a glass plate. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. film to film. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. if applied immediately. and especially of colored ones. 2.. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. as before stated. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. as a means of illustrating songs. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. and as the motor runs at constant speed. 1. as shown in Fig. In making slides by contact. and would not easily get out of order. McKinney. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. The image should . it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. Jr. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. having no commutator or brushes. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. Newark. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. and the other by reduction in the camera. N. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. it would be very simple to build. If too late for alcohol to be of use. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. J. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. and all wound in the same direction. One is by contact. The rotor is wound with No. E. This type of motor has drawbacks. No starting resistance is needed. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. 3-Contributed by C. a regulating resistance is not needed. and as each layer of wire was wound. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines.

Draw lines with a pencil. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. Select a room with one window. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. except that the binding is different. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. B. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. It is best. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. 4. if possible. and development should be over in three or four minutes. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. Fig. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. as shown in Fig. D. Being unbreakable. 1. C. A. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. a little extra work will be necessary. to use a plain fixing bath. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. also. and then a plain glass. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. over the mat. the formulas being found in each package of plates. These can be purchased from any photo material store. 3. about a minute. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. they are much used by travelers.appear in. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. as shown in Fig. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. 2. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. If the exposure has been correct. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. 5. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide.

which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. These longer pieces can be made square. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. long. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Fig. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. from the center of this dot draw a star. in diameter and 20 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. or other stout cloth. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. 16 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. Fig. 1. in diameter and 40 in. holes bored in the end pieces. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. is to be used for the seat. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. as shown at B. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. long. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. from the end piece of the chair.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . A piece of canvas. as shown at A. Corinth. 2. as shown in Fig. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. long. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. Vt. 1. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. wide and 50 in. from the ends. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. If the star is in front of the left eye. Hastings. known as rods and cones. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in.

Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. . It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. as shown in Fig. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. as shown in Fig. as well as to operate other household machines. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. in thickness and 10 in. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. Cal. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. 1. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. A disk 1 in. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. J. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. O'Gara. 2.-Contributed by P. made from an ordinary sash cord. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. A belt. Auburn. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. per square inch.

direction. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. leaving it shaped like a bench. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. . Cut out a piece from the block combination. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. square for a support. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. says the Scientific American. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. screwing it through the nut. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. it serves a very useful purpose. and the construction is complete. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. fairly accurate.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. The part of a rotation of the bolt. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. Put the bolt in the hole. 3/4 in. will be the thickness of the object. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Bore a 1/4-in. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. thick and 2-1/2 in. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. to the top of the bench. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. wide. with as fine a thread as possible. A simple. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. long. then removing the object. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. or inconvenient to measure.

Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. long is used for the center pole. bolt in each hole. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. The wheel should be open . long. This may appear to be a hard thing to do.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Place a 3/4-in. which show up fine at night. beyond the end of the wood. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Santa Maria. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. material 12 ft. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Oal. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Bore a 3/4-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. piece of wood 12 ft. globe that has been thrown away as useless.

of the ends with boards. C. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. pieces used for the spokes. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. Tex. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. to be operated by the magnet coil. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. 1/2 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. O. made of the same material. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core.-Contributed by A. H and J. from the top end. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. from the ends. A cross bar. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. and the lower part 61/2 in. The coil. Fort Worth. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. long. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. L. C. A. long. long. thick. P. B. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. thick. square and 3 or 4 in. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. and on its lower end a socket. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. long.Side and Top View or have spokes. wide and 1/8 in. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. in diameter. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. at the top and 4 in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. A piece of brass 2 in. which should be 1/4 in. The boards may be nailed or bolted. at the bottom. wide and 1/8 in. is soldered. thick is used for the armature. Graham. The spool .

B. and place it against a door or window casing. which may be had by using German silver wire. The armature. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil.E. S. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. by soldering. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. or a water rheostat heretofore described. do it without any apparent effort. This is a very neat trick if performed right. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S.is about 2-1/2 in. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. for insulating the brass ferrule. A. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. . and it will stay as if glued to the casing. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. and is adjusted in place by two set screws.J. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. 2 the hat hanging on it. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. S. At the bottom end of the frame. C. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. --Contributed by Arthur D. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. F. and in numerous other like instances. one without either rubber or metal end. Mass. Bradlev. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. A soft piece of iron. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. 1. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. and directly centering the holes H and J. that holds the lower carbon. When you slide the pencil along the casing. long. D and E. is drilled. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. 2. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. then with a firm. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. R.000.000 for irrigation work. Randolph.--A. This tie can be used on grain sacks.

of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. in diameter. long and 1 in. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. 1. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The coil ends are made from cardboard. hole in the center. About 70 turns of No. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. long. S. C. thick. Fig. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. B. about 3/16 in. 2. leaving the projections as shown. for adjustment. wide. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. D. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. Experiment with Heat [134] . F. in diameter. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. is constructed in the usual manner.500 turns of No. The switch. is connected to a flash lamp battery. in diameter and 1/16 in. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The vibrator. The core of the coil. and then 1. may be made from a 3/8-in. with a 3/16-in. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. 1. about 1/8 in. The vibrator B. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. S. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. about 1 in. from the core and directly opposite. for the primary. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. for the secondary. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. mixed with water to form a paste. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. A. Fig. in diameter and 2 in. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out.

as shown.Place a small piece of paper. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. lighted. thick on the inside. 2 to fit the two holes. in an ordinary water glass. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. 16 in. and the same distance inside of the new board. Fig. The hasp. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. between the boards. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. board. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. which is cut with two holes. 1. 1. which is only 3/8-in. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. The three screws were then put in the hasp. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. and then well clinched. The lock. as shown in the sketch. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. . which seemed to be insufficient. with which to operate the dial. was to be secured by only three brass screws. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. wide. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. brass plate. The knob on the dial extends out too far. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. The tin is 4 in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. long and when placed over the board. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. it laps down about 8 in.

openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. When making of wood. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. square and 10-1/2 in. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. clear glass as shown. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. any article placed therein will be reflected in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. one in each division. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. not shiny. black color. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. or in the larger size mentioned. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. and the back left dark. which completely divides the box into two parts. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. When the rear part is illuminated. If the box is made large enough. high for use in window displays. square and 8-1/2 in. but when the front part is illuminated. the glass.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp.

When using as a window display. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. and with the proper illumination one is changed. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. or a piece of this width put on the bottom.. long and 1 ft. into the other. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. above the top of the tank. as shown at A in the sketch. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. . a tank 2 ft. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. as it appears. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. wide will be about the right size. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. as shown in the sketch. When there is no electric current available. alternately. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

but with a length of 12 in. square. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. long. Three windows are provided. gauge for depth. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. radius. A small platform. bore from each end. each. hole bored the full length through the center. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. bit. two pieces 1-1/8 in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. 1 in. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. 2 ft. hole. dried and mixed with linseed oil. however. with a length of 13 in. from the ground. is the green vitriol. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. Iron sulphate. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. This precipitate is then washed. wide. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. thick and 3 in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. The 13-in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. high. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. is built on the front. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. wide. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. using a 3/4-in. and a door in front. lines gauged on each side of each. and 6 ft. Shape the under sides first. The pieces can then be taken out. long. 5 ft. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. under sides together. one for each side. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. then use a red-hot iron to finish. square and 40 in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. 6 in. Columbus. as shown. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. and a solution of iron sulphate added. If a planing mill is near.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. This hole must be continued . and boring two holes with a 1-in. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. or ferrous sulphate. O. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness.

Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. A better way. Electric globes--two. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. When the filler has hardened. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. three or four may be attached as shown." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. if shade is purchased.through the pieces forming the base. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. thick and 3 in. For art-glass the metal panels are . The sketch shows one method of attaching. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. When this is dry. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. hole in each block. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. square and drawing a diagonal on each. apply two coats of wax. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Saw the two blocks apart. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. If the parts are to be riveted.

such as copper. as brass. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.The Completed Lamp cut out. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. METAL SHADE .Construction of Shade .

one way and 1/2 in. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. the object and the background. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. 2 the front view of this stand. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. the other. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. and Fig. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. as shown in the sketch. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The arms holding the glass. Figure 1 shows the side. as in ordinary devices. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to .

Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. as it is very poisonous. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. Put the ring in place on the base. thus forming a 1/4-in. channel in the circumference of the ring. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. An ordinary pocket compass. pointing north and south. If the light becomes dim. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. thick 5/8-in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. in diameter. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. uncork and recork again. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Cut another circular piece 11 in. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. as shown in the cut. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. and swinging freely. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . long. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. wide and 6-5/16 in. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. as shown in the sketch. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. Before mounting the ring on the base. wide and 11 in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. in diameter for a base. outside diameter. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. about 1-1/4 in.

are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders.289 . but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. of the top. EE.088 . and north of the Ohio river. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. Corresponding mirrors. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .600 . above the half can. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. CC. black oxide of copper.715 . How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.420 . in diameter and 8 in. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. B. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. are mounted on a base. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.865 1. AA. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through.500 .cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. Place on top the so- .182 . The results given should be multiplied by 1. into these cylinders. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. 1 oz. and mirrors. from the second to the third. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.

if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. slender bottle. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. alcohol. 62 gr. Colo. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . says Metal Worker. Put the solution in a long. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. then they will not rust fast. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. little crystals forming in the liquid. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. of pulverized campor. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. When renewing. 31 gr. In Fig. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. which otherwise remains clear. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. University Park. always remove the oil with a siphon.

the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. If two of them are floating on the same solution. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. --Contributed by C. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. floating on a solution. If zinc and carbon are used. A paper-fastener box. will allow the magnet to point north and south. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. If zinc and copper are used. Lloyd Enos. Solder in the side of the box . This is used in place of the spoon.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. about 1-1/4 in. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. on the under side of the cork. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. Attach to the wires. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol.

bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. Wind evenly about 2 oz. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. The spring should be about 1 in. 1. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. Use a board 1/2. The bottom of the box. and then solder on the cover. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. can be made of oak. C. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. thick. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. wide and 6 in.not shorter than 18 in. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports.Contributed by J. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. C. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. D. H. B. long that has about 1/4-in. A circular piece of cardboard. 1/2. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. E. . Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. F. B. Take a small piece of soft iron. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. stained and varnished. Put ends. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . wide and 2-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. away. A. A. E. 14 wire will do. of wire on each end extending from the coil. 3 in. Rhamstine. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. is made from a piece of No. of No. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. C. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. The standard. long. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. D. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. piece of 1/4-in. D. hole. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. The base. Bore holes for binding-posts.in. 10 wire about 10 in. or made with a little black paint. If the hose is not a tight fit. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. To this standard solder the supporting wire. 1-1/4 in. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place.in. brass tubing. Thos. long. glass tubing . and connect the two wires from the coil to them. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. and on the other around the glass tube.1-in. G--No. one on each side of the board. to it.

3. N. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end.of the coil. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. in diameter. two pieces 2 ft. of No. Milwaukee. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. of mercury will be sufficient. 5. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 3-in. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. 2. Smith. four hinges. When the glass becomes soft. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. long are used for the legs. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. The iron plunger. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. long. of 8-oz. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. long. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Teasdale. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. is drawn nearer to the coil. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. Wis. . 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. J. from the right hand. 1. making a support as shown in Fig. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. canvas. about 1 in. long.--Contributed by R. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. long. 3 in. D. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. long.--Contributed by Edward M. About 1-1/2 lb. as shown in Fig. Y. Cuba. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. E. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig.

4. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. --Contributed by David A. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. thus leaving a. Break off the piece of glass. Take 1/2 in. 3. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. leaving 8 in. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. expelling all the air. Fig. holding in the left hand. Measure 8 in. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Toronto. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Can. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig.. 2. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. Keys. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed.. long. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. This tube as described will be 8 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. 5. 6. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. of vacuum at the top. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The tube now must be filled completely. small aperture in the long tube.

long. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. 9 in. material 2 in. wide and 5 ft. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. wide and 5 ft. 1 in. 1. FIG. 3 in. thick. from the end of same.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. 3. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. cut in the shape shown in Fig. thick. thick.6 -. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. wide and 12 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. 4. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. wood screws. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. 2. long. long. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. with each projection 3-in. joint be accurately put together. and 1/4 in. as in Fig. wide and 5 ft. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. 4 in. in diameter. This forms a slot. long. Fig. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. 6. thick. These are bent and nailed. 1 in. thick. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. Four blocks 1/4 in. 3 in. as shown in Fig.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. but yellow pine is the best. and the single projection 3/4 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 5. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. wide and 3 in. The large pulley is about 14 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 7. as shown in Fig. A crosspiece 3/4-in.

The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Manhattan. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. . attach runners and use it on the ice. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. says Photography. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. above the runner level. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Kan.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Welsh. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. first removing the crank. Water 1 oz. by 1-in. --Contributed by C. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. R. The runners can be made from 1/4-in.

as shown in Fig. and very much cheaper. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Printing is carried rather far. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. Newton. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. as shown in Fig. This is done with a camel's hair brush. . Leominster. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. 1. 2. 3. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. --Contributed by Edward M. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. also. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Mass. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. --Contributed by Wallace C. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. 1 oz. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Treasdale. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. from an ordinary clamp skate. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. The print is washed. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. of water.

the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. as shown in the sketch. Take two glass tubes. wide and 4 in. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. with about 1/8-in. square piece. extending the width of the box. too. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. 2. high. causing the door to swing back and up. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. --Contributed by H. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. Fig. long. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. and 3 ft. about 10 in. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. Church. A. hole. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. say. and to the bottom. fasten a 2-in. 1. F. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Va. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Then. Fig. 1. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. 1 ft. which represents the back side of the door. from one end. The thread is broken off at the . and bend them as shown in the sketch. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. The swing door B. 1-1/2 ft. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Place a 10-in. Alexandria. high for rabbits. wide.

shorter at each end. Chicago. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Paste a piece of strong black paper. A and B. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. black surfaced if possible. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. This opening. and go in the holder in the same way. in size. Fig. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. Jr. but cut it 1/4 in.by 5-in. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. 10 in. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people.by 7-in. long. as shown in Fig. say 8 in. Take two pieces of pasteboard. 3. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. from the edge on each side of these openings. wide. -Contributed by William M. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. . Fig. D. inside of the opening.proper place to make a small hole. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. B. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. automobiles. being 1/8 in. says Camera Craft. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. high and 12 in. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. 1. and exactly 5 by 7 in. 1 in. horses and dogs. Out two rectangular holes. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached.. C. 2. to be used as a driving pulley. wide. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. camera and wish to use some 4. wide and 5 in. Crilly. Cut an opening in the other piece. plates. long. shorter. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. trolley cars. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. in size.

The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear.in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. into which the dog is harnessed. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. A cell of this kind can easily be made. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. in diameter. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. The needle will then point north and south. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent.. wide will be required. long and 6 in.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. making a . if it has previously been magnetized. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill.

sal ammoniac. in diameter and 6 in. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. A is a block of l-in. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base.in. File the rods to remove the copper plate. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. Place the pan on the stove. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. 1 lb. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. 1/4 lb. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. pull out the wire as needed. leaving about 1/2-in. B is a base of 1 in. for a connection. filter. zinc oxide. long which are copper plated. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. of the top. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. beeswax melted together. says Electrician and Mechanic. under the spool in the paraffin. of the plate at one end. 3/4 lb. in which P is the pan. short time. Do not paint any surface. and a notch between the base and the pan. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Pack the paste in.watertight receptacle. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. of water. one that will hold about 1 qt. of rosin and 2 oz. . The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Form a 1/2-in. fuel and packing purposes. pine. only the joints. F is a spool. This makes the wire smooth. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. fodder. plaster of paris. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. when the paraffin is melted. with narrow flanges.

and one friend tells me that they were . If any of your audience presume to dispute. 2.. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. Try it and see. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Enlarge the hole slightly. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. for some it will turn one way. Toledo. let them try it. and therein is the trick. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. while for others it will not revolve at all. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. from vexation. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. At least it is amusing. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. or think they can do the same. square and about 9 in. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Ohio. and he finally. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. long." which created much merriment. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. for others the opposite way. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. by the Hindoos in India. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. but the thing would not move at all. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. as in the other movement. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. g. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and then. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. thus producing two different vibrations. grip the stick firmly in one hand. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement.

