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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

Fig. To throw a boomerang. wide and 2 ft. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. Noble. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. A piece of plank 12 in. distant. --Contributed by J. Ontario. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. The pieces are then dressed round. 1. as shown in Fig. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Toronto. E. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. Fig. as shown in Fig. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. 1. long will make six boomerangs.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. away. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 1. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. with the hollow side away from you. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. until it is bound as shown in Fig. It is held in this curve until dry. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 2. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. 2. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. grasp it and hold the same as a club. 2 -. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. apart.

First. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. long. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. one inside of the circle and the other outside. blocks . made of 6-in. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. high and 4 or 5 in. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. but about 12 in. forcing it down closely.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. thick. If the snow is of the right consistency. the block will drop out. it is not essential to the support of the walls. 6 in. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. minus the top. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. A very light. dry snow will not pack easily. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. and with a movable bottom. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. and it may be necessary to use a little water. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. which makes the building simpler and easier. or rather no bottom at all. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. A wall. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. however.

The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. 3. There is no outward thrust. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. above the ground. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. A nail. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. 1. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. which can be made of wood. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. Fig. 1. is 6 or 8 in. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. 3 -. 2. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. 2. Fig. C. It also keeps them out. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. Union. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. which is about 1 ft. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. and the young architect can imitate them. D. a. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. Goodbrod. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. wide. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. The piece of wood. Fig. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. or an old safe dial will do. --Contributed by Geo. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. Ore. long and 1 in. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] .

The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. New York. If ordinary butts are used. one pair of special hinges. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. Merrill. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. as the weight always draws them back to place. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. --Contributed by R. says the Sphinx.When taking hot dishes from the stove. Syracuse. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. the box locked . The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. S.

and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. allowing each coat time to dry. It remains to bend the flaps.and the performer steps out in view. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. draw one-half of it. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. Alberta Norrell. Ga. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Fig. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. as shown in Fig. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. All . on drawing paper. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. If the measuring has been done properly. When the sieve is shaken. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. 3. as shown in Fig. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. as shown. Place the piece in a vise. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. proceed as follows: First. smooth surface. Augusta. If they do not. 1. 2. To make a design similar to the one shown. one for each corner. With the metal shears. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. -Contributed by L. about 1-32 of an inch. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece.

Colo. Denver. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. After this has dried. B. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The current. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. Galbreath. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. is fitted tightly in the third hole. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. --Contributed by R. To keep the metal from tarnishing. A resistance. from the back end. if rolled under the shoe sole. R. should be in the line. 25 German-silver wire. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. used for insulation. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. heats the strip of German-silver wire. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. 25 gauge German-silver wire. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. causing it to expand. When the current is turned off. of No. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. If a touch of color is desired. long. C. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. in passing through the lamp. The common cork. In boring through rubber corks. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. and in the positions shown in the sketch. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. H. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. about 6 in. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose.the edges should be left smooth. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. in diameter. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. A piece of porcelain tube. which is about 6 in. as shown at AA.

A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle.bottom ring. Mo. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. . with thin strips of wood. 3. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. leaving a space of 4 in. Kansas City. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. as shown in Fig. 1. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Purchase two long book straps. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. 2. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. between them as shown in Fig. --Contributed by David Brown. Fig. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering.

A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. --Contributed by Katharine D. as . Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. one weighing 15 lb. When the aeroplane tips. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. 2. Fig. --Contributed by James M. in diameter. 3. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Syracuse. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. just the right weight for a woman to use. The string is then tied. C. Kane. Two strips of brass. long. 36 in. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. having a gong 2-1/2 in. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. N. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. 1. are mounted on the outside of the box. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. Fig. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. The folds are made over the string.. Doylestown. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Fig. and one weighing 25 lb.An ordinary electric bell. 1. which is the right weight for family use. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom.. 1. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Morse. Y. and a pocket battery. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Pa. A. and tack smoothly. to form a handle. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. 4. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. These are shown in Fig.

the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Y. and many fancy knick-knacks. four washers and four square nuts. The saw. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. Frame Made of a Rod . 2. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. bent as shown in Fig. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. Floral Park. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. N. such as brackets. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. if once used. Day. long. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. in diameter. two 1/8 -in. 1. 2. AA. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. machine screws. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. --Contributed by Louis J.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. 3/32 or 1/4 in.

File these edges. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. In the design shown. of water. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Michigan.may be made of either brass. green and browns are the most popular. Watch Fob For coloring silver. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. therefore. Silver is the most desirable but. use them in place of the outside nuts. For etching. Rub off the highlights. after breaking up. allowing each time to dry. Detroit. A. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. using a swab and an old stiff brush. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. 1 part sulphuric acid. of course. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. it has the correct strength. --Contributed by W. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution.. if copper or brass. Drying will cause this to change to purple. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. If it colors the metal red. be covered the same as the back. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. 1 part nitric acid. copper. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. as well as brass and copper. An Austrian Top [12] . The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. treat it with color. or silver. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. though almost any color may be obtained. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. The buckle is to be purchased.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Scranton. Of the leathers. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. as well as the depth of etching desired. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Apply two coats. of water in which dissolve. the most expensive. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures.

The handle is a piece of pine. --Contributed by J. pass one end through the 1/16-in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. in diameter. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. long. allowing only 1-1/4 in. Tholl. 3/4 in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. Ypsilanti. A 1/16-in. Bore a 3/4-in. thick. hole in this end for the top.F. 1-1/4 in. A handle. Parts of the Top To spin the top. 5-1/4 in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. long. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. When the shank is covered. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. Michigan. hole. set the top in the 3/4 -in. wide and 3/4 in. is formed on one end. . take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make.

Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. . Houghton. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. A. tarts or similar pastry. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Northville. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. --A. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Augusta. --Contributed by Miss L. Alberta Norrell. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. For black leathers. The baking surface. Mich. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. having no sides. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Ga.

Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. When you desire to work by white light. Mo. then solder cover and socket together. Centralia. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . glass fruit jar. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. the same as shown in the illustration. Stringing Wires [13] A.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. says Studio Light. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. two turns will remove the jar. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper.

so it can be folded up. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 16 Horizontal bars. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. square by 62 in. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. as shown in the cross-section sketch. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. Janesville. Wis. and not tip over. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. square by 12 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. They are fastened. 4 Vertical pieces.for loading and development. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 1-1/4 in. 4 Braces. . 1-1/4 in.

and a loop made in the end. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. Rosenthal. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. Cincinnati. -Contributed by Charles Stem. C. O. After rounding the ends of the studs. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. from scrap material. New York. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. Phillipsburg. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The front can be covered . Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. --Contributed by Dr. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. after filling the pail with water. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. The whole. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. H.

--Contributed by Gilbert A. either for contact printing or enlargements. The results will be poor. Wehr. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. FIG. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. and. 1 FIG. says a correspondent of Camera Craft.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. if you try to tone them afterward. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. by all rules of the game. the color will be an undesirable. If the gate is raised slightly. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. By using the following method. thoroughly fix. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. you are. sickly one. the mouth of which rests against a. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. Baltimore. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. principally mayonnaise dressing. Md. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. Develop them into strong prints. In my own practice. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. The .

wide and 4 in. 1 and again as in Fig..... A good final washing completes the process... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. Place the dry print.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. The blotting paper can ..... transfer it to a tray of water. in this solution. 2 oz...... etc....... in size. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. three times. It will bleach slowly and evenly.. 5 by 15 in. Water ...bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. Cal. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. San Francisco. to make it 5 by 5 in. --Contributed by T. Gray.. 20 gr. but. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. preferably the colored kind.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. 16 oz. 2..... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.. L... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. With a little practice... without previous wetting.. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. where it will continue to bleach.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig... when it starts to bleach. When the desired reduction has taken place. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. Iodide of potassium .. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses." Cyanide of potassium ........... as it will appear clean much longer than the white... long to admit the angle support.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.....

wide below the . and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Canada. and a length of 5 in.J. Wisconsin. Make a design similar to that shown. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. wide. Oshkosh. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Corners complete are shown in Fig. 3. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. the shaft 1 in. Wilson Aldred Toronto. having a width of 2-1/4 in. 20 gauge. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Monahan. --Contributed by J. the head of which is 2 in. --Contributed by L.

after folding along the center line. 1. With files. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. then coloring.FIG. Trace the design on the metal. For coloring olive green. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. After the sawing. using turpentine. but use a swab on a stick. 1 part nitric acid. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. 1 part sulphuric acid. as shown in Fig. Do not put the hands in the solution. being held perpendicular to the work. 2. freehand. which gives the outline of the design Fig. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. Allow this to dry. 4. After this has dried. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. Make one-half of the design. Fig. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. then put on a second coat. With the metal shears. using a small metal saw. . then trace the other half in the usual way. Apply with a small brush. Pierce a hole with a small drill. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. 3. deep. 1 Fig. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. using carbon paper. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. The metal must be held firmly.

The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Syracuse. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. New York. on a chopping board. Richmond.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. thick. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. it does the work rapidly. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. --Contributed by M. --Contributed by Katharine D. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Ii is an ordinary staple. attach brass handles. Conn. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Carl Cramer. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. M. After the stain has dried. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. . East Hartford. Morse. as shown. Burnett. --Contributed by H. When this is cold. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. then stain it a mahogany color. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Cal.

thick and 4 in. and several 1/8-in. Fig. A. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. also locate the drill holes. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. as shown at A.. Jaquythe. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. L. H. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. --Contributed by W. holes. --Contributed by Mrs. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. two enameled. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. machine screws. one shaft. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. 4. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. Kissimmee. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Atwell. in width at the shank. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. as shown in Fig. saucers or pans. not over 1/4 in. or tin. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. indicating the depth of the slots. 1. brass. some pieces of brass. Florida. 1/4 in. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Cal. Richmond. . Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. square. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. about 3/16 in. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. thick. 53 steel pens. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time.

a square shaft used. 2.. as shown. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. There should be a space of 1/16 in. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. 1. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. hole. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. Fig. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. 3. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. as shown in Fig. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. thick. If the shaft is square. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. Bend as shown in Fig. 3. in diameter and 1/32 in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. about 1/32 in. with a 3/8-in. 5. long and 5/16 in. into the hole. thick. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. A 3/4-in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. wide. machine screws. Fig. 2. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. 7. If metal dishes. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. The shaft hole may also be filed square. can be procured. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. each about 1 in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. as in Fig. lead should be run into the segments. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. with the face of the disk. These are connected to a 3/8-in. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. 6. brass and bolted to the casing. using two nuts on each screw. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. with 1/8-in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. supply pipe. hole in the center. machine screws and nuts. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. Fig. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. and pins inserted. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. long by 3/4 in. hole is drilled to run off the water.

A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Cooke. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. square and 30-1/2 in. long. With a string or tape measure. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. The four legs are each 3/4-in. high and 15 in. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. we will call the basket. Be sure to have the cover. Canada. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Hamilton. make these seams come between the two back legs. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. three of which are in the basket. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Fasten with 3/4-in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Stain the wood before putting in the . deep over all. from the bottom end of the legs. V. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. When assembling. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. --Contributed by S. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. or more in diameter. using four to each leg. deep and 1-1/4 in. Smith. La Salle. to make the bottom. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Now you will have the box in two pieces.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. screws. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. from the top of the box. 8-1/2 in. The lower part. --Contributed by F. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Ill.

Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. 2. wide. wide and four strips 10 in. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. sewing on the back side. Baltimore. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Fig. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Md. --also the lower edge when necessary. If all the parts are well sandpapered. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. -Contributed by Stanley H. Cover them with the cretonne. Mass. The side. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker.2 Fig. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. you can. Packard. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things.lining.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. and gather it at that point. Boston. The folded part in the center is pasted together. When making the display. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Sew on to the covered cardboards. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. as shown in the sketch. 1.

Y. with slight modifications. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Crockett. saving all the solid part. Mo. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Fig. Orlando Taylor. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. N. It is not difficult to . Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. --Contributed by B. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. When through using the pad. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. --Contributed by H. 3. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Gloversville. It is cleanly.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Cross Timbers. and. L. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw.

S. El Paso. it should be new and sharp. -Contributed by C. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. or if desired. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Mass. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. and scrape out the rough parts. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Texas. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. After this is done. Lane. remove the contents. After stirring. Lowell. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. If a file is used. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. are shown in the diagram. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. across the face. Both of these methods are wasteful.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Bourne. --Contributed by Edith E.

The insects came to the light. --Contributed by Marion P. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. Canton. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible.cooking utensil. Oak Park. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. Des Moines. He captured several pounds in a few hours. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. F. Ill. Oregon. Ill. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. --Contributed by Geo. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Greenleaf. After several hours' drying. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. The process works well and needs no watching. A Postcard Rack [25]. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Wheeler. --Contributed by Loren Ward. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Turl. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Those having houses . Iowa. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. As these were single-faced disk records. circled over the funnel and disappeared. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them.

These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. thick. will do as well. not even with the boards themselves. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. --Contributed by Wm. but for cheapness 3/4 in. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. The single boards can then be fixed. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. and the second one for the developing bench. and as they are simple in design. 6 in. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. plane and pocket knife. Only three pieces are required. --Contributed by Thomas E. the best material to use being matched boards. the bottom being 3/8 in. and both exactly alike. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. one on each side of what will be the . yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in.. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Conn. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. Mass. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Dobbins. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Glenbrook.. boards are preferable. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Worcester. 6 in. Both sides can be put together in this way. by 2 ft. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Lay the floor next. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. Rosenberg. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. material.

fix a narrow piece between the side boards. etc. wide. 9). A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. 6.. 8. brown wrapping paper. and should be zinc lined. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. as shown in Figs. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. and act as a trap for the light. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. At the top of the doorway. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. The roof boards may next be put on. 9 by 11 in. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. In hinging the door. and the top as at C in the same drawing. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. 5. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. Fig. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig.. hinged to it. 2 in section. 6 and 9. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. is cut. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. of the top of the door for the same reason. 7. 6. nailing them to each other at the ridge. and an arrangement of slats (Fig.doorway. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. by screwing to the floor. which is fixed on as shown . can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. It is shown in detail in Fig. the closing side as at B. 10). and in the middle an opening. and to the outside board of the sides. 3 and 4. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. so that it will fit inside the sink. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door.. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. below which is fixed the sink. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. 11. The developing bench is 18 in. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy.

Details of the Dark Rook .

and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 14. as at M. In use. 1. For beating up an egg in a glass. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. The handle should be at least 12 in. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. are fastened in the corners inside. these being shown in Fig. which makes it possible to have white light. 16. 15. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. 13. 20. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom.in Fig. --Contributed by W. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. screwing them each way into the boards. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 17. Fig. or red light as at K. as shown in the sections. or the room may be made with a flat roof. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. Fig. Karl Hilbrich. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. hole bored in the center for a handle. as in Fig. 6. 16. 13. A circular piece about 2 in. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. four coats at first is not too many. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. Pennsylvania. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. it is better than anything on the market. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. after lining with brown paper. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. 18. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. as shown in Fig. Fig. as at I. if desired. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. but not the red glass and frame. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and a 3/8-in. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. Erie. preferably maple or ash. Fig. 2. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. 19. though this is hardly advisable. and a tank stand on it. The house will be much strengthened if strips. mixing flour and water. and filed or dressed to a point on the other.

To operate. Mo. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. for a handle. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. D. when put together properly is a puzzle. which. Mitchell. as shown in the sketch. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Ark. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Eureka Springs. -Contributed by E. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. --Contributed by Wm. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Schweiger.copper should be. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. New York. L. long. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. G. Kansas City. Yonkers. --Contributed by L. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Smith. about 3/8 in. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size.

for the moment. need them. 3. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. After the box is trimmed.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. 2. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. to make it set level. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. especially for filling-in purposes. If the sill is inclined. the rustic work should be varnished. in order to thoroughly preserve it. 1. 3. Having completed the bare box. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. . The corks in use are shown in Fig. A number of 1/2-in. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. as shown in Fig. The design shown in Fig. holes should be drilled in the bottom. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. Each cork is cut as in Fig. as is usually the case. as shown in Fig. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. as well as improve its appearance. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. the box will require a greater height in front. which binds them together. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming.

If just the rim is gripped in the vise. too dangerous. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes.. it's easy. When the corn is gone cucumbers. can't use poison. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. 3. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. Each long projection represents a leg. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. cabbages. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. 2. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. But I have solved the difficulty. and observe results. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. life in the summer time is a vexation. 1. . share the same fate. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. drilled at right angles. being partly eaten into. Traps do no good. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. 4. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. F. etc. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary.

Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. Iowa. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. long. If. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. by trial. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. cut some of it off and try again. and made up and kept in large bottles. the coil does not heat sufficiently. About 9-1/2 ft. . as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. cut in 1/2-in. -.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The solution can be used over and over again. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. strips. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. of No.

The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Kane. it falls to stop G. N. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. hot-water pot. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. but with unsatisfactory results. forks. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Stir and mix thoroughly. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Texas. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. Y. of oleic acid with 1 gal. --Contributed by James M. --Contributed by Katharine D. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. C. Morse. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Doylestown. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. of whiting and 1/2 oz. coffee pot. as shown in the sketch. of gasoline. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. and a strip. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Do not wash them. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. is a good size--in this compound. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Syracuse. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Fig 2. to cause the door to swing shut. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. . In cleaning silver. Pa. 1) removed. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Dallas. Knives. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. D. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound.

Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. using the paper dry. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. of course. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Fisher. . They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. negatives. Ill. Sprout. but unfixed. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . which is. La. --Contributed by Oliver S. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. New Orleans. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. --Contributed by Theodore L. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Waverly. later fixed and washed as usual. Pa. Harrisburg.

a harmonograph is a good prescription. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. To obviate this difficulty. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. The harmonograph. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Fig. 1. metal. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. then . The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other.

such as a shoe buttoner. Rosemont. ceiling. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. --Contributed by Wm. A small table or platform. 1. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. Arizona. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. in diameter. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. A length of 7 ft. Another weight of about 10 lb. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. A weight. that is. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. is about right for a 10-ft. for instance. is attached as shown at H. provides a means of support for the stylus. Holes up to 3 in. 1. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. K. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. etc. which can be regulated. Gaffney. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. as shown in the lower part of Fig. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. Punch a hole. what is most important. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. or the lines will overlap and blur. as shown in Fig. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. to prevent any side motion. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. A small weight.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. with a nail set or punch. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. Ingham. exactly one-third. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. G. 1-3/4 by 2 in. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit.. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. one-fifth. Chicago. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. as long as the other. R. in the center of the circle to be cut. A pedestal. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. makes respectively 3. one-fourth. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. --Contributed by James T. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. of about 30 or 40 lb. The length of the short pendulum H. and unless the shorter pendulum is.. J.

and 4 as in Fig. Fig. Chicago. 2. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. then put 2 at the top. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Cruger. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. Fig.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. N. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. then 3 as in Fig. --Contributed by J. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. distributing them over the whole card.J. Cape May City. The capacity of the vise. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. The two key cards are made alike. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. 5. dividing them into quarters.J. 4. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Morey. 1. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig.H. of course. 6. 3. -Contributed by W. and proceed as before. a correspondent of . Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints.

of ferricyanide of potash. wood-screws. deep. 6 gauge wires shown. After securing the tint desired. of 18-per-cent No. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. 22 gauge German-silver wire. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. Wind the successive turns of . 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. the portion of the base under the coil. sheet of well made asbestos paper. Augusta. says Popular Electricity. drill 15 holes. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. remove the prints. citrate of iron and ammonia. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. If constructed of the former. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. of water. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. of the uprights. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. 30 gr. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Asbestos board is to be preferred. from the top and bottom. Alberta Norrell. After preparing the base and uprights. acetic acid and 4 oz. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. then cut slices from the center toward the ends.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. Ga. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. 1/2 oz. To assemble. long. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. respectively. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. Cut through the center. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. --Contributed by L. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. 1/4 in.

cut and dressed 1/2 in. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. 16 gauge copper wire. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Labels of some kind are needed. Ward. Ampere. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. --Contributed by Frederick E. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. N. as they are usually thrown away when empty. then fasten the upright in place. square. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. which. Y. but these are not necessary. Small knobs may be added if desired. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. if one is not a smoker. The case may be made of 1/2-in. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. rivets.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration.. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. 14 gauge. etc. screws. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place.

of glycerine to 16 oz. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. lead. especially if a large tub is used. and one made of poplar finished black. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. In soldering galvanized iron. Wis. Copper. tin. --C. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. particularly so when the iron has once been used.14 oz.. . Kenosha. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. The material can be of any wood. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. a piece of solder. --Contributed by A. California. E and F. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. S. and rub the point of the copper on it. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. If the soldering copper is an old one. and labeled "Poison. Larson. of water. Richmond. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. The parts are put together with dowel pins. G. Eureka Springs. --Contributed by W. A. being careful about the heat. This is considerable annoyance. D. Ark. it must be ground or filed to a point. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. or has become corroded. Jaquythe. zinc. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. sandpaper or steel wool. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. galvanized iron. as shown in the sketch. B. tinner's acid. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. C." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. then to the joint to be soldered. Heat it until hot (not red hot). brass. the pure muriatic acid should be used.

the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . in diameter. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Six issues make a well proportioned book. with good results. Troy. Hankin. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Y. wide. This will leave a clear hole. Place the band. N. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. The dimensions shown in Fig. a ring may be made from any metal. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. 7/8 in. This completes the die. 2. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Fig. I bind my magazines at home evenings. brass and silver.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. B. Apart from this. The covers of the magazines are removed. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. in diameter. The punch A. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. and drill out the threads. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. thick and 1-1/4 in. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. however. Fig. C. W. such as copper. Take a 3/4-in. The disk will come out pan shaped. -Contributed by H. round iron. nut. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. 1. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. D. Brass rings can be plated when finished. which gives two bound volumes each year.

Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. Coarse white thread. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. threaded double. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. using . The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood.4. allowing about 2 in. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. deep. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. size 16 or larger. 5. is nailed across the top. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. . The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. through the notch on the left side of the string No. 1. 1 in Fig. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. 2. After drawing the thread tightly. 1. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. and place them against the strings in the frame. Five cuts. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. on all edges except the back. C. The covering should be cut out 1 in. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. which is fastened the same as the first. of the ends extending on each side. 2. 1/8 in. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. and then to string No. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. Place the cardboard covers on the book. The covering can be of cloth. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. The string No. The sections are then prepared for sewing. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. Start with the front of the book. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. as shown in Fig. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. then back through the notch on the right side. 1. and a third piece. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. If started with the January or the July issue. is used for the sewing material.

and. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. and mark around each one. Place the cover on the book in the right position. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Nebr. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. at opposite sides to each other. Encanto. College View. Cal. Tinplate. on which to hook the blade. --Contributed by Clyde E. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. round iron. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Divine. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. For the blade an old talking-machine .

. fuse hole at D. and 1/4 in. in order to drill the holes in the ends. E.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. as shown. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. and another piece (B) 6 in. long. thick. at the same end. A. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Then on the board put . hydraulic pipe. as it is sometimes called. Make the blade 12 in. B. Hays. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. and 1/4 in. and a long thread plug. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. Summitville. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. and file in the teeth. with 10 teeth to the inch.. Miss. by 1 in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. thick. On the upper side. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. F. Moorhead. by 4-1/2 in. with a steel sleeve. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. bore. C. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. Ohio. or double extra heavy. -Contributed by Willard J. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it.

Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. the jars need not be very large. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Boyd. Connect up as shown. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. and some No. Philadelphia. 4 jars. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. using about 8 in. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. H. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. of rubber-covered wire. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. of wire to each coil. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. high around this apparatus. A lid may be added if desired. --Contributed by Chas. some sheet copper or brass for plates.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. about 5 ft. as from batteries. If you are going to use a current of low tension.

The current then will flow through the motor. steel rod makes a good steering rod. 7 in. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. See Fig. two pieces 30 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. 4. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. For the brass trimmings use No. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. above the ground. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. 5 on switch. No. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 2 is lower down than in No. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 3 in. The top disk in jar No. B and C. is used to reduce friction. First sandpaper all the wood. To wire the apparatus. wide. by 5 in. 2. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. 34 in. wide by 3/4 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. In proportioning them the points A. two for each jar. sheet brass 1 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. On the door of the auto front put the . wide and 2 in. and four pieces 14 in. by 2 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. by 1-1/4 in. 15-1/2 in. 16-1/2 in. .. Put arm of switch on point No. two pieces 14 in. & S. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 4) of 3/4-in. B. 1 is connected to point No. 2. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. making them clear those in the front runner. by 1-1/4 in. 2. then apply a coat of thin enamel.. gives full current and full speed. 30 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. square by 14 ft. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. long. long. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No... Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. thick. 3 and No. 1. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. apart. Z. Equip block X with screw eyes. as they "snatch" the ice. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. A variation of 1/16 in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. and for the rear runners: A. At the front 24 or 26 in. Use no screws on the running surface. wide and 3/4 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. The connection between point No. An iron washer. 3. thick. 1 and so on for No. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. long. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. B. with the cushion about 15 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 1 on switch. by 5 in. two pieces 34 in.. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. and bolt through. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. Use no nails. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. The stock required for them is oak. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. long. are important. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white.. Their size also depends on the voltage.the way. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. C. C. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. A 3/4-in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. by 2 in. and plane it on all edges. 27 B. 4 in. by 6 in. long by 22 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft. direct to wire across jars. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. however. For the front runners these measurements are: A. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. on No. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 11 in. oak boards. 2 and 3. 2 in. beginning at the rear.. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. as they are not substantial enough. by 1 in. or source of current. Fig.

and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. or with these for $25. to improve the appearance.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. long. by 1/2 in. lunch. by 30 in. fasten a cord through the loop. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. a number of boys may share in the ownership. Fasten a horn. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. such as burlap. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. Then get some upholstery buttons. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . a brake may be added to the sled. brass plated. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. such as used on automobiles. which is somewhat moist. cheap material. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. overshoes. cutting it out of sheet brass. The best way is to get some strong. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. If desired. may be stowed within. to the wheel. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. etc. parcels. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. If desired.

Leland. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. . Lexington. --Contributed by Stewart H. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Ill. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written.tree and bring. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same.

fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. FC. The straight-edge. will be over the line FG. The first tooth may now be cut. CD. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. the same diameter as the wheel. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. Fig. by drawing diameters. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . A small clearance space. The Model Engineer. Fig. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. 1. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. 3. made from 1/16-in. London. when flat against it. with twenty-four teeth. With no other tools than a hacksaw. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. the cut will be central on the line. though more difficult. E. Draw a circle on paper. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. Fig. from F to G. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. which. 2. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. some files. 4). This guide should have a beveled edge. say 1 in. a compass. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. so that the center of the blade. outside diameter and 1/16 in. thick. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. sheet metal. mild steel or iron. First take the case of a small gearwheel. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made.

With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. as shown in Fig. ground it with a large piece of zinc. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. and the other outlet wire. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. 1. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. electric lamp. No shock will be perceptible. either the pencils for arc lamps. transmitter. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. Then take one outlet wire.Four Photos on One Plate of them. If there is no faucet in the house. each in the center. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. B. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. 2. 1. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. some wire and some carbons. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. hold in one hand. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. A bright. B. or several pieces bound tightly together. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. Make a hole in the other. Focus the camera in the usual manner. R. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. .

a transmitter which induces no current is used. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . Dry batteries are most convenient. Slattery. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. as shown. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. or more of the latter has been used. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. and about that size. Emsworth. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Wrenn. under the gable. If desired. as indicated by E E. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. A is a wooden block. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. One like a loaf of bread. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. But in this experiment. Ashland. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. --Contributed by Geo. Pa. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. of course. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. leaving about 10 in. For a base use a pine board 10 in. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. are also needed. at each end for terminals. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Ohio. by 1 in. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Several battery cells. They have screw ends. 36 wire around it. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. one at the receiver can hear what is said. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. and will then burn the string C. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. Then set the whole core away to dry. B. J. D D are binding posts for electric wires. by 12 in. and again wind the wire around it. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. serves admirably.

At one side secure two receptacles. First make a support. while C is open. B B. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. Newark. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. in parallel. 1. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. as shown. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Turn on switch. the terminal of the coil. Fig. The coil will commence to become warm. until the hand points to zero on the scale. Jr. Ohio. and one single post switch. C. The apparatus is now ready for operation. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. The oven is now ready to be connected. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. 12 or No.wire. From the other set of binding-posts. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. in series with bindingpost. and switch. and the lamps. Connect these three to switch. E. run a No. D. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Fig. 14 wire. for the . Place 16-cp. B B. connecting lamp receptacles. as shown. 2. F. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. D.. C. These should have hollow ends.

2. although brass is better. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. 1. 3 amperes. A wooden box. remove the valve. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. but if for a 4way. although copper or steel will do.or 4-way valve or cock. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . To make one. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. This is slipped on the pivot. a battery. After drilling. It is 1 in. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. 4. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. The pointer or hand. until the scale is full. 5. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. 14 wire. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. Fig. 4 in. E. drill through the entire case and valve. Dussault. a standard ammeter. 1/2 in. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. long and make a loop. is made of iron. wide and 1/8 in. where A is the homemade ammeter. The core. At a point a little above the center. to prevent it turning on the axle. D. high. and D. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. a variable resistance. drill in only to the opening already through. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. etc. 3..purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. This may be made of wood. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. B. Fig. If for 3-way. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. is made of wire. 4 amperes. inside measurements. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. from the lower end. wide and 1-3/4 in. D. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. 7. long. Fig. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3.E. 5. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. as shown in the cut.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. C. wind with plenty of No. 6. The box is 5-1/2 in. 14. Mine is wound with two layers of No. is then made and provided with a glass front. Fig. deep. thick. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 10 turns to each layer. drill a hole as shown at H. 36 magnet wire instead of No. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. 1/4 in. Montreal. long. 1. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument.

D. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. which is used for reducing the current.performing electrical experiments. A. and the other connects with the water rheostat. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. making two holes about 1/4 in. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. in diameter. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. provided with a rubber stopper. as shown. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. To start the light. E. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. and the arc light. and a metal rod. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. high. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. F. One wire runs to the switch. This stopper should be pierced. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. in thickness . First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. B. By connecting the motor. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained.

where he is placed in an upright open . Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Fig. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. As there shown. 1. --Contributed by Harold L. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. A piece of wood. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Fig. Fig. B. If the interrupter does not work at first. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. as shown in C. long. Jones. 2. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. as shown in B. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. 2. Turn on the current and press the button. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. 1. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. A. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. If all adjustments are correct. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. To insert the lead plate. 1. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Carthage. Fig. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Having finished the interrupter. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. N. Y. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper.

especially L. All . from which the gong has been removed. should be colored a dull black. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. and can be bought at Japanese stores. figures and lights. by 7-1/2 in. could expect from a skeleton. which can be run by three dry cells. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. Its edges should nowhere be visible. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. until it is dark there. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. should be miniature electric lamps.. The skeleton is made of papier maché. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. by 7 in. high. They need to give a fairly strong light. The glass should be the clearest possible. A white shroud is thrown over his body. If it is desired to place the box lower down. with the exception of the glass. giving a limp. is constructed as shown in the drawings. light-colored garments. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. and must be thoroughly cleansed. within the limits of an ordinary room. The model. L and M. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. as the entire interior. especially the joints and background near A. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. to aid the illusion. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view.coffin. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. inside dimensions. dressed in brilliant. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. loosejointed effect. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. If everything is not black. and wave his arms up and down. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. The lights. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. the illusion will be spoiled. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. A.

--Contributed by Geo. as shown in the sketch. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. If a gradual transformation is desired. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. square block. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. Two finishing nails were driven in. fat spark. after which it assumes its normal color. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. Fry. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. placed about a foot apart. San Jose. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. W. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . a double-pointed rheostat could be used. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Cal.that is necessary is a two-point switch. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in.

by a piece of hard rubber at each end. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. In Fig. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. hydrogen gas is generated. In Fig. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. B and C. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. into the receiver G. as shown. This is a wide-mouth bottle. -Contributed by Dudley H. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. The plates are separated 6 in. or a solution of sal soda. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. with two tubes. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. A (see sketch). soldered in the top. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. New York. 1. One of these plates is connected to metal top. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. to make it airtight. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. If a lighted match . Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. Cohen. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. F. and should be separated about 1/8 in. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. by small pieces of wood. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. the remaining space will be filled with air. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface.

The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. A. which is plugged up at both ends. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. Fig. either by passing a current of electricity around it. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. of No. 2 shows the end view. N. A nipple. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. One row is drilled to come directly on top. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . then a suitable burner is necessary. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. copper pipe. says the Model Engineer. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. A. or by direct contact with another magnet. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. is made by drilling a 1/8in. N. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. B. 1-5/16 in. A. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. C C. should be only 5/16 of an inch. and the ends of the tube. A 1/64-in. in diameter and 6 in. The distance between the nipple. A. If desired. long. 1/2 in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. which forms the vaporizing coil. copper pipe. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. P. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. as is shown in the illustration. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. London. is then coiled around the brass tube. Fig. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. long. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. 1. 36 insulated wire. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. by means of the clips. A piece of 1/8-in. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. from the bottom.

fold and cut it 1 in. duck or linen. trim both ends and the front edge. smoothly. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. cut to the size of the pages.lamp cord. boards and all. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Fig. with a fine saw. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. this makes a much nicer book. 1/4 in. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. longer and 1/4 in. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. should be cut to the diameter of the can. but if the paper knife cannot be used. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. taking care not to bend the iron. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. 2). Turn the book over and paste the other side. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . smoothing and creasing as shown at A. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. about 8 or 10 in. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Cut four pieces of cardboard. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). leaving the folded edge uncut. 3. Fig. Fig. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. Take two strips of stout cloth. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. larger all around than the book. at the front and back for fly leaves. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. 1. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips.

B. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. E. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. C. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. as shown. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. H. and a little can. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. 4). Va. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Ont. A. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. Noble. Another can. as shown in the sketch. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Toronto. A gas cock. is perforated with a number of holes. 18 in. of tank A is cut a hole. . which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. D. Bedford City. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. which will just slip inside the little can. without a head. This will cause some air to be enclosed. in diameter and 30 in. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. is made the same depth as B. is turned on it. Another tank. is fitted in it and soldered. pasting them down (Fig. --Contributed by Joseph N. but its diameter is a little smaller. Parker. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. the joint will be gas tight. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. In the bottom. or rather the top now.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. --Contributed by James E. deep. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. is soldered onto tank A. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B.

Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. B. If the pushbutton A is closed. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. exactly 12 in. B. The armature. long. and the four diagonal struts. and about 26 in. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. long. N. to prevent splitting. square by 42 in. when finished. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. basswood or white pine. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. The diagonal struts. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. thus adjusting the . which moves to either right or left. 2. are shown in detail at H and J. D. The bridle knots. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. The longitudinal corner spines. Fig. C. and sewed double to give extra strength. making the width. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. B. The small guards. A. as shown at C. If the back armature. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. Beverly. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. by 1/2 in. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. -Contributed by H. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. E. J. Fig. should be 3/8 in. should be 1/4 in. tacks. and the edges should be carefully hemmed.. H is a square knot. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. should be cut a little too long. with an electric-bell magnet. A A. which may be either spruce. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. 1. fastened in the bottom. D. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. S. The wiring diagram. shows how the connections are to be made. Bott.

A bowline knot should be tied at J. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. D. Closing either key will operate both sounders. Kan. If the kite is used in a light wind.lengths of F and G. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Stoddard. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. with gratifying results. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. thus shortening G and lengthening F. that refuse to slide easily. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. Clay Center. to prevent slipping. Harbert. and. as shown. however. E. shift toward F. --Contributed by Edw. Chicago. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. for producing electricity direct from heat. can be made of a wooden . loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. --Contributed by A. and if a strong wind is blowing.

Fasten a piece of wood. A and B. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. by means of machine screws or. Chicago..frame. to the cannon. C. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. E. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. A. Then. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. C. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. placed on top. 14 or No. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. 16 single-covered wire. with a pocket compass. in position. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. or parallel with the compass needle. which conducts the current into the cannon. F. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. B. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. When the cannon is loaded. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . with a number of nails. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. E. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. --Contributed by A. C. spark. The wood screw. and the current may then be detected by means. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. and also holds the pieces of wood. A. D. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. A. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device.

it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. A. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. In Fig. Chicago. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. 1. 1.the current is shut off. Big Rapids. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. 1. To unlock the door. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. To lock the door. Fig. in this position the door is locked. H. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. --Contributed by Henry Peck. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Keil. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. screw is bored in the block. To reverse. Marion. B. Mich. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. when in position at A'. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Bend the strips BB (Fig. now at A' and S'. to receive the screw in the center. requiring a strong magnet. A and S. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. press the button. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. but no weights or strings. where there is a staple. L. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. . is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. with the long arm at L'. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. --Contributed by Joseph B. Connect as shown in the illustration. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. A hole for a 1/2 in. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. square and 3/8 in. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. A and S. Fig. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. within the reach of the magnet. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Ohio.

if enameled white on the concave side. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. --Contributed by C. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. pipe with 1-2-in. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. put in the handle. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. and C is a dumbbell. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. about 18 in. hole. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. J. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. Mass. and may be made at very slight expense. Thread the other end of the pipe. long. and if desired the handles may . The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. West Somerville. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. When the holes are finished and your lines set. When ready for use. The standard and base. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. gas-pipe. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. are enameled a jet black. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. or for microscopic work. Rand.

1. M. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. E. high by 1 ft. 8 in. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. This peculiar property is also found in ice. across. 1. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. inside the pail. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Warren. Fig. Mass. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. A. D. North Easton. Fig.be covered with leather. Make a cylindrical core of wood. as shown at A in the sketch. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. --Contributed by C. B. across. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. which shall project at least 2 in. with a cover. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. long and 8 in.. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln .

pipe. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. but will be cheaper in operation. It is placed inside the kiln. and on it set the paper wrapped core. if you have the materials.. 2. C. 1). the firing should be gradual. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. long over the lid hole as a chimney. thick. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. say 1/4 in. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. of fine wire. but it will burn a great deal of gas. or make one yourself. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. which is the hottest part. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. After removing all the paper. as is shown in the sketch. make two wood ends. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. The 2 in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. in diameter. hotel china. 2 in. If the cover of the pail has no rim. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in.mixture of clay. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. projecting from each end (Fig. pipe 2-ft. Wind about 1/8 in. L.-G. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. and 3/4 in. E. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. about 1 in. and 3/8 in. 25%.. 1390°-1410°. in diameter. Fit all the parts together snugly. and with especial caution the first time. and cut it 3-1/2 in. 3) with false top and bottom. such . Cover with paper and shellac as before. thick. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. as dictated by fancy and expense. full length of iron core. sand. 1).. Line the pail. C. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. and your kiln is ready for business. W. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. pack this space-top. C. wider than the kiln. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. When lighted. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. 15%. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. to hold the clay mixture. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. Whatever burner is used. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. if there is to be any glazing done. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. After finishing the core. long. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. and graphite. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. cutting the hole a little smaller. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. diameter. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. layer of the clay mixture. Fig. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. strip of sheet iron. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. let this dry thoroughly. 60%. carefully centering it. 1330°. hard porcelain. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. and varnish. the point of the blue flame. This done. bottom and sides. Set aside for a few days until well dried.

. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. and divide it into two piles. Then take the black cards. overlaps and rests on the body. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. 2. about 1/16 in. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. square them up. length of . procure a new deck. with a plane. A. Of course. as shown in the sketch herewith. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. Next restore all the cards to one pack. and plane off about 1/16 in. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. --Contributed by J. Take the red cards. diameter. and discharges into the tube. B. 2). Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. C. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. 8 in. D. Chicago. taking care to have the first card red. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. The funnel. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. as in Fig. T. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. C. and so on. Washington. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner.53 in. 2. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. red and black. all cards facing the same way.. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. Then. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. leaving long terminals. the next black. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. You can display either color called for. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. as in Fig. bind tightly with black silk. every alternate card being the same color. 1. square them up and place in a vise. around the coil. C. R.

stove bolts. to form a dovetail joint as shown. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. the first thing to decide on is the size. C. All the horizontal pieces. Fig. B. The upright pieces. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. as the difficulties increase with the size. the same ends will come together again. N. It should be placed in an exposed location. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. so that when they are assembled. E. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. 1. F. about 20 in. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. and this is inexpensive to build. through the holes already drilled. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. thus making all the holes coincide. E. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin.C. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. stove bolts. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. A. The cement. B. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. 1 gill of litharge. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. B. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. The bottom glass should be a good fit. Drill all the horizontal pieces. Long Branch. angle iron for the frame. D.. Let . Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. of the frame. and then the frame is ready to assemble. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. When the glass is put in the frame a space. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E.J. A. 1 gill of fine white sand. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. To find the fall of snow. should be countersunk as shown in the detail.

Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. a centerpiece (A. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. Aquarium Finished If desired. Fig. Fasten the lever. A. on the door by means of a metal plate. to the door knob. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. and. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. having a swinging connection at C. D. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. if desired. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. B.

Two short boards 1 in. PAUL S.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. 2 ft. Fig. 6 in. screwed to the door frame. long. 1. to keep the frame from spreading. several lengths of scantling 3 in. long. Fig. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. from the outside top of the frame. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF.. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. with a water pressure of 70 lb. 2 at GG. 26 in. 3 shows one of the paddles. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. C. 2 is an end view. Fig. E. hoping it may solve the same question for them. To make the frame. and Fig. and another. Fig. AA. thus doing away with the spring. soldered to the end of the cylinder. to form the slanting part. 1. Cut two of them 4 ft. B. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. long. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. White. which is 15 in. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. F. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. but mark their position on the frame. 1 . Fig. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. to form the main supports of the frame. D. They are shown in Fig. --Contributed by Orton E. for the top. showing the paddle-wheel in position. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. N. as at E. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Do not fasten these boards now. long. A small piece of spring brass. will open the door about 1/2 in. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. Fig. I referred this question to my husband. wide by 1 in. approximately 1 ft. another. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Cut two pieces 30 in. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. another. Y. 1 is the motor with one side removed. according to the slant given C. Buffalo. wide .

1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. as shown in Fig. iron 3 by 4 in. hole through them. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Now block the wheel. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. (I. from one end by means of a key. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Drill 1/8-in. Fasten them in their proper position. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Make this hole conical. tapering from 3/16 in. 24 in. 1. steel shaft 12 in. Take the side pieces. after which drill a 5/8 in. 2) with a 5/8-in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. hole through its center. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. 4. by 1-1/2 in. hole to form the bearings. Next secure a 5/8-in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. that is. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. take down the crosspieces. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Fig. 2) form a substantial base. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). hole through their sides centrally. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. in diameter. GG. These are the paddles. and a 1/4 -in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel.burlap will do -. thick (HH. with the wheel and shaft in place. Fig. thick. and drill a 1/8-in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. long to the wheel about 8 in. Tack one side on. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. holes. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. When it has cooled. and drill a 1-in. remove the cardboard. iron. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. then drill a 3/16-in.along the edges under the zinc to form . long and filling it with babbitt metal. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. pipe. to a full 1/2 in. Fig. 2) and another 1 in.

Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. start the motor. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Raise the window shade half way. as this makes long exposure necessary. place the outlet over a drain. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting.a water-tight joint. Correct exposure depends. light and the plate. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. any window will do. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. on the lens. Darken the rest of the window. The best plate to use is a very slow one. It is obvious that. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. ice-cream freezer. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. If sheet-iron is used. but now I put them in the machine. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. remove any white curtains there may be. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. sewing machine. says the Photographic Times. as shown in the sketch at B. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. and the subject may move. Do not stop down the lens. . If the bearings are now oiled. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. but as it would have cost several times as much. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. and leave them for an hour or so. drill press. shutting out all light from above and the sides. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Focus the camera carefully. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Drill a hole through the zinc. or what is called a process plate. and as near to it as possible. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. it would be more durable. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. of course. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible.

but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. On completing . without detail in the face. The core C. hard rubber. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. B. D. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. or wood. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. until the core slowly rises. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. or an empty developer tube. and without fog. or can be taken from an old magnet. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. by twisting. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. A. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. and a base. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. a core. the core is drawn down out of sight.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. as shown in Fig. which is made of iron and cork. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. The current required is very small. The glass tube may be a test tube. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. an empty pill bottle may be used. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. C. 2. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. With a piece of black paper. as a slight current will answer. 2. with binding posts as shown. a glass tube. full of water. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right.

and one not easy to explain. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. and make a pinhole in the center. finest graphite.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. 1 lb. The colors appear different to different people. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . according to his control of the current. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. 1. and are changed by reversing the rotation. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. whale oil. water and 3 oz. is Benham's color top. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. white lead. This is a mysterious looking instrument. 1 pt. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored.

B. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. Chicago. or three spot. deuce. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. when the action ceases. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. -Contributed by D. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. especially if the deck is a new one. C. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. before cutting. A. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. As this device is easily upset. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. nearly every time. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles.. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel.B. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. In prize games. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch.L. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. thus partly filling bottles A and C. fan-like. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. In making hydrogen.

4. long... in diameter. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 2. S. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. 1. Dak. (Fig. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. long and 3 in. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Detroit. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. Form a cone of heavy paper. Bently. 3). --Contributed by C. Huron. 12 in. that will fit loosely in the tube A. J. Make a 10-sided stick. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. in length and 3 in. Fig. 10 in. Jr. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. S. . making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Fig. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by F. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. W.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. 9 in.

How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. allowing 1 in. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. A. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. on one side and the top. A second piece of silk thread. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. push back the bolt. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. but bends toward D. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Fig. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. Remove the form. it is equally easy to block that trick. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. with a pin driven in each end. E. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. making it three-ply thick. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. about the size of a leadpencil. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. and walk in. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. --Contributed by Reader. Cut out paper sections (Fig. will cause an increased movement of C. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. Fortunately. C. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. 6. long. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. bend it at right angles throughout its length. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. A piece of tin. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. Denver. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere.

By this arrangement one.strip. is connected each point to a battery. while the lower switch. B. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. put together as shown in the sketch. S. S. The reverse switch. Jr. The upper switch. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. Two wood-base switches. R. long. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. long. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . posts. as shown.. A. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. are made 2 by 4 in. --Contributed by J. and rest on a brick placed under each end.. W. S S. 4 ft. will last for several years. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Paul. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. or left to right. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. The feet. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. B. West St. Minn. are 7 ft. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. The 2 by 4-in. Fremont Hilscher.

2 the steam is entering the cylinder. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. The base is made of wood. The steam chest D. and a cylindrical . The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. The piston is made of a stove bolt. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. Fig. and in Fig. 3/8 in. H and K. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. or anything available.every house. 1. which is made of tin. the size of the hole in the bearing B. The valve motion is shown in Figs. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. In Fig. cut in half. Fig. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. either an old sewing-machine wheel. FF. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. and the crank bearing C. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. and has two wood blocks. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. 2 and 3. with two washers. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. 2. pulley wheel. E. The hose E connects to the boiler. thick. which will be described later. is an old bicycle pump. and valve crank S. the other parts being used for the bearing B.

photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. C. J. using the positive wire as a pen. --Contributed by Geo. and a very amusing trick. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. Fry. The valve crank S. 3. as shown in Fig. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. and saturated with thick oil. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. and the desired result is obtained. Wis. G. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. can be an old oil can. First. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Cal. Fig. 4. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. San Jose. to receive the connecting rod H. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. is cut out of tin. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. or galvanized iron. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. This is wound with soft string. Fig. 1. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. .piece of hard wood. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. powder can. Eustice. Schuh and A. G. The boiler. as it is merely a trick of photography. of Cuba. This engine was built by W. at that. W.

Fig. B. They may be of any size. diameter. and Fig. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Fig. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. and place a bell on the four ends. C. When turning. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 1 will be seen to rotate. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. and pass ropes around . first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Cut half circles out of each stave. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. B. The smaller wheel. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. 1 by covering up Figs. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. to cross in the center. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Fig. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. as shown at AA. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. as shown.

but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope.M. Mo.G. which accounts for the sound. but not on all. long. produces a higher magnifying power). A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. To make this lensless microscope. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. Louis. which allows the use of small sized ropes. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. from the transmitter. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. This in turn will act on the transmitter. --Contributed by H. such as clothes lines. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. From a piece of thin . When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. A (a short spool. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. St. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. W. procure a wooden spool. as shown in the illustration. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end.. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera.

The pivot. C. The lever.. 1. Fig. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. . is made of iron. the diameter will appear twice as large. if the distance is reduced to one-half. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. C. or 64 times. the diameter will appear three times as large. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. To use this microscope. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. An innocent-looking drop of water. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. B. and at the center.. which costs little or nothing to make. the object should be of a transparent nature. A. E. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. D. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. is fastened at each end by pins. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. and look through the hole D. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. (The area would appear 64 times as large. and so on. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. 2.) But an object 3/4-in. held at arm's length. in which hay has been soaking for several days. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. fastened to a wooden base. place a small object on the transparent disk.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. which are pieces of hard wood. darting across the field in every direction. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. B. D. as in all microscopes of any power. e. otherwise the image will be blurred. can be made of brass and the armature. The spring. H. cut out a small disk. i. 3. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. bent as shown. if the distance is reduced to one-third. Viewed through this microscope. by means of brads.

A. . 16 in. in length and 16 in. coils wound with No. Fig. D. wide. similar to the one used in the sounder. D. fastened near the end. nail soldered on A. HH. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. is cut from a board about 36 in. can be made panel as shown. 16 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. or taken from a small one-point switch. wide. wide. long. wide and about 20 in. B. should be about 22 in. F. The base of the key. C. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. which are made to receive a pivot. FF. thick. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. wood. A switch. brass or iron soldered to nail. wood: C. and are connected to the contacts. 2. DD. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. K. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. wide. The binding posts. or a single piece. K. long and 14-1/2 in. wide and set in between sides AA. soft iron. Cut the top. connection of D to nail. Each side. long by 16 in. Fig. between the armature and the magnet. 1. binding posts: H spring The stop. brass. wood: F. B. brass: B. C. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. 26 wire: E. brass: E. D. KEY-A.SOUNDER-A. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. The door. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. E. The back. AA.

Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. cut in them. the only materials necessary being a glass tube.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig.. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. as shown. E. AA. material. When the electrical waves strike the needle. Ill. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . 13-1/2 in. 2 and made from 1/4-in. long. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. In operation. with 3/4-in. as shown in the sketch. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. brads. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Make 12 cleats. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. Garfield. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in.

and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. J.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. --Contributed by John Koehler. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. When the pipe is used. when used with a motor. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Y. Fairport. N. N. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. A fairly stiff spring. E. the magnet. pulls down the armature. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. through which a piece of wire is passed. filled with water. Brown. A. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . A (see sketch). and thus decreases the resistance. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. C. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Ridgewood. B. The cord is also fastened to a lever. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. and. A. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. in order to increase the surface. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. will give a greater speed. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. F. Pushing the wire. --Contributed by R.

Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Gachville. if desired. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Borden. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. even those who read this description. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. N. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. B. --Contributed by Perry A. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts.for the secret contact. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Of course. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram.

D. deep and 3/4 in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. wide. where the other end of wire is fastened. as shown in Fig. for 6-in. C. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. Connect switch to post B. long and full 12-in. . J. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. From a piece of brass a switch. Cal. wide. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. 2. The three shelves are cut 25-in.whenever the bell rings. records. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Compton. C. Dobson. Mangold. Nails for stops are placed at DD. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. wide.. and on both sides of the middle shelf. N. --Contributed by H. wide. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Dr. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Washington. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. H. records and 5-5/8 in. East Orange. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. Two drawers are fitted in this space. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. The top board is made 28-in. E. wide. thick and 12-in. With about 9 ft. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. Jr. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. from the bottom. in a semicircle 2 in. long and 5 in. for 10in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. 1. apart. A.

as shown in Fig.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . When the cord is passed over pulley C. E. Roanoke. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. A. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. as shown by the dotted lines. closed. which in operation is bent. 1. B. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. to which is fastened a cord. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Va.

wide and a little less than 7/8 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. as shown in the illustration. B. Bore two 1/4 in. in diameter. is compressed by wheels. D. they will bind. which should be about 1/2 in. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. deep. thick. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. 1 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. against which the rubber tubing. Figs. Fig. deep and 1/2 in. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. 3. E. in diameter. Put the rubber tube. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. The crankpin should fit tightly. If the wheels fit too tightly. 5) when they are placed. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Cut two grooves. CC. excepting the crank and tubing. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. holes (HH. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Fig. but a larger one could be built in proportion. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. Do not fasten the sides too . square and 7/8 in. apart. Notice the break (S) in the track. through one of these holes. it too loose. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. they will let the air through. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. wide. wide. one in each end. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. In the sides (Fig. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. in diameter. Figs. 4 shows the wheel-holder. Fig. 3). 1 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. in diameter. Now put all these parts together. In these grooves place wheels. to turn on pins of stout wire. thick (A. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. 1. long. E.

the other wheel has reached the bottom. and 3-1/2 in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. because he can . How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. For ease in handling the pump. The animal does not fear to enter the box. 1. costing 10 cents. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. and are 30 in. a platform should be added. from each end. If the motion of the wheels is regular. tubing. In the two cross bars 1 in. the pump will give a steady stream. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. B. from that mark the next hole. as it gives steadiness to the motion. 17-1/2 in. long.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. --Contributed by Dan H. Take the center of the bar. To use the pump. from each end. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. The screen which is shown in Fig. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Fig. Cut six pieces. from the bottom and 2 in. AA. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. 1. Idana. A in Fig. mark for hole and 3 in. and mark for a hole. 15 in. Fig. AA. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. mark again. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. The three legs marked BBB. 1. 2. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. 1. Fig. Then turn the crank from left to right. beyond each of these two. iron. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. 2. 1. as shown in Fig. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Hubbard. Two feet of 1/4-in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. from each end. stands 20 in. of material. is all the expense necessary. Kan. though a small iron wheel is better. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. Fig. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black.

raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. It is useful for running induction coils. To cause a flow of electricity. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. shuts him in. The mercury will adhere. 1) must be prepared. Place the carbon in the jar. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. and the solution (Fig. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. The battery is now ready for use. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. 4 oz. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. long having two thumb screws. of the top. When the bichromate has all dissolved. Philadelphia. If the battery has been used before. . stirring constantly. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. silvery appearance. --Contributed by H. If the solution touches the zinc. there is too much liquid in the jar. or small electric motors. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. Meyer. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. If it is wet. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. some of it should be poured out. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. C. but if one casts his own zinc. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. The battery is now complete. and touches the bait the lid is released and. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. When through using the battery. add slowly. giving it a bright. dropping. 14 copper wire. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. acid 1 part). Next procure what is known as a wire connector. of water dissolve 4 oz. however. potassium bichromate. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. or.see through it: when he enters. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. The truncated. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. until it is within 3 in. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. sulphuric acid. rub the zinc well. 2). it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores.