The depth of the notches was also unimportant. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way.100 r. Thus a circular or . m. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. no rotation resulted. p. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. Speeds between 700 and 1. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. gave the best results. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. 5. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. 7. secondly. and I think the results may be of interest. 3. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. 6. To operate. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. 4. by means of a center punch. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. the rotation may be obtained. A square stick with notches on edge is best. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. 2. and. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. rotation was obtained. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. If the pressure was upon an edge. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. The experiments were as follows: 1. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin.

is driven violently away. Duluth.. Washington. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. and the height of the fall about 6 in. and the resultant "basket splash. Minn. as shown. . while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Ph. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. D. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. A. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. at first. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Lloyd. it will be clockwise. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. forming a handle for carrying. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. --Contributed by M. or greasy. the upper portion is. A wire is tied around the can. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. if the pressure is from the left. Sloan. C. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in.D.. a piece of wire and a candle. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. --Contributed by G. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). G. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. unwetted by the liquid.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

long. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. as shown. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. in diameter. Each wheel is 1/4 in. hole drilled in the center. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. as shown in Fig. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. flange and a 1/4-in. about 2-5/8 in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. with a 1/16-in. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. 1. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. thick and 1 in. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . axle.

This will save buying a track. bottom side up. which must be 110 volt alternating current. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. --Contributed by Maurice E. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. 3/4 in. is made from a piece of clock spring. lamp in series with the coil. Texas. The motor is now bolted. 1 from 1/4-in. San Antonio. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. The first piece. 3. The parts. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. If the ends are to be soldered. or main part of the frame. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. wood. Fuller. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. long.brass. 2. as shown in Fig. bent as shown. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. is made from brass. put together complete. 2. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. with cardboard 3 in. each in its proper place. A trolley. 3. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. 6. Fig. wide and 16 in. 5. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. holes 1 in. are shown in Fig. and the locomotive is ready for running.50. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. Fig. of No. The current. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. These ends are fastened together. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. 4. as shown in Fig. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them.

slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. 2. as shown in Fig. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. and holes drilled in them. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Fig 1. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. and as this end . the length of a paper clip. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. 3. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. as shown in Fig. then continue to tighten much more. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. The quarter will not go all the way down. Fig. but do not heat the center. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Cincinnati. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. O. 1.

When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. A pair of centers are fitted. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. 2 and 1 respectively. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. or should the lathe head be raised. has finished a cut for a tooth. When the cutter A. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. or apparent security of the knot. and adjusted . In the sketch. When the trick is to be performed. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end.

) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. (6. Fold over along these center lines. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. With such objects as coin purses and card cases.to run true. long. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. coin purse. trace the outline. tea cosey. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Fig. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Brooklyn. if four parts are to be alike.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. (3. (1. Y. Bunker. An ordinary machine will do. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. draw center lines across the required space. gentleman's card case or bill book. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. if but two parts. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. lady's belt bag. twisted around itself and soldered. above the surface. lady's card case. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. blotter back. about 1-1/2 in. book mark.) Make on paper the design wanted. Second row: -Two book marks. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. swing lathe. at the same time striking light. (5.) Place the paper design on the leather and. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. --Contributed by Samuel C. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). or one-half of the design. (2. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. tea cosey. 1. note book. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick .) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. dividing it into as many parts as desired. When connecting to batteries. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. --Contributed by Howard S. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. such as brass or marble. watch fob ready for fastenings. Bott. The frame holding the mandrel. (4. and a nut pick. In this manner gears 3 in. holding it in place with the left hand. N. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. 2. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin.

Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle.

and bore a hole through the center. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes.C. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. C. Thrust a pin. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. D. where it condenses. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The electrodes are made .. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. If the needle is not horizontal. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. Florida. A. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. into which fit a small piece of tube. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. and push it through a cork. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. a distance of 900 miles. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. from Key West. B. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. pull it through the cork to one side or the other.

You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. wide and 3 ft. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. thick. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. using a high resistance receiver. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. wide and 4 ft. 1. 3. thick. long. several strips 1/2 in. 1-1/2 in. Four long beams 3/4 in. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. 1-1/4 in. long. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. 2. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. long. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. If 20-ft. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. as shown in Fig. slacken speed and settle. and also to keep it steady in its flight. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 1.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. long. which is tacked to the front edge. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. thick. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. wide and 20 ft. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. 16 piano wire. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. thick. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. To make a glide. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. Connect as shown in the illustration. 1/2. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. long for the body of the operator. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. free from knots. take the glider to the top of a hill. Washington. All wiring is done with No. use 10-ft. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. Powell. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. wide and 3 ft. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. 3/4 in. wide and 4 ft. or flying-machine. 2. as shown in Fig. 2 arm sticks 1 in. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. --Contributed by Edwin L. square and 8 ft long. The operator can then land safely and . 2 in.in. both laterally and longitudinally. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. 1. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. 12 uprights 1/2 in. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. apart and extend 1 ft. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. long. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. lumber cannot be procured. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. C. D. thick. by 3/4 in. wide and 4 ft long. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. lengths and splice them. as shown in Fig.

but this must be found by experience. Of course. Glides are always made against the wind. Great care should be . The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly.gently on his feet. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. and the balancing is done by moving the legs.

hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Bellingham.exercised in making landings. which causes the dip in the line. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. as shown in Fig. When heated a little. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. 1. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. a creature of Greek mythology. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. --Contributed by L. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. 2. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. M. half man and half horse. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Olson.

The light from the . square. While at the drug store get 3 ft. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. of small rubber tubing. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. about the size of stove pipe wire. making it 2-1/2 in. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. long. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. about the size of door screen wire. in diameter. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. outside the box. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. 14 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. will complete the material list. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. long and about 3/8 in. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. a piece of brass or steel wire. at the other. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. this will cost about 15 cents. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete.

After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. as shown in Fig. leaving the penny poised on the finger end.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Dayton. 1. This is very simple when you know how. as shown in the sketch. --Photo by M. while others will fail time after time. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. as shown in Fig. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. M. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. . but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. If done properly the card will flyaway. 2. Hunting.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. O.

as before. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. closing both hands quickly. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. then put it on the hatpin head. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. If a certain color is to be more prominent. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. place the other two. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. as shown. as described." or the Chinese students' favorite game. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Cool in water and dry. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. hold the lump over the flame. When the desired shape has been obtained. This game is played by five persons. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly.

This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. or more in width.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. passing through neutralizing brushes. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. these sectors. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. distribute electric charges .

D. to which insulating handles . The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The collectors are made. the side pieces being 24 in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. or teeth. in diameter. EE. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. and of a uniform thickness. 1-1/2 in. and the outer end 11/2 in. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. in diameter. free from wrinkles. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. 4. and 4 in. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. Fig. 1 in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. wide. brass tubing and the discharging rods. in diameter and 15 in. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. material 7 in. are made from solid. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. in diameter. The fork part is 6 in. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. 2. The two pieces. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. from about 1/4-in. RR. as shown in Fig. long. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. GG. in diameter. The plates are trued up. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. long and the shank 4 in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. long and the standards 3 in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. at the other. 3. after they are mounted. Two pieces of 1-in. These pins. Two solid glass rods. Fig. in diameter. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. The plates. 3. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. 3/4 in. 1. wide at one end. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. long. as shown in Fig. and this should be done before cutting the circle. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. C C. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. in diameter. The drive wheels. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. and pins inserted and soldered. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. are made from 7/8-in. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. turned wood pieces.

Colo. long. which are bent as shown. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. in diameter. Colorado City. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. Lloyd Enos. and the work was done by themselves. --Contributed by C. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . one having a 2-in. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence.are attached. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. 12 ft. wide and 22 ft. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. KK. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement.. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. ball and the other one 3/4 in. D. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results.

as at A. deep. using a 1-in. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. They can be used to keep pins and needles. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. string together. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch.is a good one. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. bit. The key will drop from the string. pens . You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. yet such a thing can be done.

Inside this oblong. Having determined the size of the tray. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. Draw one-half the design free hand. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. unless it would be the metal shears. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. etc. stamp the background promiscuously. or cigar ashes. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Raise the ends. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. two spikes. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. inside the second on all. This is to make a clean. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. very rapid progress can be made. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. 7.. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. extra metal on each of the four sides. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration.and pencils. 23 gauge. inside the first on all. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. They are easily made. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. When the stamping is completed. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. 9. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. Proceed as follows: 1. 2. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears.. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. sharp division between background and design. 6. 5. using a nail filed to chisel edge. The second oblong was 3/4 in. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. above the metal. about 3/4-in. 4. they make attractive little pieces to have about. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. 3. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Use . Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. also trace the decorative design. 8. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. and the third one 1/4 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. etc. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. flat and round-nosed pliers. above the work and striking it with the hammer. slim screw. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. file. then the other side.

put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 6. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. and the effect will be most pleasing. and fourth fingers. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. first fingers. The eyes. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 8. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. 10. second fingers.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. third fingers. In the first numbering. 7. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. 9. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table.

Put your thumbs together. first fingers.. 25 times 25. above 20 times 20. if we wish. 12. etc. which would be 70. Two times one are two. which tens are added. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. In the second numbering. above 15 times 15 it is 200. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. or numbers above 10. or 80. and the six lower fingers as six tens. 600. 11. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. viz. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. or the product of 6 times 6. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. or 60. 2 times 2 equals 4. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. the product of 12 times 12. 400. etc. . The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. renumber your fingers. thumbs. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. etc. or the product of 8 times 9. Still. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. there are no fingers above.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. but being simple it saves time and trouble.. Let us multiply 12 by 12.. which would be 16. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. At a glance you see four tens or 40. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. as high as you want to go. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand.

9 and 10 the third numbering applies. further. or what. For example. any two figures between 45 and 55. thirties. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. 8. . the value which the upper fingers have. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. whether the one described in second or third numbering. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. It takes place also. first fingers 22. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. 7. Take For example 18 times 18. 75 and 85. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. in the case of a nearsighted person. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. the lump sum to add. which is the half-way point between the two fives. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. And the lump sum to add. Proceed as in the second lumbering. and so on. or from above or from below. as one might suppose. 21. forties. thumbs. when he removes his spectacles. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. about a vertical axis. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow.. at the will of the observer. twenties. being 80). etc. first finger 17. and. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. For figures ending in 6. adding 400 instead of 100. beginning the thumbs with 16. not rotation. however. lastly.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. the inversion takes place against his will. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. The inversion and reversion did not take place. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. 2. the revolution seems to reverse. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. 3. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes.

Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. the other appearance asserts itself. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. as . holding it firmly in a horizontal position. sometimes the point towards him. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. Looking at it in semidarkness. The ports were not easy to make. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. when he knows which direction is right. A flat slide valve was used. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. and putting a cork on the point. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. tee.

about 3 by 3 by 6 in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block.. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. The steam chest is round. if continued too long without proper treatment. Springfield. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. Ill. Beating copper tends to harden it and. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. . Fasten the block solidly. pipe. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. it is easily built. apart. saw off a section of a broom handle. H. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. Kutscher. bottom side up. across and 1/2 in. -Contributed by W. inexpensive. and make in one end a hollow.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. secure a piece of No. about 2 in. such as is shown in the illustration. If nothing better is at hand. Next take a block of wood. in diameter. across the head. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. as in a vise. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. While this engine does not give much power. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. pipe 10 in. deep. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. The tools are simple and can be made easily. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. The eccentric is constructed of washers. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned.

the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. especially when the object is near to the observer. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. To produce color effects on copper. as it softens the metal. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. This process is called annealing.will cause the metal to break. Hay. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. Vinegar. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. C. --Contributed by W. the other to the left. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. Camden. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. and. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. To overcome this hardness. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. O. S. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the .

Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. So with the stereograph. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. . As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. orange. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. they must be a very trifle apart. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. It is just as though they were not there. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. would serve the same purpose. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange.stereoscope. diameter." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. that for the right. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. while both eyes together see a white background. The further apart the pictures are. however. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. it. disappears fully. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. not two mounted side by side. the one for the left eye being blue. only the orange rays may pass through. in the proper choice of colors. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. and lies to the right on the picture. and without any picture. although they pass through the screen. But they seem black. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. because. as for instance red and green. with the stereograph. because of the rays coming from them. from the stereograph. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. the left eye sees through a blue screen. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. The red portions of the picture are not seen. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. In order to make them appear before the card. the further from the card will the composite image appear.

The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. long and a hole drilled in each end. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. or the middle of the bottle. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. A No. 12 gauge wire. in diameter. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. San Francisco. Place a NO. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The weight of the air in round . 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. This should only be bored about half way through the block. Cal. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. thick. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. 1/4 in. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. wireless. wide and 1 in. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. in the shape of a crank. etc. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire.

high. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. internal diameter and about 34 in. wide and 40 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. square. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling.. long. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. a bottle 1 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. or. and a slow fall. the contrary. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury.numbers is 15 lb. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. Only redistilled mercury should be used. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. wide and 4 in. pine 3 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. long. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. 30 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. a glass tube 1/8 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. thick. if accurately constructed. inside diameter and 2 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. but before attempting to put in the mercury. In general. long. if you choose. But if a standard barometer is not available. high.6) 1 in. The 4 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. Before fastening the scale. will calibrate itself. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. square. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. the instrument. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. . 34 ft. high. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same.

Procure a metal can cover. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . which is slipped quickly over the end. 5. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. thick. and place them as shown in Fig. 3. long. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. Mark out seven 1-in.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. Number the pieces 1. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 6 and 7. a cover from a baking powder can will do. the size of the outside of the bottle. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. wide and 10 in. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. 1. 2. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring.

3 over No. 3. 6. in diameter. 1 into No. procure unbleached tent duck. Woolson. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Move 5-Jump No. 6. 5's place. Move ll-Jump No. 2 over No. This can be done on a checker board. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 2's place. To make such a tent. Make 22 sections. Move 7-Jump No. Cape May Point. 7 over No. 6 over No. as shown in Fig. shaped like Fig. 6 in. 3 to the center. using checkers for men. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 7 over No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 2. l over No. Move 2-Jump No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 14-Jump No. L. 3. 2 over No. N.J. 1 to No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. long and 2 ft. Move 10-Move No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. which is the very best material for the purpose. 6 to No. 5 over No. Move 8-Jump No. Move 6-Move No. Move 9-Jump No. 2's place. 5 over No. 3 into No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Move 4-Jump No. each 10 ft.-Contributed by W. 5's place. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 3. 2 . 6 into No. 2. 1. Move 3-Move No. 1. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 7. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 5. Move 13-Move No. 7's place. Move 12-Jump No. Move 15-Move No.

long. wide at the bottom. diameter. fill with canvas edging. 2 in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. from the top. Have the tent pole 3 in.J. leaving the rest for an opening. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Fig. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Punch holes in the brass in . added. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. These are ventilators. 6. high. Pa. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. long and 4 in. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. --Contributed by G. wide by 12 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Fig. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. wide at the bottom. in diameter. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper.. As shown in the sketch. as in Fig. Tress. 5.in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Use blocks. 9 by 12 in. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. will do. In raising the tent. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. After transferring the design to the brass. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. made in two sections. 6-in. Emsworth. 5) stuck in the ground. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. 3 in. round galvanized iron. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. to a smooth board of soft wood. about 9 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Nail a thin sheet of brass. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. 2. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground.

A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. but before punching the holes. . apart. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. When all the holes are punched. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. It will not. cut out the brass on the outside lines. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. Corr. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. bend into shape. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The pattern is traced as before. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. When the edges are brought together by bending.the spaces around the outlined figures. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. around the outside of the pattern. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. excepting the 1/4-in. Chicago. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone.

Sometimes the cream will accumulate. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. or center on which the frame swings. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. Mayger. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end.. --Contributed by Geo. Que. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. pipe is used for the hub. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Stevens. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. E. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. G. allowing 2 ft. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Oregon. These pipes are . The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. between which is placed the fruit jar. better still.however. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Dunham. pipe. --Contributed by H. If a wheel is selected. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. or. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. A 6-in. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. A cast-iron ring. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. or less. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. Badger. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. partially filled with cream.

bent to the desired circle. An extra wheel 18 in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe clamps. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe.

but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. and the guide withdrawn. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . while doing this. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. 3. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. 1. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. which was placed in an upright position. as shown in Fig. The performer. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. and dropped on the table. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible.

The box can be made of selected oak or . 1. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. White. These leaves can be made up in regular book form.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. and second. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Mo. D. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Harkins. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. St. Colo. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. --Contributed by H. in diameter on another piece of tin. F. -Contributed by C. first. it requires no expensive condensing lens. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. in a half circle. Louis. Denver. 2. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives.