The price of the coil depends upon its size. e. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. the jump-spark coil . If. the battery circuit. pressing the pedal closes the door. Wis. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. After putting in the coal. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. i. which opens the door. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door..1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. with slight changes. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. while the coal door is being opened. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.Fig. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. however. Madison.

apart. 6. 6. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. Change the coil described. the full length of the coil. as shown in Fig. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. 7. .described elsewhere in this book. W W. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. 7). while a 12-in. in a partial vacuum. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. 5. being a 1-in. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". and closer for longer distances. After winding. This coil. in a straight line from top to bottom. W W. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. This will make an excellent receiver. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. coil. which is made of light copper wire. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. made of No. Now for the receiving apparatus. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. Fig. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. 7. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. as shown in Fig. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. diameter. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil.7. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig.

to the direction of the current. may be easily made at very little expense. 1). wireless is very simple when it is once understood. in the air. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. These circles. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. A large cone pulley would then be required. Run a wire from the other binding post. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. and for best results should extend up 50 ft.The aerial line. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. above the ground. 1 to 4. . Figs. only. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. as it matches the color well. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. The writer does not claim to be the originator. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. which will be described later. A. 90°. but it could be run by foot power if desired. and hence the aerial line. For an illustration. being at right angles. B the bed and C the tailstock. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. after all. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. No. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. but simply illustrates the above to show that. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. 90°. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated).6 stranded. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. at any point to any metal which is grounded. are analogous to the flow of induction. being vertical. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. using an electric motor and countershaft. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. I run my lathe by power. where A is the headstock.

If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. steel tubing about 1/8 in. Fig. which pass through a piece of wood. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 4. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. too. but not hot enough to burn it. 4. tapered wooden pin. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. The headstock. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. After pouring. If the bearing has been properly made. Fig. Heat the babbitt well. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. and runs in babbitt bearings. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. deep. To make these bearings. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. 6 Headstock Details D. on the under side of the bed. 2 and 3. and Fig. one of which is shown in Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. 5. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. just touching the shaft. pitch and 1/8 in. A. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. Fig. The bolts B (Fig. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. Fig. B. The bearing is then ready to be poured. and it is well to have the shaft hot. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. 6. which are let into holes FIG. thick. 5.

the alarm is easy to fix up. Take up about 5 ft. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock.7 Details of Tailstock pipe.J. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. embedded in the wood. FIG. and a 1/2-in. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. N. Newark. If one has a wooden walk. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. so I had to buy one. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. Ill. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. If not perfectly true. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. A. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. The tail stock (Fig. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Oak Park. B. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. lock nut. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. This prevents corrosion. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. of the walk . they may be turned up after assembling.other machines.

Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. add potassium cyanide again. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Do not touch the work with the hands again. to roughen the surface slightly. before dipping them in the potash solution. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. S. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Finally. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Fig. clean the articles thoroughly. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Jackson. hang the articles on the wires. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. leaving a clear solution. of water. water. Then make the solution . For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. and the alarm is complete. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. silver or other metal. Connect up an electric bell. To avoid touching it. (A. save when a weight is on the trap. Minn. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. to remove all traces of grease. --Contributed by R. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. so that they will not touch. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. 2). Minneapolis. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. American ash in 1-1/2 pt.

1). of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. The wooden catch. 1 not only unlocks. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. 1 in. also. thick by 3 in. Then. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. pewter. The wooden block C. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. Fig. shaking. long. of water. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. Can be made of a 2-in. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. piece of broomstick. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. 1. --Model Engineer. of clothesline rope and some No. If more solution is required. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. zinc. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. and the larger part (F. Having finished washing the precipitate. with water. and 4 volts for very small ones. with water. Fig. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. lead. as at F. B should be of the same wood. use 2 volts for large articles. German silver. make a key and keyhole. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. A 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. I. saw a piece of wood. which . bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. with the pivot 2 in. such metals as iron. A (Fig. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. 3. about 25 ft. If accumulators are used. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. long. which is advised. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. hole in its center. nickel and such metals. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. 18 wire. when the point of the key touches the tin. will serve for the key. Make a somewhat larger block (E. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. Screw the two blocks together. When all this is set up. from the lower end. and then treated as copper. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Fig. silver can be plated direct. square. which is held by catch B. Fig. if one does not possess a buffing machine. a hand scratch brush is good. Before silver plating. a circuit is completed. This solution. light strokes. 3) strikes the bent wire L.up to 2 qt. Repeat six times. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. 3) directly over the hole. To provide the keyhole. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. Take quick. an old electric bell or buzzer. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. copper. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. 10 in. 1). Where Bunsen cells are used. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. must be about 1 in. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. In rigging it to a sliding door. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated.5 to 4 volts. On brass. With an electric pressure of 3. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. but opens the door.

but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. East Orange. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. He removes the bowl from the black box. 0. Fig. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. Next. H. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). 1. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. some black cloth. with the lights turned low. The interior must be a dead black. sides and end. he points with one finger to the box. enlarged. and a slit. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. to throw the light toward the audience. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. surrounding a perfectly black space. the illumination in front must be arranged. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. The box must be altered first.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. Fig. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. the box should be painted black both inside and out. which unlocks the door. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. shows catch B. To prepare such a magic cave. the requisites are a large soap box. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. he tosses it into the cave. some black paint. Klipstein. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. Thus. 1. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. floor. heighten the illusion. Next. spoons and jackknives. is the cut through which the rope runs. New Jersey. and finally lined inside with black cloth. --Contributed by E. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. so much the better. On either side of the box. H. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. The magician stands in front of this. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. B. or cave. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. in his shirt sleeves. although a little more trouble. with a switch as in Fig. One end is removed. and plenty of candles. cut in one side. Fig. Heavy metal objects. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. one-third of the length from the remaining end. One thing changes to another and back again. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. half way from open end to closed end. 116 Prospect St. such as forks. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. no painting inside is required. between the parlor and the room back of it. . In front of you. Fig. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. 3. should be cut a hole. top. and black art reigns supreme. Receiving the bowl again. 2. Objects appear and disappear. and hands its contents round to the audience. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. a few simple tools.. H. 2. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it.

which are let down through the slit in the top. But illusions suggest themselves. you must have an assistant. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. into the eyes of him who looks. is on a table) so much the better. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. of course. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. only he. as presented by Hermann. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. a screen must be used. and several black drop curtains. The exhibitor should be . But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. which can be made to dance either by strings. and if portieres are impossible. if.Finally. and pours them from the bag into a dish. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. The illusion. the room where the cave is should be dark. The audience room should have only low lights. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. in which are oranges and apples. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. of course. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. one on each side of the box. was identical with this. his confederate behind inserts his hand. had a big stage. Consequently. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which.

and a common screw. d. A. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. b2. held down by another disk F (Fig. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. 2.. at L. 2). making contact with them. is shown in the diagram. On the disk G are two brass strips. held down on it by two terminals. c2. and c4 + electricity. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. by 4 in. by means of two wood screws. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. terminal c3 will show +. e1 and e2. and c1 – electricity. or binding posts. b2. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. A represents a pine board 4 in. About the center piece H moves a disk. Fig. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. or b2. respectively. c4. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. with three brass strips. terminal c3 will show . 2. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. their one end just slips under the strips b1. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. FIG. 1. f2. Finally. vice versa.a boy who can talk. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). c1. respectively.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. when handle K is turned to one side. respectively. 1. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. making contact with them as shown at y.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. Then. square. held down on disk F by two other terminals. c3. and c2 to the zinc. b3. b1. b3. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. as shown in Fig. if you turn handle K to the right. so arranged that.

and when on No. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . Newark. -Contributed by A. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 5. and C and C1 are binding posts. when on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. 4. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. from three batteries. Joerin. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Jr.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. . By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Ohio. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. when A is on No. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. from five batteries. E. jump spark coil. when on No. you have the current of one battery. B is a onepoint switch. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections.. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. 1. 3. Tuttle. thus making the message audible in the receiver. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. --Contributed by Eugene F. from four batteries.

and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. is the device of H. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. per second. and placed on the windowsill of the car. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. mark. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. B. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. P. When you do not have a graduate at hand. A. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. mark.. New Orleans. per second for each second. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. which may be a button or other small object. of Burlington. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. Wis. La. The device thus arranged. Handy Electric Alarm . E. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. so one can see the time. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. A. Redmond. rule. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. A. traveled by the thread. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. Thus. as shown in the sketch. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. over the bent portion of the rule. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. and supporting the small weight.

S. wrapping the wire around the can several times. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. . It was not long before a big greyhound came along.which has a piece of metal. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. Then if a mishap comes. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. and with the same result. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. soldered to the alarm winder. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. B. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. --Contributed by Gordon T. When the alarm goes off. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. Pa. which illuminates the face of the clock. but may be closed at F any time desired. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. Lane. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. for a wetting is the inevitable result. Crafton. C. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. Instead. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. --C. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn.

Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. and many other interesting and useful articles. which may. Two cleats. but it is a mistake to try to do this. It is possible to make molds without a bench. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. New York City. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. as shown in Fig. battery zincs. cannons. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. Macey. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. --Contributed by A. ornaments of various kinds. L. BE. when it is being prepared. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. binding posts. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. and duplicates of all these. engines. 1 . It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . C. AA. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. as shown. A.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. The first thing to make is a molding bench. small machinery parts. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. 1. With the easily made devices about to be described. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. whence it is soon tracked into the house. If there is no foundry Fig. bearings. models and miniature objects. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment.

Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. F. DD. and saw it in half longitudinally. but this operation will be described more fully later on." or upper half.How to Make a Mold [96] . are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. and the "drag. by 8 in. A wedge-shaped piece. say 12 in. 1. H. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. and this. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. A A.near at hand. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. as shown. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. is about the right mesh. II . which can be either aluminum. will be required. The flask. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. is filled with coal dust. previous to sawing. and the lower pieces. If the box is not very strong. CC. the "cope. The rammer. Fig. a little larger than the outside of the flask. white metal. If desired the sieve may be homemade. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. CC. try using sand from other sources. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. is nailed to each end of the cope. J. D. is shown more clearly in Fig. is made of wood. by 6 in. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. An old teaspoon." or lower part. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. G. 2. The dowels. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. and a sieve. as shown. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. A slight shake of the bag Fig. makes a very good sieve. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. E.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. high. It is made of wood and is in two halves. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. Fig. which can be made of a knitted stocking. 2 . The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. which should be nailed in. The cloth bag. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. 1.

A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. and by grasping with both hands. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. Place another cover board on top. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. and then more sand is added until Fig. It is then rammed again as before. as shown at C. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. as shown at D. and thus judge for himself. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. or "drag. turn the drag other side up. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. the surface of the sand at . It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. or "cope. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. as described. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. The sand is then ready for molding." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. In finishing the ramming. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. in order to remove the lumps. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. and if water is added. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. as it is much easier to learn by observation. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. After ramming." in position. where they can watch the molders at work. as shown at E. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. and scatter about 1/16 in. as shown. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand.

to give the air a chance to escape. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. after being poured. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. wide and about 1/4 in. . as shown at J. as shown at G. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. After drawing the pattern. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. Place a brick or other flat. as shown at F. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. in order to prevent overheating. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. as shown at H. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. deep. is next cut. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. as shown at H. and then pour. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand.E should be covered with coal-dust. place the cope back on the drag. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire." or pouring-hole. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. This is done with a spoon. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. thus holding the crucible securely. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. made out of steel rod. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. it shows that the sand is too wet. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. as shown in the sketch. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. Fig. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. in diameter. III. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. The "sprue. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. thus making a dirty casting.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds.

but any reasonable number may be used. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. and the casting is then ready for finishing. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. --Contributed by Harold S. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. the following device will be found most convenient. white metal and other scrap available. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. Referring to the figure. If a good furnace is available. or from any adjacent pair of cells. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. Although the effect in the illustration . babbitt. although somewhat expensive. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. used only for zinc. 15% lead. Morton. In my own case I used four batteries. and. is very desirable. battery zincs. may be used in either direction. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. Minneapolis. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently.

In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. The brass rings also appear distorted. Fig. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. outward. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. 3/4 in. To make it take a sheet-iron band. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. B. --Contributed by Draughtsman. Then replace the table. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. Put a sharp needle point. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. connected by cords to the rudder. as shown in the illustration. shaft made. may be made of hardwood. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. backward. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. By replacing the oars with paddles. B. 2. Chicago. The bearings. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. which will be sufficient to hold it. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. Make one of these pieces for each arm. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. A. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. Then walk down among the audience. If desired. as shown at A. to prevent them from rubbing the hands.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality.

may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. or under pressure. The covers. spoiling its appearance. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. 2 and 3. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed.melted babbitt. Snow. If babbitt is used. If galvanized iron is used. and a weight. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. but when in motion. 1. W. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. 2. D. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. A block of ice. as shown in Fig. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. or the paint will come off. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. It may seem strange that ice . C. The hubs. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. 1. as shown in Fig. Fig. In the same way. being simply finely divided ice. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. should be made of wood. 1. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. 3. when it will again return to its original state. A. E.

which resembles ice in this respect. whenever there is any connection made at all. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. P. as per sketch. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. by 5 in. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. sometimes only one or two feet a day. but. in. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped .should flow like water. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. Lane. by 1/4. as shown on page 65. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends.. B. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. it will gradually change from the original shape A. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. by 1/2 in. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. The rate of flow is often very slow. or supporting it in some similar way. by 2 in. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. thus giving a high resistance contact. Pa. Pressing either push button. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. --Contributed by Gordon T. but by placing it between books. square. no matter how slow the motion may be. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. and assume the shape shown at B. brass. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. Crafton.

Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. weight. wooden supports. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. G.000 ft. as shown. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. F. K . The success depends upon a slow current. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. the induction coil. and five dry batteries. D. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. H. horizontal lever. Ward. The parts are: A. G. C. draft. B. A is the circuit breaker. In the wiring diagram. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. pulleys. Wilkinsburg. draft chain. vertical lever. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. the battery. B. E. J. as shown. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. and C. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. I. furnace.thumb screws. about the size used for automobiles. cord. --Contributed by A. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. alarm clock. Pa. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. Indianapolis.

How to Make an Electroscope [103] . 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. as well as the bottom. material framed together as shown in Fig. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. The frame (Fig. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. Artistic Window Boxes The top. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. such as used for a storm window. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. where house plants are kept in the home. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. 2 are dressed to the right angle. will fit nicely in them. Kalamazoo. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. which will provide a fine place for the plants. 3. Mich.

. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. i. after a rest. --Contributed by Wm. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. in this connection. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. e. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. so as to increase the current. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. is something that will interest the average American boy. in any system of lamps. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. This is more economical than dry cells. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. a cork and a needle. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. 1. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. and the instrument will then be complete. and a suitable source of power. However. can be connected up in series. N. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. However. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. Thus. 1 cp. this must be done with very great caution. Grant. A certain number of these. multiples of series of three.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. It must be remembered. and will give the .. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. 1 each complete with base. where they are glad to have them taken away. and cost 27 cents FIG. Halifax. The 1/2-cp. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. for some time very satisfactorily. but maintain the voltage constant. since a battery is the most popular source of power. one can regulate the batteries as required.. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. Canada. which sells for 25 cents. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. S. Push the needle into the cork. W. as if drawn upon for its total output. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. as indicated by Fig. in diameter. by connecting them in series.

and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. lamps. 11 series.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. These will give 3 cp. we simply turn on the water. and then lead No. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. generates the power for the lights. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. Thus. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. for display of show cases. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. as in Fig. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. 2 shows the scheme. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. if wound for 6 volts. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. and diffused light in a room. 1-cp. lamps. FIG. by the proper combination of these. double insulated wire wherever needed. according to the water pressure obtainable. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. So. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. especially those of low internal resistance. although the first cost is greater. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. Fig. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet.proper voltage. to secure light by this method. each. If wound for 10 volts. or 22 lights. where the water pressure is the greatest. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. However. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. which is the same as that of one battery. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. and running the series in parallel. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. and for Christmas trees. making. In conclusion.. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. lamp. Chicago. Thus. . and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. 3. 18 B & S.

The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. AA. BB. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. To reverse the motor. Emig. as shown in the sketch. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. CC.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Cal. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. thus reversing the machine. A. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. After I connected up my induction coil. simply change the switch. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Parker. Santa Clara. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. A indicates the ground. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. and the sides. Plymouth. and C. center points of switch. outside points of switch. we were not bothered with them. --Contributed by Leonard E. B. bars of pole-changing switch. or from one pattern. Ind. --Contributed by F. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. field of motor. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. the letters indicate as follows: FF. . This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. B. or a tempting bone. DD. a bait of meat. brushes of motor. are cut just alike.

one cell being sufficient. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. attached to the end of the armature B. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. a hammer. W. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. merely push the button E. When the circuit is broken a weight. -Contributed by Claude B. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. thus locking the door. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. A. Cal. Hutchinson.. which is in the door. The button can be hidden. The experiment works best . as it is the key to the lock. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. If it is not. Fry. or would remain locked. To unlock the door. San Jose. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. and a table or bench. Melchior.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. 903 Vine St. Minn. a piece of string. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule.

--Contributed by Edward Whitney. 3. forming a loop. P. the key turns. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. W. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. the current flows with the small arrows. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. run through a pulley.Contributed by F. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. 1). as shown in Fig. D. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. in the ceiling and has a window weight. When the alarm rings in the early morning. A. where it will remain suspended as shown. 3.. Porto Rico.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. Madison. Tie the ends of the string together. On another block of wood fasten two wires. 2. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. attached at the other end. which pulls the draft open. -. the stick falls away. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. . releasing the weight. Schmidt. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Culebra. 4). Crawford Curry. 18 Gorham St. Wis. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. I. C. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Ontario. Canada. Brockville. --Contributed by Geo. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord.

Camden. Jr. and the other to the battery. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. and break the corners off to make them round. and then to the receiver. 6 in.. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. D. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. which fasten to the horn. First. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. The cut shows the arrangement. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. get two pieces of plate glass. R. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. or from a bed of flowers. Connect two wires to the transmitter. J. thick. --Contributed by Wm. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. thence to a switch. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. J. N. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. including the mouthpiece. Use a barrel to work on. S. square and 1 in. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and . running one direct to the receiver. made with his own hands. or tree.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. Farley. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush.

When polishing the speculum. wetting it to the consistency of cream. or it will not polish evenly. as in Fig. Then warm and press again with the speculum. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. in length. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. 2. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. and label. L. and spread on the glass.. and is ready for polishing. so the light . spaces. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. then take 2 lb. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass.. the coarse grinding must be continued. melt 1 lb. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. 2. wide around the convex glass or tool. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. When dry. Fasten. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. 1. set the speculum against the wall. with 1/4-in. Fig. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. then 8 minutes. also rotate the glass. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. of water. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. unless a longer focal length is wanted. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. A. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. Fig. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. by the side of the lamp. Have ready six large dishes. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. or less. Use a binger to spread it on with. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. In a dark room. a round 4-in. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. with pitch. twice the focal length away. When done the glass should be semitransparent. and the under glass or tool convex. while walking around the barrel. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. wet till soft like paint. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. using straight strokes 2 in. and a large lamp. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light.

If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. 840 gr. the speculum is ready to be silvered. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. must be procured. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. touched with rouge. 100 gr.. then ammonia until bath is clear.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. Silver nitrate ……………………………. Fig. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. with distilled water.. fill the dish with distilled water. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. 2. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. cement a strip of board 8 in. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. deep. Nitric acid . a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. 25 gr. if a hill in the center.. The polishing and testing done. 4 oz. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin.……………………………. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. Solution D: Sugar loaf . and pour the rest into the empty dish. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. Place the speculum..100 gr. also how the rays R from a star . When dry. the speculum will show some dark rings... that was set aside. Then add 1 oz. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Then add solution B. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole.………………………………. 2. long to the back of the speculum. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. When the focus is found. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears.. Now add enough of the solution A. as in K. face down. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Fig. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. longer strokes.. 4 oz. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. Fig. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. Place the speculum S. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. or hills. from the lamp. With pitch. If not. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Solution B: Distilled water …………………………….……………. 39 gr. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………...

and proceed as for any picture. cover with paper and cloth. Make the tube I of sheet iron. About 20. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. Mellish. using strawboard and black paper. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. Place over lens. telescope can be made at home. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. which proves to be easy of execution. . then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. two glass prisms. My telescope is 64 in. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers.John E. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Thus an excellent 6-in. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. slightly wider than the lens mount. Then I made the one described. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. long and cost me just $15. is a satisfactory angle. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. deg. with an outlay of only a few dollars. The flatter they are the less they will distort. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms.. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. stop down well after focusing.

D. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. or powdered alum. Boody. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. . After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. as shown in Fig. 2. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. but will not preserve its hardening. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. -Contributed by A. and reflect through the negative. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. add the plaster gradually to the water. through the lens of the camera and on the board. The rays of the clear. Do not stir it. Ill. says the Master Painter. instead of the contrary. The paper is exposed. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. B. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. Zimmerman. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. then add a little sulphate of potash. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. unobstructed light strike the mirror. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. complete the arrangement. 1. A. Fig. To unlock. push the button D.

Then blow through the spool. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. throw . 2. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. 2.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. 1). A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. as in Fig. as at A and B. 3. as shown in the sketch. so that it can rotate about these points. use a string. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. but will remain suspended without any visible support. also provide them with a handle. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. To reverse. Fasten on the switch lever. Fig.

San Antonio. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. although this is not necessary. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. and E E. rinse in alcohol. C C. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. In the sketch. North Bend. the armature. carbon sockets. --Contributed by R. binding posts. Take out.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. San Marcos. -Contributed by Morris L. Thomas. Neb. B. carbons. wash in running water. Go McVicker. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. A is the electricbell magnet. Push one end of the tire into the hole. L. Tex. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. . D. --Contributed by Geo. as shown in the sketch. and rub dry with linen cloth. Levy. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Tex.

and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . 14 or No. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Bell. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. By means of two or more layers of No. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. --Contributed by Joseph B. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. 16 magnet wire. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. 36 magnet wire. long or more. wound evenly about this core. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. Brooklyn.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made.

coil illustrates the general details of the work. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. 1. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. which is an important factor of the coil. The condenser is next wrapped . and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. with room also for a small condenser. a box like that shown in Fig. and finally the fourth strip of paper. long and 2-5/8 in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. but if it is not convenient to do this work. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. one piece of the paper is laid down. The primary is made of fine annealed No. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. about 6 in. as shown in Fig. as the maker prefers. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. 4. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. A 7/8-in. making two layers. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. which is desirable. and the results are often unsatisfactory. No. After the core wires are bundled. Beginning half an inch from one end.which would be better to buy ready-made. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. the entire core may be purchased readymade. diameter. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. in length. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. then the strip of tin-foil. hole is bored in the center of one end. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. The following method of completing a 1-in. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. at a time. When cut and laid in one continuous length. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. In shaping the condenser. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. 2 yd. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. long and 5 in. in diameter. or 8 in. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. wide. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. This makes a condenser which may be folded. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury.

long and 12 in. I. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. the letters indicate as follows: A. go. copper lever with 1-in. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. flange turned on one side. ready for assembling. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in.) The wiring diagram. 3. shows how the connections are made. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. battery . The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. shelf for clock. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. B. B. F. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. C. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. which allows wiring at the back. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. round so that the inside . which is insulated from the first. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. and the other sheet. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. open switch C. to the door. Fig. spark. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. switch. long to key. one from bell. 4 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. forms the other pole or terminal.securely with bands of paper or tape. A. G. lines H. E. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. bell. The alarm key will turn and drop down. by 12 in. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. wide. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. V-shaped copper strip. D. whole length. and one from battery. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips..

A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. says the Model Engineer. instead of close to it. but add 5 or 6 oz. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. This is for blowing. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Line the furnace. That is what they are for.diameter is 7 in.. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. and the battery is ready for use. Short-circuit for three hours. do not shortcircuit. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. and then rivet the seam. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. of blue stone. Use a glass or metal shade. . If desired for use immediately. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. London. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. from the bottom. 2 in. but with the circuit. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. of zinc sulphate.

long. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. imparting to them a violet tinge. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and therein is the trick. 1. If any or your audience presume to dispute. affects .9 of a volt. 2. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. This type of battery will give about 0. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. and then. Enlarge the hole slightly. below the bottom of the zinc. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. while for others it will not revolve at all. At least it is amusing. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. the second finger along the side. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. for some it will turn one way. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. oxygen to ozone. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated.. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. To operate the trick. or think they can do the same let them try it. Outside of the scientific side involved. grip the stick firmly in one hand. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. herein I describe a much better trick. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. porcelain and paper. changes white phosphorus to yellow." which created much merriment. Try it and see.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. g. but the thing would not move at all. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. square and about 9 in. thus producing two different vibrations. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. for others the opposite way. as in the other movement. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. If too low. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Ohio. and many other things in order to make the arm operate.

insects. however. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. a short-focus lens. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. a means for holding it vertical. chemicals.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. but not essential. earth. but small flowers. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. and one of them is photomicrography. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. To the front board is attached a box.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. and. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. if possible. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. an old tripod screw. but this is less satisfactory. says the Photographic Times.

in Cu. 12 ft.--Contributed by George C. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. A line. in diameter. 381 24 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. long and 3 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 113 7 lb. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. which is 15 ft. 5 in. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. Mass. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. balloon. 1. Fig. 5 ft. Cap. Ft Lifting Power. 7 ft. Boston. 905 57 lb. AB. or 31 ft. and a line. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 65 4 lb. CD. 11 ft. or 3 ft. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. If the balloon is 10 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 6 ft. 8 ft. 697 44 lb. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 179 11 lb. while it is not so with the quill. 7-1/2 in. Madison.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 7-1/2 in. 9 ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 268 17 lb. The following table will give the size. wide from which to cut a pattern.