The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. from each end of the outside of the box. fit into the runners. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. and 2 in. AA. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. wide by 5 in. wide and 5 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. 1. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. and. long and should be placed vertically. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. If a camera lens is used. represented by the dotted line in Fig. high and must . long. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. from each end. Two or three holes about 1 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. long. 5-1/2 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. wide. 3-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. but not tight. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. as shown in Fig. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. wide and 6-1/2 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. This will be 3/4 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. 2. An open space 4 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. high and 11 in.mahogany. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. The door covering this hole in the back. focal length. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in.

Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Bradley. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. --Contributed by Chas. and so on. April. June and November. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. 1. C. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens.. the article may be propped up . This process is rather a difficult one. provided it is airtight." etc. calling that knuckle January. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. as it requires an airtight case. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. then the second knuckle will be March. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. Ohio. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. calling this February. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. and extending the whole height of the lantern. West Toledo. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door.

The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. . --Contributed by J. 2. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. N. or suspended by a string. The top of a table will do. but waxed. In both Fig. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. one of lead and one of aluminum. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. in. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. Crawford. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. the lid or cover closed. and set aside for half a day. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. Schenectady. 1 and 2. In each place two electrodes. fruit jars are required. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. taking care to have all the edges closed. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes.with small sticks. giving it an occasional stir. in. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. running small motors and lighting small lamps. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. H. and the lead 24 sq. 1. Pour in a little turpentine. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. Y. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them.

you remove the glass. After a few seconds' time. he throws the other. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. as you have held it all the time. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. He.. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. as well as others. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Cleveland. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. which you warm with your hands. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. This trick is very simple. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. O. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug.

near a partition or curtain. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. on a table. put it under the glass. . Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Pull the ends quickly. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Colo. if any snags are encountered. Victor. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward.take the handiest one. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. in diameter in the center. Be sure that this is the right one. but by being careful at shores. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can.-Contributed by E. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Crocker. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. J. but in making one. so it will appear to be a part of the table top.

after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 2 and braced with an iron band. The keelson. drilled and fastened with screws. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. from the bow and the large one. wide unbleached muslin. of rope. 1 in. long. by 16 ft. 1 in. 3 and 4. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. 11 yd. screws and cleats. wide. 8 yd. by 16 ft. wide and 12 ft. long. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 2 gunwales. 3 in. thick and 3/4 in.. for cockpit frame. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. clear pine. 1 mast. and.. long. by 2 in. 50 ft. by 12 in. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 8 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. are as follows: 1 keelson. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 1 piece. and fastened with screws. wide 12-oz. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. selected pine. as illustrated in the engraving. Fig. 1 in. by 2 in. by 15 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 1 in. at the ends. for the bow. of 1-yd. 14 rib bands. 7 ft. for center deck braces. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. wide and 12 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 1 piece. and the other 12 in. 1/8 in. 3 in. by 8 in. 4 outwales. is 14 ft. long. ducking. for the stern piece. apart. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. square by 16 ft. of 1-1/2-yd. from each end to 1 in. Paint. Both ends are mortised. 1. one 6 in. 2 in. 1/4 in. 9 ft. by 10 ft. the smaller is placed 3 ft. from the stern.

6. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. wood screws. A block of pine. thick. also.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. Fig. apart. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. 1 in. 4 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. long is well soaked in water. Braces. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. is cut to fit under the top boards. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. . 6 in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. long. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. and fastened to them with bolts. 6 and 7. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. They are 1 in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. wide. This block. thick and 12 in. is a cube having sides 6 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. Fig. 1 in. thick and 1/2 in. 3-1/2 ft. thick 1-1/2 in. length of canvas is cut in the center. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. wide. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. corner braces. long. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. a piece 1/4 in. wide and 14 in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. 9. long. Before making the deck. screws. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. A piece of oak. These are put in 6 in. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. in diameter through the block. Figs. The trimming is wood. A 6-in. gunwales and keelson. wide and 24 in. thick. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. The deck is not so hard to do. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. 7 and 8. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. 1/4 in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. from the bow. wide and 3 ft. The block is fastened to the keelson. doubled. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. 5. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. The 11-yd. A seam should be made along the center piece. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in.

which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. Wilmette. apart in the muslin. A strip 1 in. --Contributed by O. long. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. Fig. . long that will fit the holes in the hinge. is 6 in. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. Tronnes. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The mast has two side and one front stay. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. wide at one end and 12 in. thick by 2 in. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The house will accommodate 20 families. 11. are used for the boom and gaff. wide. at the other. in diameter and 10 ft. 10 with a movable handle. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. Ill. each 1 in. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. long. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. E. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The sail is a triangle. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. 12. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. The keel.

except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. thick. 2-1/2 in. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. square. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. and 3 ft. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. 2. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. 4. and the other 18 in. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. long. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. wide. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. flat headed screws. about 5/16 in. long. Wilmette. long. flat-headed screws. 2 in. with the ends and the other side rounding. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. Ill. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. wide and 30 in. flat on one side. 2-1/2 in. --Contributed by O. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. thick. Fig. 1 yd. one 11-1/2 in. five 1/2-in. as shown in Fig. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. long and five 1/2-in. 1. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. wide and 2 ft.into two 14-in. Tronnes. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 5. Cut the maple.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. E. Take this and fold it over . The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. wide. Bevel both sides of the pieces. 3. thick. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind.

3/8 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. wide . F. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. forming an eye for a screw. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. wide and 4-1/2 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. 1-1/4 in.once. D. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. Figs. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. long. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. E. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. thick. long. thick. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. C. as well as the edges around the opening. St. --Contributed by W. wide and 6-3/4 in. Fig. long. About 1/2 in. The front. Another piece. soaked with water and blown up. Glue a three cornered piece. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. and make a turn in each end of the wires. wide and 3 ft. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. 5 from 1/16-in. pieces 2-5/8 in. 1. wide and 6-1/2 in. The bag is then turned inside out. square. wide and 2-3/4 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. 2 and 3. Mo. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. the mechanical parts can be put together. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. and the four outside edges. Wind three layers of about No. the top and bottom. thick and 3 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. long. are rounded. square. 3-1/4 in. then centered. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. about 3/8 in. If carefully and neatly made. B. 6-1/2 in. A. Make a double stitch all around the edge. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. wide and 5 in. After the glue. C. is set. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. long. and take care that the pieces are all square. wide and 2-1/2 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. A. long. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. 3 in. but can be governed by circumstances. Louis. Cut another piece of board. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. The sides are 3-1/4 in. When the glue is set. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. long. Bliss. of each end unwound for connections. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. this square box is well sandpapered. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. long.

level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . from one end. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. These wires should be about 1 in. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. Another strip of tin. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. that has the end turned with a shoulder. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. I. G. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. in diameter. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. hole is fastened to the pointer. F. Fig. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. the same size as the first. 4. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. --Contributed by George Heimroth. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. The end of the polar axis B. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. and as the part Fig. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. Richmond Hill. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured.S. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. C. the part carrying the pointer moves away. R. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. 5. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. Yorkshire. 4. W. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply.A. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. 4 is not movable. Like poles repel each other. from the spindle. Chapman.R. board. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. 1/4 in. The stronger the current. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. wide and 9 in. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. 1/16 in. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. A pointer 12 in. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. Place the tin. Fig. The base is a board 5 in. long. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. The resistance is now adjusted to show . This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. thick. long. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. bored in the back. 5-1/2 in. long. L. Austwick Hall. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. showing a greater defection of the pointer. and fasten in place. so it will just clear the tin.and 2-5/8 in. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. and the farther apart they will be forced. When the current flows through the coil. wide and 2-1/2 in.

Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. 1881. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. at 9 hr. 10 min. shows mean siderial. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. M. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. The following formula will show how this may be found. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. and vice . If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. 10 min. 30 min. thus: 9 hr. say Venus at the date of observation. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. A. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time.

New Haven. and then verify its correctness by measurement.m. if one of these cannot be had. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. --Contributed by Robert W. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. .f. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Conn.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Hall. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. owing to the low internal resistance. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. or. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality.

consisted of an old shaft with a hole . and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. The boring bar. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. and heap the glowing coals on top. 1-3/4 in. 3/8 in. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. cover up with the same. thick. When the follower is screwed down. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. of alum and 4 oz. leaves or bark. 1. long. Then. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. especially for cooking fish. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. inside diameter and about 5 in. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Fig. put the fish among the ashes. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Wet paper will answer. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. as shown in the accompanying picture. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. fresh grass. arsenic to every 20 lb.

a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. pipe. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. about 1/2 in. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. when they were turned in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. fastened with a pin. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . and threaded on both ends. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. thick. pipe. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron.

If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The rough frame. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. Fig. wide. labor and time. Fig. Iowa. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. This plate also supports the rocker arms. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. A 1-in. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. but never one which required so little material. 4. was then finished on an emery wheel. however. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. 2. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley.valve stems. a jump spark would be much better. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. 5. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. 3. and which gave such satisfactory results. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. long. as the one illustrated herewith. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. the float is too high. bent in the shape of a U. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. then it should be ground to a fit. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. thick and 3 in. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. Fig. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. If the valve keeps dripping. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. 30 in. It . The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. square iron. Clermont.

but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. rope is not too heavy. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. A malleable iron bolt. The illustration largely explains itself. in diameter and 15 in." little and big. extending above. completes the merry-go-round. Use a heavy washer at the head. being held in position by spikes as shown. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. A 3/4 -in. This makes an easy adjustment. with no trees or buildings in the way. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. no matter what your age or size may be." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. If it is to be used for adults. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. The crosspiece is 2 in. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. Nieman. long. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . strong clear material only should be employed. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. 12 ft. long is the pivot. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. square and 2 ft. and.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. --Contributed by C. in the ground with 8 ft. As there is no bracing. square and 5 ft. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. from the center. and a little junk. in fact. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. long. hole bored in the post. timber. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. for the "motive power" to grasp. long. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. square. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. strengthened by a piece 4 in. It looks like a toy. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. set 3 ft. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. from all over the neighborhood. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. W. so it must be strong enough. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. butting against short stakes. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. 3/4 in. The seats are regular swing boards.

then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass.2 emery. A reel is next made. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. square. and sent to earth. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. Both have large reels full of . 1/4 by 3/32 in. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. then it is securely fastened. The bow is now bent. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. To wind the string upon the reel. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. a wreck. away. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. 1. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. as shown in Fig. light and strong. long. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. 2. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. 4. The backbone is flat. Having placed the backbone in position. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig.the fingers. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. if nothing better is at hand. one for the backbone and one for the bow. These ends are placed about 14 in. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. and 18 in.

Mass. Y. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Brooklyn. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. or glass-covered string. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. N. C. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Newburyport. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. often several hundred yards of it. Moody. First.-Contributed by S. Bunker. --Contributed' by Harry S. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The handle end is held down with a staple. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. he pays out a large amount of string.string. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . If the second kite is close enough. the balance. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. common packing thread.

Vt. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Corinth. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. square (Fig. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. lengths (Fig. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. such as mill men use. each the size of half the table top. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. then a dust protector. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. --Contributed by Earl R. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Hastings. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. If the table is round. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. then draw the string up tight. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. length of 2-in. must be attached to a 3-ft. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time.

This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. hard pencil. trace the design carefully on the leather. . 16-1/4 in. 17-1/2 in. E. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather.. 6-1/4 in.. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. If leaves are wanted in extending the table.-Contributed by H. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. which spoils the leather effect. Use a smooth. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. trace this or some other appropriate design on it.9-1/4 in. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Wharton. Calif. from E to F. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.. and E to G. 2-1/4 in. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. from C to D. G to H. Oakland. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Moisten the .

with the rounded sides of the tools. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. if not more than 1 in. about 1/8 in. and lace through the holes. G-J. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. apart. wide. H-B. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. also lines A-G. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. and corresponding lines on the other side. place both together and with a leather punch. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. is taken off at a time. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Now cut narrow thongs.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. get something with which to make a lining. and E-G. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Cut it the same size as the bag. I made this motor . A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Trace the openings for the handles. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. To complete the bag. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag.

1. Shannon. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. in length. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. --Contributed by J. Pasadena. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. D. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Calif. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. 2. each being a half circle. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. long. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. 1. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. as shown in Fig. 2-1/4 in. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. 24 gauge magnet wire. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. .M. iron. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. of No. B. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used.

and the gores cut from these. from the bottom end. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. balloon should be about 8 ft. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. pasted in alternately. near the center. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. high. 1. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. are the best kind to make. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The gores for a 6-ft. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn.

widest point. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. Staunton. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. as shown in Fig. Fig. lap on the edges. 4. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. If the gores have been put together right. In starting the balloon on its flight. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. In removing grease from wood. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. as shown in Fig. using about 1/2-in. in diameter. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. 1. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. after which the paint will adhere permanently. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. 2. The steam. 3. B. coming through the small pipe A. These are to hold the wick ball. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. --Contributed by R. As the boat is driven forward by this force. somewhat larger in size. so it will hang as shown in Fig. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. After washing. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. leaving the solution on over night. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . saturating it thoroughly. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. leaving a long wake behind. E. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. 5. A. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. The boat soon attains considerable speed.

the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. Third. in bowling form. 1. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. long. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. wide by 6 in. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. high and 8 in. The blocks are about 6 in. In using either of the two methods described. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. There are three ways of doing this: First. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. long and each provided with a handle. as is shown in Fig. Second. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. if you have several copies of the photograph. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. apart on these lines. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle.

If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Y. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . not pointed down at the road at an angle. thick. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Albany. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Hellwig. N. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel.Fig. 2. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. --Contributed by John A. being careful not to dent the metal. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Rinse the plate in cold water. Fig. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch.

The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. A. Corner irons. S. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . and not produce the right sound. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. In Fig. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. which is 4 in. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. These corner irons are also screwed to. wide and of any desired height. --Contributed by R. in diameter. through which passes the set screw S. wide and 8 in. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. 6 in. A circular piece of wood. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. With this device. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. Break off the frame. Paine. thick. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. 2 the front view. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. A. Va. B. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Richmond. long for the base. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. and Fig. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. are screwed to the circular piece. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. is fastened to a common camera tripod. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. 1 Fig. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. and. 5 in. with a set screw. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost.upon any particular object. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. CC.

in diameter of some 1-in. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. Ill. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. This horn. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. -1.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. thus producing sound waves. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. D. This will make a very compact electric horn. I made a wheel 26 in. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. La Salle. S. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. as only the can is visible. Kidder. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. R. . A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. pine boards. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Lake Preston.

square. --Contributed by James R. Ghent. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . B. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. 1.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. A. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Doylestown. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. thick and 12 in. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Feet may be added to the base if desired. the same thickness as the coins. 1. Fig. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Purdy. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Kane. If there is a large collection of coins. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. 2. The frame is made of a heavy card. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. --Contributed by C. O.

and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. cut and grooved.E. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. a hammer or mallet. and then glued together as indicated. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment.J. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. they become uninteresting. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. though not absolutely necessary. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. It will hold 4 oz. for after the slides have been shown a few times. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. If desired. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. --Contributed by J. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. of developer. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Wis. --Contributed by R. several large nails. border all around. Cal. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. The material required is a sheet of No. Canada. A lead pencil. Noble. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. --Contributed by August T. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. A rivet punch is desirable. Smith. plus a 3/8-in. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. thick. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Milwaukee. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Neyer. melted and applied with a brush. Toronto. into which to place the screws . One Cloud.

a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. draw one part. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. There are several ways of working up the design. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. Take the nail. never upon the metal directly. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. both outline and decoration. using 1/2-in. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. Remove the screws. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. like the one shown. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. screws placed about 1 in. and file it to a chisel edge. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal.

rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. . Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. being ball bearing. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. square and 181/2 in. long. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. 3/4 in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. each 1 in. The pedal. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. Provide four lengths for the legs. two lengths. 2. and two lengths. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. in the other. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. square and 11 in. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. l-1/8 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. for the lower rails. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. using a 1/2in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. long. for the top. up from the lower end. as shown in Fig.wall. 3. square. Do not bend it over or flatten it. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. of 11-in. Rivet the band to the holder. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. About 1/2 yd. long. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. 1. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness.

The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. Attalla. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. --Contributed by W. having quite a length of threads. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. New York City. --Contributed by John Shahan. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . F. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. Quackenbush. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Ala.

The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Luther. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. the end of the other piece is folded over. D. from the end. Ironwood. Two pieces of felt. from one end. college or lodge colors.This novelty watch fob is made from felt.. something that is carbonated. and the other 2-3/4 in. Mich. in depth. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. using class. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . Assemble as shown in the sketch. The desired emblem. wide and 4-1/4 in. and two holes in the other. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. wide and 8-1/4 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. making a lap of about 1 in. one about 1 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. --Contributed by C. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. long. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. initial. stitched on both edges for appearance. long. long. each 1-1/4 in. and 3/8 in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in.

then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. or a pasteboard box. in diameter and 2 in. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Ind. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . 1. 1/4 in. 2. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Fig. Schatz. --Contributed by John H. as shown at B. in the cover and the bottom. A piece of lead. Punch two holes A. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. Indianapolis. This method allows a wide range of designs. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. or more in height. which can be procured from a plumber.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. from the center and opposite each other. about 2 in. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. as shown in the sketch. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. and the cork will be driven out. if desired by the operator. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators.

--Contributed by Mack Wilson. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. When the can is rolled away from you. allowing the two ends to be free. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. putting in the design. as shown in Fig. and the ends of the bands looped over them. 4. on both top and bottom. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. Columbus. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. it winds up the rubber band. . or marble will serve. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in.Rolling Can Toy lead. Fig. metal. O. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. A piece of thick glass. The pieces of tin between the holes A. 5. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. 3. are turned up as in Fig. 1. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return.

If it is desired to "line" the inside. long and bored a 1/2-in. A pencil may be used the first time over. deep in its face. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. After this has been done. wide and 20 in. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. 3 in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . hole through it. face up. mark over the design. and. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. from each end. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. thicker than the pinion. The edges should be about 1/8 in. 1 in. thick. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. or more thick on each side. Next place the leather on the glass. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. New York City. I secured a board 3/4 in. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth.

The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. and fit it in place for the side vise. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 2 end rails. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 3 by 3 by 36. thick top board. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1 back board. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. Brooklyn. Now fit up the two clamps. lag screws as shown. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Y. 1 piece for clamp. --Contributed by A. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. N. M. Make the lower frame first. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs.in the board into the bench top. 1 screw block. 1 top board. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 1 top board. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Cut the 2-in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1 piece for clamp. 2. 2 side rails. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. in diameter. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. Fig. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 2 by 2 by 18 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 2 crosspieces. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. pieces for the vise slides. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Rice. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 2 by 12 by 77 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . countersinking the heads of the vise end. 4 guides. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. New York. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 3 by 3 by 6 in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Syracuse. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 1. 1 piece.

1 claw hammer. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 set gimlets. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 pair dividers. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. Only the long run. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 monkey wrench. 1 pocket level. The bench is now complete. They can be purchased at a hardware store. The amateur workman. in diameter. 1 2-ft. 1 bench plane or jointer. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 24 in. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 marking gauge.. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 pair pliers.. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 brace and set of bits.. . 1 set chisels. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 3 and 6 in. 1 countersink.screws. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 compass saw. 1 rip saw. as well as the pattern maker. 1 nail set. it can be easily found when wanted. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 2 screwdrivers. 24 in. 1 wood scraper. rule. 1 cross cut saw.

it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. 1 oilstone. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. 1. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. Kane. after constant use. No. will sink into the handle as shown at D. being softer.1 6-in. will be easier to work. Fig. Fig.1. 1. Fig. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. Doylestown. 2 and 00 sandpaper. ---Contributed by James M. Pa. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Fig. 3. The calf skin. becomes like A. but will not make . the projecting point A. 2. try square.

the same method of treatment is used. which steam. Two pieces will be required of this size. The form can be made of a stick of wood.as rigid a case as the cow skin. then prepare the leather. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. Having prepared the two sides. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. If calf skin is to be used. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. New York City. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. White. secure a piece of modeling calf. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. After the outlines are traced. -Contributed by Julia A. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. such as copper or brass. Turn the leather. but a V-shaped nut pick. lay the design on the face. First draw the design on paper. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. will do just as well. . Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. cover it completely with water enamel and. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. and the length 6-5/8 in. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. If cow hide is preferred. when dry. water or heat will not affect.

will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. New York City. A. Maine. --Contributed by W. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. --Contributed by Chas. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Jaquythe. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. --Contributed by Chester L. Richmond. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. as shown in the sketch. . Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Cal. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Herrman. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Cobb. Portland. C.

Cambridge. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. --Contributed by Wm. Middletown. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. A thick piece of tin. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. . The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. B. Wright. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. This was very difficult. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. for instance. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop.. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Mass. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Roberts. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. an inverted stewpan. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Conn. was marked out as shown. --Contributed by Geo. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller.

Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. If the article is highly polished. and the grease will disappear. Ind. F. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them.. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. . then immerse the print in it and squeegee. pulverized and applied. so some bones were quickly calcined. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. which has been tried out several times with success. Indianapolis. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. Bone. but not running over. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. used as part of furniture. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. but only an odor which soon vanished. well calcined and powdered. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. When dry. If any traces of the grease are left. Chicago. apply powdered calcined magnesia. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. such as chair seats. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. There was no quicklime to be had. L. --Contributed by C. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. A beautifully bound book. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. face down. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. and quite new. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. --Contributed by Paul Keller. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. on a clear piece of glass. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. as shown. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. Herbert. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Illinois. The next morning there was no trace of oil. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. of boiling water. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz.

The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. set and thumbscrews. soft steel with the opening 6 in. A. This coaster is simple and easy to make.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. 6 in. --Contributed by Geo. The pieces marked S are single.. the pieces .. high and are bolted to a block of wood. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. wide and 12 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. If properly adjusted. New York. long. deep and 5 in. says Scientific American. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. 2 in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. Tarrytown. thick. Howe.

Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. If the letters are all cut the same height. E. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. no doubt. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. The seat is a board. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. to the underside of which is a block. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. for sending to friends. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. they will look remarkably uniform. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Their size depends on the plate used. albums and the like. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. says Camera Craft. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. A sharp knife. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate.

The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. using care to get it in the right position. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. So arranged." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. pasting the prints on some thin card. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. after. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. mount them on short pieces of corks. So made. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. and. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. The puzzle is to get . and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. for example.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. In cutting out an 0. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. photographing them down to the desired size. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table.

snow or anything to hide it. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. He smells the bait. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. so they will lie horizontal. A hole 6 or 7 in. hung on pivots. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals.J. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand .Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. N. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. says the American Thresherman. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand.-Contributed by I. Bayley. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. G. Cape May Point. of its top. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. long that will just fit are set in. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. with the longest end outside. squeezes along past the center of the tube. Old-Time Magic .

N. Y. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. then expose again. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Brooklyn. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. E. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Parker. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Pawtucket. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Press the hands together. Szerlip. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . then spread the string. --Contributed by L. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined.faced up. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. --Contributed by L. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Rhode Island. Idaho. Pocatello. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album.

An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 1 Fig. wide and 2 in. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. or a complete suit of armor. narrower. in building up his work from the illustrations. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. When the whole is quite dry. The blade should be about 27 in. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. 3 Fig. The handle is next made. and if carefully made. end of the blade. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. 4 on the blade.Genuine antique swords and armor. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. they will look very much like the genuine article.. says the English Mechanic. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. full size. long. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. Glue the other side of the blade. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. When the glue is thoroughly dry. dark red. wipe the blade . and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. thick. using a straightedge and a pencil. if any. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. near the point end. 2 Fig. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. whether he requires a single sword only. The pieces. in width. 1. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set.. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. or green oil paint. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old.

except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. the illustration. 2. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. long. the length of the blade 28 in. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. as it is . Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. 3. the other two are identical. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. shows only two sides.. the other is flat or halfround. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. of course. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. follow the directions as for Fig. should be about 9 in. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. and 3 in. 1. thick and 5 in. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. preferably of contrasting colors. 4. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. 1. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 3. This sword is about 68 in. allowing for a good hold with both hands. In making this scimitar. The length of the handle.with light strokes up and down several times. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. In the finished piece. take two pieces of wood. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. 1. 2. In making. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. not for use only in cases of tableaux. in diameter. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose.. in the widest part at the lower end. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. 1. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. about 1-1/2 in. Fig. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. the other is flat or half-round. Both edges of the blade are sharp. square and of any length desired. 1/8 in.

long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Morse. as there was some at hand. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. --Contributed by Katharine D. N. Y. Both can be made easily. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Syracuse.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. piping and jackets by hard water. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. square. at the lower end. in an attempt to remove it. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. 2 in. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. On each edge of the board. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. each about 1 ft. Franklin. A piece of mild steel. Doctors probed for the button without success. long. about 3/8 in. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Mass. however. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. or an insecure fastening. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. A cold . and if so. as shown in the sketch. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. --Contributed by John Blake. and. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. The thinness of the plank. It is made of a plank. as can the pitch bed or block. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out.

For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. To put it in another way. When this has been done. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow.. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design.. 5 lb. design down. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. tallow. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. To remedy this. plaster of Paris. 18 gauge. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. using a small metal saw. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. Trim up the edges and file them . The illustration shows an iron receptacle. When the desired form has been obtained. secure a piece of brass of about No. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. 5 lb. a file to reduce the ends to shape. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. on the pitch.

Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. lb. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. or fraction of a horsepower. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Before giving the description. but not to stop it.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. using powdered pumice with lye. Fig. A. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. living together in what seems like one receptacle.000 ft. lb. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. in diameter (Fig. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. and hang a bird swing. Cutter. and still revolve. per second. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. over the smaller vessel. space between the vessels with water. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Clean the metal thoroughly.smooth. in one second. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. The smaller is placed within the larger.000 lb. per minute. 30 ft. in one minute or 550 lb. one 18 in. . Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. 1 ft. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. 3. --Contributed by Harold H.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. it may be well to know what horsepower means. in diameter (Fig. 2). or 550 ft. 1 ft. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. make an unusual show window attraction. That is lifting 33. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. This in turn divided by 33. 1) and the other 12 in. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Fill the 3-in. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. in the center. to keep it from floating. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30.

A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. or on a pedestal. N. Campbell. 2 Fig. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. 1 Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . --Contributed by J.18 in. --Contributed. The effect is surprising. Brooklyn.3 Fig. F. Diameter 12 in. Diameter Fig. Somerville. Mass. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Y. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Szerlip. by L.

In riveting. and the clay . and then. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. as a rule. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. after which it is ready for use. Polish both of these pieces. with the pliers. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. using any of the common metal polishes. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. with other defects. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished.copper of No. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. is. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. which. the same as removing writing from a slate. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. and cut out the shape with the shears. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. to keep the metal from tarnishing. unsatisfactory. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. Do not be content merely to bend them over. often render it useless after a few months service. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. keeping the center high. which may be of wood or tin. then by drawing a straightedge over it. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. Rivet the cup to the base. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. away from the edge. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. This compound is impervious to water. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay.

The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. --Contributed by A. 3/4 in. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Dunlop. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Shettleston.can be pressed back and leveled. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. the device will work for an indefinite time. Grand Rapids. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. A. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. 2. --Contributed by John T. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. . as shown in Fig. Mich. in diameter and 5 in. 1. long. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. -Contributed by Thos. Mich. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Northville. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. It is made of a glass tube. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. DeLoof. Scotland. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Houghton.

The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. As the handle is to . The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. 1. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.1 FIG. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. long. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. in width and 2 in. London. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. This sword is 4 ft. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. put up as ornaments.FIG. stilettos and battle-axes.

with both edges of the blade sharp. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. This stiletto has a wood handle. string. studded with brass or steel nails. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. sharp edges on both sides. 11 were used. in length. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. A German stiletto. The lower half of the handle is of wood. Both handle and axe are of steel. narrower. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil.represent copper. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. This sword is about 4 ft. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. 6. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. The crossbar and blade are steel. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. with both edges sharp. The ball is made as described in Fig. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. long with a dark handle of wood. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. one about 1/2 in. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. When the glue is thoroughly dry. the axe is of steel. The sword shown in Fig. in length. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. 3 is shown a claymore. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. Cut two strips of tinfoil. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. 5. small rope and round-headed nails. very broad. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. This weapon is also about 1 ft. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. the same as used on the end of the handle. sometimes called cuirass breakers. firmly glued on. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. with wire or string' bound handle. glue and put it in place. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. then glued on the blade as shown. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. In Fig. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. In Fig. which is about 2-1/2 ft. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. When the whole is quite dry. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. paint it a dark brown or black. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. Three large. in width. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. A German poniard is shown in Fig. This weapon is about 1 ft. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. 9. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. When dry. long. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. In Fig. the upper part iron or steel. 4. The handle is of wood. 7. These must be cut from pieces of wood. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. wood with a keyhole saw. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. This axe is made similar to the one . and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. 8. 20 spike. is shown in Fig. A Russian knout is shown in Fig.

such as braided fishline. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. W. together as shown in Fig. When wrapped all the way around. so the contents cannot be seen. the ends are tied and cut off. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. --Contributed by E. Old-Time Magic . .The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. This will make a very good flexible belt. will pull where other belts slip. high. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig.described in Fig. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. Chicago. Davis. 2. 10. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. and as the tension members are all protected from wear.

an acid. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Macdonald. Calif. Oakland. There will be no change in color. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. These wires are put in the jar. causing the flowers to grow. apparently. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward.J. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. four glass tumblers. Before the performance. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. held in the right hand. in a few seconds' time. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. with the circle centrally located. Bridgeton. about one-third the way down from the top. 1 and put together as in Fig. filled with water. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. S. The dotted lines in Fig. To make the flowers grow in an instant. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. N. As zinc is much lighter than iron. 2. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. or using small wedges of wood. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. --Contributed by A.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. some of the liquid. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks.

Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. says a correspondent of Photo Era. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. and kept ready for use at any time. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Richmond. and equally worthy of individual treatment. If the size wanted is No. --Contributed by W. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. When many slides are to be masked.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. Jaquythe. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. A. Cal. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . unless some special device is used. practical and costs nothing. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. which are numbered for convenience in working. This outlines the desired opening. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. not only because of the fact just mentioned. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. 2 for height. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. 4 for width and No. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record.

Draw a design. With a stick. but they can be easily revived. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. the paper is folded along the center line. or a pair of old tongs. which is dangerous. or. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. is about right for the No. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. This done. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. may be changed. possibly. the margin and the entire back of the metal. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. When etched to the desired depth. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. too. not the water into the acid. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. The decoration. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. paint the design. using the carbon paper. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. about half and half. Secure a sheet of No. and do not inhale the fumes. The one shown is merely suggestive. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. and the extreme length 7 in. These colors fade away in the course of a long time.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. 16 gauge. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. a little less acid than water. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water.

or more wide. through it. long and 1 ft. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. in diameter and 1/4 in. J is another wire attached in the same way. Fig. as shown in Fig. about 2-1/2 in. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. and about 2-1/2 ft. 0 indicates the batteries. 1. When the button S is pressed. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 2. Fig. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Paint the table any color desired. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. the bell will ring. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. Fig. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Cut out a piece of tin. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. . Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. 24 parts water. Then get two posts. attached to a post at each end. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. about 1 in. about 3 ft. wide. 3. The connections are simple: I. Nail a board. high. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. 5. with the wires underneath. 2. C and D. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. as shown in the illustration. so that when it is pressed down. A. 5. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. as in Fig. wide and of the same length as the table. repeat as many times as is necessary. as at H. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Fig. 4. it will touch post F. 2. about 8 in. thick. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. long. to the table. 3/8 in. Fig. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. It may be either nailed or screwed down. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. and bore two holes.

These rings can be carved out. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. but they are somewhat difficult to make. says the English Mechanic. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. such as . the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. the wood peg inserted in one of them. This weapon is about 22 in. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. handle and all. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den.Imitation Arms and Armor . The circle is marked out with a compass. thick. The entire weapon. long serves as the dowel. 1. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. 2. After the glue is dry. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. is to appear as steel. The imitation articles are made of wood. long. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A wood peg about 2 in.

covered with red velvet. or the amateur cannot use it well. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. as before mentioned. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. 6.ornamental scrolls. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. This weapon is about 22 in. The axe is shown in steel. is shown in Fig. as shown. studded with large brass or steel nails. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 8. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. long. The entire handle should be made of one piece. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The handle is of wood. The handle is of steel imitation. The spikes are cut out of wood. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. as described in Fig. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The lower half of the handle is wood. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. leaves. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The upper half of the handle is steel. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. 5. 3. All of these axes are about the same length. Its length is about 3 ft. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. . If such a tool is not at hand. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. also. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. etc. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. used at the end of the fifteenth century. flowers. with a sharp carving tool. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the hammer and spike. 2. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it.