70 thread. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. using a fine needle and No. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. and so on. on the curved line from B to C. of the very best heavy body. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. 3. keeping the marked part on the outside. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. This test will show if the bag is airtight. The amounts necessary for a 10- . of beeswax and boil well together. making a double seam as shown in Fig. 2. The pattern is now cut. Repeat this operation four times. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. The cloth segments are sewed together. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. Procure 1 gal. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. 4. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time.

wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. When the clock has dried. of water will make 4 cu. Water 1 oz. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. it is not fit to use. A. as shown in Fig. of gas in one hour. with water 2 in. a clean white rag. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. of iron borings and 125 lb. with the iron borings. 5 . or dusting with a dry brush. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. In the barrel. of sulphuric acid. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. B. B. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. The 3/4-in. balloon are 125 lb. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. should not enter into the water over 8 in. this should be repeated frequently. About 15 lb.. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. pipe. of iron. using a fine brush. 1 lb. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. oil the spindle holes carefully. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. All FIG. ]. which may sound rather absurd.ft. A. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. A. B. leaving the hand quite clean. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. The outlet. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. until no more dirt is seen. above the level of the water in barrel A. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. ft. to the bag. . if it is good it will dry off. Fill the other barrel. or a fan. . Vegetable oils should never be used. 1 lb. After washing a part. but if any grease remains on the hand. by fixing. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. C. C. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. 5.Green Iron ammonium citrate . When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. with 3/4in. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. 150 gr. capacity and connect them.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris.

toning first if desired. Print to bronzing under a strong negative.Water 1 oz. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Dry in the dark. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. A longer exposure will be necessary. 20 to 30 minutes. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. but the 110-volt globes will not glow.000 ft. says the Moving Picture World. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. The positive pole. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Exposure. to avoid blackened skin. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. fix in hypo. of any make. This aerial collector can be made in . or carbon. . but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. or battery. A cold. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Printing is done in the sun. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. The negative pole. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. at the time of employment.. . Port Melbourne. or zinc. dry atmosphere will give best results. and keep in the dark until used. Dry the plates in the dark. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. and a vigorous negative must be used. The miniature 16 cp. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry.

and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. will soon become dry and useless. As the telephone offers a high resistance. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal.various ways. the resistance is less. and have the other connected with another aerial line. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. lead pipe. If the wave ceases. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. both positive and negative. making a ground with one wire. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. holes . and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. If the waves strike across the needle. This will complete the receiving station. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. in diameter. long. The storage cell. as described below. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. forming a cup of the pipe. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. and as less current will flow the short way. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. when left exposed to the air. 5 in. lay a needle. a positive and a negative.

and the other to the negative. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. This box can be square. namely: a square hole. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. by soldering the joint. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. an oblong one and a triangular one. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. Two binding-posts should be attached. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. The other plate is connected to the zinc. D. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. When mixing the acid and water. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. a round one. except for about 1 in. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. This. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. does not need to be watertight. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. or tube B. of course. says the Pathfinder. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. one to the positive. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. B. This support or block.as possible. or tube C. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. on each end.

This punt. is built 15 ft.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. C. wide. and match them together. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. Only galvanized nails should be used. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. C. The third piece of brass. A and B. long. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. and has plenty of good seating capacity. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. as it is not readily overturned. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. as shown in Fig. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. . The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. deep and 4 ft. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. all around the edge. Chicago. were fitted by this one plug. in place on the wood. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. 3. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. back and under. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. 1. as shown in Fig. thick cut two pieces alike. 1. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. wide. about 20 in. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. Ill. 2. leaving about 1/16 in. 2. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass.

A piece of 1/4-in. Wash. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Tacoma. In Fig. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . thick and 3-1/2 in. A. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. B. gas pipe. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. square (Fig 2). The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. is cut 1 in.

no special materials could be obtained. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. which can be developed in the usual manner. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . lamp. H. or "rotor. The winding of the armature. if possible. which the writer has made.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. Wagner. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum.--Contributed by Charles H. may be of interest to some of our readers. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. no more current than a 16-cp. it had to be borne in mind that." has no connection with the outside circuit. with the exception of insulated wire. without auxiliary phase. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. says the Model Engineer. and to consume. In designing.

and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. wrought iron. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. while the beginnings . bolts put in and tightened up. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. or "stator. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. to be filed out after they are placed together. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. B. A. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. as shown in Fig. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. C. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. When put together they should make a piece 2 in." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. 1.the field-magnet. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. as shown in Fig. 2. The stator is wound full with No. and filled with rivets. holes. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. were then drilled and 1/4-in. being used. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. 4. Holes 5-32 in. After assembling a second time. and all sparking is avoided. about 2-1/2 lb. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. Unfortunately. also varnished before they were put in. in diameter were drilled in the corners. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. no steel being obtainable. They are not particularly accurate as it is. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. this little machine is not self-starting. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. 5. 3. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. with the dotted line. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. thick.

The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. each limb being filled with about 200 turns.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. N. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print.. J. E. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. a regulating resistance is not needed. Jr. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. and would not easily get out of order. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. having no commutator or brushes. as a means of illustrating songs. and as the motor runs at constant speed. The lantern slide is a glass plate. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. This type of motor has drawbacks. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. One is by contact. and all wound in the same direction. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. McKinney. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. and especially of colored ones. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. it would be very simple to build. In making slides by contact. 1. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. as before stated. as shown in Fig. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. 2. and as each layer of wire was wound. if applied immediately. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. If too late for alcohol to be of use. film to film. The rotor is wound with No. The image should . and the other by reduction in the camera. 3-Contributed by C. No starting resistance is needed. Newark. Fold the paper on the long dotted line.

and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. 3. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. also. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. D. It is best. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. C. Fig. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water.appear in. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. as shown in Fig. a little extra work will be necessary. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. except that the binding is different. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. and development should be over in three or four minutes. If the exposure has been correct. B. 4. 2. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. to use a plain fixing bath. the formulas being found in each package of plates. Draw lines with a pencil. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. These can be purchased from any photo material store. A. Being unbreakable. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. they are much used by travelers. Select a room with one window. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. and then a plain glass. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. about a minute. over the mat. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. 5. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. 1. as shown in Fig. if possible.

The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. If the star is in front of the left eye. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. is to be used for the seat. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. as shown in Fig. Hastings. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. 1. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. holes bored in the end pieces. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . while the dot will be in front of the other. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. in diameter and 20 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. from the center of this dot draw a star. as shown at B. 16 in. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. as shown at A. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. long. from the end piece of the chair. long. These longer pieces can be made square. Fig. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. in diameter and 40 in. or other stout cloth. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Corinth. from the ends. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. wide and 50 in. A piece of canvas. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. known as rods and cones. 1. long. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. Fig. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. Vt. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. 2.

The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. Auburn. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. J. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. as shown in Fig. A disk 1 in. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. Cal. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. . 2. as well as to operate other household machines. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. as shown in Fig. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. 1. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing.-Contributed by P. per square inch. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. in thickness and 10 in. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. made from an ordinary sash cord. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A belt. O'Gara.

The part of a rotation of the bolt. to the top of the bench. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. 3/4 in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. says the Scientific American. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. screwing it through the nut. will be the thickness of the object. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. Put the bolt in the hole. it serves a very useful purpose. long. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. A simple. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Bore a 1/4-in. square for a support. with as fine a thread as possible. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. then removing the object. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. wide. direction. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. or inconvenient to measure. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. leaving it shaped like a bench. . thick and 2-1/2 in. and the construction is complete. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. fairly accurate. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale.

Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. globe that has been thrown away as useless. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Bore a 3/4-in. The wheel should be open . material 12 ft. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. which show up fine at night. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. long. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. long is used for the center pole. Place a 3/4-in. beyond the end of the wood. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Santa Maria. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Oal.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. piece of wood 12 ft. bolt in each hole.

C. The boards may be nailed or bolted.Side and Top View or have spokes. A cross bar. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. long. thick. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. thick is used for the armature. The spool . The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. 1/2 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. to be operated by the magnet coil. from the ends. P. of the ends with boards. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. C. made of the same material. which should be 1/4 in. Fort Worth. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. L. O. A piece of brass 2 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B.-Contributed by A. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. in diameter. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. and on its lower end a socket. at the bottom. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. and the lower part 61/2 in. square and 3 or 4 in. at the top and 4 in. thick. B. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. A. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. Tex. wide and 1/8 in. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. long. Graham. H and J. The coil. is soldered. long. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. pieces used for the spokes. from the top end. long.

and place it against a door or window casing.is about 2-1/2 in. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. one without either rubber or metal end. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. D and E. that holds the lower carbon.E. which is also connected to the brass ferrule.000 for irrigation work. and directly centering the holes H and J.J. A. 2 the hat hanging on it. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. 2. F. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. . and is adjusted in place by two set screws. for insulating the brass ferrule. At the bottom end of the frame. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. When you slide the pencil along the casing. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. Bradlev. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. A soft piece of iron. 1. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. by soldering. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. Randolph. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. which may be had by using German silver wire. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. --Contributed by Arthur D. S. R. This is a very neat trick if performed right. and in numerous other like instances. Mass. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. The armature. This tie can be used on grain sacks. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. then with a firm. S. is drilled. B. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil.000. C. or a water rheostat heretofore described. long.--A. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. do it without any apparent effort. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing.

The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. wide. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. mixed with water to form a paste. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. C. about 1/8 in. leaving the projections as shown. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. 1. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. The vibrator B. for adjustment. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. A. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. The vibrator. 1. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. from the core and directly opposite. in diameter and 2 in. long and 1 in. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. thick. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. hole in the center. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. 2. Fig. The core of the coil. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. in diameter. in diameter and 1/16 in. with a 3/16-in. long. The coil ends are made from cardboard. S. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. Experiment with Heat [134] . The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. Fig. for the secondary. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. F.500 turns of No. is constructed in the usual manner. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. D. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. is connected to a flash lamp battery. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. about 3/16 in. B. The switch. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. About 70 turns of No. S. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. for the primary. about 1 in. in diameter. and then 1. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside.

was to be secured by only three brass screws. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. long and when placed over the board. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. The three screws were then put in the hasp. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. brass plate. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. The hasp. The tin is 4 in. it laps down about 8 in. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. The lock. which is cut with two holes. The knob on the dial extends out too far. lighted. with which to operate the dial. which seemed to be insufficient. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. wide. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. in an ordinary water glass. board. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. as shown. between the boards.Place a small piece of paper. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. which is only 3/8-in. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. 1. thick on the inside. 2 to fit the two holes. as shown in the sketch. Fig. 1. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. and then well clinched. 16 in. . and the same distance inside of the new board.

any article placed therein will be reflected in. black color. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. clear glass as shown.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. which completely divides the box into two parts. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. but when the front part is illuminated. When the rear part is illuminated. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. high for use in window displays. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. If the box is made large enough. or in the larger size mentioned. When making of wood. and the back left dark. one in each division. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. square and 10-1/2 in. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. not shiny. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. the glass. square and 8-1/2 in.

. . Instead of changing the current operated by hand. long and 1 ft. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. and with the proper illumination one is changed. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. as shown in the sketch. wide will be about the right size. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. above the top of the tank. When using as a window display. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. When there is no electric current available. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. a tank 2 ft. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. alternately. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. as it appears. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. into the other. as shown at A in the sketch.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. hole bored the full length through the center. Columbus. however. wide. 1 in. 5 ft. Three windows are provided. wide. hole. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. high. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. The 13-in. thick and 3 in. under sides together. and 6 ft. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. using a 3/4-in. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. gauge for depth. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. is built on the front. each. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. and boring two holes with a 1-in. bit. O. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. The pieces can then be taken out. and a door in front. and a solution of iron sulphate added. radius. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. long. then use a red-hot iron to finish. long. with a length of 13 in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. is the green vitriol. square and 40 in. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. This precipitate is then washed. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. one for each side. square. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. If a planing mill is near. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. A small platform. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. Shape the under sides first. but with a length of 12 in. 6 in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. bore from each end. lines gauged on each side of each. as shown.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. from the ground. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. or ferrous sulphate. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. This hole must be continued . The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. 2 ft. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. Iron sulphate.

thick and 3 in. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. Electric globes--two. The sketch shows one method of attaching. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Saw the two blocks apart. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. For art-glass the metal panels are . at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. If the parts are to be riveted.through the pieces forming the base. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. When the filler has hardened. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. if shade is purchased. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. When this is dry. three or four may be attached as shown. hole in each block. square and drawing a diagonal on each. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. apply two coats of wax. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. A better way.

and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. as brass.The Completed Lamp cut out. such as copper. METAL SHADE . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.Construction of Shade . Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.

the object and the background. as shown in the sketch. one way and 1/2 in. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. as in ordinary devices. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The arms holding the glass. 2 the front view of this stand. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. Figure 1 shows the side. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. the other. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. and Fig.

Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. as shown in the sketch. An ordinary pocket compass. in diameter. Put the ring in place on the base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Cut another circular piece 11 in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. about 1-1/4 in. outside diameter. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Before mounting the ring on the base. in diameter for a base. as shown in the cut. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. and an inside diameter of 9 in. as it is very poisonous. and swinging freely. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. channel in the circumference of the ring. pointing north and south. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. wide and 6-5/16 in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. thick 5/8-in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. long. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. wide and 11 in. thus forming a 1/4-in. uncork and recork again. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. If the light becomes dim.

EE. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.182 . and mirrors. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. and north of the Ohio river. CC. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. B. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. of the top. Corresponding mirrors. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. are mounted on a base. in diameter and 8 in. black oxide of copper. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through.500 . from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. Place on top the so- .3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.715 . from the second to the third.420 . Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. above the half can. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. 1 oz.088 .289 .600 . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils.865 1.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. The results given should be multiplied by 1. into these cylinders. AA.

In Fig. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. 31 gr. then they will not rust fast. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. University Park. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. little crystals forming in the liquid. slender bottle. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. always remove the oil with a siphon. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. Put the solution in a long. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. of pulverized campor. It makes no difference which way the wind blows.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. When renewing. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. the wheel will revolve in one direction. alcohol. which otherwise remains clear. Colo. 62 gr. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. says Metal Worker.

with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. A paper-fastener box. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. If zinc and carbon are used. will allow the magnet to point north and south. If two of them are floating on the same solution. about 1-1/4 in. on the under side of the cork. --Contributed by C. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. floating on a solution. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. Attach to the wires. If zinc and copper are used.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. Solder in the side of the box . the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. Lloyd Enos. This is used in place of the spoon. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube.

1. F. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. thick. long. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. To this standard solder the supporting wire. 10 wire about 10 in. D. as shown in Fig. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. C. one on each side of the board. Use a board 1/2. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. 3 in. brass tubing. . A. hole. 1/2.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. C. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. The bottom of the box. E. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. Wind evenly about 2 oz. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. B. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire.Contributed by J. H. wide and 2-1/2 in.not shorter than 18 in. B. glass tubing . is made from a piece of No. C. 1-1/4 in. If the hose is not a tight fit. or made with a little black paint. Take a small piece of soft iron. to it.in. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. E. stained and varnished. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. piece of 1/4-in. and on the other around the glass tube.1-in. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. of No. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. away. wide and 6 in. D.in. 14 wire will do. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. Put ends. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. D. Thos. The standard. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . long. and then solder on the cover. of wire on each end extending from the coil. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. G--No. A circular piece of cardboard. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. A. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. The base. Rhamstine. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. long that has about 1/4-in. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. can be made of oak. Bore holes for binding-posts. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. The spring should be about 1 in.

Wis. about 1 in. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. D. J. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. four hinges. When the glass becomes soft. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. long. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. N. is drawn nearer to the coil. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. of 8-oz. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. long are used for the legs.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. long. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 1. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 3 in. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. Milwaukee. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. long. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. as shown in Fig. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. making a support as shown in Fig. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. from the right hand. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. Teasdale. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. canvas. in diameter. About 1-1/2 lb. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. two pieces 2 ft. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. long. 5. of mercury will be sufficient. Cuba. The iron plunger. E. long. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. 3-in. Smith. 2. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. 3. . 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. Y.--Contributed by Edward M. of No.of the coil. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in.--Contributed by R.

and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. Take 1/2 in. Fig. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. thus leaving a. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. leaving 8 in. Toronto. long. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. 5. --Contributed by David A. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Measure 8 in. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. This tube as described will be 8 in. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. 6. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. Can. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. holding in the left hand. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Break off the piece of glass. Keys. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . although nearly any size could be made in the same way. expelling all the air. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. 2. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. small aperture in the long tube. The tube now must be filled completely. 4. 3. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner.. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. of vacuum at the top.. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft.

Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. 2. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. thick. from the end of same. 4 in. as shown in Fig. long. material 2 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. thick. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. Fig. cut in the shape shown in Fig. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 7. long. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. thick. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. These are bent and nailed. 3. 5. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. thick. 1 in. in diameter. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame.6 -. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 1 in. wide and 5 ft. long. 1.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . and the single projection 3/4 in. wood screws. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Four blocks 1/4 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. as in Fig. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. long. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. This forms a slot. wide and 5 ft. and 1/4 in. 3 in. 9 in. wide and 5 ft. 3 in. 4. A crosspiece 3/4-in. The large pulley is about 14 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. as shown in Fig. joint be accurately put together. wide and 12 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. with each projection 3-in. 6. FIG. but yellow pine is the best. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. thick. wide and 3 in.

Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Water 1 oz. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Kan. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Manhattan. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. above the runner level. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. attach runners and use it on the ice. Welsh. --Contributed by C. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. says Photography. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. by 1-in. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. first removing the crank. R.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. .

Treasdale. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. 1. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. as shown in Fig. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. from an ordinary clamp skate. . 1 oz. Newton. as shown in Fig. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. This is done with a camel's hair brush. and very much cheaper. --Contributed by Edward M. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. Mass. Printing is carried rather far. 2. --Contributed by Wallace C. of water. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. also. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. The print is washed. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Leominster. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. 3. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr.

and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. and 3 ft. Then. Va. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. extending the width of the box. Take two glass tubes.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. about 10 in. Fig. hole. fasten a 2-in. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. and bend them as shown in the sketch. from one end. high. long. The swing door B. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. 2. Alexandria. Place a 10-in. wide. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. as shown in the sketch. which represents the back side of the door. 1-1/2 ft. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. A. high for rabbits. square piece. F. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. Church. 1 ft. 1. say. with about 1/8-in. The thread is broken off at the . too. 1. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. --Contributed by H. wide and 4 in. causing the door to swing back and up. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. Fig. and to the bottom. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A.

Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. 2. Jr. being 1/8 in. as shown in Fig. 3. . wide and 5 in. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. D. Fig. automobiles. to be used as a driving pulley. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. long.by 5-in.proper place to make a small hole. Out two rectangular holes. and exactly 5 by 7 in. -Contributed by William M. Chicago. black surfaced if possible. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. 1. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. say 8 in. plates. horses and dogs. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. in size. C. camera and wish to use some 4. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. wide. high and 12 in. trolley cars. 1 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. wide. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. long. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. and go in the holder in the same way. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate.. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. Take two pieces of pasteboard. 10 in. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. inside of the opening. in size. Fig. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. B. This opening. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. shorter. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. Paste a piece of strong black paper. shorter at each end. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. A and B. Crilly. but cut it 1/4 in. Cut an opening in the other piece.by 7-in. says Camera Craft.

long and 6 in. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed.in. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. The needle will then point north and south. in diameter. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. making a . A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod.. into which the dog is harnessed. A cell of this kind can easily be made. wide will be required.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. if it has previously been magnetized. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile.

leaving about 1/2-in. fuel and packing purposes. Place the pan on the stove. in which P is the pan. Pack the paste in. of the top. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Form a 1/2-in. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. This makes the wire smooth.watertight receptacle. plaster of paris. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. for a connection. of rosin and 2 oz. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. says Electrician and Mechanic. pine. in diameter and 6 in. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. one that will hold about 1 qt. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. sal ammoniac. short time. with narrow flanges. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. . To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. only the joints. fodder. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. of water. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. under the spool in the paraffin. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. F is a spool. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. A is a block of l-in. long which are copper plated. 1 lb.in. 1/4 lb. when the paraffin is melted. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. and a notch between the base and the pan. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. Do not paint any surface. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. zinc oxide. filter. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. of the plate at one end. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. beeswax melted together. 3/4 lb. B is a base of 1 in. pull out the wire as needed. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt.

threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Try it and see. or think they can do the same. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. for some it will turn one way. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. by the Hindoos in India.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. and one friend tells me that they were . You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick.. At least it is amusing. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. g. from vexation. Toledo. thus producing two different vibrations. 2. Ohio. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. long. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and he finally. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. as in the other movement. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig." which created much merriment. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. let them try it. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and then. but the thing would not move at all. square and about 9 in. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. grip the stick firmly in one hand. for others the opposite way. Enlarge the hole slightly. while for others it will not revolve at all. and therein is the trick.

A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. and. Thus a circular or . The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. rotation was obtained. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. p. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. Speeds between 700 and 1. 5. m. secondly. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. and I think the results may be of interest. 6. by means of a center punch. 3. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. The experiments were as follows: 1. 7. To operate. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. 2. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. gave the best results. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. the rotation may be obtained. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. 4. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. If the pressure was upon an edge. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. no rotation resulted. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin.100 r.

while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough.. and the resultant "basket splash. is driven violently away. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Minn. D. it will be clockwise. A. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. . Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. or greasy. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. forming a handle for carrying. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. A wire is tied around the can. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. a piece of wire and a candle." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in..D. the upper portion is.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Duluth. Ph. G. Sloan. --Contributed by G. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). at first. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. C. as shown. unwetted by the liquid. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Washington. and the height of the fall about 6 in. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. --Contributed by M. if the pressure is from the left. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. so far as can be seen from the photographs. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. Lloyd.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

as shown. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. thick and 1 in. long. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. Each wheel is 1/4 in. in diameter. as shown in Fig. with a 1/16-in. flange and a 1/4-in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. axle. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. hole drilled in the center. 1. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. about 2-5/8 in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1.

Texas. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. is made from a piece of clock spring. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. The motor is now bolted. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. These ends are fastened together. is made from brass. wood. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point.50. as shown in Fig. are shown in Fig. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. 2. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. 4.brass. San Antonio. wide and 16 in. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. 3. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. Fig. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. long. or main part of the frame. 2. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. 3. as shown in Fig. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . A trolley. 6. holes 1 in. 1 from 1/4-in. --Contributed by Maurice E. Fuller. bent as shown. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. and the locomotive is ready for running. This will save buying a track. put together complete. The current. The first piece. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. with cardboard 3 in. of No. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. bottom side up. lamp in series with the coil. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. 3/4 in. which must be 110 volt alternating current. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. If the ends are to be soldered. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. each in its proper place. The parts. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. Fig. 5. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism.

pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. as shown in Fig. 1.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. and as this end . The quarter will not go all the way down. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Cincinnati. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. the length of a paper clip. 2. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. O. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Fig 1. then continue to tighten much more. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. but do not heat the center. 3. Fig. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. as shown in Fig. and holes drilled in them.

A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. When the trick is to be performed. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. and adjusted . or should the lathe head be raised. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. When the cutter A. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. A pair of centers are fitted. 2 and 1 respectively. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. In the sketch. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. or apparent security of the knot. has finished a cut for a tooth. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie.

This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Bunker. swing lathe. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). such as brass or marble. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. --Contributed by Howard S. trace the outline. if but two parts. if four parts are to be alike. tea cosey. Bott. book mark. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. or one-half of the design. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. draw center lines across the required space. (2. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . (5. about 1-1/2 in. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case.to run true. An ordinary machine will do. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. above the surface. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Y. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. Second row: -Two book marks. gentleman's card case or bill book. note book. The frame holding the mandrel.) Make on paper the design wanted. --Contributed by Samuel C. lady's belt bag. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. In this manner gears 3 in. lady's card case.) Place the paper design on the leather and. 2. Brooklyn. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. tea cosey. (1.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Fig. When connecting to batteries. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. at the same time striking light. (3. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. dividing it into as many parts as desired. coin purse. blotter back. watch fob ready for fastenings. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. and a nut pick. (4. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. (6. Fold over along these center lines. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. twisted around itself and soldered. holding it in place with the left hand. long. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. N. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. 1. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown.

and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. Secure .

D. A. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. where it condenses. from Key West.. If the needle is not horizontal. and bore a hole through the center. a distance of 900 miles. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. and push it through a cork. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. Florida. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The electrodes are made . Thrust a pin.C. B. C. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. into which fit a small piece of tube. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube.

by 3/4 in. or flying-machine. 2. To make a glide. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. 1-1/4 in. several strips 1/2 in. 3. as shown in Fig. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. free from knots. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. take the glider to the top of a hill. 1. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. long. wide and 3 ft. --Contributed by Edwin L. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. thick. 1-1/2 in. long. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. 1. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. long. square and 8 ft long. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. 1. long for the body of the operator. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. 1/2. wide and 4 ft. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. long. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety.in. wide and 20 ft. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. thick. 16 piano wire. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. thick. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. using a high resistance receiver. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. C. slacken speed and settle. wide and 4 ft long. If 20-ft. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. Connect as shown in the illustration. wide and 4 ft. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. Four long beams 3/4 in. long. both laterally and longitudinally. use 10-ft. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. thick. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. All wiring is done with No. Powell. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. and also to keep it steady in its flight. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. wide and 3 ft. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. 2. as shown in Fig. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. 2 arm sticks 1 in. 3/4 in. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. 12 uprights 1/2 in. apart and extend 1 ft. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. D. lumber cannot be procured. The operator can then land safely and . for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. thick. Washington. 2 in. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. lengths and splice them. which is tacked to the front edge. as shown in Fig.

gently on his feet. but this must be found by experience. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Great care should be . Of course. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Glides are always made against the wind.

The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . M. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. 1. which causes the dip in the line. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. as shown in Fig. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. half man and half horse. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Olson. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. Bellingham. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. a creature of Greek mythology.exercised in making landings. 2. When heated a little. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. --Contributed by L. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying.

The light from the . long and about 3/8 in. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. about the size of door screen wire. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. at the other. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. square. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. about the size of stove pipe wire. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. While at the drug store get 3 ft. this will cost about 15 cents. making it 2-1/2 in. long. outside the box. a piece of brass or steel wire. of small rubber tubing.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. in diameter. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. will complete the material list. 14 in. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous.

1. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Dayton. This is very simple when you know how. --Photo by M. 2. .flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. Hunting. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. M. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. while others will fail time after time. O. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. as shown in Fig. If done properly the card will flyaway. as shown in Fig. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. as shown in the sketch. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand.

Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. as shown.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. place the other two. closing both hands quickly. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. When the desired shape has been obtained. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. then put it on the hatpin head. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. This game is played by five persons. as described. Cool in water and dry. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs." or the Chinese students' favorite game. hold the lump over the flame. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. as before. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. If a certain color is to be more prominent.

Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. these sectors. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. or more in width. distribute electric charges . and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. passing through neutralizing brushes. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera.

to which insulating handles . RR. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. The fork part is 6 in. Fig. long. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. wide at one end. in diameter. free from wrinkles. and pins inserted and soldered. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. are made from solid. 1. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. 1-1/2 in. Fig. 3/4 in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. 3. in diameter. C C. from about 1/4-in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. D. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. in diameter. and 4 in. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. as shown in Fig. Two pieces of 1-in. and of a uniform thickness. Two solid glass rods. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. 4. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. at the other. The drive wheels. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. 3. and the outer end 11/2 in. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. after they are mounted. in diameter. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. These pins. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. in diameter and 15 in. The collectors are made. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. material 7 in. EE. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. are made from 7/8-in. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. The two pieces. wide. in diameter. long and the shank 4 in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. or teeth. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. the side pieces being 24 in. 2. long. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The plates are trued up. in diameter. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. as shown in Fig. 1 in. turned wood pieces. long and the standards 3 in. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. The plates. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. GG.

one having a 2-in. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. --Contributed by C.. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk.are attached. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. D. ball and the other one 3/4 in. Lloyd Enos. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. in diameter. 12 ft. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. wide and 22 ft. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Colo. KK. Colorado City. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. which are bent as shown. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. and the work was done by themselves. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. long. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes.

using a 1-in. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood.is a good one. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. pens . The key will drop from the string. yet such a thing can be done. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. and bore a hole 1/2 in. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. as at A. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. string together. deep. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. They can be used to keep pins and needles. bit.

rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. 5. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. flat and round-nosed pliers. above the metal. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. then the other side. Use . Raise the ends. two spikes. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. This is to make a clean. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. 7. Proceed as follows: 1. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. They are easily made. unless it would be the metal shears.. sharp division between background and design. extra metal on each of the four sides. stamp the background promiscuously. 2. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. Inside this oblong. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. 3. Having determined the size of the tray. The second oblong was 3/4 in. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. using a nail filed to chisel edge. When the stamping is completed. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. also trace the decorative design. etc. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. slim screw. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. 9. 4.and pencils. 6. very rapid progress can be made. they make attractive little pieces to have about. about 3/4-in. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. and the third one 1/4 in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Draw one-half the design free hand.. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. etc. file. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. inside the first on all. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. inside the second on all. or cigar ashes. 8. above the work and striking it with the hammer. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. 23 gauge.

A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. second fingers. 10. first fingers. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. In the first numbering. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. The eyes. third fingers. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. and fourth fingers. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 9. and the effect will be most pleasing. 6. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. 7. 8.

or 80. 12. and the six lower fingers as six tens. which would be 16. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. renumber your fingers. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. there are no fingers above. above 15 times 15 it is 200. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. Let us multiply 12 by 12. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. Two times one are two. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. etc. etc.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten.. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. or the product of 6 times 6. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. first fingers. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. or numbers above 10. 400. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. viz. or 60. if we wish. Still.. . The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. 600. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. 11. which tens are added. In the second numbering. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. which would be 70. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. 25 times 25. etc. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. 2 times 2 equals 4. Put your thumbs together. thumbs.. the product of 12 times 12. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. as high as you want to go. At a glance you see four tens or 40. but being simple it saves time and trouble. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. above 20 times 20. or the product of 8 times 9.

"18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. 75 and 85. beginning the thumbs with 16. lastly. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. forties. Take For example 18 times 18. any two figures between 45 and 55. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. 2.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. 8. thumbs. about a vertical axis. which is the half-way point between the two fives. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. in the case of a nearsighted person. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. adding 400 instead of 100. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. and so on. For example. not rotation. 7. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. etc. the lump sum to add. the inversion takes place against his will. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. 3. It takes place also. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. further. first finger 17. at the will of the observer. Proceed as in the second lumbering.. or what. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. when he removes his spectacles. The inversion and reversion did not take place. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. however. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. thirties. 21. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. or from above or from below. . whether the one described in second or third numbering. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. the value which the upper fingers have. first fingers 22. being 80). And the lump sum to add. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. as one might suppose. For figures ending in 6. twenties. and. the revolution seems to reverse.

A flat slide valve was used. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. sometimes the point towards him. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. as . when he knows which direction is right. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. Looking at it in semidarkness. the other appearance asserts itself. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The ports were not easy to make. tee. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. and putting a cork on the point.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer.

Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. such as is shown in the illustration. if continued too long without proper treatment. pipe 10 in. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. pipe. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. deep. across and 1/2 in. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. The tools are simple and can be made easily. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. -Contributed by W. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Ill. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. Fasten the block solidly. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. Kutscher. If nothing better is at hand. apart. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. in diameter. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in.. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. bottom side up. it is easily built. inexpensive. secure a piece of No. across the head. The steam chest is round. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. and make in one end a hollow. While this engine does not give much power. H. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. about 2 in. saw off a section of a broom handle. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Springfield.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. as in a vise. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. The eccentric is constructed of washers. . Next take a block of wood.

This process is called annealing. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. --Contributed by W. especially when the object is near to the observer. Hay. C. and. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. Camden. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated.will cause the metal to break. S. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. To produce color effects on copper. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. To overcome this hardness. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. O. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. Vinegar. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . as it softens the metal. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. the other to the left.

that for the right. But they seem black. The further apart the pictures are. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. from the stereograph. The red portions of the picture are not seen. orange. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. because of the rays coming from them. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. however. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. So with the stereograph. It is just as though they were not there. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. they must be a very trifle apart. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. only the orange rays may pass through. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. diameter. would serve the same purpose. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. it. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. although they pass through the screen. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. in the proper choice of colors. as for instance red and green. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. and without any picture. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. the further from the card will the composite image appear. because. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. . Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. disappears fully. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. while both eyes together see a white background. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. not two mounted side by side. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. and lies to the right on the picture. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil.stereoscope. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. with the stereograph. the one for the left eye being blue. In order to make them appear before the card. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. the left eye sees through a blue screen.

1/4 in.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. 12 gauge wire. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. wireless. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The weight of the air in round . etc. Place a NO. long and a hole drilled in each end. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. San Francisco. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. This should only be bored about half way through the block. A No. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. wide and 1 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. thick. or the middle of the bottle. in the shape of a crank. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. Cal. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. in diameter. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke.

high. 34 ft. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31.6) 1 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. square. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. will calibrate itself. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. . if you choose. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. Only redistilled mercury should be used. 30 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. internal diameter and about 34 in. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. high. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. the instrument. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. wide and 4 in. But if a standard barometer is not available. square. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. long. high. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made.numbers is 15 lb. if accurately constructed. thick. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. a glass tube 1/8 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. Before fastening the scale. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. the contrary. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. inside diameter and 2 in. or. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. pine 3 in.. and a slow fall. but before attempting to put in the mercury. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. long. The 4 in. long. wide and 40 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. In general. or a column of mercury (density 13. a bottle 1 in.

This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. long. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. wide and 10 in. a cover from a baking powder can will do. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . the size of the outside of the bottle. Number the pieces 1. which is slipped quickly over the end. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. thick. 3. 2.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. 6 and 7. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. Mark out seven 1-in. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. 5. 1. Procure a metal can cover. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. and place them as shown in Fig.

6 in. 1. 3 over No. Move 8-Jump No. 2's place. 3 into No. Move 14-Jump No. Move 5-Jump No. procure unbleached tent duck. 3. 3. 2.J. Move 4-Jump No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 7 over No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. l over No. 3 to the center. using checkers for men. 6 over No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 6 to No. Move 15-Move No. 2 . Move 10-Move No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 1. in diameter.-Contributed by W. 5 over No. Move 3-Move No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 3. long and 2 ft. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Woolson. Move 7-Jump No. 6 into No. 7's place. 2 over No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 7 over No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Move 6-Move No. Move ll-Jump No. 2. 5. 5 over No. 6. each 10 ft. 5's place. 1 into No. 2's place. Move 13-Move No. 5's place. This can be done on a checker board. N.Position of the Men move only one at a time. as shown in Fig. shaped like Fig. To make such a tent. Cape May Point. Move 9-Jump No. 6. which is the very best material for the purpose. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 2 over No. 1 to No. Move 2-Jump No. L. 7. Make 22 sections. Move 12-Jump No.

leaving the rest for an opening. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. high. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. wide at the bottom. Nail a thin sheet of brass. as in Fig. added. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. wide by 12 in. In raising the tent.. Tress. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. 5) stuck in the ground. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. round galvanized iron. Pa. Fig. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. As shown in the sketch. Emsworth. wide at the bottom.J. 9 by 12 in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Have the tent pole 3 in. will do. 3 in. --Contributed by G. to a smooth board of soft wood. in diameter. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Fig. long. from the top. 2. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. 5. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. fill with canvas edging. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Punch holes in the brass in . fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. After transferring the design to the brass. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. about 9 in. 6. 2 in. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent.in. diameter. Use blocks. These are ventilators. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. made in two sections. 6-in. long and 4 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in.

The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. excepting the 1/4-in. apart. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. cut out the brass on the outside lines.the spaces around the outlined figures. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. Chicago. Corr. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. When the edges are brought together by bending. . The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. It will not. but before punching the holes. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The pattern is traced as before. around the outside of the pattern. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. bend into shape. When all the holes are punched. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone.

--Contributed by H. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. between which is placed the fruit jar. These pipes are . A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. pipe is used for the hub. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. or. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making.. Stevens. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. E. If a wheel is selected. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used.however. Que. Oregon. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. better still. A cast-iron ring. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. Mayger. or center on which the frame swings. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Badger. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. --Contributed by Geo. Dunham. A 6-in. allowing 2 ft. G. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. or less. partially filled with cream. pipe. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in.

The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. An extra wheel 18 in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. bent to the desired circle. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe clamps. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe.

is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. and dropped on the table. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. and the guide withdrawn. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. 3.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. while doing this. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. as shown in Fig. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. which was placed in an upright position. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. The performer. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. 1.

The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Harkins. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. 2. St. The box can be made of selected oak or . in diameter on another piece of tin. first. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. and second. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Mo. Colo. -Contributed by C. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Louis. White. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. F. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. 1. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. D. in a half circle. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. it requires no expensive condensing lens. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Denver. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. --Contributed by H.

The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. and. The door covering this hole in the back. long and should be placed vertically. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. long. This will be 3/4 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. 3-1/2 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. focal length. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. AA. An open space 4 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. Two or three holes about 1 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. wide. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. wide and 5 in. long. fit into the runners. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. wide and 6-1/2 in. 5-1/2 in.mahogany. from each end of the outside of the box. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. as shown in Fig. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. high and 11 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. from each end. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. If a camera lens is used. wide by 5 in. 1. and 2 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. 2. high and must . The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. but not tight.

Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. June and November. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. then the second knuckle will be March. and so on. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. 1. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. C. and extending the whole height of the lantern. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. April. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. West Toledo. Bradley. calling that knuckle January." etc. --Contributed by Chas. Ohio. calling this February. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. This process is rather a difficult one. as it requires an airtight case. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. the article may be propped up . provided it is airtight. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece.. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig.

1 and 2. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. the lid or cover closed. and set aside for half a day. in. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. and the lead 24 sq. . H. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. or suspended by a string. running small motors and lighting small lamps. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. in. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. 1. one of lead and one of aluminum. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. Pour in a little turpentine. N. Schenectady. In both Fig. --Contributed by J. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. fruit jars are required.with small sticks. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. In each place two electrodes. but waxed. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. 2. taking care to have all the edges closed. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. Crawford. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. Y. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The top of a table will do. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. giving it an occasional stir. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration.

have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. This trick is very simple. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. Cleveland. you remove the glass. which you warm with your hands. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. as you have held it all the time. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. he throws the other. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. as well as others. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . You have an understanding with some one in the company. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. After a few seconds' time.. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. O. He.

and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. J. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. but in making one. Victor. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. in diameter in the center. put it under the glass. . This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. near a partition or curtain. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle.-Contributed by E. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Pull the ends quickly. on a table. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Crocker. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. if any snags are encountered. but by being careful at shores.take the handiest one. Be sure that this is the right one. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Colo.

long. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. Both ends are mortised. by 8 in. 1 in. 50 ft. drilled and fastened with screws. at the ends. and the other 12 in. by 16 ft. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. wide and 12 ft.. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 11 yd. 1 in. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. for cockpit frame. long. wide and 12 ft. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 2 in. of 1-yd. wide. the smaller is placed 3 ft. thick and 3/4 in. by 16 ft. of rope. ducking. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops .Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 1. are as follows: 1 keelson. by 2 in. by 10 ft. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. one 6 in. of 1-1/2-yd. 3 and 4. by 15 ft. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. and is removed after the ribs are in place. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 14 rib bands. The keelson. for the bow. from each end to 1 in. clear pine. wide unbleached muslin. and fastened with screws. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 2 and braced with an iron band. screws and cleats. 9 ft. 1 in. long. 1 piece. by 12 in. 8 yd. from the bow and the large one. long. 4 outwales. 1 in. Paint. selected pine. square by 16 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. from the stern. as illustrated in the engraving. and. 7 ft. wide 12-oz. 2 gunwales. 1 mast. is 14 ft. 3 in. 1 piece. 8 in.. for center deck braces. 3 in. apart. by 2 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 1/8 in. for the stern piece. 1/4 in. Fig.

a piece 1/4 in. long is well soaked in water. corner braces. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. wide. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. wide and 24 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. 1 in. A piece of oak. wide and 14 in. and fastened to them with bolts. thick and 1/2 in. wide. gunwales and keelson. A block of pine. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. in diameter through the block. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. The trimming is wood. is a cube having sides 6 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. This block. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. length of canvas is cut in the center. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. 1/4 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. . The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. doubled. These are put in 6 in. Before making the deck. 1 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. A 6-in. long.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. also. thick. The deck is not so hard to do. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. Fig. apart. Figs. thick and 12 in. 7 and 8. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. 6. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. A seam should be made along the center piece. 9. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. 5. from the bow. 4 in. thick. Braces. thick 1-1/2 in. The 11-yd. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. wood screws. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. 6 and 7. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. screws. Fig. They are 1 in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. wide and 3 ft. 6 in. long. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. long. is cut to fit under the top boards. 3-1/2 ft. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. The block is fastened to the keelson.

in diameter and 10 ft. wide. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. long. each 1 in. A strip 1 in. Fig. 12.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. The keel. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. 11. 10 with a movable handle. E. The sail is a triangle. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. is 6 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The house will accommodate 20 families. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. Wilmette. long. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. thick by 2 in. Ill. apart in the muslin. are used for the boom and gaff. --Contributed by O. . The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The mast has two side and one front stay. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. at the other. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. Tronnes. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. wide at one end and 12 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air.

Bevel both sides of the pieces. square. 2-1/2 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. thick. Fig. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. five 1/2-in. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. E. long and five 1/2-in. --Contributed by O. wide. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. Cut the maple. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. long.into two 14-in. long. about 5/16 in. and the other 18 in. wide and 30 in. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. flat-headed screws. long. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. 5. flat on one side. wide and 2 ft. 3. thick. 2. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. Tronnes. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. flat headed screws. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. thick. 1. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. 2-1/2 in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. and 3 ft. 4. Ill. as shown in Fig. with the ends and the other side rounding. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. 2 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. Take this and fold it over . taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. Wilmette. one 11-1/2 in. 1 yd. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. wide. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion.

leaving a small opening at one corner. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. A. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. The bag is then turned inside out. as well as the edges around the opening. 3-1/4 in. 6-1/2 in. Mo. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. pieces 2-5/8 in. but can be governed by circumstances. long. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. long. are rounded. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. square.once. C. long. When the glue is set. Cut another piece of board. After the glue. long. If carefully and neatly made. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. thick and 3 in. long. Fig. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. thick. soaked with water and blown up. About 1/2 in. Figs. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. wide and 5 in. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. of each end unwound for connections. The sides are 3-1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. thick. 3 in. the mechanical parts can be put together. about 3/8 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. D. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. wide and 4-1/2 in. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. forming an eye for a screw. long. Wind three layers of about No. C. F. and take care that the pieces are all square. square. 2 and 3. Another piece. wide and 2-3/4 in. and the four outside edges. 1. long. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. The front. St. and make a turn in each end of the wires. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. --Contributed by W. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. is set. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. wide . the top and bottom. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. this square box is well sandpapered. Glue a three cornered piece. long. E. wide and 3 ft. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. wide and 6-3/4 in. A. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. 3/8 in. Bliss. 5 from 1/16-in. Louis. B. then centered. wide and 2-1/2 in.

I.R. 5. A pointer 12 in. and the farther apart they will be forced. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. Yorkshire.S. F. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. and fasten in place. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. the same size as the first. long. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. hole is fastened to the pointer. Like poles repel each other. so it will just clear the tin. C. 4. in diameter. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . These wires should be about 1 in. 1/16 in. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. --Contributed by George Heimroth. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. Austwick Hall. The stronger the current. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. long. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. showing a greater defection of the pointer. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. Place the tin. G. from one end. Fig. 4 is not movable. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. from the spindle. Fig. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. The end of the polar axis B.and 2-5/8 in. and as the part Fig.A. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. thick. 4. bored in the back. that has the end turned with a shoulder. When the current flows through the coil.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. 5-1/2 in. the part carrying the pointer moves away. board. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The resistance is now adjusted to show . Richmond Hill. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. Another strip of tin. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. Chapman. wide and 9 in. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. L. The base is a board 5 in. W. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. R. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. 1/4 in. long. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. wide and 2-1/2 in. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete.

or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. 30 min. at 9 hr. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. thus: 9 hr. say Venus at the date of observation. shows mean siderial. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. 1881. 10 min. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. 10 min. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. M. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. and vice . The following formula will show how this may be found. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. A.

f. Hall. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection.m. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. if one of these cannot be had. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. and then verify its correctness by measurement. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. or. New Haven. --Contributed by Robert W. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. owing to the low internal resistance. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. .The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Conn. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell.

after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . and heap the glowing coals on top. especially for cooking fish. Fig. Then. leaves or bark. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. The boring bar. inside diameter and about 5 in. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. long. as shown in the accompanying picture. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. When the follower is screwed down. Wet paper will answer. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. 3/8 in. arsenic to every 20 lb. of alum and 4 oz. thick. cover up with the same. 1-3/4 in. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. fresh grass.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. 1. put the fish among the ashes.

These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. thick. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. and threaded on both ends. pipe. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. about 1/2 in. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the .bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. when they were turned in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. pipe. fastened with a pin.

It . Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. was then finished on an emery wheel. however. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. Iowa. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. 3. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. 5. then it should be ground to a fit. 2. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. 30 in. Fig. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. wide. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. thick and 3 in.valve stems. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. long. 4. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. the float is too high. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. a jump spark would be much better. as the one illustrated herewith. but never one which required so little material. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. square iron. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. A 1-in. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. bent in the shape of a U. labor and time. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The rough frame. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. If the valve keeps dripping. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Fig. Clermont. This plate also supports the rocker arms. Fig. and which gave such satisfactory results. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws.

being held in position by spikes as shown. The illustration largely explains itself. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. hole bored in the post. for the "motive power" to grasp. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. A malleable iron bolt. in the ground with 8 ft. long. square and 5 ft. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. long. from all over the neighborhood. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. strengthened by a piece 4 in. and a little junk. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. Nieman. strong clear material only should be employed. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. with no trees or buildings in the way. The crosspiece is 2 in. It looks like a toy. W. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. rope is not too heavy. The seats are regular swing boards. Use a heavy washer at the head." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. butting against short stakes. extending above. in diameter and 15 in. timber. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. As there is no bracing. square and 2 ft. long.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. 12 ft. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. from the center. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. square. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. long is the pivot. in fact. --Contributed by C. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . and. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. so it must be strong enough. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. If it is to be used for adults. completes the merry-go-round. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. no matter what your age or size may be. 3/4 in. set 3 ft. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. This makes an easy adjustment. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit." little and big. A 3/4 -in. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail.

Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. away. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. long. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. square. if nothing better is at hand. The backbone is flat. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. 2. The bow is now bent. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. He shapes two pieces of bamboo.the fingers. and 18 in. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. Both have large reels full of . and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. and sent to earth. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. then it is securely fastened. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. To wind the string upon the reel. A reel is next made. light and strong. Having placed the backbone in position. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. 1/4 by 3/32 in. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. 1. a wreck. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. 4. as shown in Fig.2 emery. These ends are placed about 14 in. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. one for the backbone and one for the bow. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well.

often several hundred yards of it. N. First. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. the balance. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Newburyport. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Brooklyn. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. or glass-covered string. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites.-Contributed by S. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Mass. he pays out a large amount of string. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. If the second kite is close enough. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Moody. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Bunker. C. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. --Contributed' by Harry S. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench.string. common packing thread. The handle end is held down with a staple. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Y.

Cut four pieces of canton flannel. such as mill men use. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Corinth. then draw the string up tight. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. --Contributed by Earl R. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. length of 2-in. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. each the size of half the table top. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. must be attached to a 3-ft. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. then a dust protector.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Hastings. Vt. make the pad as shown in the illustration. square (Fig. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. lengths (Fig. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. If the table is round. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. cutting the circular piece into quarters.

Use a smooth. trace the design carefully on the leather. and E to G. 16-1/4 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. . Make the other half circular disk in the same way. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. from E to F.9-1/4 in.. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Moisten the . 17-1/2 in.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. 2-1/4 in. G to H. E. from C to D. hard pencil. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. Oakland. which spoils the leather effect.. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture.. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. 6-1/4 in. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag.-Contributed by H. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Wharton. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. Calif.

about 1/8 in. place both together and with a leather punch. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. if not more than 1 in. is taken off at a time. wide. Now cut narrow thongs. G-J. To complete the bag. Trace the openings for the handles. with the rounded sides of the tools. Cut it the same size as the bag.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. get something with which to make a lining. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. apart. and E-G. also lines A-G. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. H-B. I made this motor . and lace through the holes. and corresponding lines on the other side. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag.

Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. each being a half circle. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. 2. as shown in Fig. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. iron. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. of No. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. . Calif.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by J. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. 1. in length.M. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. Shannon. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. D. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. 24 gauge magnet wire. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. B. 2-1/4 in. long. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. 1. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Pasadena.

Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. from the bottom end. high. are the best kind to make. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. 1. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. balloon should be about 8 ft. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. pasted in alternately. near the center. and the gores cut from these. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The gores for a 6-ft. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical.

E. 2. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. 4. B. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. leaving a long wake behind. Fig. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. After washing. If the gores have been put together right. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. in diameter. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. In starting the balloon on its flight. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by R. A. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. The steam. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. 3. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. somewhat larger in size. 1. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. These are to hold the wick ball. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . In removing grease from wood. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. after which the paint will adhere permanently. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. lap on the edges. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface.widest point. saturating it thoroughly. coming through the small pipe A. The boat soon attains considerable speed. As the boat is driven forward by this force. so it will hang as shown in Fig. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. 5. Staunton. leaving the solution on over night. using about 1/2-in.

The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. if you have several copies of the photograph. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The blocks are about 6 in. In using either of the two methods described. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. There are three ways of doing this: First. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. in bowling form. high and 8 in. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. long and each provided with a handle. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. 1. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. apart on these lines. long. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. as is shown in Fig. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. Second. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. Third. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. wide by 6 in.

stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. thick. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. N. Rinse the plate in cold water. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Fig. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal.Fig. Albany. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. being careful not to dent the metal. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. --Contributed by John A. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Y. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. 2. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Hellwig. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. not pointed down at the road at an angle.

6 in. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. --Contributed by R. are screwed to the circular piece. Richmond. which is 4 in. wide and 8 in. through which passes the set screw S. A circular piece of wood. These corner irons are also screwed to. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. 2 the front view. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. and.upon any particular object. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. B. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. 1 Fig. is fastened to a common camera tripod. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. in diameter. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. Paine. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Corner irons. long for the base. In Fig. wide and of any desired height. and Fig. 5 in. S. thick. Break off the frame. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. and not produce the right sound. A. A. CC. With this device. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Va. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. with a set screw.

-1. as only the can is visible. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. thus producing sound waves. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. in diameter of some 1-in. Lake Preston. This horn. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. La Salle. S. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. I made a wheel 26 in. . R. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. This will make a very compact electric horn. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. Kidder. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. D. Ill. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. pine boards. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator.

--Contributed by C. The frame is made of a heavy card. thick and 12 in. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. 1. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. If the collection consists of only a few coins. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Doylestown. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. 1. the same thickness as the coins. O. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Ghent. Purdy. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. 2. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. --Contributed by James R. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Kane. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. A. Fig. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. B. square. If there is a large collection of coins. Feet may be added to the base if desired. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C.

and a stout board upon which to work up the design. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Canada. Cal. Neyer. --Contributed by August T. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides.J. and then glued together as indicated. Wis. into which to place the screws . --Contributed by J. cut and grooved. If desired. One Cloud. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. for after the slides have been shown a few times. thick. A lead pencil. melted and applied with a brush. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. plus a 3/8-in. A rivet punch is desirable. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. The material required is a sheet of No. though not absolutely necessary. Milwaukee.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Smith. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. several large nails. of developer. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. a hammer or mallet. --Contributed by R. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. Noble. It will hold 4 oz. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. they become uninteresting. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Toronto. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. border all around.E. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur.

There are several ways of working up the design. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. never upon the metal directly. screws placed about 1 in. draw one part. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Take the nail. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. and file it to a chisel edge. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. Remove the screws. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. like the one shown. using 1/2-in. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. both outline and decoration. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut.

wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. of 11-in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. square and 11 in. l-1/8 in. 1. long. up from the lower end. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. Provide four lengths for the legs. each 1 in. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. 2. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. for the lower rails. long. The pedal. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. 3. using a 1/2in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. as shown in Fig. being ball bearing. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. Rivet the band to the holder. long. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. About 1/2 yd. square and 181/2 in. square.wall. 3/4 in. for the top. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. two lengths. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. . How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. and two lengths. in the other. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. Do not bend it over or flatten it. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion.

The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. F. having quite a length of threads. Ala. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. --Contributed by John Shahan. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. New York City. Attalla. --Contributed by W. Quackenbush. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] .

long. long. wide and 8-1/4 in. Ironwood. Mich. from one end. stitched on both edges for appearance. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. initial.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. each 1-1/4 in. using class. in depth. long. and 3/8 in. The desired emblem. something that is carbonated. --Contributed by C. making a lap of about 1 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. the end of the other piece is folded over. D. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. from the end. Assemble as shown in the sketch. college or lodge colors. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. Luther. and the other 2-3/4 in. one about 1 in.. Two pieces of felt. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. Purchase a 1/2-in. and two holes in the other. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in.