A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. then the other plays. as in Fig. the knife resting on its back. as shown in Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. . The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. a three-base hit. Chicago. 2. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. 7) calls for one out. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. The knife falling on its side (Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. and so on for nine innings. 5. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 6. 3. Fig. calls for a home run. 1. 4).

It may be found that the negative is not colored. If it is spotted at all. as shown in Fig. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo.-Contributed by J. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. 2. Campbell. one of them burning . Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. This he does. 1. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. of the rope and holds it. of water for an hour or two. hypo to 1 pt. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. 3. with the rope laced in the cloth. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. F. Somerville. as shown in Fig. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. Old-Time Magic . Mass. while the committee is tying him up. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet.

of turpentine. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. showing that there is nothing between them. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. thus causing it to light. Lebanon.. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. 3/4 in. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. B. Ky. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe.Contributed by Andrew G. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Evans. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Ky. Thome. --Contributed by L. Brown. Drill Gauge screw. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. . A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. with which he is going to light the other candle. New York City. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Louisville. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. of plumbago. --Contributed by C. 4 oz. and. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. He then walks over to the other candle. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. bolt. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. of sugar. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. invisible to them (the audience). The magician walks over to the burning candle. 4 oz. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire.brightly. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. etc. of water and 1 oz. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. thick. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. the other without a light. shades the light for a few seconds.

long with an internal diameter of 2 in. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. --Contributed by C. N. diameter. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. Do not add water to the acid. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. thick. Y. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. long. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. but is not so good. which will give a strong. H. about 5 in. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Denniston. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. for the material. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. steady current. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. In making up the solution. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. or blotting paper. Pulteney. into a tube of several thicknesses. To make the porous cell. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. 5 in. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. Its current strength is about one volt.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money.

To insure this. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised.) may be obtained. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. while the other end is attached by two screws. As to thickness. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. After much experimentation with bearings. but somewhat lighter. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. long with a bearing at each end. One hole was bored as well as possible. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. steel. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. carrying the hour circle at one end. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The . The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. a positive adjustment was provided. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. steel. Finally. steel. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. the other holding them apart. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground.station. one drawing them together. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next.

Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. Declination is read directly. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. When properly set it will describe a great circle. excepting those on the declination axis. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. subtract 24. is provided with this adjustment. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. apart. once carefully made. save the one in the pipe. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis.. and 15 min.. The aperture should be 1/4 in. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. It is. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. need not be changed. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. The pole is 1 deg. turn the pointer to the star. 45 min. To locate a known star on the map." When this is done. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture." Only a rough setting is necessary. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. All set screws. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. in each direction from two points 180 deg. If the result is more than 24 hours. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. Set the declination circle to its reading. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. Each shaft. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. and if it is not again directed to the same point. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. Instead. To find a star in the heavens. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . Point it approximately to the north star. All these adjustments. Cassiopiae. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. are tightened. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes.

which is the one examined.. taking care not to add too much. is folded several times. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. then add 1 2-3 dr. La. The ball is found to be the genuine article. In reality the first ball. 3 or 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Ohio. the others . If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. a great effect will be produced. -Contributed by Ray E. add a little more benzole. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. If this will be too transparent. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. long. Plain City. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. New Orleans. The dance will begin. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. is the real cannon ball. benzole. Strosnider. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. cannon balls. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. as shown in the sketch. of ether. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination.

1).are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. 2. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Campbell. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Milwaukee. Wis. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. etc. Fig.. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Return the card to the pack. Cal. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Somerville. San Francisco. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . as shown in the illustration. Mass. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. small brooches. --Contributed by J. without taking up any great amount of space. In boxes having a sliding cover. F. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. taps.

from the bottom of the box. thus giving ample store room for colors.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Connecticut. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. as shown in the illustration. prints. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. round pieces 2-1/4 in. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. . The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. slides and extra brushes. Hartford. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Beller. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. This box has done good service.

and especially are the end pieces objectionable. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. holes in the bottom of one. When the ends are turned under. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. Darke. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. 1). tacking the gauze well at the corners. West Lynn. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. costing 5 cents. Fill the upper tub. with well packed horse manure. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. O. 2). about threefourths full. . then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. Mass. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. FIG. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. will answer the purpose. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. -Contributed by C. or placed against a wall.

when they are raised from the pan. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. If the following directions are carried out. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. if this is not available. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. --Contributed by L. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. Chicago. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. cutting the cane between the holes. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. M. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. If plugs are found in any of the holes. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. oil or other fluid. and each bundle contains . After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. Eifel. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. they should be knocked out. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms.

a square pointed wedge. and. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. as shown in Fig. after having been pulled tight. then across and down. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. No plugs . down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. 1. put about 3 or 4 in. it should be held by a plug. In addition to the cane. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. as it must be removed again. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. held there by inserting another plug.

R. but the most common. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. 1 lat. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. or the style. There are several different designs of sundials.075 in. called the gnomon. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. D. No weaving has been done up to this time. Michigan. as for example. is the horizontal dial. The style or gnomon. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. as it always equals the latitude of the place. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. 41°-30'. 41 °-30'. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. Fig. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . 5 in. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. as shown in Fig. 4. 3. as shown in Fig. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. --Contributed by M. the height of the line BC. stretch the third one.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. It consists of a flat circular table. the next smallest. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. lat.42 in. the height of which is taken from table No. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes.075 in. 1. 42° is 4. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. This will make three layers.3 in. Detroit.5 in. as the height of the line BC for lat. 1. After completing the second layer.= 4.15+. trim off the surplus rosin. Even with this lubrication. When cool. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. If handled with a little care. 1. If you have a table of natural functions. -Contributed by E. Patrick.2+. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. Fig. it is 4. 5. Their difference is . The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. and for 1° it would be . The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. in this case) times the . and for lat. All added to the lesser or 40°. From table No. W. 40°. for 2°. During the weaving. using the same holes as for the first layer. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. we have 4. 3. and the one we shall describe in this article. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs.2 in. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations.15 in. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. is the base (5 in.

66 1.19 1. .94 1.55 46° 5.89 50° 5.18 28° 2.16 40 .93 6.44 44° 4.03 3. For latitudes not given.27 2.41 38° 3. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.66 latitude.79 4.50 26° 2. To layout the hour circle.33 . which will represent the base in length and thickness. an inch or two. Draw two semi-circles. or if of stone.29 4-30 7-30 3. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. with a radius of 5 in.63 56° 7. and perpendicular to the base or style.76 1. Fig.tangent of the degree of latitude.42 45 . The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.33 42° 4.91 58° 8. or more.56 . using the points A and C as centers. gives the 6 o'clock points. circle Sundial.39 . placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. if of metal.40 1. Table NO. base.55 30° 2.85 35 .49 3.20 60° 8. Draw the line AD.12 52° 6. Chords in inches for a 10 in.82 2.30 1. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.68 5-30 6-30 5. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.57 3.55 5.87 1.38 .30 2.14 5.88 36° 3.99 2.06 2.64 4 8 3.23 6. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.26 4. long.85 1. 2.42 . A line EF drawn through the points A and C.82 5.16 1. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.07 4.55 4.83 27° 2.00 40° 4.77 2.66 48° 5. and for this size dial (10 in.46 3. according to the size of the dial.10 6. 2 for given latitudes.93 2. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.82 3.46 .37 5. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. 2.02 1.97 5 7 4. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.87 4. Its thickness. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .49 30 . 1. and intersecting the semicircles.59 2. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.37 54° 6.42 1.32 6.81 4.96 32° 3.40 34° 3.11 3. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.57 1.28 .

--Contributed by J. This correction can be added to the values in table No.71 2. 900 Chicago. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. Sept.50 55 .53 1. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.10 4. it will be faster.98 4. Sioux City.50 .49 3. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. E.add those marked + subtract those Marked . June 15. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. adding to each piece interest and value. Mitchell. 25.12 5. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.79 6. London..06 2. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. says the English Mechanic.08 1. Iowa. 3.49 5. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. after allowing for the declination. As they are the genuine reproductions.46 4.24 5.68 3. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.37 2. 2 and Dec. will enable one to set the dial. Sun time to local mean time.54 60 .57 1.means that the dial is faster than the sun. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.52 Table No. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.21 2.82 3.30 2. An ordinary compass. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. The + means that the clock is faster. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.63 1. if west.87 6.93 6. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. April 16. each article can be labelled with the name. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.77 3.60 4. 3. and for the difference between standard and local time. and the . Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.14 1.46 5.72 5.from Sundial lime.34 5.01 1.89 3. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. Each weapon is cut from wood.19 2. then the watch is slower. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.

1. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. long from the point where it is attached to the handle.. When putting on the tinfoil. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. the length of which is about 5 ft.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. 3. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. . Partisan. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle.

sharp on the outer edges. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 8. the holes being about 1/4 in. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. press it well into the carved depressions. It is about 6 ft. is shown in Fig. 7. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The extreme length is 9 ft. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. 6 ft. long.. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. This weapon is about 6 ft. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. used about the seventeenth century. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear.which is square. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. long with a round staff or handle. 5. The edges are sharp. A gisarm or glaive. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. long with a round wooden handle. The spear is steel. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. about 4 in. in diameter. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. which are a part of the axe. long. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. . Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft.

One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. are less durable and will quickly show wear. They can be made of various materials. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. apart. This is important to secure neatness.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. Ohio. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. 4. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. are put in place. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. the cross cords. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. the most durable being bamboo. Workman. 5. 2 and 3. used for spacing and binding the whole together.-Contributed by R. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. Loudonville. Cut all the cords the same length. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. In Figs. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. or in holes punched in a leather strap. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. as shown in Fig. H. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. B. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. 1. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Substances such as straw. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. The twisted cross cords should .

La. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . shaped as shown at C. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. 3 in. Four V-shaped notches were cut. The first design shown is for using bamboo.be of such material. -Contributed by Geo. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. A slit was cut in the bottom. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. New Orleans. bamboo or rolled paper. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. as shown at B. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. in which was placed a piece of glass. New York. below the top to within 1/4 in. for a length extending from a point 2 in. To remedy this. M. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. of the bottom. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. wide. Lockport. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. This was turned over the top of the other can. Harrer.

Ill. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. giving the appearance of hammered brass. --Contributed by W. turned over but not fastened. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. After this is finished. Schaffner. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. It would be well to polish the brass at first. --Contributed by Joseph H. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. Maywood. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. the brass is loosened from the block. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. about 1/16 in. This plank. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. do not throw away the gloves. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. wide. --Contributed by Chas. is shown in the accompanying sketch. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. Pasadena. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . plank as long as the diameter of the platform. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. Cal. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. N. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Shay.tape from sticking to the carpet. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. Sanford. Y. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. This should be done gradually. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. H. and two along the side for attaching the staff. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Newburgh.

Jaquythe. K. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. the pendulum swings . This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Oak Park. -Contributed by W. in diameter. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. bent as shown. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. --E.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. A. Marshall. Richmond. Ill. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Unlike most clocks. Cal.

Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. and the other two 2-5/8 in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Metzech. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. on the board B. are secured in the base bar. --Contributed by V. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. is an electromagnet. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. Two uprights. in diameter. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. says the Scientific American. high. C.. B. wide. In using this method. high. by 1-5/16 in. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. about 6 in. about 12 in. to the first one with screws or glue. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. A. only have the opposite side up. thick. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. the center one being 2-3/4 in. high. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. such as this one. 3/4 in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. 7-1/2 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. Secure a board. 6 in. . away. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Chicago. Now place the board to be joined. long and at each side of this. 5/16 in. The construction is very simple. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. bar. high and 1/4 in. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. Fasten another board. wide that is perfectly flat. bearing on the latter.

Fig. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Pa. as shown at A. is fastened in the hole A. square inside.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 4. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. from one end. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. 2. 1. by driving a pin through the wood. wide and 1 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. 3. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. . Vanderslice. Fig. wide and 5 in. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. Phoenixville. or more. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The trigger. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. whose dimensions are given in Fig. long. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. plates should be made 8 in. 1. 1. --Contributed by Elmer A. square.

3 parts of stiff keg lead. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. Simonis. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in.A. 5 parts of black filler. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. which allows 1/4 in. by weight. rubbing varnish and turpentine. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. if only two bands are put in the . Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. -Contributed by J. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. one-half the length of the side pieces. Ohio.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 2 parts of whiting. as shown in the illustration. square. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Fostoria.

and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. -Contributed by Abner B. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. London. A double convex lens. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. keeps the strong light out when sketching. place tracing paper on its surface. is set at an angle of 45 deg. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. Michigan. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. says the English Mechanic. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. In constructing helmets. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. is necessary. in the opposite end of the box. and the picture can be drawn as described. and it may be made as a model or full sized. No. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. 8 in. G. A mirror. deep. A piece of metal. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. as shown in Fig. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. DeLoof. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. --Contributed by Thos. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. Dartmouth. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. 1. If a plain glass is used. which may be either of ground or plain glass. long. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and.lower strings. In use. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. preferably copper. II. wide and about 1 ft. Grand Rapids. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. Mass. Shaw. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. It must be kept moist and well .

After the clay model is finished. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. will be necessary. the clay model oiled. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. as in bas-relief.kneaded. This being done. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. and the deft use of the fingers. 1. a few clay-modeling tools. or some thin glue. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. take. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. 1. 3. on which to place the clay. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. shown in Fig. 2. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. joined closely together. with a keyhole saw. All being ready. as shown in Fig. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. brown. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. and over the crest on top. and continue until the clay is completely covered. and left over night to soak. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. The clay. Scraps of thin. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue.

The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. one for each side. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. In Fig. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. a crest on top. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. the skullcap. The whole helmet. and so on. 9. Indianapolis. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. or. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . the piecing could not be detected. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. as shown: in the design. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. Indiana. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. When perfectly dry. owing to the clay being oiled. --Contributed by Paul Keller. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. with the exception of the vizor. and the ear guards in two pieces. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. as seen in the other part of the sketch.as possible. They are all covered with tinfoil. Before taking it off the model. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. When the helmet is off the model. 1. This contrivance should be made of wood. The center of the ear guards are perforated. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. will make it look neat. When dry. should be modeled and made in one piece. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. 7. In Fig. a few lines running down. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. then another coating of glue. square in shape. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. The band is decorated with brass studs. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 5. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. which should be no difficult matter.

in diameter and 9 in. of mineral wool. and C. A round collar of galvanized iron. Fig. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD.same size. 22 gauge resistance wire. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. Fig. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 3. Fig. if this cannot be obtained. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. 3 in. is shown in Fig. 12 in. thick. of fire clay. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. also the switch B and the fuse block C. one glass tube. should extend about 1/4 in. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. wide and 15 in. long. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. 1. two ordinary binding posts. the holes leading to the switch. This will make an open space between the plates. 1. GG. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. The plate. if the measurements are correct. The mineral wool. as shown in Fig. the fuse block. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. long. Fig. about 1/4 in. 1. 1 in. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. with slits cut for the wires. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. screws. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. AA. about 1 lb. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. which can be bought from a local druggist. The holes B and C are about 3 in. Fig. AA. of No. 4 lb. JJ. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. Fig. 4. This will allow the plate. 4. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 4. are allowed to project about 1 in. as it stands a higher temperature. each 4-1/2 in. Fig. 4. as shown in Fig. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. and two large 3in. until it is within 1 in. thick sheet asbestos. one small switch. If a neat appearance is desired. Fig. when they are placed in opposite positions. about 80 ft. 4. one fuse block. for connections. The reverse side of the base. If asbestos is used. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. Fig. Fig. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. of the top. 4. and. Fig. AA. German-silver wire is better. 4. high. E and F. The two holes. is then packed down inside the collar. as shown in Fig. 1. Fig. or. long. 2. 1. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. FF. one oblong piece of wood. 2. 2. 1. above the collar. Fig. to receive screws for holding it to the base.

it is not necessary to know the method of molding. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. Cnonyn. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. when heated. Next. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. The clay. Cal. will slip and come in contact with each other. When this is done. H. As these connections cannot be soldered. as the turns of the wires. St. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. when cool. KK. more wire should be added. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Can. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. apart. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. deep. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. Cut a 1/2-in. This completes the stove. It should not be left heated in this condition. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. 2. When the tile is in place. then. If this is the case. If it is not thoroughly dry. causing a short circuit. above the rim. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. Cover over about 1 in. A file can be used to remove any rough places. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. Fig. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. Catherines. A. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. Jaquythe. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . This point marks the proper length to cut it. It should not be set on end. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. II. Fig. --Contributed by R. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. using care not to get it too wet. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. Richmond.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. 4. it leaves a gate for the metal. and pressed into it. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. While the clay is damp. steam will form when the current is applied. so that the circuit will not become broken. allowing a space between each turn. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail.

the pie will be damaged. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. --Contributed by Andrew G. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. is large enough. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. the air can enter from both top and bottom. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. but 12 by 24 in. says the Photographic Times. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Thorne. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. square material in any size. and the prints will dry rapidly. Then clip a little off the . constructed of 3/4-in. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Louisville. as shown. Ky. and the frame set near a window.