The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. and the cork will be driven out. 1. Indianapolis. about 2 in. 1/4 in. Fig. in the cover and the bottom. as shown in the sketch. This method allows a wide range of designs. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. 2. or more in height. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Punch two holes A. from the center and opposite each other. Schatz. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. in diameter and 2 in. if desired by the operator. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. --Contributed by John H. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. as shown at B. or a pasteboard box. A piece of lead.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Ind. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. which can be procured from a plumber.

. O.Rolling Can Toy lead. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. 4. on both top and bottom. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. allowing the two ends to be free. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. it winds up the rubber band. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. as shown in Fig. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. are turned up as in Fig. A piece of thick glass. and the ends of the bands looped over them. metal. The pieces of tin between the holes A. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. or marble will serve. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. Columbus. 5. putting in the design. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. Fig. 3. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. 1. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. When the can is rolled away from you. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing.

long and bored a 1/2-in. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. wide and 20 in. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. A pencil may be used the first time over. from each end. or more thick on each side. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. hole through it. face up. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. I secured a board 3/4 in. thick. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. New York City. 3 in. Next place the leather on the glass. 1 in. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. and. thicker than the pinion. deep in its face. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. If it is desired to "line" the inside. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. mark over the design. The edges should be about 1/8 in. After this has been done.

Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. pieces for the vise slides. 3 by 3 by 20 in. lag screws as shown. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Cut the 2-in. 4 guides. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Y. 1 top board. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 1 piece for clamp. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1 by 12 by 77 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. countersinking the heads of the vise end. much of the hard labor will be saved. 2 crosspieces. 1 piece. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. Rice. thick top board. Make the lower frame first. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Syracuse. 2 end rails. 2. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1 top board. Now fit up the two clamps. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 2 side rails. 1 back board. New York. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. --Contributed by A. and fit it in place for the side vise. in diameter. 3 by 3 by 36. 1. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1 screw block. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 1 piece for clamp. M. Fig. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker.in the board into the bench top. N. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. Brooklyn. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 2 by 12 by 77 in.

The amateur workman. as well as the pattern maker. The bench is now complete. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 monkey wrench. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 3 and 6 in. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 claw hammer.screws. 1 set chisels. 24 in. 1 2-ft. 2 screwdrivers. 1 countersink. 1 compass saw.. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. Only the long run. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. . Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 cross cut saw. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 nail set. They can be purchased at a hardware store. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. in diameter. 1 brace and set of bits.. 1 pair dividers. 1 pocket level. 1 wood scraper. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 pair pliers. 1 marking gauge. 24 in. rule. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 set gimlets. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted.. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 rip saw.

Fig. Fig.1 6-in. ---Contributed by James M. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Kane. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. after constant use. Fig.1. 2. 1 oilstone. No. but will not make . 3. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. try square. the projecting point A. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Fig. will be easier to work. 2 and 00 sandpaper. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. Pa. 1. 1. The calf skin. becomes like A. being softer. Doylestown.

This will make a perfectly impervious covering. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. Two pieces will be required of this size. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. cover it completely with water enamel and. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. If calf skin is to be used. will do just as well. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Turn the leather. but a V-shaped nut pick. First draw the design on paper. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. such as copper or brass. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. water or heat will not affect. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. the same method of treatment is used. . New York City. After the outlines are traced. lay the design on the face. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. If cow hide is preferred. then prepare the leather. secure a piece of modeling calf. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side.as rigid a case as the cow skin. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. which steam. and the length 6-5/8 in. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. -Contributed by Julia A. The form can be made of a stick of wood. White. when dry. Having prepared the two sides.

When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Cobb. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Cal. Portland. New York City. Maine. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. C. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. --Contributed by Chas. Richmond. as shown in the sketch. A. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by Chester L. Herrman. Jaquythe.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. . will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down.

Mass. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Cambridge. A thick piece of tin. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Roberts. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones.. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. an inverted stewpan. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Wright. was marked out as shown. --Contributed by Wm. --Contributed by Geo. for instance. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Middletown. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. This was very difficult. Conn. . The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. B. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner.

When dry. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. but not running over. --Contributed by Paul Keller. . Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. used as part of furniture. Indianapolis.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. F. and the grease will disappear. on a clear piece of glass. pulverized and applied. L. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Herbert. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. and quite new. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. which has been tried out several times with success. but only an odor which soon vanished. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Illinois. --Contributed by C. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Chicago. such as chair seats. If the article is highly polished. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Ind. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. as shown. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. A beautifully bound book. There was no quicklime to be had. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. of boiling water. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. face down.. well calcined and powdered. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. The next morning there was no trace of oil. If any traces of the grease are left. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. apply powdered calcined magnesia. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Bone. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. so some bones were quickly calcined. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring.

2 in. the pieces . The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel.. deep and 5 in. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. --Contributed by Geo. says Scientific American. If properly adjusted. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. New York. Tarrytown. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. high and are bolted to a block of wood. 6 in. thick. The pieces marked S are single.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. Howe.. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. wide and 12 in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. set and thumbscrews. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. long. A. soft steel with the opening 6 in.

Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. says Camera Craft.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Their size depends on the plate used. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. If the letters are all cut the same height. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . E. A sharp knife. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The seat is a board. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. no doubt. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. albums and the like. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. for sending to friends. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. they will look remarkably uniform. to the underside of which is a block. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork.

to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. for example. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. The puzzle is to get . each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. after. mount them on short pieces of corks." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. and. In cutting out an 0. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. using care to get it in the right position. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. photographing them down to the desired size. So made. pasting the prints on some thin card. So arranged. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives.

By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. hung on pivots. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . the tube righting itself at once for another catch. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. snow or anything to hide it. N. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in.-Contributed by I. so they will lie horizontal. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. Old-Time Magic . long that will just fit are set in. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. squeezes along past the center of the tube. of its top. Bayley. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. says the American Thresherman. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. A hole 6 or 7 in. with the longest end outside. G.J. He smells the bait. Cape May Point.

With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Pocatello. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined.faced up. Brooklyn. Szerlip. then expose again. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Press the hands together. Idaho. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. or rub the hands a little before doing so. N. Pawtucket. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Parker. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. --Contributed by Charles Graham. then spread the string. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Y. E. --Contributed by L. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Rhode Island. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. --Contributed by L.

The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. When the glue is thoroughly dry. dark red. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. wide and 2 in. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. whether he requires a single sword only. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. in building up his work from the illustrations. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. says the English Mechanic. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set.. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The handle is next made. in width. using a straightedge and a pencil.. wipe the blade . if any. thick. and if carefully made. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. 4 on the blade. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot.Genuine antique swords and armor. near the point end. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. Glue the other side of the blade. 1. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. or green oil paint. or a complete suit of armor. long. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. 3 Fig. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. 1 Fig. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. When the whole is quite dry. 2 Fig. full size. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. narrower. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. end of the blade. they will look very much like the genuine article. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. The blade should be about 27 in. The pieces.

using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 1. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. The length of the handle. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. In making. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. square and of any length desired. Both edges of the blade are sharp. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. shows only two sides. thick and 5 in. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in.. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. 4. Fig. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. the other is flat or halfround. 1. long. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. In making this scimitar. should be about 9 in. preferably of contrasting colors. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. 2. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. in the widest part at the lower end.with light strokes up and down several times. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. the illustration. 3. in diameter. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. and 3 in. as it is . If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. 1. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. of course. 2. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. 3.. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. 1/8 in. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. follow the directions as for Fig. In the finished piece. about 1-1/2 in. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. take two pieces of wood. This sword is about 68 in. not for use only in cases of tableaux. allowing for a good hold with both hands. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. 1. the length of the blade 28 in. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. the other two are identical. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. the other is flat or half-round. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord.

thick and from 14 to 16 ft. The thinness of the plank. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. square. and. as can the pitch bed or block. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. about 3/8 in. however. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Both can be made easily. Morse. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Syracuse. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Mass.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. It is made of a plank. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Y. in an attempt to remove it. each about 1 ft. A cold . The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. 2 in. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. piping and jackets by hard water. as shown in the sketch. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. --Contributed by Katharine D. Franklin. and if so. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. long. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. --Contributed by John Blake. as there was some at hand. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. at the lower end. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. On each edge of the board. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. N. A piece of mild steel. or an insecure fastening. Doctors probed for the button without success.

When this has been done. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees.. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. 5 lb. 18 gauge. Trim up the edges and file them . To put it in another way. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. design down. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. on the pitch. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. using a small metal saw. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. plaster of Paris. tallow. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. When the desired form has been obtained. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. 5 lb. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass.. To remedy this. secure a piece of brass of about No. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. a file to reduce the ends to shape. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown.

. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. make an unusual show window attraction.000 lb. The smaller is placed within the larger. one 18 in. 30 ft. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. 2). Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. --Contributed by Harold H. in diameter (Fig. 3. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. or 550 ft. 1 ft. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. and still revolve. Before giving the description. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. lb. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. but not to stop it. Cutter. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Fig. lb.000 ft. per minute. Fill the 3-in.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Clean the metal thoroughly. space between the vessels with water. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. 1) and the other 12 in. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height.smooth. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. That is lifting 33. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. over the smaller vessel. A. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. in the center. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. in one minute or 550 lb. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. This in turn divided by 33. to keep it from floating. per second. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. using powdered pumice with lye. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. and hang a bird swing. it may be well to know what horsepower means. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. 1 ft. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. in diameter (Fig. in one second. or fraction of a horsepower.

by L. --Contributed. Somerville. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. The effect is surprising. F. Y. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Szerlip. 2 Fig. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. or on a pedestal. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete .3 Fig.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. --Contributed by J. Diameter 12 in. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Campbell.18 in. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Diameter Fig. N. 1 Fig. Mass. Brooklyn.

23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. the same as removing writing from a slate. and cut out the shape with the shears. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. to keep the metal from tarnishing. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. This compound is impervious to water. with other defects. with the pliers. after which it is ready for use. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. and then. keeping the center high. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. which may be of wood or tin. Polish both of these pieces. away from the edge. and the clay . In riveting.copper of No. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. is. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. unsatisfactory. then by drawing a straightedge over it. Rivet the cup to the base. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. using any of the common metal polishes. often render it useless after a few months service. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. as a rule. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. which. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Do not be content merely to bend them over. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet.

in diameter and 5 in. A. Northville. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. --Contributed by John T. Houghton. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. Dunlop. --Contributed by A. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. 3/4 in. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. long. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. Shettleston. . -Contributed by Thos. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Mich. 2. the device will work for an indefinite time. Grand Rapids. as shown in Fig. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. DeLoof. 1. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Scotland. Mich. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below.can be pressed back and leveled. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. It is made of a glass tube. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part.

Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. stilettos and battle-axes. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords.1 FIG. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. This sword is 4 ft. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. put up as ornaments. London. in width and 2 in. 1. long. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.FIG. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. As the handle is to . long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade.

wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. with both edges of the blade sharp. This weapon is also about 1 ft. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. in length. studded with brass or steel nails. in length. In Fig. then glued on the blade as shown. with both edges sharp. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. one about 1/2 in. Both handle and axe are of steel. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. The lower half of the handle is of wood. These must be cut from pieces of wood. In Fig. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. very broad. long. When dry. A German stiletto. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. 11 were used. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. sharp edges on both sides. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. 20 spike. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. The handle is of wood. with wire or string' bound handle. which is about 2-1/2 ft. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. in width. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. Cut two strips of tinfoil. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. 4. narrower. 3 is shown a claymore. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. wood with a keyhole saw. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. The sword shown in Fig. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. 8. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. firmly glued on. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. 7. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. the axe is of steel. When the whole is quite dry. This weapon is about 1 ft. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The ball is made as described in Fig. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. In Fig. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. paint it a dark brown or black. 6. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. long with a dark handle of wood. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. sometimes called cuirass breakers. 5. string.represent copper. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. the same as used on the end of the handle. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. The crossbar and blade are steel. small rope and round-headed nails. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. glue and put it in place. This sword is about 4 ft. is shown in Fig. This axe is made similar to the one . A German poniard is shown in Fig. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. the upper part iron or steel. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. This stiletto has a wood handle. Three large. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. 9. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way.

Old-Time Magic . 10. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. so the contents cannot be seen. such as braided fishline. together as shown in Fig.described in Fig. When wrapped all the way around. W. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. and as the tension members are all protected from wear.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. will pull where other belts slip. . high. This will make a very good flexible belt. --Contributed by E. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. the ends are tied and cut off. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. Davis. 2. Chicago. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil.

Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. There will be no change in color. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Calif. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. 2. an acid. in a few seconds' time. some of the liquid. N. about one-third the way down from the top. or using small wedges of wood. filled with water. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Macdonald. causing the flowers to grow. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Bridgeton. --Contributed by A. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. To make the flowers grow in an instant.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. As zinc is much lighter than iron. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. These wires are put in the jar. apparently. 1 and put together as in Fig. Oakland. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. The dotted lines in Fig. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. with the circle centrally located. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. held in the right hand. Before the performance. four glass tumblers.J. S.

not only because of the fact just mentioned. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. and kept ready for use at any time. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. says a correspondent of Photo Era. practical and costs nothing. which are numbered for convenience in working. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. --Contributed by W. When many slides are to be masked. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. Richmond. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. unless some special device is used. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. This outlines the desired opening. 2 for height. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. Cal. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. 4 for width and No. and equally worthy of individual treatment. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. A. If the size wanted is No. Jaquythe. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately.

16 gauge. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. paint the design. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. about half and half. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. The decoration. using the carbon paper. not the water into the acid. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Secure a sheet of No. possibly. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. With a stick. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. the margin and the entire back of the metal. and the extreme length 7 in. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. or. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. This done. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. and do not inhale the fumes. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . Draw a design. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. is about right for the No. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. which is dangerous. too.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. or a pair of old tongs. the paper is folded along the center line. may be changed. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. When etched to the desired depth. The one shown is merely suggestive. but they can be easily revived. a little less acid than water.

about 3 ft. thick. Fig. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. about 8 in. 5. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. as at H. 2. Fig. as in Fig. J is another wire attached in the same way. and about 2-1/2 ft. Nail a board. long. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 2. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 0 indicates the batteries. as shown in Fig. 1. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. as shown in the illustration. through it. 3/8 in. Then get two posts. 24 parts water. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. with the wires underneath. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. Cut out a piece of tin. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. When the button S is pressed. long and 1 ft. Fig. attached to a post at each end. about 1 in. C and D. 5. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. Paint the table any color desired. A. the bell will ring. to the table. 2. about 2-1/2 in. it will touch post F. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. wide. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. 3. The connections are simple: I. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. high.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. and bore two holes. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. 4. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. It may be either nailed or screwed down. Fig. wide and of the same length as the table. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. in diameter and 1/4 in. or more wide. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. so that when it is pressed down. repeat as many times as is necessary. . Fig.

2. The imitation articles are made of wood.. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. the wood peg inserted in one of them. These rings can be carved out. The circle is marked out with a compass. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. such as . the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. After the glue is dry. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. but they are somewhat difficult to make. is to appear as steel. A wood peg about 2 in. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. long serves as the dowel. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. This weapon is about 22 in. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. long. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary.Imitation Arms and Armor . Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. handle and all. says the English Mechanic. The entire weapon. 1. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. thick.

The lower half of the handle is wood. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. as before mentioned. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. All of these axes are about the same length. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The handle is of wood. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. etc. flowers. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. 8. If such a tool is not at hand. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. or the amateur cannot use it well. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. covered with red velvet. The axe is shown in steel. 2.ornamental scrolls. is shown in Fig. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. as shown. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The upper half of the handle is steel. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. also. leaves. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. with a sharp carving tool. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. 6. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. 5. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. The handle is of steel imitation. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. 3. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. used at the end of the fifteenth century. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The spikes are cut out of wood. This weapon is about 22 in. The entire handle should be made of one piece. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. Its length is about 3 ft. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. . the hammer and spike. long. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. as described in Fig. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. studded with large brass or steel nails. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails.

Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. then the other plays. calls for a home run. . A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 6. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. as in Fig. 3. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 2. 7) calls for one out. Fig. and so on for nine innings. Each person plays until three outs have been made. 5. a three-base hit. the knife resting on its back.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. Chicago. 1. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. 4). The knife falling on its side (Fig. as shown in Fig. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig.

the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. with the rope laced in the cloth. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. of water for an hour or two. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. of the rope and holds it. 1. one of them burning . which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. as shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic .-Contributed by J. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. It may be found that the negative is not colored. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. while the committee is tying him up. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. If it is spotted at all. as shown in Fig. This he does.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. hypo to 1 pt. F. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. Mass. Somerville. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. 2. 3. Campbell.

--Contributed by C. Evans. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. 4 oz. Thome. Lebanon. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. . etc. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. shades the light for a few seconds. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. --Contributed by L. Ky. Louisville. thick. invisible to them (the audience). The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. thus causing it to light. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. of water and 1 oz. of plumbago. B. The magician walks over to the burning candle. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. 4 oz. showing that there is nothing between them. Brown. Drill Gauge screw. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. of turpentine. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing.Contributed by Andrew G.. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. He then walks over to the other candle. 3/4 in. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. New York City. bolt. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. and. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole.brightly. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. the other without a light. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. of sugar. Ky. with which he is going to light the other candle. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern.

A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Its current strength is about one volt. --Contributed by C. Y. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . or blotting paper. thick. In making up the solution. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. but is not so good. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. H. Do not add water to the acid. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. 5 in. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. for the material. N. Denniston. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. Pulteney. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. To make the porous cell. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. long. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. which will give a strong. into a tube of several thicknesses. steady current. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. about 5 in. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. diameter. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current.

steel. but somewhat lighter. One hole was bored as well as possible. steel. As to thickness. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. the other holding them apart. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. After much experimentation with bearings. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. steel. long with a bearing at each end.) may be obtained. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. carrying the hour circle at one end. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. Finally. one drawing them together. The . It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. while the other end is attached by two screws. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. a positive adjustment was provided. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. To insure this.station.

. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. and 15 min. subtract 24. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The pointer is directed to Alpha. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The aperture should be 1/4 in. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Each shaft. once carefully made. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. 45 min. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. To find a star in the heavens. is provided with this adjustment. Declination is read directly. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. To locate a known star on the map. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. Point it approximately to the north star. When properly set it will describe a great circle. Cassiopiae. apart." When this is done. need not be changed." Only a rough setting is necessary. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. If the result is more than 24 hours. All set screws. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. excepting those on the declination axis. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. Set the declination circle to its reading.. All these adjustments. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. save the one in the pipe. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. Instead." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. and if it is not again directed to the same point. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. turn the pointer to the star. The pole is 1 deg. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. in each direction from two points 180 deg. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. It is. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. are tightened.

In reality the first ball. the others . Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. is folded several times. then add 1 2-3 dr. Strosnider. 3 or 4 in. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. long. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. taking care not to add too much. The ball is found to be the genuine article. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. La. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. as shown in the sketch. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. benzole. add a little more benzole. is the real cannon ball. Plain City. New Orleans. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. The dance will begin. of ether. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. a great effect will be produced. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. -Contributed by Ray E. which is the one examined.. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. Ohio. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. cannon balls. If this will be too transparent.

San Francisco. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Campbell. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. small brooches. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Cal. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Wis. taps.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Somerville. Return the card to the pack. without taking up any great amount of space. Mass. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. 1). etc. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. In boxes having a sliding cover. Fig. 2. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. F. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. --Contributed by J.. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Milwaukee. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . as shown in the illustration.

from the bottom of the box. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. Hartford. . At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. prints. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. round pieces 2-1/4 in. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. This box has done good service. Connecticut. thus giving ample store room for colors. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. slides and extra brushes. as shown in the illustration. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Beller. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse.

it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. When the ends are turned under. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. will answer the purpose. West Lynn. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. and pour water on it until it is well soaked.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. tacking the gauze well at the corners. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. 2). costing 5 cents. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. Darke. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. with well packed horse manure. O. Mass. -Contributed by C. Fill the upper tub. 1). . Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. FIG. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. about threefourths full. holes in the bottom of one. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. or placed against a wall.

A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. --Contributed by L. If the following directions are carried out. they should be knocked out. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. If plugs are found in any of the holes. Chicago. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. when they are raised from the pan. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. oil or other fluid. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. cutting the cane between the holes. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. and each bundle contains . If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. Eifel. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. M. if this is not available.

The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. 1. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. after having been pulled tight. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. and. put about 3 or 4 in. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. then across and down. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. as shown in Fig. as it must be removed again. In addition to the cane. it should be held by a plug. No plugs .Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. a square pointed wedge. held there by inserting another plug. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off.

The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. Fig. as for example. From table No. After completing the second layer. 1. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. the height of the line BC. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. stretch the third one. it is 4. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. trim off the surplus rosin. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. 41 °-30'. Michigan. we have 4. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired.42 in. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. 1.075 in. There are several different designs of sundials. is the horizontal dial. Detroit.15 in. and for lat. When cool. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. 42° is 4. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. but the most common. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. 40°. If handled with a little care. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig.2+. or the style. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. 3. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . Fig. Even with this lubrication. Patrick. -Contributed by E. The style or gnomon. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. If you have a table of natural functions. During the weaving. 5 in. and for 1° it would be . All added to the lesser or 40°. as shown in Fig. the next smallest. 5. the height of which is taken from table No. as shown in Fig. as it always equals the latitude of the place. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. 3. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. W. Start at one corner and weave diagonally.= 4. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. 1. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. for 2°. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. It consists of a flat circular table. 1 lat. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed.5 in. No weaving has been done up to this time. called the gnomon. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. 4. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving.075 in. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. and the one we shall describe in this article. R. This will make three layers. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. using the same holes as for the first layer. is the base (5 in. as the height of the line BC for lat. D. lat.2 in. Their difference is . in this case) times the . 41°-30'.3 in.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. --Contributed by M.15+. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes.

A line EF drawn through the points A and C. Fig.63 56° 7.26 4.55 30° 2.55 5.40 34° 3. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. .56 .41 38° 3.30 1. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.18 28° 2.93 6.16 40 .93 2.79 4. or more. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. if of metal.06 2.40 1.30 2.81 4.tangent of the degree of latitude.27 2.83 27° 2. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.02 1.57 1. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . base. and for this size dial (10 in.12 52° 6.29 4-30 7-30 3. 2. 1. Chords in inches for a 10 in. Draw two semi-circles.57 3. circle Sundial.85 1. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.82 5. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.42 1.91 58° 8.55 46° 5. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. and intersecting the semicircles.82 2.00 40° 4. Draw the line AD. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.07 4.87 4.37 5.89 50° 5.37 54° 6. To layout the hour circle. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.42 45 .19 1.59 2.94 1.88 36° 3.66 48° 5.44 44° 4. and perpendicular to the base or style.55 4. which will represent the base in length and thickness.46 3.33 . according to the size of the dial.97 5 7 4.85 35 .33 42° 4.14 5.42 .28 .32 6.87 1. 2 for given latitudes. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. gives the 6 o'clock points.96 32° 3.11 3.66 1.23 6.77 2.38 . long.10 6. using the points A and C as centers.82 3. or if of stone. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.50 26° 2.20 60° 8.16 1.39 .49 30 .49 3. Its thickness. with a radius of 5 in.76 1. an inch or two. For latitudes not given. 2.66 latitude.64 4 8 3. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.68 5-30 6-30 5. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.99 2. Table NO.46 .03 3. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.

82 3. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .30 2. 3.50 55 .57 1. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.71 2.24 5.01 1.37 2. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. and for the difference between standard and local time. April 16. will enable one to set the dial. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. adding to each piece interest and value. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.63 1. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. and the . Sun time to local mean time. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.52 Table No. June 15. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. then the watch is slower.14 1. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.means that the dial is faster than the sun. London.79 6.68 3.87 6.49 5.72 5. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.54 60 . 3. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.21 2. An ordinary compass. As they are the genuine reproductions. Iowa.. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.19 2. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. if west.06 2. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. Each weapon is cut from wood.08 1.46 4.from Sundial lime.53 1. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. 900 Chicago. 2 and Dec. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. 25. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. This correction can be added to the values in table No. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.77 3. it will be faster. Mitchell. Sioux City. --Contributed by J. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.98 4. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.34 5.46 5.89 3.93 6.49 3.12 5. The + means that the clock is faster. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. says the English Mechanic.10 4. after allowing for the declination. Sept. E. each article can be labelled with the name.50 . If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.add those marked + subtract those Marked .60 4.

This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. . The spear head is of steel about 15 in. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. the length of which is about 5 ft. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. 1. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Partisan. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry.. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. When putting on the tinfoil. 3.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. long from the point where it is attached to the handle.

It is about 6 ft. used about the seventeenth century. A gisarm or glaive. 6 ft. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The edges are sharp. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in.which is square. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. sharp on the outer edges. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. 8. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The extreme length is 9 ft. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. press it well into the carved depressions. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The spear is steel. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. which are a part of the axe. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 7. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. the holes being about 1/4 in. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. . Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. long with a round staff or handle. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. 5. in diameter. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. long. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. about 4 in. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. long with a round wooden handle.. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. This weapon is about 6 ft. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. long. is shown in Fig. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft.

1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. Workman. Substances such as straw. apart.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. or in holes punched in a leather strap. are put in place. 4. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. This is important to secure neatness. as shown in Fig. Cut all the cords the same length. the cross cords. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Ohio. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. are less durable and will quickly show wear. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Loudonville. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. In Figs. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. B. 2 and 3.-Contributed by R. H. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. 1. The twisted cross cords should . 5. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. They can be made of various materials. the most durable being bamboo. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. used for spacing and binding the whole together.

A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. New York. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. Four V-shaped notches were cut. -Contributed by Geo. shaped as shown at C. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. A slit was cut in the bottom. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. La. Harrer. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. M. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. The first design shown is for using bamboo. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. bamboo or rolled paper. Lockport. as shown at B. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. This was turned over the top of the other can. below the top to within 1/4 in. near the top of the can and their points turned outward.be of such material. in which was placed a piece of glass. New Orleans. wide. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. of the bottom. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 3 in. To remedy this. for a length extending from a point 2 in.

--Contributed by Joseph H. the brass is loosened from the block. Newburgh. and two along the side for attaching the staff. Schaffner. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. This should be done gradually. After this is finished. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times.tape from sticking to the carpet. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. Ill. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. H. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. Shay. wide. Pasadena. Maywood. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. It would be well to polish the brass at first. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. about 1/16 in. do not throw away the gloves. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. Y. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. N. This plank. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. turned over but not fastened. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. --Contributed by W. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. giving the appearance of hammered brass. Cal. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. --Contributed by Chas. Sanford.

Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Richmond. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. bent as shown. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. --E. Jaquythe. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. in diameter. Ill. the pendulum swings . Cal. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Marshall. A. -Contributed by W. Unlike most clocks. K. Oak Park.

Chicago. --Contributed by V. is an electromagnet. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. such as this one. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. In using this method. A. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. 7-1/2 in. wide that is perfectly flat. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. 6 in. Two uprights. and the other two 2-5/8 in. Now place the board to be joined.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Fasten another board. bearing on the latter. 5/16 in. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Metzech. to the first one with screws or glue. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. on the board B. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. about 12 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. high. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. long and at each side of this. wide. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. about 6 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. B. away. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. by 1-5/16 in. only have the opposite side up. high. high and 1/4 in. The construction is very simple. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch.. are secured in the base bar. thick. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. the center one being 2-3/4 in. high. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. 3/4 in. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. Secure a board. C. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. . The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. bar. says the Scientific American. in diameter. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses.

The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. 2. long. is fastened in the hole A. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. square inside. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. by driving a pin through the wood. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. as shown at A. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. Fig. Pa. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. or more. from one end. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. plates should be made 8 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. --Contributed by Elmer A. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. square. Vanderslice. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. The assembled parts are shown in Fig.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. 1. 3. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. 4. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Fig. wide and 5 in. . 1. 1. Phoenixville. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. wide and 1 in. The trigger. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends.

Simonis. Ohio. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. which allows 1/4 in. if only two bands are put in the . -Contributed by J. as shown in the illustration. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. 5 parts of black filler. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. square. by weight. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. Fostoria. 2 parts of whiting.A. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. one-half the length of the side pieces. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite.

deep. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. It must be kept moist and well . London. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. long. A mirror. If a plain glass is used. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. as shown in Fig. In constructing helmets. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. in the opposite end of the box. --Contributed by Thos. No. II. and it may be made as a model or full sized. preferably copper. A piece of metal. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. 8 in. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. G. place tracing paper on its surface. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. 1. Shaw. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. says the English Mechanic. In use.lower strings. is necessary. DeLoof. keeps the strong light out when sketching. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. Dartmouth. Grand Rapids. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. which may be either of ground or plain glass. A double convex lens. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. Mass. -Contributed by Abner B. Michigan. wide and about 1 ft. and the picture can be drawn as described. is set at an angle of 45 deg.

This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. This being done. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. or some thin glue. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. The clay. After the clay model is finished. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. Scraps of thin. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. the clay model oiled. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns.kneaded. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. brown. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . shown in Fig. will be necessary. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. joined closely together. and left over night to soak. 1. 3. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. and the deft use of the fingers. as shown in Fig. a few clay-modeling tools. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. All being ready. and continue until the clay is completely covered. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. 2. on which to place the clay. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. as in bas-relief. 1. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. take. with a keyhole saw. and over the crest on top.

In Fig. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. will make it look neat. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. --Contributed by Paul Keller. with the exception of the vizor. which should be no difficult matter. the skullcap. owing to the clay being oiled. When the helmet is off the model. 1. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. Indianapolis. Before taking it off the model. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. When dry. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. as shown: in the design. When perfectly dry. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. The band is decorated with brass studs. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. The center of the ear guards are perforated. the piecing could not be detected. 9. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. a few lines running down. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . then another coating of glue. and so on. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. should be modeled and made in one piece. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. Indiana. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. 5. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. as seen in the other part of the sketch. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. one for each side.as possible. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. The whole helmet. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. square in shape. In Fig. and the ear guards in two pieces. They are all covered with tinfoil. a crest on top. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. This contrivance should be made of wood. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. 7. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. or.

FF. are allowed to project about 1 in. Fig. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. The reverse side of the base. long. for connections. and two large 3in. to receive screws for holding it to the base. two ordinary binding posts. and. long. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. Fig. 4 lb. if this cannot be obtained. 1. German-silver wire is better. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. This will make an open space between the plates. 1. GG. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. This will allow the plate. 22 gauge resistance wire. 2. Fig. should extend about 1/4 in. and C. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. of the top. E and F. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. 1. 4. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 3 in. The mineral wool. if the measurements are correct. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. one fuse block. each 4-1/2 in. 4.same size. as it stands a higher temperature. Fig. screws. 4. AA. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. wide and 15 in. about 1/4 in. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. thick. about 1 lb. The plate. Fig. one oblong piece of wood. If asbestos is used. Fig. or. 12 in. which can be bought from a local druggist. of mineral wool. of fire clay. as shown in Fig. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. the fuse block. 4. Fig. 1. 1. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. JJ. of No. 2. If a neat appearance is desired. as shown in Fig. The holes B and C are about 3 in. the holes leading to the switch. The two holes. A round collar of galvanized iron. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. in diameter and 9 in. as shown in Fig. thick sheet asbestos. Fig. 3. 2. Fig. one glass tube. about 80 ft. Fig. high. 4. until it is within 1 in. long. with slits cut for the wires. when they are placed in opposite positions. 4. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. 1 in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. above the collar. AA. 4. 1. is shown in Fig. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. Fig. Fig. Fig. also the switch B and the fuse block C. one small switch. AA. is then packed down inside the collar.

While the clay is damp. A. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. will slip and come in contact with each other.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. If this is the case. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. Next. Cover over about 1 in. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. apart. steam will form when the current is applied. Cnonyn. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. --Contributed by R. it leaves a gate for the metal. Can. II. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. This point marks the proper length to cut it. Cal. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. Richmond. and pressed into it. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. KK. Cut a 1/2-in. It should not be set on end. If it is not thoroughly dry. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. When the tile is in place. St. so that the circuit will not become broken. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. as the turns of the wires. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. When this is done. using care not to get it too wet. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. 2. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . more wire should be added. It should not be left heated in this condition. 4. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. when heated. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. --Contributed by W. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. Fig. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. above the rim. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. when cool. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Fig. deep. Catherines. H. As these connections cannot be soldered. then. allowing a space between each turn. A file can be used to remove any rough places. Jaquythe. The clay. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. This completes the stove. causing a short circuit.

thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. Then clip a little off the . The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. Louisville. is large enough. the air can enter from both top and bottom. --Contributed by Andrew G. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. says the Photographic Times. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Thorne. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. as shown. square material in any size. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. but 12 by 24 in." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. constructed of 3/4-in. and the prints will dry rapidly. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. the pie will be damaged. and the frame set near a window. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Ky.

and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. 1. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. The upright B. Figs. 2. thick and 3 in. Le Mars. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. A 1/8-in. wide and 7 in. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. 1/2 in. Fig. causing a break in the current. high. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. allowing each end to project for connections. 14 in. The driving arm D. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. The connecting rod E. 1 and 3. 1/2 in. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. open out. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. 1. As the shaft revolves. An offset is bent in the center. Herron. long. for the crank. Fig. at GG. 4 in. thick and 3 in. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. long. in diameter. high. long. 3. The connections are made as shown in Fig. slip on two cardboard washers. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights.Paper Funnel point. high. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. Iowa. -Contributed by S. long. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. W. each 1 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. thick. 22 gauge magnet wire. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. each 1/2 in. The board can be raised to place . which are fastened to the base. Fig. as shown. Two supports. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. in diameter and about 4 in. 1. 2-1/2 in. wide. thereby saving time and washing. 1. wide and 3 in. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. which gives the shaft a half turn. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty.

and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. in height. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. 3 in. One or more pots may be used. as shown in the sketch. bottom side up. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. Dorchester. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Stecher. Mass. on a board. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. . making a framework suitable for a roost. --Contributed by William F. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. In designing the roost. Place the pot. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft.

If the meter is warmed 10 deg. that it is heated. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. will produce the pattern desired. without any corresponding benefit. The materials required are rope or. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments.. if it is other than straight lines. F. ordinary glue. when combined. Wind the . in diameter. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. adopt the method described. Fig. odd corners. etc. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. F. windows. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. as shown in Fig. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. The bottom part of the sketch. and give it time to dry. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. preferably. grills and gratings for doors.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. 1. 1. paraffin and paint or varnish. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. shelves.. The design must be considered first and when one is selected.

Harrer. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. N. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. cut and glue them together. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Y. six designs are shown. Lockport. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. M. 2.Fig. -Contributed by Geo. Fig.

As the . will be retained by the cotton. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches.. etc. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular.. and the sides do not cover the jaws.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. says the English Mechanic. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. which was used in front of a horse's head. when it will be observed that any organic matter. 1. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. chips of iron rust.. etc. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. This piece of horse armor. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. London. but no farther. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure.

a weak solution of glue will do equally well. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. An arrangement is shown in Fig. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. and the clay model oiled. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. but the back is not necessary. as the surface will hold the clay. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. This being done. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. with the exception of the thumb shield. but for . 8. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. and therefore it is not described. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. the rougher the better. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. 6 and 7. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. except the thumb and fingers. 2. In Fig. 2. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. as shown in the sketch. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. 4. This triangularshaped support. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. the same as in Fig. and will require less clay. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. then another coat of glue. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. which can be made in any size. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. This can be made in one piece. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. The armor is now removed from the model. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. All being ready. which is separate. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. This will make the model light and easy to move around. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns.

long. La Rue. --Contributed by John G. Y. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. 9. the foils will not move. . The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. two in each jaw. fastened to the rod. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Buxton. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. two for the jaws and one a wedge.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. --Contributed by Ralph L. Goshen. running down the plate. Redondo Beach. in depth. If it does not hold a charge. cut into the shape shown in Fig. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Fasten a polished brass ball to. are glued to it. and the instrument is ready for use. each about 1/4 in. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. the top of the rod. 1/2 in. will be about right. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. A piece of board. wide and 1/2 in. but 3-1/2 in. Calif. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. the two pieces of foil will draw together. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. When locating the place for the screw eyes. The two pieces of foil. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. are better shown in Fig. 2. N.

The can may be bronzed. At a point 6 in. is made of a 1/4-in.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. M. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. A. as indicated in the . Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. as shown in the illustration. enameled or otherwise decorated. about 15 in. from the smaller end. hole bored through it. --Contributed by Mrs. Texas. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Corsicana. as this will cut under the water without splashing. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. When a fish is hooked. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. silvered. 2-1/2 in. Bryan. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. long. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. pine board.

then with a nail. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Polish the metal. thick. When it has dried over night. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. A good size is 5 in. take a piece of thin wood. Basswood or butternut. as shown. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. If soft wood. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. 3/8 or 1/4 in. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. using powdered pumice and lye. will do as well as the more expensive woods. put a coat or two of wax and polish . The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Having completed the drawing. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece.Match Holder accompanying sketch. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. such as basswood or pine was used. or even pine. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. long over all. punch the holes. Next prepare the metal holder. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Any kind of wood will do. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. using a piece of carbon paper. and trace upon it the design and outline. wide by 6 in. 22 is plenty heavy enough.

Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. are used for the cores of the magnets. of pure olive oil. long. Cal. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. is used for the base of this instrument. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. 2 in. each 1 in. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. the whole being finished in linseed oil. Two wire nails. --Contributed by W. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. If one has some insight in carving. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. Richmond. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. A.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. long. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. If carving is contemplated. Jaquythe. thick. It is useful for photographers. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. . Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. can be made on the same standards. Instead of the usual two short ropes. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. wide and 5 in. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. 1/2 in. The metal holder may next be fastened in place.

similar to that used in electric bells. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. --Contributed by W. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. except that for the legs. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. 25 gauge. at A. H. the paper covering put on. when the key is pushed down. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. 3. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. cut in the shape of the letter T. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. London. says the English Mechanic. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. A piece of tin. about No. 1. Lynas. then covered with red. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. as shown by the dotted lines. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. About 1 in. All of the parts for the armor have been described. leaving about 1/4 in. A rubber band. cloth or baize to represent the legs. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. as shown in Fig. . acts as a spring to keep the key open. in the shape shown in the sketch. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside.

So set up. These can be purchased at a stationery store. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. holes. Cut them to a length or 40 in. drill six 1/4-in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. Silver paper will do very well. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. The two pieces are bolted together. apart. 3 in. Instead of using brass headed nails. Secure two strips of wood. hole in the center. apart. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. at each end. make the same series of eight small holes and. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. one to another . By moving the position of the bolt from. Take the piece shown in Fig. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. 1 and drill a 1/4in. or ordinary plaster laths will do. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. about 1 in. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. completes the equipment. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. A 1/4-in. long. and eight small holes.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. says Camera Craft. in the other end. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. can be made in a few minutes' time. 2. 1 in. flat headed carriage bolt. Fig. for the sake of lightness. In one end of the piece. not too tight. and round off the ends to improve their appearance..

taking the same start as for the square fob. Then take B and lay it over A. the one marked A. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. 4. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. but instead of reversing . as in portraiture and the like. A round fob is made in a similar way. Start with one end. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. of the ends remain unwoven. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. 2. In this sketch. 2. 1. Then draw all four ends up snugly. as shown in Fig. D over A and C. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. C over D and B.of the larger holes in the strip. long. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. 2. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. and the one beneath C. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. and lay it over the one to the right. lay Cover B and the one under D. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. A is the first string and B is the second. then B over C and the end stuck under A. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. for instance. doubled and run through the web of A. in Fig. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. Fig. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes.

as in making the square fob. Other designs can be made in the same manner. The round fob is shown in Fig. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. as B. is left out at the center before starting on one side. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. 5. the design of which is shown herewith. over the one to its right. always lap one string. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. is to be made of leather. --Contributed by John P. as at A in Fig. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Rupp. 3. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. especially if silk strings are used. Monroeville. 1-1/2 in. A loop. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. Ohio. long.

After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. it can be easily renewed. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. Houghton. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. such as a nut pick. door facing or door panel. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. Any smooth piece of steel. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. When the supply of wax is exhausted. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. pressing it against the wood. beeswax or paraffin. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. A. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. Northville. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. using the reverse side.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. Mich. filling them with wax. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. -Contributed by A. .

it is best to leave a plain white margin. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. those on matte paper will work best. long. says Photographic Times. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Thompson. leaving about 1/4 in. place it face down in the dish. if blueprints are used. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Petersburg. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. New York. remaining above the surface of the board. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. . E and F. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Fold together on lines C. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. apart and driven in only part way. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. and after wetting. Enough plaster should.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. although tin ones can be used with good success. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. Select the print you wish to mount. Y. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Ill. but any kind that will not stick may be used. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. N. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. thick. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. --Contributed by O. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. D. J. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. The tacks should be about 1 in. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. and about 12 in. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it.

as shown at the left in the sketch.. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. will be rendered perfectly white. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. Lower into the test tube a wire. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. filling the same about onehalf full. roses. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. as shown in the right of the sketch. One of the . and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. etc. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. violets. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. without mixing the solutions. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. bell flowers. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda.

Shabino. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. Millstown. Fig. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The first point should be ground blunt. --Contributed by L. not too tightly. The sound box. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The tin horn can be easily made. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. is about 2-1/2 in. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. made of heavy tin. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. L. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. When soldering these parts together. long. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. and at the larger end. thick. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . 2. The diaphragm. but which will not wobble loose. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. shading.. 1-7/8 in. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. 1. South Dakota. in diameter and 1 in. turned a little tapering. A rod that will fit the brass tube. as shown. 3. or delicate tints of the egg. as shown in the sketch. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. should be soldered to the box. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. about 1/8s in. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. long and made of wood.

and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Victor. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Ill. wondering what it was. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Chicago. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. says the Iowa Homestead.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. is to take a knife with two blades at one end.Contributed by E. put a board on top. and weighted it with a heavy stone. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Gold. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. mice in the bottom. Jr. E. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Colo. and.

N. Pereira. Ottawa. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. --Contributed by Lyndwode. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Can. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. . Buffalo. Y.

Cal. longer than the length of the can. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Put a small nail 2 in. by means of a flatheaded tack. De Loof. --Contributed by Thos. through which several holes have been punched. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Richmond. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. cut round. Mich. This cart has no axle. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Jaquythe. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. A. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. --Contributed by W. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. above the end of the dasher. and at one end of the stick fasten. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Grand Rapids. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. as shown.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. as it can be made quickly in any size. a piece of tin. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so .

--Contributed by James M. wide and 1/8 in. Kane. The baseboard and top are separable. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. 1-1/2 in. New Orleans. 1. Fig. 2. Notches 1/8 in. wide. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. Doylestown. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. were below the level of the bullseye. screwed it on the inside of a store box. 1 ft. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. wide and as long as the box. cut in the center of the rounding edge. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. I reversed a door gong.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly.1. apart. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. thick. long. 2. 2 in. 1/4 in. wide and 3 ft. as shown. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. 2. Pa. deep and 3 in. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. The candles. of course. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. La. board. A wedge-shaped piece of .

After completing the handle. 3. take two pieces of hard wood. After the glue has dried. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. Ia. --Contributed by G. the shelf could not be put on the window. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. it can be removed without marring the casing. when placed as in Fig.. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. A. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. the reason being that if both were solid. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. by cutting away the ends. the blade is put back into the groove . scissors. The block can also be used as a paperweight. When not in use. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. etc. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. wide into each side of the casing. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. to prevent its scratching the desk top. This device is very convenient for invalids. Worcester. For the handle. 1. dressing one surface of each piece. can be picked up without any trouble. stone or wood. Wood. Needles. West Union. will. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade.Book Back Holders metal. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Mass. wide rubber bands or felt. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. as shown in Fig. Cover the block with rubber.

. Mass. Pa. --Contributed by Maud McKee. 1. --Contributed by H. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. long.and sharpened to a cutting edge. as shown in Fig. Malden. If desired. Hutchins. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. thus carrying the car up the incline. S. Jacobs. 2. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. -Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. Cleveland. 1 in. A. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. square and 4 in. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. is shown in the accompanying sketch. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Erie. A notch is cut in one side. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Ohio.

It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. . Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. a board on which to work it. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. If one such as is shown is to be used. One sheet of metal. The letters can be put on afterward.. and an awl and hammer. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. Prepare a design for the front. N. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Cape May Point. This will insure having all parts alike. will be needed.J. 6 by 9-1/2 in.

behind or through the center of a table leg. only the marginal line is to be pierced. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. to right angles. turpentine. 1/4 part. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. says Master Painter. flat brush. which is desirable. 3/4 part. On the back. One coat will do. or. So impressive are the results. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. The music will not sound natural. a violin. applied by means of a brush.Fasten the metal to the board. The stick may be placed by the side of. 2 parts white vitriol. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. if desired. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. but weird and distant. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. . or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. 1 part. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil." In all appearance. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. paste the paper design right on the metal. If any polishing is required. varnish. that can be worked in your own parlor. mandolin or guitar. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. as shown. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. in the waste metal. placed on a table. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. Remove the metal. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick.

apart. Two pairs of feet. London. is bent square so as to form two uprights. With proper tools this is easy. without them. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. square bar iron. are shaped as shown in Fig. each 28 in. across the top. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. 2. The longest piece. long and measuring 26 in. it might be difficult. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. . long and spread about 8 in. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. wide. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. 3. and is easy to construct.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. says Work. thick by 1/2 in. long. round-head machine screws. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. each 6 in.

A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. Place the corner piece of glass. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. better still. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. using rosin as a flux. lead. D. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. cut a long piece of lead. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. 7. 6. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. Fig. After the glass is cut. C. 5. The brads are then removed. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. is held by the brads. as shown in Fig. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. The design is formed in the lead. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. B. Fig. on it as shown. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. While the piece of lead D. 4. The glass. and the base border. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. in the grooves of the borders. the latter being tapped to . Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. or. 5. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. special flux purchased for this purpose. After the joints are soldered. A. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. the piece E can be fitted and soldered.

Jr. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. one on each side and central with the hole.the base of the clip. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. not less than 4 in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. long. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. and two wood blocks. in diameter and about 9 in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block.. J. long. N. and round the corners of one end for a ring. Bore a 3/4-in. Secure a post. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Dreier. The center pin is 3/4-in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. then flatten its end on the under side. as shown in Fig. rounded at the top as shown. This . --Contributed by W. in diameter and 1/4 in. plates. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Fasten the plates to the block B. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. wood screws in each washer. Make three washers 3-in. This ring can be made of 1-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Camden. long. Bore a 5/8-in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. rocker bolt. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. A and B. thick and drill 3/4-in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. bolt. square and of the length given in the drawing. then drill a 3/4-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. H. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. 8. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. plank about 12 ft. holes through their centers. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. bolt.

This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. 4 in. 4 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. from one edge. long. long. screws. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars.will make an excellent cover for a pot. 2-1/2 in. To substitute small. straight-grained hickory. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. square by 5 ft. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. long. If trees are convenient. 1/2 in. horse and rings. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 3 in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. New Orleans. boards along the side of each from end to end. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 1-1/4in. 50 ft. long. chestnut or ash. hickory. Draw a line on the four 7-in. square by 9-1/2 ft. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. La. 16 screws. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. The four 7-in. by 6-1/2 ft. maple. by 3 ft. 9 in. 1. 2 by 4 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. 4 pieces. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 3/4 by 3 in. 4 pieces. shanks. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. can make a first class gymnasium. and some one can swing an axe. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. long. 1 by 7 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. long and 1 piece. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. bit. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. bolts and rope. in diameter and 7 in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. because it will not stand the weather. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 7 in. by 2 ft. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. of 1/4-in. 4 filler pieces.

and once tightened the bar will be rigid. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft.. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle.bored. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. deep and remove all loose dirt. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. 8 in. 2. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. apart. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. at each end. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. from the end. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. apart. Bore a 9/16-in.. piece of wood. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. boards coincide. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. so the 1/2-in. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. each 3 ft.

not much to look at in daytime. in an endless belt. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. W. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement.. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. was at its height. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. apart. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. and materially heightened the illusion. passing through a screweye at either end. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room." which skimmed along the distant horizon. not even the tumbler. it is taken to the edge of the foot. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. and then passes in a curve across the base. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. the effect is very striking. disappearing only to reappear again. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. but most deceptive at dusk. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. He stretched the thread between two buildings. and ascends the stem. And all he used was a black thread. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. just visible against the dark evening sky. If the tumbler is rotated. . When the interest of the crowd. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. it follows the edge for about 1 in. which at once gathered. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. about 100 ft. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in.

Chisel out two notches 4 in. by 7 ft. deep. 2 by 4 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. The cork will come out easily. long. large spikes. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. and turned in a spiral D. long. by 3 ft. long and 1 doz. beginning at a point 9 in. by 2 ft. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. long. Bevel the ends of . Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. To make the apparatus. 8 in. 6 in. 4 wood screws. preferably cedar. 2 in. long. 8 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 7 in. square and 6 ft. 2 by 4 in. 2 base pieces. by 10 ft. from either side of the center. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 4 knee braces. long. so the point will be on top. 8 bolts. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 8 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. long. La. 1. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 2 cross braces. square and 51/2 ft. long. long. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 4 in. New Orleans. 2 by 3 in. 2 side braces. wide and 1 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 4 bolts. Fig. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A wire about No.

using four of the 7-in bolts. so the bolts in both will not meet. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. additional long. leaving the strainer always in position. equipped with a strainer. etc. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. If using mill-cut lumber.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. ( To be Continued. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. leave it undressed. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. jellies. A. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. . Two endpieces must be made. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. as shown in the diagram. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. but even unpainted they are very durable. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. A large sized ladle. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. After the trenches are dug. --Contributed by W. except the bars. and countersinking the heads. Cal. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. of 7 ft. Richmond. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. Jaquythe. which face each other. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. before burying the lower part of the end pieces.. The wood so treated will last for years. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. screws. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled.the knee braces. save the bars. These will allow the ladle to be turned. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle.

it is necessary to place a stick. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. partly a barrier for jumps. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. which seems impossible. milling machine. thus holding the pail as shown. . is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. of sufficient 1ength. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. Oil. or various cutting compounds of oil. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. drill press or planer. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. In order to accomplish this experiment. A.

2 by 4 in. bolts. bolts. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. These are well nailed in place. apart. long. long. 2 by 4 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . by 3 ft.. to fasten the knee braces at the top. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. two 1/2-in. 3 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. 4-1/2 in. Hand holds must be provided next. beginning 1-1/2 in. 2 by 4 in. square by 5 ft. and free from knots. wood yard or from the woods.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. but 5 ft. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant.. The round part of this log must be planed. To construct. 4 knee braces. These are placed 18 in. square by 5-1/2 ft. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. in diameter--the larger the better. Procure from a saw mill. long. by 3 ft. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. bolts. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. in the ground. long. 4 in. 4 in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. 1 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. by 3 ft. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 2 adjusting pieces. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. projections and splinters. long. is a good length. long. apart in a central position on the horse. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. long. 4 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. bolt. 7 in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 2 bases. long. piece of 2 by 4-in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. from each end. ten 1/2-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. 1 cross brace.

the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts.horse top. Such a hand sled can be made in a . When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. over and around. pipe and fittings. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. such as a dent. Richmond. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Jaquythe. water. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. but nevertheless. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. no one is responsible but himself. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. it is caused by an overloaded shell. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. it is caused by some obstruction. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. then bending to the shape desired. etc. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Also. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel.--Contributed by W. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. snow. Cal. A.

Toronto. then run a string over each part. Mass. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. . This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. is much better than a wood sled. which. thick. W. 1. Ontario. --Contributed by J. Vener. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. France. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. in width and 1/32 in. at E and F. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. The end elevation. Boston. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Noble.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Joerin. Paris. when complete. These. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. 2. --Contributed by Arthur E. --Contributed by James E. are all the tools necessary. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. will give the length. when straightened out. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig.

are nailed. AA and BB. . Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. nor that which is partly oxidized. The method shown in Figs. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. 3. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. 4. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. It is best to use soft water. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. and the latter will take on a bright luster. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade.

two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. class ice-yacht. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. Broad lines can be made. 2. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. 3. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 8 and 9. The materials used are: backbone. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. .Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 4. as shown in Fig. 1). The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. or various rulings may be made. as shown in Fig. or unequal widths as in Fig. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 2. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

Both the lower . It can be made longer or shorter. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The headstock is made of two tees. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. a larger size of pipe should be used. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. pins to keep them from turning. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. about 30 in. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. a tee and a forging. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. nipples and flanges arranged as shown.Fig. out from the collar. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. bent and drilled as shown. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. but if it is made much longer. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. 1. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. pipe. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. long. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center.

The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. To do this. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. or a key can be used as well. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 2. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Cal. Boissevain. UpDeGraff. --Contributed by M. --Contributed by W. Indiana. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Held. thick as desired.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. a corresponding line made on this. 3/4 or 1 in. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. W. and will answer for a great variety of work. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. It is about 1 in. M. as shown in Fig. Musgrove. 2. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. but also their insulating properties. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Laporte. Man. . 2. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. --Contributed by W. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Fruitvale. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. else taper turning will result. 1. as shown in Fig. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw.

and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . To obviate this.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. --Contributed by E. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. In use. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The handle is of pine about 18 in. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. long. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Smith. J. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. Cline. as shown. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. Ark. Ft.

which should be backed out of contact. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. --Contributed by Walter W. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. After being entered. White. Colo. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. This prevents the drill from wobbling. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. New Orleans. take . La. if this method is followed: First. the drill does not need the tool. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. centering is just one operation too many. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. face off the end of the piece. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. and when once in true up to its size. Denver. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. on starting the lathe. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution.

shown at C. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. It can be used in a great number of tricks. and this given to someone to hold. all the better. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. says the Sphinx. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. a bout 1/2 in. The glass tube B. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. the cap is placed over the paper tube. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. The handkerchief rod. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. after being shown empty. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. a long piece of glass tubing. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. as shown in D. and can be varied to suit the performer. shorter t h a n the wand. vanishing wand. After the wand is removed. is put into the paper tube A.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. In doing this. by applying caustic soda or . unknown to the spectators.

by 14 by 17 in. as shown by K. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 1. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. Glue the neck to the box. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. The sides. End. and glue it to the neck at F. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. With care and patience.potash around the edges of the letters. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. The brace at D is 1 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. 2 Sides. square and 1-7/8 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. long. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 1/4 in. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. Glue strips of soft wood. 1 Bottom. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. thick. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. can be made by the home mechanic. with the back side rounding. 1 End. preferably hard maple. cut to any shape desired. 3/16. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 1 Neck. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. across the front and back to strengthen them. Cut a piece of hard wood. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. This dimension and those for the frets . As the cement softens.