Fig. thick and 3 in. 14 in. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. Iowa. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. Figs. 1/2 in. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. high. high. high. at GG. thereby saving time and washing. in diameter. 1/2 in. 1. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The board can be raised to place . The contact F is made of a strip of copper. W. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. The connections are made as shown in Fig. wide. 4 in. slip on two cardboard washers. 1. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. for the crank. thick and 3 in. 1 and 3. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. A 1/8-in. open out. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. -Contributed by S. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. 1. Fig. Le Mars. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. 2-1/2 in. allowing each end to project for connections. Fig. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. Herron. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. 22 gauge magnet wire. 2. each 1/2 in. Two supports. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. An offset is bent in the center. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. As the shaft revolves. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. thick. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. which gives the shaft a half turn. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. The driving arm D. long. 1. in diameter and about 4 in.Paper Funnel point. 3. The connecting rod E. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. wide and 7 in. causing a break in the current. long. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. long. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. as shown. long. The upright B. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. wide and 3 in. each 1 in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. which are fastened to the base. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case.

as shown in the sketch. bottom side up. in height. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. on a board. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. Stecher. . The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. --Contributed by William F. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. One or more pots may be used. making a framework suitable for a roost. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Dorchester. In designing the roost. Place the pot. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Mass. 3 in.

common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. odd corners.. without any corresponding benefit. paraffin and paint or varnish. in diameter. F. when combined. preferably. adopt the method described. F. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. The materials required are rope or. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. that it is heated. 1. Wind the .. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. etc. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The bottom part of the sketch. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. ordinary glue. shelves. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. windows. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. 1. will produce the pattern desired. if it is other than straight lines. and give it time to dry. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. grills and gratings for doors. as shown in Fig. Fig.

2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Harrer. cut and glue them together. Lockport. N. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] .Fig. -Contributed by Geo. Y. 2. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Fig. six designs are shown. M.

Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. London. says the English Mechanic... chips of iron rust.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. which was used in front of a horse's head. will be retained by the cotton.. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. As the . The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. etc. when it will be observed that any organic matter. 1. but no farther. etc. and the sides do not cover the jaws. This piece of horse armor.

which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. The armor is now removed from the model. 8. as the surface will hold the clay. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. then another coat of glue. but the back is not necessary. and will require less clay. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. and therefore it is not described. which is separate. and the clay model oiled. All being ready. as shown in the sketch. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. which can be made in any size. In Fig. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. 2. but for . The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. the same as in Fig. This can be made in one piece. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. An arrangement is shown in Fig. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. the rougher the better. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. except the thumb and fingers. This triangularshaped support. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. This being done. with the exception of the thumb shield. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 2. This will make the model light and easy to move around. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. 6 and 7. 4.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. a weak solution of glue will do equally well.

9. in depth. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. When locating the place for the screw eyes. Y. . 1/2 in. Redondo Beach. two in each jaw.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. --Contributed by Ralph L. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. the foils will not move. If it does not hold a charge. are better shown in Fig. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. 2. the top of the rod. Fasten a polished brass ball to. will be about right. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. and the instrument is ready for use. two for the jaws and one a wedge. fastened to the rod. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. The two pieces of foil. running down the plate. cut into the shape shown in Fig. La Rue. A piece of board. but 3-1/2 in. Buxton. the two pieces of foil will draw together. each about 1/4 in. Calif. are glued to it. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. long. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. N. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. wide and 1/2 in. --Contributed by John G. Goshen.

is made of a 1/4-in. 2-1/2 in. The can may be bronzed. from the smaller end. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. as shown in the illustration. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. hole bored through it. When a fish is hooked. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. At a point 6 in. --Contributed by Mrs. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. A. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Corsicana. enameled or otherwise decorated. Bryan. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. as indicated in the . such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. M. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. long.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. Texas. silvered. as this will cut under the water without splashing. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. pine board. about 15 in. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught.

Polish the metal. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Having completed the drawing. then with a nail. 22 is plenty heavy enough. take a piece of thin wood. 3/8 or 1/4 in. will do as well as the more expensive woods. wide by 6 in. as shown. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. using a piece of carbon paper. thick. such as basswood or pine was used. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. or even pine. punch the holes. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. long over all. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Next prepare the metal holder. A good size is 5 in. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. put a coat or two of wax and polish . The metal holder should be proportioned to this size." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red.Match Holder accompanying sketch. If soft wood. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Any kind of wood will do. When it has dried over night. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Basswood or butternut. and trace upon it the design and outline. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. using powdered pumice and lye. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit.

is used for the base of this instrument. Cal. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. --Contributed by W. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. It is useful for photographers. Two wire nails. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. are used for the cores of the magnets. A. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. If carving is contemplated. Richmond. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. . 2 in. of pure olive oil. long. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. wide and 5 in. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Jaquythe. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Instead of the usual two short ropes. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. long. can be made on the same standards. each 1 in. the whole being finished in linseed oil. thick. 1/2 in. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. If one has some insight in carving.

behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. 3. All of the parts for the armor have been described. --Contributed by W. London. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. as shown in Fig. says the English Mechanic. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. A piece of tin. About 1 in. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. cloth or baize to represent the legs. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. 1. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. in the shape shown in the sketch. Lynas. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. at A. the paper covering put on. H. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. as shown by the dotted lines. acts as a spring to keep the key open. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. 25 gauge. leaving about 1/4 in. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. about No. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. except that for the legs. when the key is pushed down. A rubber band. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. . similar to that used in electric bells. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. cut in the shape of the letter T. then covered with red.

one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. So set up. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. for the sake of lightness. not too tight. Instead of using brass headed nails.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. completes the equipment. says Camera Craft. 1 and drill a 1/4in. and eight small holes. By moving the position of the bolt from. 1 in. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. about 1 in. Take the piece shown in Fig. The two pieces are bolted together. A 1/4-in. flat headed carriage bolt. or ordinary plaster laths will do. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. In one end of the piece. drill six 1/4-in. can be made in a few minutes' time. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. in the other end. at each end. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. hole in the center. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Fig. long. Silver paper will do very well. make the same series of eight small holes and. 3 in. These can be purchased at a stationery store. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. apart.. 2. apart. one to another . holes. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. Secure two strips of wood. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. Cut them to a length or 40 in.

lay Cover B and the one under D. 1. of the ends remain unwoven. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. 2. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. as in portraiture and the like. but instead of reversing . 2. 2. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. long. taking the same start as for the square fob. then B over C and the end stuck under A. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Start with one end. and the one beneath C. and lay it over the one to the right. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. 4. Then draw all four ends up snugly. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings.of the larger holes in the strip. doubled and run through the web of A. Then take B and lay it over A. D over A and C. in Fig. A is the first string and B is the second. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. C over D and B. for instance. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Fig. as shown in Fig. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. In this sketch. A round fob is made in a similar way. the one marked A. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in.

5. as in making the square fob. Rupp. 3. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. as at A in Fig. --Contributed by John P. is to be made of leather. long. is left out at the center before starting on one side. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Other designs can be made in the same manner. especially if silk strings are used. The round fob is shown in Fig. over the one to its right. Ohio. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. 1-1/2 in. A loop. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. always lap one string. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down .Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. the design of which is shown herewith. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. Monroeville. as B.

beeswax or paraffin. Any smooth piece of steel. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. A. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. filling them with wax. using the reverse side. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. Mich. door facing or door panel. such as a nut pick. pressing it against the wood. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Houghton. it can be easily renewed.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. . This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. Northville. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. When the supply of wax is exhausted. -Contributed by A.

thick. Y. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Fold together on lines C. and after wetting. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Petersburg. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Select the print you wish to mount. --Contributed by O. apart and driven in only part way. if blueprints are used. long. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. The tacks should be about 1 in. E and F. remaining above the surface of the board. although tin ones can be used with good success. Ill. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. and about 12 in. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. . D. those on matte paper will work best. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. N. Thompson. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. J. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. New York. place it face down in the dish. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Enough plaster should. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. leaving about 1/4 in. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. says Photographic Times. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted.

How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. will be rendered perfectly white. etc. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. as shown in the right of the sketch. without mixing the solutions. One of the . but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. roses..Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. bell flowers. filling the same about onehalf full. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. as shown at the left in the sketch. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. violets. Lower into the test tube a wire.

A rod that will fit the brass tube. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. but which will not wobble loose. thick. Shabino. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. The tin horn can be easily made. --Contributed by L. The diaphragm. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. long. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. 1. about 1/8s in. or delicate tints of the egg. to keep the core from coming off in turning. 2. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. made of heavy tin. Millstown. should be soldered to the box. turned a little tapering. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. 3. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. as shown.. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. not too tightly. South Dakota. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. long and made of wood. When soldering these parts together. and at the larger end. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. 1-7/8 in. shading. L. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The sound box. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. in diameter and 1 in. as shown in the sketch. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. Fig. The first point should be ground blunt. is about 2-1/2 in.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown.

Ill. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. and. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. put a board on top. Chicago. Colo. says the Iowa Homestead. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Gold. Victor. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Jr. and weighted it with a heavy stone.Contributed by E. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. wondering what it was. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. mice in the bottom. E. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch.

Pereira. Ottawa. Buffalo. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Can. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. . N. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Y. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired.

All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Jaquythe. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Put a small nail 2 in. --Contributed by Thos. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. A. --Contributed by W. as it can be made quickly in any size. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. a piece of tin. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . cut round. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Mich. by means of a flatheaded tack. longer than the length of the can. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. above the end of the dasher. Cal. as shown. through which several holes have been punched. Grand Rapids. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. and at one end of the stick fasten. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Richmond.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. De Loof. This cart has no axle.

notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. 2. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. deep and 3 in. The baseboard and top are separable. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. 1-1/2 in. wide. The candles.1. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. long. wide and 1/8 in. thick. Kane. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. Pa. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. board. Notches 1/8 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. Doylestown. --Contributed by James M. Fig. 2 in. 1/4 in. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 1 ft. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. wide and as long as the box. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. screwed it on the inside of a store box. A wedge-shaped piece of . of course. cut in the center of the rounding edge. La. apart. were below the level of the bullseye. 2. New Orleans. as shown. I reversed a door gong. 1. 2. The base may be made of a 1/2-in.

1. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. This device is very convenient for invalids. Mass. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. --Contributed by G. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Worcester. When not in use. Needles. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. For the handle. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. etc. when placed as in Fig. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. as shown in Fig. the blade is put back into the groove . Ia. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. The block can also be used as a paperweight. Wood. wide rubber bands or felt. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. it can be removed without marring the casing. wide into each side of the casing. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages.Book Back Holders metal. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size.. can be picked up without any trouble. scissors. take two pieces of hard wood. Cover the block with rubber. the shelf could not be put on the window. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. to prevent its scratching the desk top. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. West Union. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. A. After completing the handle. the reason being that if both were solid. will. 3. by cutting away the ends. stone or wood. dressing one surface of each piece. After the glue has dried.

long. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Malden. Hutchins. If desired. 1. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. as shown in Fig. 1 in. is shown in the accompanying sketch. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Jacobs. Pa. Mass. as shown in Fig. to fit a mortise cut in the bench.and sharpened to a cutting edge. A. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. -Contributed by W. S. Ohio. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. 2. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. thus carrying the car up the incline. square and 4 in. . A notch is cut in one side. Cleveland. --Contributed by H. Erie. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down.

The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions.. One sheet of metal. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material.J. This will insure having all parts alike. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. will be needed. Cape May Point. If one such as is shown is to be used. a board on which to work it. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. . Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. 6 by 9-1/2 in. Prepare a design for the front. N. and an awl and hammer. The letters can be put on afterward. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming.

The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. says Master Painter. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. . paste the paper design right on the metal. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. 2 parts white vitriol. a violin. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine." In all appearance. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. or. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. 1/4 part. If any polishing is required. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. which is desirable. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. 3/4 part. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. if desired. to right angles. placed on a table. mandolin or guitar. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. So impressive are the results. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. flat brush. Remove the metal. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. varnish. as shown. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. in the waste metal. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. 1 part. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. that can be worked in your own parlor. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over.Fasten the metal to the board. One coat will do. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. behind or through the center of a table leg. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. The music will not sound natural. turpentine. The stick may be placed by the side of. but weird and distant. On the back. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. applied by means of a brush. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. only the marginal line is to be pierced.

and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. long. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. long and spread about 8 in. apart. With proper tools this is easy. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. round-head machine screws. 3. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. long and measuring 26 in. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. The longest piece. each 28 in. square bar iron. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. it might be difficult. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. wide. and is easy to construct. each 6 in. Two pairs of feet. thick by 1/2 in. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. are shaped as shown in Fig. without them. across the top. 2. says Work. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. London. . The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights.

using rosin as a flux. 4. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. Place the corner piece of glass. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. or. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. is held by the brads.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. Fig. on it as shown. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. While the piece of lead D. lead. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. After the joints are soldered. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. Fig. cut a long piece of lead. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. the latter being tapped to . The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. 6. After the glass is cut. The design is formed in the lead. and the base border. C. special flux purchased for this purpose. D. 7. A. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. The brads are then removed. B. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. as shown in Fig. better still. 5. in the grooves of the borders. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. The glass. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. 5. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw.

rocker bolt. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. long. and two wood blocks. --Contributed by W. bolt. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. H. Dreier.. wood screws in each washer. N. Secure a post. Make three washers 3-in. plates. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. 8. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Bore a 5/8-in. J. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. not less than 4 in. bolt. The center pin is 3/4-in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. and round the corners of one end for a ring. Jr. This ring can be made of 1-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. then drill a 3/4-in. then flatten its end on the under side. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block.the base of the clip. Camden. plank about 12 ft. long. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. long. holes through their centers. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. Two styles of hand holds are shown. as shown in Fig. Bore a 3/4-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. rounded at the top as shown. Fasten the plates to the block B. A and B. in diameter and 1/4 in. thick and drill 3/4-in. in diameter and about 9 in. one on each side and central with the hole. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. This . The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts.

as shown in the top view of the post Fig. To substitute small. long. hickory. 2-1/2 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. La. by 3 ft. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 4 pieces. because it will not stand the weather. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. long. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. screws. straight-grained hickory. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. long. 4 pieces. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. and some one can swing an axe. 1-1/4in. long. bolts and rope. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. 1/2 in. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. bit. square by 9-1/2 ft. 7 in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 4 in. of 1/4-in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 2 by 4 in. by 6-1/2 ft. 50 ft. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. from one edge. maple. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 3/4 by 3 in.will make an excellent cover for a pot. square by 5 ft. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. can make a first class gymnasium. shanks. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. 4 in. 4 filler pieces. chestnut or ash. 9 in. by 2 ft. 1 by 7 in. long and 1 piece. the money outlay will be almost nothing. New Orleans. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. in diameter and 7 in. The four 7-in. 3 in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 16 screws. boards along the side of each from end to end. 1. horse and rings. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. long. If trees are convenient. long.

apart. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. each 3 ft. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. apart. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving .bored. piece of wood. at each end. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats.. Bore a 9/16-in. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. from the end. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. so the 1/2-in. and once tightened the bar will be rigid.. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. boards coincide. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. deep and remove all loose dirt. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. 2. 8 in.

not even the tumbler. not much to look at in daytime. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. When the interest of the crowd. was at its height. in an endless belt. . the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. and then passes in a curve across the base. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. W. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. which at once gathered. apart. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. but most deceptive at dusk. He stretched the thread between two buildings. and materially heightened the illusion. and ascends the stem. the effect is very striking. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. about 100 ft. If the tumbler is rotated. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. it follows the edge for about 1 in. disappearing only to reappear again. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. the effect will be as shown in the illustration.. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C." which skimmed along the distant horizon. just visible against the dark evening sky. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. passing through a screweye at either end. And all he used was a black thread. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. it is taken to the edge of the foot. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room.

--Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 7 in. long. The cork will come out easily. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. by 10 ft. square and 6 ft. 2 by 4 in. long. 2 by 3 in. 2 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. wide and 1 in. Fig. 4 knee braces. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 4 in. 4 wood screws. long. Bevel the ends of . Chisel out two notches 4 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 8 in. long. long. deep. long. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. New Orleans. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. preferably cedar. long and 1 doz. 2 base pieces. To make the apparatus. 6 in. square and 51/2 ft. by 2 ft. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. by 3 ft. so the point will be on top. 8 bolts. by 7 ft. La. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 8 in. 2 side braces. beginning at a point 9 in. 1. 4 in. 2 cross braces. 4 bolts. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. from either side of the center. and turned in a spiral D. 8 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 4 in. A wire about No. large spikes. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. long. long.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside.

while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Richmond. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration.. which face each other. . These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. jellies. ( To be Continued. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. The wood so treated will last for years. as shown in the diagram. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. A large sized ladle. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. equipped with a strainer. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. If using mill-cut lumber. A. using four of the 7-in bolts. Jaquythe. Cal. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. --Contributed by W. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. but even unpainted they are very durable. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. leaving the strainer always in position. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. and countersinking the heads. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. Two endpieces must be made. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. save the bars. After the trenches are dug. of 7 ft. leave it undressed. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. screws. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. except the bars. These will allow the ladle to be turned. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. so the bolts in both will not meet.the knee braces. etc. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. additional long.

of sufficient 1ength. or various cutting compounds of oil. drill press or planer. it is necessary to place a stick. Oil. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. . partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. A. milling machine. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. which seems impossible. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. thus holding the pail as shown. partly a barrier for jumps.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. In order to accomplish this experiment. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog.

to fasten the knee braces at the top. 4-1/2 in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 4 in. long. in the ground. is a good length. long.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. stud cut rounding on one edge. piece of 2 by 4-in. long. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. and free from knots. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. wood yard or from the woods. 4 in. 4 knee braces. 3 in. long. by 3 ft. Hand holds must be provided next. These are well nailed in place. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. projections and splinters. bolts. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 4 in. beginning 1-1/2 in. 1 in. These are placed 18 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. Procure from a saw mill. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. bolts. 1 cross brace. ten 1/2-in. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. long. square by 5-1/2 ft. in diameter--the larger the better. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. by 3 ft. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. long. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. long. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. The round part of this log must be planed. The material required is as follows: Two posts. 2 adjusting pieces. by 3 ft. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the .. bolts. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. 2 bases. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. long.. but 5 ft. apart. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. from each end. square by 5 ft. apart in a central position on the horse. bolt. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. two 1/2-in. To construct. 7 in.

When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Jaquythe. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. pipe and fittings. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Richmond. Also. snow. A. but nevertheless. etc. it is caused by some obstruction. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. no one is responsible but himself. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. it is caused by an overloaded shell. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating.--Contributed by W. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Such a hand sled can be made in a . and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. such as a dent. then bending to the shape desired. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. water. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Cal. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. over and around.horse top. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts.

when complete. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. 2. are all the tools necessary. --Contributed by Arthur E. then run a string over each part. will give the length. The end elevation. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Joerin. --Contributed by James E. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. thick. is much better than a wood sled. Toronto. These.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Paris. 1/4 or 3/16 in. at E and F. --Contributed by J. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. in width and 1/32 in. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. which. Noble. Mass. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. 1. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Boston. France. when straightened out. . Vener. W. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Ontario. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig.

The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The method shown in Figs. AA and BB. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. are nailed. 4. 3. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. nor that which is partly oxidized. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. . 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. It is best to use soft water. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver.

1). . Broad lines can be made. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. as shown in Fig. 8 and 9. Percy Ashley in Rudder. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. or various rulings may be made. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 4. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 2. The materials used are: backbone. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 2. or unequal widths as in Fig. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. as shown in Fig. class ice-yacht. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 3. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

long. The headstock is made of two tees. a larger size of pipe should be used. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. bent and drilled as shown. pipe. out from the collar. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in.Fig. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. Both the lower . The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. pins to keep them from turning. 1. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. but if it is made much longer. a tee and a forging. It can be made longer or shorter. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The point should extend about 11/2 in. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. A good and substantial homemade lathe. 1-Details of Lathe sort. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. about 30 in.

3 and 4 are very easy to make. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. thick as desired. --Contributed by W. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Musgrove. Man. 2. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. It is about 1 in. 3/4 or 1 in. else taper turning will result. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. 2. UpDeGraff. a corresponding line made on this. Laporte. --Contributed by M. and will answer for a great variety of work. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Fruitvale. but also their insulating properties. or a key can be used as well. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. . W. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. --Contributed by W. To do this. Boissevain. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Held. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Cal. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. 2. Indiana. as shown in Fig. 1. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. as shown in Fig. M.

--Contributed by E. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The handle is of pine about 18 in. J. Ft. To obviate this. Ark. Cline. In use. long. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Smith. as shown. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side.

face off the end of the piece. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. --Contributed by Walter W. After being entered. This prevents the drill from wobbling. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Denver. Colo.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. La. centering is just one operation too many. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. the drill does not need the tool. White. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. and when once in true up to its size. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. on starting the lathe. which should be backed out of contact. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. take . Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. if this method is followed: First. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. New Orleans. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill.

a long piece of glass tubing. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. The handkerchief rod. shown at C. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. After the wand is removed. all the better. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. The glass tube B. and can be varied to suit the performer. vanishing wand. shorter t h a n the wand. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. In doing this. by applying caustic soda or . If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. and this given to someone to hold. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. after being shown empty.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. is put into the paper tube A. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. the cap is placed over the paper tube. says the Sphinx. as shown in D. It can be used in a great number of tricks. a bout 1/2 in. unknown to the spectators.

End. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. The brace at D is 1 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 1 Neck. by 14 by 17 in. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. thick. Glue strips of soft wood. 3/16. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. As the cement softens. 1 Bottom. preferably hard maple. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. across the front and back to strengthen them. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. and if care is taken in selecting the material. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. long. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. Glue the neck to the box. With care and patience. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. 2 Sides. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. with the back side rounding. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck.potash around the edges of the letters. 1/4 in. cut to any shape desired. and glue it to the neck at F. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 1 End. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. as shown by K. square and 1-7/8 in. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. Cut a piece of hard wood. The sides. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. This dimension and those for the frets . can be made by the home mechanic. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 1. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in.

Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. and beveled . long is used for a keel. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. Stoddard. Carbondale.Pa. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. 3/16 in. in diameter. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. H. thick and about 1 ft. or backbone. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. but it is not. Norwalk. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. wide and 11-1/2 ft. --Contributed by Chas. E. When it is completed you will have a canoe. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. 1) on which to stretch the paper. -Contributed by J. toward each end. Frary.should be made accurately. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. O. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Six holes. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. A board 1 in.

two strips of wood (b. with long stout screws. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. and so. 1 and 2. 3). The ribs. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. are next put in. Fig. 3). and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. 2). 3/8 in. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. which are easily made of long. 3. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. long are required. in such cases. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. and. slender switches of osier willow. apart. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. 2. two twigs may be used to make one rib. In drying. Any tough. C. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. twigs 5 or 6 ft. Fig. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Osiers probably make the best ribs. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. the loose strips of ash (b. 4. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. but twigs of some other trees. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. Fig. long.. buy some split cane or rattan. some tight strips of ash. For the gunwales (a. Fig. such as is used for making chairbottoms. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. or similar material. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. as they are apt to do. as shown in Fig. thick. such as hazel or birch. as before described. b. Fig. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. or other place. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. Green wood is preferable. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. 3. Fig. C. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. 2). Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. wide by 26 in.) in notches. will answer nearly as well. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. when made of green elm. 13 in. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. a. B. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. Fig. b. Shape these as shown by A. as shown in Fig. probably. Fig.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. The cross-boards (B. These are better. . and are not fastened. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. but before doing this. 4). in thickness and should be cut. 1. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. thick. b. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. by means of a string or wire. Fig. procure at a carriage factory. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position.

Fig. If the paper be 1 yd. B. It should be smooth on the surface. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. wide. When thoroughly dry. preferably iron. Being made in long rolls.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. and held in place by means of small clamps. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. tacking it to the bottom-board. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Then take some of the split rattan and. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. If not. and very tough. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. It should be drawn tight along the edges. if it has been properly constructed of good material. however. after wetting it. and as soon as that has soaked in. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. 5). varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. You may put in . lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. and steady in the water. but with less turpentine. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. but neither stiff nor very thick. and light oars. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. The paper is then trimmed. of very strong wrapping-paper. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. When the paper is dry.

Drive the lower nail first. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. to fit it easily. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. 5. fore and aft. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. 1. 2. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Fig. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. they will support very heavy weights. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. Fig. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. We procured a box and made a frame. 5). Fig. and if driven as shown in the cut. 1 and the end in . and make a movable seat (A. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house.

the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest.Fig. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. and the glass. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. 3. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. this makes the tube airtight. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. 5. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. Pa. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. being softer where the flame has been applied. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. This is an easy . A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. This way has its drawbacks. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. A good way to handle this work. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. Pittsburg. 4. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. Close the other end with the same operation. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. and the result is.

above the metal. Oswald. Seventh. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. After the bulb is formed. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. The candle holders may have two. also trace the decorative design. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. fourth. or six arms. file. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. thin screw. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in.way to make a thermometer tube. very rapid progress can be made. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. second. rivet punch. -Contributed by A. fifth. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. then reverse. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. metal shears. 23 gauge. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. third. extra metal all around. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. flat and round-nosed pliers. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. Give the metal a circular motion. three. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . Sixth. four. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. with a piece of carbon paper. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder.

drip cup. Small copper rivets are used. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Metal polish of any kind will do. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. and holder. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Having pierced the bracket.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing.

hammer.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. Twenty cents was all I spent. they were like an ice boat with a sail. F. thus it was utilized. Shiloh. when it will be ready for use. and other things as they were needed. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. and add the gelatine. Soak 1 oz. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and it will be ready for future use. The boom. is a broomstick. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. alcohol 2 parts. the stick at the bottom of the sail. using a steel pen. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. sugar 1 part. and in a week . I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. N. Heat 6-1/2 oz. except they had wheels instead of runners. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. I steer with the front wheel. all the rest I found. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. A saw. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. The gaff. Fifty. J. on a water bath. and water 24 parts. of glycerine to about 200 deg. glycerine 4 parts. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. deep. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. Mother let me have a sheet. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. winding the ends where they came together with wire. smooth it down and then remove as before. and brace and bit were the tools used. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. The slide support. above the center. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. or glue. wide and 15 in. 1. focus enlarging a 3-in. H.. 1/2 to 3/4 in. If a small saw is used. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. Fig. 8 in. thick. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. and the lens slide. The board is centered both ways. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. as desired. are . yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. provided the material is of metal. and a projecting lens 2 in. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. at a point 1 in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. or a lens of 12-in. and 14 in. about 2 ft. E. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. and the work carefully done. and. This ring is made up from two rings. A and B. well seasoned pine. at a distance of 24 ft. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. high. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. slide to about 6 ft. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. wire brads. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. wide. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. G. DD. A table. describe a 9-in. 3. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. but if such a box is not found. long.

but not long enough. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil.constructed to slip easily on the table. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. apply two coats of shellac varnish. The arrangement is quite safe as. and when the right position is found for each. E.-Contributed by G. Minn. the strips II serving as guides. St. of safe. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. To reach the water. B. the water at once extinguishes the flame. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. light burning oil. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. A sheet . Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. Small strips of tin. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. should the glass happen to upset. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. P. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. Paul. placed on the water. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. JJ. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered.

3. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. Fig. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. Fig. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 9 in. Crawford. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. --Contributed by J. by 12 ft. then the corners on one end are doubled over.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. form a piece of wire in the same shape. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. to cover the mattresses. 3 in. 4. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 3. 1.H. Y. 12 ft. If one of these clips is not at hand. Schenectady. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . from a tent company. 2. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. I ordered a canvas bag. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. N. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat..

long and 3/16 in. open on the edges. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. A rubber band. Fig. 3 to swing freely on the tack. --Contributed by Walter W. holes in the edge. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. C. Denver. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. first mark the binding-post A. 1. Fasten the wire with gummed label. to keep it from unwinding. long. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. D. wide. Colo. apart. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Teasdale. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Pa. 2. so as to form two oblong boxes. Attach a piece of steel rod. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. 1/2 in. through which the indicator works. insulating them from the case with cardboard. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. Fold two strips of light cardboard. 2. and insert two binding-posts. in the center coil. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. --Contributed by Edward M. thick. 3/4 in. Warren. as shown in Fig. V. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. 2. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. To calibrate the instrument. White. 1. An arc is cut in the paper. Fig. 3/4 in. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. for amperes and the other post. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Do not use too strong a rubber. A Film Washing Trough [331] .each edge. drill two 3/16 in. 1/2 in. to the coil of small wire for volts. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale.

large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. O. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. M. --Contributed by M. Dayton. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Wood Burning [331] . as shown. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. with the large hole up. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Cut a 1/4-in. Place this can on one end of the trough. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Hunting.

draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. mouth downward. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. then into this bottle place. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat.

Place the small bottle in as before. Auburn. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. --Contributed by John Shahan. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. thick. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. N.Y. many puzzling effects may be obtained. If the small bottle used is opaque. 3/4 in. as shown in the sketch. long. If the cork is adjusted properly. wide and 4 in. but not very thick. 1. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. Ala. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. --Contributed by Fred W. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. This will make a very pretty ornament. Whitehouse. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Upper Troy. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. provided the bottle is wide. 2.

Its smaller parts. 3. G. pulley. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. Fig. which extended to the ground. which was nailed to the face plate. Fig.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. Both bearings were made in this manner. 1. in diameter and 1 in. iron rod. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. 2 ft. or ordinary telephone transmitters. The shaft C. 4. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. On a 1000-ft. 1. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. sugar pine on account of its softness. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. was keyed to shaft C. thick. as shown in Fig. B. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. 1. The bearing blocks were 3 in. W. which gave considerable power for its size. A staple. I. --Contributed by D. was 1/4in. 1 in. thick and 3 in. even in a light breeze. The wire L was put . by the method shown in Fig. Fig. line. such as blades and pulleys. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. which was 6 in. 1. Milter. Fig. wide. 2. long. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. K. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. to the shaft. If a transmitter is used. Fig. The 21/2-in. 1. thick. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. were constructed of 1-in. high without the upper half. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. pulley F.

Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. G. 1. To make the key. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. long. Fig. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. so that the 1/4-in. 0. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. long and 3 in. If you have no bell. Fig. The smaller one. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. long and bend it as . was 2 ft. This board was 12 in. was tacked. through the latter. top down also. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. 1. long and 1/2 in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. The bed plate D. when the windmill needed oiling. providing one has a few old materials on hand. 5. To lessen the friction here. 1. square to the board P at the top of the tower. in the center of the board P. 25 ft. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. 2. 6. apart in the tower. Fig. 6. in diameter. as. The other lid. for instance. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. H. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. This completes the receiver or sounder. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. 3 in. hole was bored for it. Fig. R. Fig. across the thin edge of a board. strips. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. with brass headed furniture tacks. There a 1/4-in. long. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. 1. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. and was cut the shape shown. Fig. wide and 1 in. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. The power was put to various uses. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. Fig. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. Two washers were placed on shaft C. long and bend it as shown at A. 1) 4 in. pine 18 by 12 in. This fan was made of 1/4-in. with all parts in place. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. a 1/2-in. cut out another piece of tin (X. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. washers were placed under pulley F. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. hole for the shaft G was in the center. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley.

adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. after the manner of bicycle wheels. causing a buzzing sound. 2. -Contributed by John R. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . The rear barrels are. fitted with paddles as at M. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Going back to Fig. 1. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. as indicated. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Now. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. When tired of this instrument.shown. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. at the front. and. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. like many another device boys make. leaving the other wire as it is. Before tacking it to the board. By adjusting the coils. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. although it can be made with but two. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Thus a center drive is made. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. McConnell. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. using cleats to hold the board frame. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. as shown at Water.

When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. 3. copper piping and brass tubing for base. The speed is slow at first. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. can be built. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. 1. If the journals thus made are well oiled. feet on the pedals. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. There is no danger. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. or even a little houseboat. To propel it. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. which will give any amount of pleasure. there will not be much friction. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. as shown in Fig. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage.

A.of pleasure for a little work. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. Fig. Fig. 2. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. and so creating a false circuit. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Fig. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. If it is desired to make the light very complete. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. D. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. 1. 1. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. or it may be put to other uses if desired. If magnifying glass cannot be had. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. then the glass disc and then the other ring. 2. 1. Then melt out the rosin or lead. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Turn a small circle of wood. Fig. C. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. 2. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. B. Shape small blocks of boxwood.

some glue will secure them. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. brass strip. --Contributed by Geo. if too small. J. after two turns have been made on the key. Ogden. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. which stops bell ringing. or 1/4in. set alarm key as shown in diagram. S. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. I. Brinkerhoff. wire from bell to switch. B. In placing clock on shelf. switch. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. contact post. C. G. Swissvale. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. D. C. wire from batteries to switch. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. thick. long. F. 4-1/2 in. Pa. 3/8 in. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. by having the switch on the baseboard.. To get the cylinder into its carriage. To operate this. Utah. while lying in bed. T. brass rod. after setting alarm. X. When alarm goes off. Throw lever off from the right to center. To throw on light throw levers to the left. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. 4 in. shelf. bell. H. E. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. copper tubing. dry batteries. key of alarm clock. wire from light to switch. long. and pulled tight. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. Chatland. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. The parts indicated are as follows: A. --Contributed by C. bracket. wide and 1/16 in. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock.india rubber tubing. near the bed. 5-1/4 by 10 in. such as is used for cycle valves.

a bed warmer. Lanesboro. as at B. 3. letting it extend 3/4 in. as at A. about 6 in. S. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. as at A. Having finished this. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. A small lamp of about 5 cp. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. wide. for instance. 1. which can be made of an old can. --Contributed by Chas. 2. in diameter. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. as in Fig. Chapman. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Fig. Pull out the nail and stick. beyond the end of the spindle. Fig. as . Make a shoulder. Minn. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. Fig. 4 in. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. gives the heater a more finished appearance. being careful not to get the sand in it. 2. A flannel bag. from one end. 1/4 in. in diameter. All that is required is a tin covering. long. This is to form the fuse hole. Make the spindle as in Fig. about 3-1/2 in. making it as true and smooth as possible. 1. will do the heating.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening.

With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. wide and 6 ft. long. 6 in. 3/8 in. The illustration shows how this is done. wide and 3 ft. good straight-grained pine will do. 5/8 in. thick. 11/2 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. spring and arrows. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. A piece of tin. thick. --Contributed by Arthur E. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. A piece of oak. long. will be sufficient to make the trigger. long. thick. The material must be 1-1/2 in. this is to keep the edges from splitting. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . wide and 3/8 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. Joerin. 1. ash. deep. or hickory. 1 in.

as shown in Fig. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. E. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. 6. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. Trownes.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. 9. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. from the opposite end. 8. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. wide at each end. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. 2. Fig. Ill. The trigger. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. place the arrow in the groove. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. as shown in Fig. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. Fig. and one for the trigger 12 in. or through the necessity of. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. 3. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. better still. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. The bow is not fastened in the stock. Wilmette. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. in diameter. having the latter swing quite freely. Fig. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. 4. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. it lifts the spring up. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. The stick for the bow. A spring. To throw the arrow. 7. Such a temporary safe light may be . it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by O. When the trigger is pulled. from the end of the stock. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. To shoot the crossbow. thick. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. which is 1/4 in.

An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. This lamp is safe. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. The cut should be about 5 ft. since the flame of the candle is above A. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. from the ground. The hinged cover E. C. making lighting and trimming convenient. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Moreover. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. from the ground. and replace as shown at B.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. says Photo Era. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. make the frame of the wigwam. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. and nail it in position as shown at A. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. apart. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. the bark lean-to is a . respectively. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Remove one end. By chopping the trunk almost through. is used as a door. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. Remove the bottom of the box. it is the easiest camp to make. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided.

pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. thick. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. will dry flat. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. Where bark is used. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. a 2-in. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. long and 2 or 3 ft. Tongs are very useful in camp. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. selecting a site for a camp. long and 1-1/2 in. 6 ft. and split the tops with an ax. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. . deep and covered with blankets. For a permanent camp. make the best kind of a camp bed. Sheets of bark. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. makes a good pair of tongs. and when the camp is pitched. long. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. spruce. are a convenient size for camp construction. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. piled 2 or 3 ft. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. 3 ft. nails are necessary to hold it in place. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. and cedar. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. A piece of elm or hickory. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. In the early summer. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. wide. wide and 6 ft. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. For a foot in the middle of the stick.

A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. hinges.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and affording accommodation for several persons. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. . Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard.

about 4 in. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. 1. Fig. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within.. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Doylestown. B. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. and provide a cover or door. the interior can. Pa. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. deep and 4 in. wide. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. changing the water both morning and night. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Kane. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. --Contributed by James M. A. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. I drove a small cork. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. B. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. to another .

The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. which project inside and outside of the tube. C. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. if necessary. 3. such as ether. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. for instance. This makes . and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. 2. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered.glass tube. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. The diagram. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. The current is thus compelled. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. to pass through an increasing resistance. until. 2. fused into one side. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. E. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. a liquid. limit. 4 and 5). which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. Fig. for instance. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises.

drill the four rivet holes. clamp the template. 3. brass or iron. 1. therefore. making it 1/16 in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. which may be of any thickness so that. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. screws. but merely discolored. and for the outside of the frame. they will make a frame 3/4 in. Fig. hole is . 2. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. When the frame is finished so far. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. Alpena. thicker. Then the field can be finished to these marks. in diameter. set at 1/8 in. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. Before removing the field from the lathe. as shown in the left-hand sketch. brass. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. to allow for finishing. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. larger than the dimensions given. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. After cleaning them with the solution. assemble and rivet them solidly. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. If the thickness is sufficient. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. in diameter. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. A. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. when several pieces are placed together. thick. by turning the lathe with the hand. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. between centers. 3-3/8 in. The bearing studs are now made. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. 3-3/8 in. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. is composed of wrought sheet iron. These holes are for the bearing studs. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. mark off a space. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. tap. bent at right angles as shown. After the template is marked out. Fig. thick. on a lathe. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. which will make it uniform in size. or pattern. cannot be used so often. two holes. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. or even 1/16 in. 4-1/2 in. Michigan. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. A 5/8in.

solder them to the supports. is turned up from machine steel. When the bearings are located. Fig. file them out to make the proper adjustment. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. into which a piece of 5/8-in. and build up the solder well. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. 4. soldered into place. or otherwise finished.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The shaft of the armature. brass rod is inserted. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe.

3/4 in. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 8. 6. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. Make the core 3/4 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. The pins are made of brass. thick. washers. 9. brass rod. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. Find the centers of each segment at one end. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in.. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. being formed for the ends. holes through them for rivets. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. then drill a 1/8-in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. 3/4 in. 1-1/8 in. and held with a setscrew. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. or segments. and then they are soaked in warm water. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. inside diameter. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. Armature-Ring Core. thick. wide. 3. as shown m Fig. as shown in Fig. thick are cut like the pattern.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. wide. After they . by 1-1/2 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. 6. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. sheet fiber. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. as shown in Fig. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. hole and tap it for a pin. to allow for finishing to size. When this is accomplished. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. as shown in Fig. thick. threaded. When annealed. as shown in Fig. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. Procure 12 strips of mica. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. 5. as shown in Fig. deep and 7/16 in. 1/8 in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. thick and 1/4 in. 3. 7. After the pieces are cut out. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. The sides are also faced off and finished. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. Rivet them together. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No.

the two ends of the wire. thick. of the end to protrude. 6 in. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. The winding is started at A. they are glued to the core insulation. and bring the end of the wire out at B. about 100 ft. 5. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. Run one end of the field wire. The field is wound with No. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. 1. After one coil. The two ends are joined at B. shown at B. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. The source of current is connected to the terminals. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. When the glue is set. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. being required. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. long. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. 1. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Fig. are soldered together. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. All connections should be securely soldered. wide and 1 in. Fig. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. This winding is for a series motor. which will take 50 ft. shown at A. In starting to wind. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. yet it shows a series of . until the 12 slots are filled. of No. of the wire. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. To connect the wires. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. by bending the end around one of the projections. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. sheet fiber. and wind on four layers. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base.have dried. sheet fiber. or side. after the motor is on the stand. 8 in. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on.

is fastened to the metallic body. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. which serves as the ground wire. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. A 1/2-in. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. or. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . as in the case of a spiral. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. and one. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. one from each of the eight contacts. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. Nine wires run from the timer. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. still more simply.

perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. 45 deg. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. of the dial. Without this attachment. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. It should be . A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. board. These magnets are placed in a 10-in.The Wind Vane. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. circle. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. thus giving 16 different directions. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. 6 in. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. long. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Covering these is a thin.

A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in.about 6 ft. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Cut 3-in. Place the leather on some level. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. To make it. Blackmer. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. making it heavy or light. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Before tacking the fourth side. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. and securely nail on the top of the box. and about 6 in. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. To work these outlines. long to give the best results. 14 by 18 in. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. according to who is going to use it. thus making a universal joint. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. however. is most satisfactory. high. called a chip carving knife. N. Fill the box with any handy ballast. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. will be enough for the two sides. Y. . fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. also a piece of new carpet. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. will answer the purpose just as well. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. -Contributed by James L. will be sufficient. if not too high. though a special knife. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. or. Buffalo." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in.

Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. A good leather paste will be required. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. An ordinary sewing-machine . Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining.

will do if a good stout needle is used. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. If a fire breaks out. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. --Contributed by Katharine D. Morse. Syracuse. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. rather than the smooth side. away from it. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. of common salt and 10 lb. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. N. or a hip that has been wrenched. and tie them together securely at the bottom. B. temporary lameness. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. a needle and some feathers. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. and fasten the feathers inside of it. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. as in cases of a sprained ankle. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. of water. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Y. square and tying a piece of .

long. commonly called tintype tin. made up of four layers of No. which is the essential part of the instrument. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. The strings should be about 15 in. F. Wis. wide and 1/16 in. N. A small wooden or fiber end. --Contributed by J. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. There is a 1-in. B. The coil is 1 in. laying poisoned meat and meal. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. Ashland. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. long. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. The diaphragm C. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. The body of the receiver. as shown. wound on the head end. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. This not only keeps the rats out. cut to the length of the spool. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. --Contributed by John A. high. is cut on the wood. G. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. A. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. setting traps.J. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The end is filed to an edge. Hellwig. and a coil of wire. and the receiver is ready for use. Y.string to each corner. letting it go at arm's length. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. Gordon Dempsey. board all around the bottom on the inside. One end is removed entirely. etc. Paterson. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. but not sharp. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. 1/8 in. . Albany. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. N. and tacked it to the boards. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in.. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. deep. thus helping the rats to enter. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. the corners being wired. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. E.

begin with the smallest scrolls. The vase is to have three supports. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. gold. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. Take a piece of string or. better still. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. a piece of small wire. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. To clean small articles. wide. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. and bend each strip in shape. A single line will be sufficient. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. to .

Press or model down the leather all around the design. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. 6-3/8 in. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Work down the outside line of the design. as shown in the sketch. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. About 1 in.. wide when stitching up the purse. Trace also the line around the purse. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. and does not require coloring. 3-1/2 in. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. thus raising it. After taking off the pattern. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. 4-1/4 in. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Fold the leather on the line EF. through which to slip the fly AGH. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. . and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. from E to F.. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. using a duller point of the tool. from C to D. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. from the lines EF on the piece. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. 3-1/4 in.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out.which the supports are fastened with rivets. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. sharp pencil. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used.

all the way around. and. It is neat and efficient. 1. around the wheel. then nail it. Then nail the wheel down firmly. with a compass saw. 1 was cut. with the open side down. b. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. 3. and a model for speed and power. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. Make the lug 1/4 in. and the projections B.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. 2. by 12 ft. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. the "open" side. with pins or small nails. and cut out a wheel. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. Cut off six pieces 12 in. Now take another piece of wood. deep. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. thick. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. as shown in Fig. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. It can be made without the use of a lathe. with the largest side down. This also should be slightly beveled. leaving the lug a. and cut it out as shown in Fig. First. long. square. as well as useful. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. then place the square piece out of which Fig. and which will be very interesting. When it is finished. Fit this to the two . being cast in wooden molds. 1/2 in. following the dotted lines. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. deep. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. and tack the other piece slightly.

and bore six 1/4-in. 4. slightly beveled. After it is finished. holes through it. hole entirely through at the same place. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. square pieces of wood. then bolt it together. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. as shown by the . and clean all the shavings out of it. 1. deep. hole 1/4 in. Now take another of the 12-in.pieces just finished. one of which should have a 3/8-in. place it between two of the 12-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Now put mold No. and cut it out as shown in Fig. square pieces of wood.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. in the center of it. bolts. and boring a 3/8-in. Take the mold apart. and lay it away to dry. hole bored through its center.

as shown by the black dots in Fig. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. see that the bolts are all tight. Using the Brace . file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. Put this together in mold No. 6. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. 1. place it under the drill.1. over the defective part. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. holes. and connect to the boiler. holes at d. 4. screw down. Now take mold No. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. After it is fitted in. until it is full. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. from the one end. and pouring metal in to fill it up.black dots in Fig. Then bolt the castings together. where the casting did not fill out. instead of the right-handed piece. drill in it. place the entire machine in a vise. and bore three 1/4-in. Let it stand for half an hour. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. Commencing 1-1/2 in. and 3/8-in. true it up with a square. and run in babbitt metal again. one in the projections. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. one in the lug. as shown in illustration.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. so that it will turn easily. Now cut out one of the 12-in. and two 1/4-in. and drill it entirely through. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. and lay it away to dry. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. This is for a shaft. and the exhaust hole in projection b. 6. Pour metal into mold No. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. and pour babbitt metal into it. only the one is left-handed. fasten a 3/8-in. This is the same as Fig. long. A piece of mild steel 5 in. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. take an ordinary brace.2.1. and drill them in the same manner. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and the other in the base. 5. wide and 16 in. Fig. long. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. B. This is mold No. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. lay it on a level place. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. in diameter must now be obtained. d. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. b. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. the other right-handed. put the top of the brace through this hole.2.

Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. with a boss and a set screw. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. while it is running at full speed. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. long. and the pleasure many times repays the effort.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Plan of Ice Boat . and. one 6 ft. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. and if instructions have been carefully followed. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. At each end of the 6ft. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. piece and at right angles to it. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. will do good service. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. and the other 8 ft. Then take a knife or a chisel..

in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. The spar should be 9 ft. in diameter at the base. 2 by 3 in. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. distant. Run the seam on a machine. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. long. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. To the under side of the 8-ft. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . Make your runners as long as possible. Over the middle of the 6-ft. in diameter in the center. bolt the 8-ft. boards to make the platform. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. in front of the rudder block. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. projecting as in Fig. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. where they often did considerable damage. This fits in the square hole. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. and about 8 in. leaving 1 ft. piece and at right angles to it.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. Fig. 3. in diameter. at the top. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. The tiller. long. at the butt and 1 in. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. at the end. which may come in handy in heavy winds. so much the better will be your boat. 1. plank nail 8-in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. 1. as the runners were fastened. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. 8 a reef point knot. long and 2-1/2 in. plank. in the top before the skate is put on. Fig. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. should be of hardwood. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft.

W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. bent into a hook at each end. block of wood nailed to A. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. R. Its parts are as follows: A. allowing the springs to contact at C. Ariz. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. wide. P. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. Phoenix. The arrangement proved quite too effective. The . and place it behind a stove. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. to block B. P. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. so that they come in contact at C. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. B. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. S S. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. Mechanicsburg. Pa. Comstock. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. Adams. small piece of wood. --Contributed by J. and the alarm bell will ring. --Contributed by John D.

Take the glass. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. says the American Boy. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. high. 1. The center pole should be 10 ft. 2. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. Gild the pan all over. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. in diameter. and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. The stump makes the best support.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. The seat arms may be any length desired. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of