O. thick and about 1 ft. When it is completed you will have a canoe. but it is not. 1) on which to stretch the paper. toward each end.should be made accurately. --Contributed by Chas. in diameter. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. or backbone. E. Frary. Six holes.Pa. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. -Contributed by J. and beveled . Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. H. A board 1 in. 3/16 in. Stoddard. long is used for a keel. Carbondale. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. wide and 11-1/2 ft. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Norwalk. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat.

Any tough. and are not fastened. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. apart. with long stout screws. 3). Osiers probably make the best ribs. 3). Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Fig. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. probably. two strips of wood (b. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 4). C. long. slender switches of osier willow. thick. and so. in thickness and should be cut. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. buy some split cane or rattan. Fig. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. 3. 3. Green wood is preferable. which are easily made of long. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. 1 and 2. as shown in Fig. will answer nearly as well. The cross-boards (B. but twigs of some other trees. and. These are better. thick. such as is used for making chairbottoms. Fig. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. Fig. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. 3/8 in. Fig. procure at a carriage factory. the loose strips of ash (b. 1. as they are apt to do. b. Shape these as shown by A. 4. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. by means of a string or wire.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. . Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. In drying. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. Fig. as shown in Fig. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. such as hazel or birch. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. when made of green elm. Fig. a. two twigs may be used to make one rib. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. Fig. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire.. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. in such cases. C. b. 2). or other place. Fig. For the gunwales (a. The ribs.) in notches. wide by 26 in. twigs 5 or 6 ft. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. b. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. but before doing this. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. long are required. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. 2. some tight strips of ash. are next put in. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. B. as before described. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. or similar material. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. 2). 13 in. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff.

sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. preferably iron. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. wide. and held in place by means of small clamps. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. It should be smooth on the surface. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. and light oars. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Fig. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. however. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. Being made in long rolls. apply a second coat of the same varnish. If not. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. When thoroughly dry. The paper is then trimmed. When the paper is dry. and as soon as that has soaked in. but neither stiff nor very thick. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. tacking it to the bottom-board. Then take some of the split rattan and. If the paper be 1 yd. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. and very tough. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. and steady in the water. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. 5). it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. of very strong wrapping-paper. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. if it has been properly constructed of good material. B. after wetting it. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. You may put in . cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. but with less turpentine. It should be drawn tight along the edges.

1 and the end in . Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. Fig. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. Fig. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. and make a movable seat (A. they will support very heavy weights. We procured a box and made a frame. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. Drive the lower nail first. to fit it easily. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. 5). and if driven as shown in the cut. 1. Fig. 2. fore and aft.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. 5. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box.

Pa. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. A good way to handle this work. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. 3. Pittsburg. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. being softer where the flame has been applied. 5.Fig. This is an easy . Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. This way has its drawbacks. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. and the result is. and the glass. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. 4. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. Close the other end with the same operation. this makes the tube airtight. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass.

rivet punch. very rapid progress can be made. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. second. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. The candle holders may have two. file. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. thin screw. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. or six arms. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. above the work and striking it with the hammer. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. fifth. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. then reverse. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. -Contributed by A. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. above the metal. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. four. Oswald. metal shears. Give the metal a circular motion. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. with a piece of carbon paper.way to make a thermometer tube. Sixth. extra metal all around. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. fourth. three. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . third. also trace the decorative design. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. 23 gauge. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. flat and round-nosed pliers. After the bulb is formed. Seventh.

After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Having pierced the bracket. Metal polish of any kind will do. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Small copper rivets are used.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. and holder. drip cup. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing.

and it will be ready for future use. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. on a water bath. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. hammer. N. The wind was the cheapest power to be found.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. except they had wheels instead of runners. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. F. thus it was utilized. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. A saw. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. and brace and bit were the tools used. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. glycerine 4 parts. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. Twenty cents was all I spent. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. winding the ends where they came together with wire. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. and in a week . I steer with the front wheel. and other things as they were needed. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Mother let me have a sheet. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. The gaff. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. the stick at the bottom of the sail. Shiloh. The boom. and water 24 parts. sugar 1 part. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. all the rest I found. smooth it down and then remove as before. when it will be ready for use. Heat 6-1/2 oz. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. alcohol 2 parts. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. they were like an ice boat with a sail. deep. J. and add the gelatine. using a steel pen. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. is a broomstick. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. Soak 1 oz. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. Fifty. if it has not absorbed too much ink.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens . A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. 3. well seasoned pine. wide and 15 in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. 1. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. 8 in. The slide support. or glue. and a projecting lens 2 in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp.. are . long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. The board is centered both ways. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. and. wire brads. DD. or a lens of 12-in. This ring is made up from two rings. A table. provided the material is of metal. but if such a box is not found. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. slide to about 6 ft. G. describe a 9-in. above the center. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. at a point 1 in. Fig. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. If a small saw is used. E. and the lens slide. long. high. 1/2 to 3/4 in. thick. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. wide.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. as desired. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. about 2 ft. and 14 in. H. A and B. and the work carefully done. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. focus enlarging a 3-in. at a distance of 24 ft. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig.

A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. light burning oil. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. placed on the water. To reach the water. Small strips of tin.-Contributed by G. the water at once extinguishes the flame. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. Minn. B. E.constructed to slip easily on the table. the strips II serving as guides. A sheet . St. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. JJ. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. and when the right position is found for each. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. The arrangement is quite safe as. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. but not long enough. of safe. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. Paul. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. P. should the glass happen to upset. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. apply two coats of shellac varnish.

then the corners on one end are doubled over.H. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 9 in. by 12 ft. 3. form a piece of wire in the same shape. 2. Fig. N. I ordered a canvas bag. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. If one of these clips is not at hand. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. from a tent company. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 1. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. to cover the mattresses. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 3 in. Schenectady. Fig. 12 ft. --Contributed by J.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 4. 3.. Crawford. Y.

1. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. 1. Fold two strips of light cardboard. To calibrate the instrument. to keep it from unwinding. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. 3/4 in. V. wide. Fasten the wire with gummed label. 2. C. in the center coil. An arc is cut in the paper. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. holes in the edge. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Attach a piece of steel rod. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. for amperes and the other post. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. A rubber band. long. so as to form two oblong boxes. to the coil of small wire for volts. Colo. through which the indicator works. drill two 3/16 in. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. 3/4 in. 1/2 in. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. insulating them from the case with cardboard. and insert two binding-posts. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Warren. Pa. --Contributed by Walter W. first mark the binding-post A. apart. A Film Washing Trough [331] . as shown in Fig. thick. 2. Denver. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. D. 1/2 in. open on the edges. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. 2. Fig. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edward M. White. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Teasdale. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. 3 to swing freely on the tack. long and 3/16 in. Fig. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Do not use too strong a rubber.each edge.

apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. M. Wood Burning [331] . Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Dayton. Cut a 1/4-in. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. O.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. as shown. --Contributed by M. Hunting. Place this can on one end of the trough. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. with the large hole up.

Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. mouth downward. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . then into this bottle place. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.

or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. 1.Y. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. but not very thick. long. many puzzling effects may be obtained. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Place the small bottle in as before. --Contributed by Fred W. 2. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. provided the bottle is wide. thick.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. If the small bottle used is opaque. as shown in the sketch. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. wide and 4 in. Whitehouse. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Upper Troy. Ala. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. This will make a very pretty ornament. --Contributed by John Shahan. Auburn. N. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. If the cork is adjusted properly. 3/4 in.

Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. 1. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. was keyed to shaft C. 1. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. high without the upper half. to the shaft. which extended to the ground. thick. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. in diameter and 1 in. 2. B. Fig. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. Milter. 3. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. The wire L was put . which gave considerable power for its size. W. A staple. If a transmitter is used. I. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. 4. which was 6 in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. The 21/2-in.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. The bearing blocks were 3 in. Fig. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. iron rod. Fig. 1. sugar pine on account of its softness. thick. 1 in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. Fig. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. --Contributed by D. which was nailed to the face plate. K. The shaft C. was 1/4in. pulley F. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. were constructed of 1-in. On a 1000-ft. thick and 3 in. Fig. by the method shown in Fig. wide. even in a light breeze. G. 1. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. long. Its smaller parts. such as blades and pulleys. Both bearings were made in this manner. pulley. as shown in Fig. 2 ft. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. 1. line.

after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. long and bend it as . Fig. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. 6. hole was bored for it. with all parts in place. 1. 1.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. as. long and 3 in. 3 in. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. 1. 25 ft. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. was tacked. and was cut the shape shown. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. The other lid. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. when the windmill needed oiling. across the thin edge of a board. long and bend it as shown at A. H. providing one has a few old materials on hand. long. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. square to the board P at the top of the tower. 2. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. 1) 4 in. 6. wide and 1 in. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. R. The power was put to various uses. through the latter. cut out another piece of tin (X. Fig. for instance. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. long. If you have no bell. Fig. with brass headed furniture tacks. 5. To make the key. To lessen the friction here. Fig. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. top down also. Fig. so that the 1/4-in. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. a 1/2-in. The bed plate D. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. strips. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. Fig. Fig. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. in the center of the board P. 1. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. washers were placed under pulley F. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. The smaller one. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. There a 1/4-in. 0. Two washers were placed on shaft C. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. This board was 12 in. long and 1/2 in. apart in the tower. in diameter. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. hole for the shaft G was in the center. G. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. This fan was made of 1/4-in. This completes the receiver or sounder. pine 18 by 12 in. was 2 ft. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Cut a piece of tin 2 in.

after the manner of bicycle wheels. Before tacking it to the board. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood.shown. 1. although it can be made with but two. at the front. fitted with paddles as at M. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. 2. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. The rear barrels are. Now. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. leaving the other wire as it is. Thus a center drive is made. as shown at Water. and. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. using cleats to hold the board frame. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Going back to Fig. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. McConnell. -Contributed by John R. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. as indicated. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. When tired of this instrument. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. By adjusting the coils. like many another device boys make. causing a buzzing sound.

A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. there will not be much friction. can be built. 1. copper piping and brass tubing for base. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . 3. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. To propel it. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. If the journals thus made are well oiled. feet on the pedals. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. The speed is slow at first. as shown in Fig. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. or even a little houseboat. There is no danger. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. which will give any amount of pleasure. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street.

but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Turn a small circle of wood. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. 1. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. 1. Fig. 2. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. or it may be put to other uses if desired. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Fig. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . D. B. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. 1. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. 2. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. 2. Place one brass ring in cylinder. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. If it is desired to make the light very complete. Shape small blocks of boxwood. If magnifying glass cannot be had. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Fig. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. C. Fig. A. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. and so creating a false circuit. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead.of pleasure for a little work.

near the bed. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. contact post. H. --Contributed by C. wide and 1/16 in. --Contributed by Geo. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. 4 in. C. key of alarm clock. some glue will secure them. F. such as is used for cycle valves. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. Ogden. 5-1/4 by 10 in. X. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. 3/8 in. bell. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. I. S. Utah. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. or 1/4in. after two turns have been made on the key. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. switch. The parts indicated are as follows: A. dry batteries. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . brass strip. brass rod. long. Brinkerhoff. Swissvale. shelf. To throw on light throw levers to the left. wire from batteries to switch. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. long. set alarm key as shown in diagram. To operate this. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. Throw lever off from the right to center. thick. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . by having the switch on the baseboard. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. after setting alarm. J. copper tubing. In placing clock on shelf. wire from light to switch. bracket. if too small. and pulled tight. C. G. To get the cylinder into its carriage. Pa. T. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. B. E.. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. D. wire from bell to switch. When alarm goes off. 4-1/2 in. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. while lying in bed. Chatland. which stops bell ringing.india rubber tubing.

2. about 3-1/2 in. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. 2. This is to form the fuse hole. 1. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Having finished this. wide. Fig. 4 in. from one end. Fig. Chapman. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Pull out the nail and stick. long. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. making it as true and smooth as possible. as at B. will do the heating. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. letting it extend 3/4 in. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. for instance. 3. a bed warmer. 1/4 in. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. A flannel bag. about 6 in. S. as at A. Make the spindle as in Fig. being careful not to get the sand in it. 1. as . which can be made of an old can. Minn. Fig.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. --Contributed by Chas. in diameter. Lanesboro. as at A. as in Fig. in diameter. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Make a shoulder. beyond the end of the spindle. gives the heater a more finished appearance. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. All that is required is a tin covering.

A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. 1. thick. --Contributed by Arthur E. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. 5/8 in. 1 in. A piece of oak. Joerin. deep. 11/2 in.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. The material must be 1-1/2 in. The illustration shows how this is done. good straight-grained pine will do. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. thick. long. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. or hickory. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. wide and 6 ft. thick. ash. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. wide and 3/8 in. spring and arrows. long. A piece of tin. long. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. but if this wood cannot be procured. 6 in. 3/8 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. this is to keep the edges from splitting. will be sufficient to make the trigger. wide and 3 ft.

is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. Fig. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. E. having the latter swing quite freely. Wilmette. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. To shoot the crossbow. Fig. When the trigger is pulled. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. --Contributed by O. To throw the arrow. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. Fig. better still. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. The bow is not fastened in the stock. as shown in Fig. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. The trigger. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. 4. from the end of the stock. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. from the opposite end. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. thick. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. in diameter. place the arrow in the groove. 9. it lifts the spring up. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. 8. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. 2. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. Ill. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. The stick for the bow. wide at each end. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. or through the necessity of. 3. 6. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. and one for the trigger 12 in. A spring. Trownes. 7. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. Such a temporary safe light may be . which is 1/4 in.

a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. and replace as shown at B. By chopping the trunk almost through. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. apart. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. The cut should be about 5 ft. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. respectively. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. and nail it in position as shown at A. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. since the flame of the candle is above A. This lamp is safe. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. the bark lean-to is a . so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. making lighting and trimming convenient. from the ground. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Remove one end. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. is used as a door. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Remove the bottom of the box. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. it is the easiest camp to make. from the ground. says Photo Era. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. make the frame of the wigwam. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. The hinged cover E. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. C. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Moreover.

each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. . a 2-in. spruce. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. makes a good pair of tongs. and cedar. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. A piece of elm or hickory. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. 6 ft. are a convenient size for camp construction. thick. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. Sheets of bark.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. wide. make the best kind of a camp bed. deep and covered with blankets. selecting a site for a camp. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Tongs are very useful in camp. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. long and 2 or 3 ft. piled 2 or 3 ft. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. For a foot in the middle of the stick. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. and split the tops with an ax. wide and 6 ft. will dry flat. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. Where bark is used. and when the camp is pitched. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. In the early summer. 3 ft. nails are necessary to hold it in place. long and 1-1/2 in. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. For a permanent camp. long.

hinges.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. . or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and affording accommodation for several persons. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.

but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. to another . into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Doylestown. I drove a small cork. Kane. wide. B. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Fig. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. 1. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. and provide a cover or door. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Pa. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. A. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. B.. --Contributed by James M. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. the interior can. deep and 4 in. changing the water both morning and night. about 4 in.

which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. until. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. The diagram. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. a liquid. E. The current is thus compelled. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. if necessary. C. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. fused into one side. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. limit. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. which project inside and outside of the tube. such as ether. for instance. 2. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. 4 and 5). This makes . care being taken to have the rubber ring centered.glass tube. 2. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. for instance. Fig. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. 3. to pass through an increasing resistance. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted.

or pattern. Before removing the field from the lathe. clamp the template. or even 1/16 in. hole is . After the template is marked out. they will make a frame 3/4 in. 1. These holes are for the bearing studs. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. between centers. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. tap. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. drill the four rivet holes.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. 3-3/8 in. thicker. The bearing studs are now made. When the frame is finished so far. which may be of any thickness so that. which will make it uniform in size. thick. brass. mark off a space. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. 2. Alpena. set at 1/8 in. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. brass or iron. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. as shown in the left-hand sketch. in diameter. screws. bent at right angles as shown. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. by turning the lathe with the hand. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. 3-3/8 in. 4-1/2 in. Michigan. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. cannot be used so often. is composed of wrought sheet iron. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. larger than the dimensions given. in diameter. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. If the thickness is sufficient. After cleaning them with the solution. on a lathe. therefore. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. to allow for finishing. making it 1/16 in. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. A 5/8in. assemble and rivet them solidly. when several pieces are placed together. Fig. thick. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. as shown in Fig. but merely discolored. and for the outside of the frame. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. A. 3. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. Fig. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. Then the field can be finished to these marks. two holes.

These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . soldered into place. and build up the solder well. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. or otherwise finished. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. is turned up from machine steel. into which a piece of 5/8-in. solder them to the supports. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. Fig. brass rod is inserted. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The shaft of the armature. file them out to make the proper adjustment. 4. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. When the bearings are located. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field.

The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. to allow for finishing to size. brass rod. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. inside diameter. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. threaded. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. 1/8 in. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. When annealed. After the pieces are cut out. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. and held with a setscrew. 5. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. being formed for the ends. The pins are made of brass. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. Procure 12 strips of mica. 7. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. as shown in Fig. Rivet them together. then drill a 1/8-in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. The sides are also faced off and finished. thick are cut like the pattern. After they . The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. thick. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. 8. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. deep and 7/16 in. When this is accomplished. and then they are soaked in warm water. wide. 3/4 in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. washers. wide. by 1-1/2 in. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. as shown in Fig. thick and 1/4 in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. holes through them for rivets. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. 3. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. thick. 1-1/8 in. 9. 6. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in.. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. 3/4 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. sheet fiber. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 3. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. 6. as shown m Fig. hole and tap it for a pin. or segments. Armature-Ring Core. Make the core 3/4 in. thick.

After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. shown at B. The two ends are joined at B. Fig. In starting to wind. and wind on four layers. sheet fiber. after the motor is on the stand. thick. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. shown at A. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. the two ends of the wire. being required. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. After one coil. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. about 100 ft. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. of No. When the glue is set. wide and 1 in. of the wire. 5. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. yet it shows a series of . or side. Run one end of the field wire. by bending the end around one of the projections. long. sheet fiber. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. are soldered together. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. Fig. which will take 50 ft. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. 8 in. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. All connections should be securely soldered. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. The winding is started at A. of the end to protrude. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. The field is wound with No. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base.have dried. until the 12 slots are filled. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. they are glued to the core insulation. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. To connect the wires. This winding is for a series motor. 6 in. 1. 1. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. The source of current is connected to the terminals. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers.

is fastened to the metallic body. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. and one.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . still more simply. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. which serves as the ground wire. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. one from each of the eight contacts. A 1/2-in. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. Nine wires run from the timer. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. or. as in the case of a spiral.

one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. 45 deg. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. Without this attachment. circle. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. long. 6 in. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Covering these is a thin. of the dial. It should be . perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. board. thus giving 16 different directions. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration.The Wind Vane. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place.

Place the leather on some level. long to give the best results. Blackmer. Fill the box with any handy ballast. is most satisfactory. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. will be sufficient. however. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. . By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. called a chip carving knife. making it heavy or light. and securely nail on the top of the box. Cut 3-in. will answer the purpose just as well. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. and about 6 in. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. thus making a universal joint." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. Y.about 6 ft. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. Before tacking the fourth side. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. high. though a special knife. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. also a piece of new carpet. according to who is going to use it. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. N. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. Buffalo. 14 by 18 in. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. To work these outlines. or. To make it. -Contributed by James L. will be enough for the two sides. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. if not too high. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom.

A good leather paste will be required. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. An ordinary sewing-machine . Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.

Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. rather than the smooth side. of water. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. square and tying a piece of . If a fire breaks out. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. B. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Syracuse. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. and fasten the feathers inside of it. away from it. Morse. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. temporary lameness. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. of common salt and 10 lb. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place.will do if a good stout needle is used. can be thrown away when no longer needed. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. or a hip that has been wrenched. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Y. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. as in cases of a sprained ankle. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. and tie them together securely at the bottom. N. a needle and some feathers. --Contributed by Katharine D.

Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. as shown. --Contributed by J. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. commonly called tintype tin. 1/8 in. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. setting traps. F. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. deep. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. but not sharp. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool.string to each corner. etc. The body of the receiver. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. The diaphragm C. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. made up of four layers of No. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. wound on the head end. The strings should be about 15 in. board all around the bottom on the inside. There is a 1-in. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. Albany. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. cut to the length of the spool. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. One end is removed entirely.J. and tacked it to the boards. N. --Contributed by John A. Hellwig. laying poisoned meat and meal. long. thus helping the rats to enter. high. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. Wis. Gordon Dempsey. The end is filed to an edge. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. and the receiver is ready for use. B. A small wooden or fiber end. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. N. and a coil of wire. The coil is 1 in. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. A. letting it go at arm's length. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in.. wide and 1/16 in. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. Paterson. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. . Ashland. G. is cut on the wood. which is the essential part of the instrument. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. long. E. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. This not only keeps the rats out. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. Y. the corners being wired. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding.

care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. To clean small articles. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. wide. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Take a piece of string or. to . Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. and bend each strip in shape. better still. The vase is to have three supports. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. gold. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. a piece of small wire. begin with the smallest scrolls. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. A single line will be sufficient. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water.

Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened.. from the lines EF on the piece. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. from E to F. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. About 1 in. Work down the outside line of the design. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint.. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Trace also the line around the purse. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. wide when stitching up the purse. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. through which to slip the fly AGH. 3-1/4 in. .000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Fold the leather on the line EF. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. from C to D. thus raising it. as shown in the sketch. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used.which the supports are fastened with rivets. using a duller point of the tool. After taking off the pattern. and does not require coloring. 6-3/8 in. 4-1/4 in. 3-1/2 in. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. sharp pencil. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H.

(We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. Then nail the wheel down firmly. all the way around. and a model for speed and power. It is neat and efficient. as well as useful. It can be made without the use of a lathe. and. long. Cut off six pieces 12 in. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. b. and which will be very interesting. with pins or small nails. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. 3. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. square. then nail it. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. with a compass saw. around the wheel. 1 was cut. leaving the lug a. the "open" side.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. being cast in wooden molds. deep. First. When it is finished. with the open side down. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. with the largest side down. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. Now take another piece of wood. and tack the other piece slightly. Fit this to the two . Make the lug 1/4 in. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. deep. and cut out a wheel. and the projections B. 2. following the dotted lines. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. and cut it out as shown in Fig. This also should be slightly beveled. 1/2 in. by 12 ft. thick. then place the square piece out of which Fig. as shown in Fig. 1.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in.

hole bored through its center. 1.pieces just finished. 4. square pieces of wood.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. bolts. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and boring a 3/8-in. and lay it away to dry. place it between two of the 12-in. holes through it. square pieces of wood. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. and cut it out as shown in Fig. as shown by the black dots in Fig. then bolt it together. in the center of it. hole entirely through at the same place. deep. Now take another of the 12-in. and bore six 1/4-in. After it is finished. slightly beveled. and clean all the shavings out of it. hole 1/4 in. one of which should have a 3/8-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. as shown by the . Now put mold No. Take the mold apart.

It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. and two 1/4-in. and bore three 1/4-in. Then bolt the castings together. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. put the top of the brace through this hole. and 3/8-in. screw down. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. the other right-handed. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. This is for a shaft. fasten a 3/8-in. and drill them in the same manner. This will cast a paddle-wheel. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made.2. see that the bolts are all tight. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. long. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. 1. wide and 16 in. Fig. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. so that it will turn easily. place it under the drill. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. in diameter must now be obtained. and the exhaust hole in projection b. and pouring metal in to fill it up. one in the lug. and lay it away to dry. B. true it up with a square. b. drill in it. 4. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. Now take mold No. Commencing 1-1/2 in.black dots in Fig. and the other in the base. 5. as shown by the black dots in Fig. This is the same as Fig. instead of the right-handed piece. long. one in the projections. over the defective part. lay it on a level place. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. A piece of mild steel 5 in. After it is fitted in. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. as shown in illustration. Put this together in mold No. and connect to the boiler. and run in babbitt metal again. holes.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. 6. from the one end. and drill it entirely through. Using the Brace . The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. only the one is left-handed. d. Now cut out one of the 12-in. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. Pour metal into mold No. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings.1. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. This is mold No.2.1. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. 6. until it is full. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. and pour babbitt metal into it. holes at d. Let it stand for half an hour. where the casting did not fill out. place the entire machine in a vise. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. take an ordinary brace.

If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. will do good service. one 6 ft. Plan of Ice Boat . and. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. with a boss and a set screw. turn the wheel to the shape desired.. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. piece and at right angles to it. and if instructions have been carefully followed. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. and the other 8 ft. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Then take a knife or a chisel. At each end of the 6ft. long. while it is running at full speed.

To the under side of the 8-ft. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. so much the better will be your boat. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. 8 a reef point knot. The spar should be 9 ft. where they often did considerable damage. in the top before the skate is put on. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. at the top. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. should be of hardwood. long and 2-1/2 in. bolt the 8-ft. plank. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. at the end. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. which may come in handy in heavy winds. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. boards to make the platform. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. piece and at right angles to it. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. 1. in diameter. plank nail 8-in. 1. Fig. at the butt and 1 in. The tiller. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. as the runners were fastened. and about 8 in. 2 by 3 in. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. Fig.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. projecting as in Fig. in front of the rudder block. Make your runners as long as possible. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. Over the middle of the 6-ft. distant. 3. long. in diameter in the center. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. long. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. This fits in the square hole. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. in diameter at the base. leaving 1 ft. Run the seam on a machine.

that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. to block B. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. and the alarm bell will ring. Comstock. --Contributed by John D. wide. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. Adams. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. and place it behind a stove. The arrangement proved quite too effective. Its parts are as follows: A. Ariz. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. R. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. bent into a hook at each end. allowing the springs to contact at C. --Contributed by J. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. S S. Mechanicsburg. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. P. Phoenix. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. block of wood nailed to A. The . so that they come in contact at C. B. small piece of wood. P. Pa.

The center pole should be 10 ft. The seat arms may be any length desired. and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. high. including the . The stump makes the best support. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. 2. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. in diameter. Gild the pan all over. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes