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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. 2. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. as shown in Fig. 2. Noble. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. To throw a boomerang. E. Fig. Toronto. 1. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. wide and 2 ft. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. Ontario. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. as shown in Fig.Fig. 1. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. distant. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. grasp it and hold the same as a club. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. It is held in this curve until dry. away. --Contributed by J. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. with the hollow side away from you. apart. long will make six boomerangs. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. A piece of plank 12 in. 2 -. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. The pieces are then dressed round. 1. until it is bound as shown in Fig. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw.

according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. First. the block will drop out. made of 6-in. and it may be necessary to use a little water. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. or rather no bottom at all. 6 in. blocks . one inside of the circle and the other outside. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. high and 4 or 5 in. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. but about 12 in. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. it is not essential to the support of the walls. however. forcing it down closely. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. A very light. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. minus the top. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. dry snow will not pack easily. If the snow is of the right consistency. thick. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. which makes the building simpler and easier. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. long. A wall. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. and with a movable bottom. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together.

These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. or an old safe dial will do. Union.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. Ore. and the young architect can imitate them. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. is 6 or 8 in. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. wide. There is no outward thrust. A nail. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. 2. Goodbrod. long and 1 in. which can be made of wood. above the ground. The piece of wood. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. 3. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. --Contributed by Geo. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . It also keeps them out. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. C. Fig. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. 2. 3 -. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. which is about 1 ft. 1. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. D. Fig. a. Fig. 1.

one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. the box locked . If ordinary butts are used. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. Syracuse. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. says the Sphinx. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. New York. --Contributed by R. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook.When taking hot dishes from the stove. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. as the weight always draws them back to place. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. Merrill. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. one pair of special hinges. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. S. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes.

A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. 2. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. as shown in Fig. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. With the metal shears. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. It remains to bend the flaps. All . How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. one for each corner. Place the piece in a vise. When the sieve is shaken. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. -Contributed by L. as shown. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. If they do not. If the measuring has been done properly. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. draw one-half of it.and the performer steps out in view. smooth surface. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. 3. on drawing paper. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Fig. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. To make a design similar to the one shown. Ga. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. as shown in Fig. 1. Alberta Norrell. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. about 1-32 of an inch. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Augusta. proceed as follows: First. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. allowing each coat time to dry.

The current. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. as shown at AA. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. about 6 in. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. B. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. if rolled under the shoe sole. 25 gauge German-silver wire. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. --Contributed by R. in passing through the lamp. causing it to expand. Denver. from the back end. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. which is about 6 in. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. After this has dried. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. When the current is turned off. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. A resistance. C. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. A piece of porcelain tube. heats the strip of German-silver wire. If a touch of color is desired. In boring through rubber corks. R. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. Galbreath. of No. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. is fitted tightly in the third hole. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. H. The common cork.the edges should be left smooth. in diameter. should be in the line. used for insulation. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. long. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. 25 German-silver wire. and in the positions shown in the sketch. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . To keep the metal from tarnishing. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. Colo.

Fig. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. 1. . Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. --Contributed by David Brown. Mo. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. leaving a space of 4 in. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. as shown in Fig. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. 3. 2.bottom ring. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. with thin strips of wood. Purchase two long book straps. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. between them as shown in Fig. Kansas City. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe.

N. 1. Y. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. The string is then tied. The folds are made over the string. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. in diameter. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. which is the right weight for family use. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. 1. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. 3. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. to form a handle. having a gong 2-1/2 in. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. just the right weight for a woman to use. and one weighing 25 lb. These are shown in Fig. Kane. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Doylestown. 2. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Two strips of brass. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. 4. long.An ordinary electric bell. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Fig. and tack smoothly. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. one weighing 15 lb. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. When the aeroplane tips. as . The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Morse. Syracuse. are mounted on the outside of the box. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. Fig. 1. --Contributed by James M.. --Contributed by Katharine D. and a pocket battery. Pa.. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Fig. 36 in. C. A. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights.

Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. AA. N. 2. Y. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. two 1/8 -in. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. if once used. 1. and many fancy knick-knacks. 2. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. Frame Made of a Rod . A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. 3/32 or 1/4 in. four washers and four square nuts. long. such as brackets. Day. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Louis J. machine screws. bent as shown in Fig. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. The saw. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. in diameter. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. Floral Park. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest.

For etching. of water in which dissolve. Scranton. using a swab and an old stiff brush. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Apply two coats. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. after breaking up. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. therefore. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. 1 part sulphuric acid. Silver is the most desirable but. if copper or brass. An Austrian Top [12] . of course. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. it has the correct strength. treat it with color. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. The buckle is to be purchased. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should.. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. the most expensive. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. A. Of the leathers. as well as the depth of etching desired. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in.may be made of either brass. allowing each time to dry. If it colors the metal red. or silver. copper. as well as brass and copper. Rub off the highlights. File these edges. Detroit. be covered the same as the back.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Drying will cause this to change to purple. --Contributed by W. 1 part nitric acid. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. though almost any color may be obtained. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Watch Fob For coloring silver. of water. green and browns are the most popular. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. use them in place of the outside nuts. In the design shown. Michigan.

3/4 in. --Contributed by J. hole in this end for the top. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. . hole. pass one end through the 1/16-in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. long. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. Michigan. Ypsilanti. thick. 1-1/4 in. wide and 3/4 in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. is formed on one end. A handle. A 1/16-in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. Tholl. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. set the top in the 3/4 -in. in diameter. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Bore a 3/4-in. 5-1/4 in. long. When the shank is covered.F. The handle is a piece of pine. Parts of the Top To spin the top. starting at the bottom and winding upward. allowing only 1-1/4 in.

This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Ga. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. A. Northville. For black leathers. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Alberta Norrell. --Contributed by Miss L. . Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Houghton. --A. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. having no sides. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Mich. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Augusta. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. The baking surface. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. tarts or similar pastry.

A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. glass fruit jar. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . Mo. says Studio Light. When you desire to work by white light. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. the same as shown in the illustration. Centralia. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Stringing Wires [13] A. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. two turns will remove the jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. then solder cover and socket together.

When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. and not tip over. so it can be folded up. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. Wis. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. . Janesville. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. square by 12 in. 16 Horizontal bars. 4 Vertical pieces. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes.for loading and development. 4 Braces. They are fastened. 1-1/4 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. as shown in the cross-section sketch. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. square by 62 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 1-1/4 in.

The whole. after filling the pail with water. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. H. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. --Contributed by Dr. The front can be covered . Rosenthal. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. and a loop made in the end. -Contributed by Charles Stem. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. After rounding the ends of the studs. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. Cincinnati. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. from scrap material. New York. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. If the loop is tied at the proper place. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. O. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. Phillipsburg. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. C. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction.

and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. FIG. The . 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. if you try to tone them afterward. Wehr. by all rules of the game. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. the mouth of which rests against a. --Contributed by Gilbert A. 1 FIG.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. and. principally mayonnaise dressing. If the gate is raised slightly. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. Md. Develop them into strong prints. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. In my own practice. either for contact printing or enlargements. sickly one. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. By using the following method. the color will be an undesirable. thoroughly fix. you are. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. Baltimore. The results will be poor.

.. L.. but.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. Water .. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. 2..... three times. A good final washing completes the process... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished....... being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. in size.. wide and 4 in.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. With a little practice.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. 20 gr.. transfer it to a tray of water... in this solution.. 16 oz. as it will appear clean much longer than the white... Gray. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses..... San Francisco... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax." Cyanide of potassium .... It will bleach slowly and evenly. when it starts to bleach. etc.... long to admit the angle support. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder.. The blotting paper can .. --Contributed by T.... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. without previous wetting... to make it 5 by 5 in.... Place the dry print. 5 by 15 in.. 2 oz......... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper... Iodide of potassium . When the desired reduction has taken place. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. preferably the colored kind. where it will continue to bleach. Cal. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. 1 and again as in Fig.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.

20 gauge. --Contributed by L. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Canada. Corners complete are shown in Fig. having a width of 2-1/4 in. the shaft 1 in. 3. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Make a design similar to that shown. Monahan. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Wisconsin. the head of which is 2 in.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. wide below the . It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Wilson Aldred Toronto. --Contributed by J.J. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Oshkosh. wide. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. and a length of 5 in.

The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. being held perpendicular to the work. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. Pierce a hole with a small drill. With the metal shears. using carbon paper. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. then trace the other half in the usual way. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. 1 part nitric acid. as shown in Fig. 1. Trace the design on the metal. 3. With files. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. Apply with a small brush. Fig. Make one-half of the design. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. using a small metal saw. 4. deep. Allow this to dry. 1 Fig. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. The metal must be held firmly. then coloring. 2. After the sawing. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. For coloring olive green. freehand. but use a swab on a stick. after folding along the center line. using turpentine. 1 part sulphuric acid.FIG. . then put on a second coat. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Do not put the hands in the solution. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. which gives the outline of the design Fig. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. After this has dried.

Burnett. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. --Contributed by Katharine D. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Cal. East Hartford. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. on a chopping board. New York. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Ii is an ordinary staple. Carl Cramer. it does the work rapidly. Conn. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. --Contributed by H. thick. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. attach brass handles. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Morse. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. After the stain has dried. then stain it a mahogany color.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. M. When this is cold. Richmond. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. --Contributed by M. . The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. as shown. Syracuse.

Cal. Atwell. 1. not over 1/4 in. A. 4. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. --Contributed by W. . while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. --Contributed by Mrs. and several 1/8-in. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. as shown at A. Fig. 53 steel pens. square. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Richmond. Kissimmee. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. L. H. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. or tin. brass. holes. thick. also locate the drill holes. Florida. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. machine screws. saucers or pans. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. thick and 4 in.. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. indicating the depth of the slots.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. in width at the shank. 1/4 in. Jaquythe. as shown in Fig. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. one shaft. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. two enameled. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. some pieces of brass. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. about 3/16 in. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim.

machine screws. A 3/4-in. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. supply pipe. 6. 3. as shown in Fig. thick. can be procured. wide. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Fig.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. hole. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. 5. with a 3/8-in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. in diameter and 1/32 in. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. with 1/8-in. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. If the shaft is square. as shown. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. There should be a space of 1/16 in. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg.. wide and bend as shown in Fig. If metal dishes. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . about 1/32 in. long by 3/4 in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. a square shaft used. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. and pins inserted. each about 1 in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. thick. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. long and 5/16 in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. 1. Fig. as in Fig. The shaft hole may also be filed square. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. 2. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Bend as shown in Fig. 2. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. brass and bolted to the casing. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. hole in the center. hole is drilled to run off the water. and the ends filed round for the bearings. 7. machine screws and nuts. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. with the face of the disk. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. into the hole. using two nuts on each screw. lead should be run into the segments. Fig. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. These are connected to a 3/8-in. 3.

8-1/2 in. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. we will call the basket. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Fasten with 3/4-in. square and 30-1/2 in. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Be sure to have the cover. screws. three of which are in the basket. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. The four legs are each 3/4-in. V. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Stain the wood before putting in the . With a string or tape measure. Ill. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. deep over all. or more in diameter. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. La Salle. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Smith. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Hamilton. make these seams come between the two back legs. from the top of the box. Canada. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. deep and 1-1/4 in. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. high and 15 in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. from the bottom end of the legs. --Contributed by F. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by S. Cooke. long. Now you will have the box in two pieces. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. The lower part. When assembling. using four to each leg. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. to make the bottom.

Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Mass.2 Fig. Boston. wide. Baltimore. sewing on the back side. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Fig. as shown in the sketch. Cover them with the cretonne.lining. The folded part in the center is pasted together. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. When making the display. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. wide and four strips 10 in. The side. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Packard. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. -Contributed by Stanley H.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Sew on to the covered cardboards. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. --also the lower edge when necessary. Md. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. 1. you can. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. 2. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. and gather it at that point.

Orlando Taylor. Fig. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. N.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Y. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Cross Timbers. When through using the pad. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Crockett. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. --Contributed by B. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Mo. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. --Contributed by H. It is not difficult to . and. L. It is cleanly. Gloversville. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. with slight modifications. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. 3. saving all the solid part. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel.

across the face. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. After stirring. remove the contents. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. El Paso. S. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Texas. If a file is used. and secure it in place with glue or paste. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Lane. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. and scrape out the rough parts. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Both of these methods are wasteful. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. are shown in the diagram. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Mass. Bourne. -Contributed by C. Lowell. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. or if desired. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. it should be new and sharp. After this is done. --Contributed by Edith E.

I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. F.cooking utensil. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Oak Park. --Contributed by Marion P. Iowa. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. As these were single-faced disk records. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. The insects came to the light. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Canton. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Ill. Oregon. circled over the funnel and disappeared. The process works well and needs no watching. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Wheeler. A Postcard Rack [25]. Greenleaf. Those having houses . These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. After several hours' drying. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Turl. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Des Moines. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. --Contributed by Loren Ward. --Contributed by Geo. Ill.

Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. --Contributed by Thomas E. the bottom being 3/8 in. plane and pocket knife. Mass. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. boards are preferable. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Both sides can be put together in this way. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. by 2 ft. thick. but for cheapness 3/4 in. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. 6 in. and the second one for the developing bench. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. will do as well. and as they are simple in design. The single boards can then be fixed. 6 in. the best material to use being matched boards.. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. Only three pieces are required.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. material. Dobbins. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Rosenberg. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. one on each side of what will be the . anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Glenbrook. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. --Contributed by Wm. not even with the boards themselves. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room.. Lay the floor next. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Conn. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. and both exactly alike. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. Worcester.

The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves.. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. wide. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. and should be zinc lined. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 6) and another as F in the same drawing.. below which is fixed the sink. which is fixed on as shown . 9). nailing them to each other at the ridge. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. as shown in Figs. the closing side as at B. 10). It is shown in detail in Fig. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. and act as a trap for the light. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. At the top of the doorway. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. of the top of the door for the same reason. 6 and 9. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. is cut. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. 8. 5. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. so that it will fit inside the sink. The roof boards may next be put on. 9 by 11 in. Fig. 6. and the top as at C in the same drawing. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. In hinging the door.doorway. 2 in section. The developing bench is 18 in. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. 6. 7. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. brown wrapping paper.. by screwing to the floor. 3 and 4. etc. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. and to the outside board of the sides. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. and in the middle an opening. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. hinged to it. 11. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light.

Details of the Dark Rook .

hole bored in the center for a handle. but not the red glass and frame. 19. The handle should be at least 12 in. which makes it possible to have white light. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. as shown in Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. and a 3/8-in. Karl Hilbrich. or the room may be made with a flat roof. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. 20. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. mixing flour and water. as shown in the sections. 15. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. and a tank stand on it. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . For beating up an egg in a glass. screwing them each way into the boards. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. Pennsylvania. 13. preferably maple or ash. 14. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. 6. 18. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. --Contributed by W. as in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. it is better than anything on the market. 16. 13. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. as at I. these being shown in Fig. In use. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. Fig. 16. Fig. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 1. Erie. are fastened in the corners inside. if desired. four coats at first is not too many. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. or red light as at K. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. after lining with brown paper. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. Fig. as at M. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. The house will be much strengthened if strips. A circular piece about 2 in. though this is hardly advisable. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. 2. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. Fig.in Fig. 17. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob.

A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. New York. Smith. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. -Contributed by E. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. D. G. Kansas City. as shown in the sketch. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Mo. about 3/8 in. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Eureka Springs. when put together properly is a puzzle.copper should be. --Contributed by L. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Mitchell. which. To operate. Schweiger. long. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Yonkers. --Contributed by Wm. Ark. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. L. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. for a handle.

Having completed the bare box. as well as improve its appearance. Each cork is cut as in Fig. holes should be drilled in the bottom. 2. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. in order to thoroughly preserve it. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. the rustic work should be varnished. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. The design shown in Fig. A number of 1/2-in. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. After the box is trimmed. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. 1. for the moment. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. 3. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. which binds them together. need them. 3. to make it set level. The corks in use are shown in Fig. the box will require a greater height in front. . but may be replaced with a panel or other design. as is usually the case. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. If the sill is inclined. especially for filling-in purposes.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not.

This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. too dangerous.. share the same fate. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. and observe results. Each long projection represents a leg. cabbages. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. 2. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. 4. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. 1. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. 3. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. But I have solved the difficulty. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. can't use poison. as shown in Fig. life in the summer time is a vexation. drilled at right angles. etc. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. being partly eaten into. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. . F. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. it's easy. Traps do no good. When the corn is gone cucumbers. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J.

my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. of No. and made up and kept in large bottles. The solution can be used over and over again. strips. cut some of it off and try again. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. About 9-1/2 ft. If. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. by trial. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. the coil does not heat sufficiently.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. -. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. . The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. cut in 1/2-in. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. long. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. Iowa. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod.

Syracuse. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Doylestown. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. --Contributed by Katharine D. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. C. . releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. --Contributed by Victor Labadie.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. of oleic acid with 1 gal. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. of gasoline. Kane. Texas. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. and a strip. Pa. Stir and mix thoroughly. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. as shown in the sketch. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. is a good size--in this compound. Dallas. Y. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. but with unsatisfactory results. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Morse. hot-water pot. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. D. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. N. forks. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Fig 2. coffee pot. Knives. In cleaning silver. --Contributed by James M. to cause the door to swing shut. it falls to stop G. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Do not wash them. of whiting and 1/2 oz. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. 1) removed.

The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Harrisburg. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. of course. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Fisher. negatives. --Contributed by Theodore L. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. La. Ill. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. using the paper dry. Sprout. --Contributed by Oliver S. Pa. but unfixed. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Waverly. which is. . They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. New Orleans. later fixed and washed as usual. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand.

No two hamonograms are exactly alike. metal. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. Fig. To obviate this difficulty. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The harmonograph. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. then . the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. 1. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. In this uncertainty lies the charm. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy.

The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. --Contributed by James T. to prevent any side motion. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. 1-3/4 by 2 in. Another weight of about 10 lb. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. R. Ingham. 1. as shown in the lower part of Fig. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. provides a means of support for the stylus. Punch a hole. J. which can be regulated. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. one-fourth. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. or the lines will overlap and blur.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. for instance. ceiling. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. etc. Holes up to 3 in. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. is attached as shown at H. A small table or platform. what is most important. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. Gaffney. in diameter.. The length of the short pendulum H. such as a shoe buttoner. Rosemont. G. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. is about right for a 10-ft. makes respectively 3. and unless the shorter pendulum is. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. 1. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. --Contributed by Wm. in the center of the circle to be cut. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. A pedestal. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. as shown in Fig. with a nail set or punch. of about 30 or 40 lb. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. Chicago. one-fifth. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. exactly one-third.. A small weight. that is. as long as the other. Arizona. A length of 7 ft. A weight. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. K. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then.

one for the sender and one for the receiver. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. The two key cards are made alike. The capacity of the vise. Cape May City. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. 5. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. and proceed as before. then 3 as in Fig. --Contributed by J. -Contributed by W. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. Fig.H. Cruger. dividing them into quarters. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. N. then put 2 at the top. 2. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case.J. 6. a correspondent of . The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. 3. Chicago. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. 4. Fig. Morey.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. distributing them over the whole card. and 4 as in Fig. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 1. of course.J. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig.

thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Augusta. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. of the uprights. If constructed of the former. 6 gauge wires shown. After preparing the base and uprights. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. 1/4 in. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. 1/2 oz. Wind the successive turns of . The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. remove the prints.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. deep. Alberta Norrell. of 18-per-cent No. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. sheet of well made asbestos paper. says Popular Electricity. from the top and bottom. acetic acid and 4 oz. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Cut through the center. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. After securing the tint desired. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. long. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Ga. of ferricyanide of potash. the portion of the base under the coil. wood-screws. drill 15 holes. 22 gauge German-silver wire. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. of water. respectively. 30 gr. citrate of iron and ammonia. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. To assemble. Asbestos board is to be preferred. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. --Contributed by L. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid.

but these are not necessary. then fasten the upright in place. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. The case may be made of 1/2-in. which. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . if one is not a smoker. N. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. square. as they are usually thrown away when empty. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. Y. 14 gauge. screws. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Ampere. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. rivets. Ward. Small knobs may be added if desired. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. cut and dressed 1/2 in.. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Labels of some kind are needed. 16 gauge copper wire. --Contributed by Frederick E.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. etc.

while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. then to the joint to be soldered. D. it must be ground or filed to a point. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Jaquythe. zinc. . In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. --C. California. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. and labeled "Poison. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. B. This is considerable annoyance. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. sandpaper or steel wool. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. galvanized iron. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. lead. as shown in the sketch. the pure muriatic acid should be used. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. The material can be of any wood. Kenosha. Eureka Springs. especially if a large tub is used. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. or has become corroded. Richmond. --Contributed by A. In soldering galvanized iron. of water. Heat it until hot (not red hot). The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Wis. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Copper. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. and rub the point of the copper on it. and one made of poplar finished black. G. E and F. S. A. tin. Ark. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac.. of glycerine to 16 oz. --Contributed by W. a piece of solder. The parts are put together with dowel pins. brass. If the soldering copper is an old one. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered.14 oz. being careful about the heat. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. particularly so when the iron has once been used. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. C. Larson. tinner's acid.

Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. 7/8 in. 2. Troy. Brass rings can be plated when finished. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. round iron. Take a 3/4-in. Y. such as copper. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. The dimensions shown in Fig. D. Place the band. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Apart from this. The punch A. B. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. brass and silver. Six issues make a well proportioned book. W. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. -Contributed by H. N. in diameter. wide. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. This will leave a clear hole. however. Hankin. Fig. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. The disk will come out pan shaped. in diameter. which gives two bound volumes each year. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. a ring may be made from any metal. Fig. I bind my magazines at home evenings. This completes the die. 1. with good results. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. thick and 1-1/4 in. The covers of the magazines are removed. nut. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. C. and drill out the threads.

After drawing the thread tightly. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. 1/8 in. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. then back through the notch on the right side. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. 2. The string No. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. 1. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. The covering can be of cloth. and a third piece. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. using . Coarse white thread. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. is nailed across the top. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. The sections are then prepared for sewing. 1 in Fig. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. is used for the sewing material. deep. . and then to string No. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. as shown in Fig.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. If started with the January or the July issue. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. 2. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. on all edges except the back. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Start with the front of the book. Five cuts. threaded double. 1. and place them against the strings in the frame. which is fastened the same as the first. Place the cardboard covers on the book. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. 5. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. through the notch on the left side of the string No. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. of the ends extending on each side. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. 1. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. C. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. allowing about 2 in. The covering should be cut out 1 in.4. size 16 or larger.

round iron. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. and mark around each one. --Contributed by Clyde E. Nebr. on which to hook the blade. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Divine. Cal. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. at opposite sides to each other. Tinplate. and. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. For the blade an old talking-machine . --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Encanto. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. College View.

or double extra heavy. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. On the upper side. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. and another piece (B) 6 in. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. and 1/4 in. as shown. C. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Moorhead. -Contributed by Willard J. Then on the board put . Hays. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. in order to drill the holes in the ends. Miss. E.. Ohio. Summitville. thick. thick. as it is sometimes called. by 4-1/2 in. with a steel sleeve.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. long. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it.. with 10 teeth to the inch. and a long thread plug. at the same end. Make the blade 12 in. by 1 in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. and 1/4 in. A. hydraulic pipe. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. fuse hole at D. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. bore. F. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. and file in the teeth. B.

leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. A lid may be added if desired. 4 jars. about 5 ft. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. H. of wire to each coil. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . some sheet copper or brass for plates. as from batteries. Philadelphia. Connect up as shown. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Boyd. of rubber-covered wire. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. and some No. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. using about 8 in. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. high around this apparatus. the jars need not be very large. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. --Contributed by Chas.

sheet brass 1 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. long. long. by 1-1/4 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. C. A variation of 1/16 in.. Equip block X with screw eyes. oak boards. B. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. 30 in. On the door of the auto front put the . beginning at the rear. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. steel rod makes a good steering rod. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. two pieces 30 in. B. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. wide and 3/4 in. apart. 1 and so on for No. & S. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 5 on switch. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. The stock required for them is oak. 4) of 3/4-in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. At the front 24 or 26 in.. making them clear those in the front runner. 2 and 3. 27 B. square by 14 ft. Construct the auto front (Fig. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. The sled completed should be 15 ft. and for the rear runners: A. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. then apply a coat of thin enamel. The illustration shows how to shape it. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. 1 is connected to point No. 2 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. thick. The current then will flow through the motor. by 1 in. or source of current. 15-1/2 in. 2. 2. with the cushion about 15 in. by 2 in. by 5 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. No. as they are not substantial enough. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch.. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. 7 in. long by 22 in. C. . two pieces 34 in. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. The top disk in jar No. Z. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. 4 in. 3. 4. are important. is used to reduce friction. B and C. 3 and No.. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. 11 in. 1. direct to wire across jars. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. and plane it on all edges. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. 34 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. wide and 2 in. 2 is lower down than in No. by 5 in.. gives full current and full speed. two for each jar. wide. 3 in. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. long. by 2 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. long. An iron washer. 16-1/2 in. and bolt through. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. See Fig. For the brass trimmings use No. Use no screws on the running surface. on No. Use no nails. To wire the apparatus. The connection between point No. above the ground.. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled.. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. Put arm of switch on point No. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. thick. wide by 3/4 in. 1 on switch. by 6 in. First sandpaper all the wood. and four pieces 14 in. by 1-1/4 in. In proportioning them the points A. however. two pieces 14 in.the way. A 3/4-in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Fig. 2. as they "snatch" the ice. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble.

If desired. to the wheel. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. lunch.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. which is somewhat moist. by 30 in. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. If desired. a brake may be added to the sled. Then get some upholstery buttons. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. The best way is to get some strong. may be stowed within. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. such as burlap. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. etc. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. Fasten a horn. parcels. to improve the appearance. by 1/2 in. overshoes. or with these for $25. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. such as used on automobiles. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. brass plated. fasten a cord through the loop. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. cutting it out of sheet brass. long. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. cheap material. a number of boys may share in the ownership. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the .

and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Ill. --Contributed by Stewart H. Lexington. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Leland. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. .tree and bring.

CD. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. Fig. the cut will be central on the line. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. so that the center of the blade. A small clearance space. Draw a circle on paper. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. though more difficult. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. This guide should have a beveled edge. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. some files. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. 1. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. which. say 1 in. 3. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. First take the case of a small gearwheel. made from 1/16-in. With no other tools than a hacksaw. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Fig. will be over the line FG. by drawing diameters. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. E. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. from F to G. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. mild steel or iron. The straight-edge. sheet metal. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Fig. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. outside diameter and 1/16 in. with twenty-four teeth. the same diameter as the wheel. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. The Model Engineer. thick. 2. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. 4). very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. London. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. FC. a compass. The first tooth may now be cut. when flat against it. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue.

place the prepared slide with the corner cut. 1. 1. Make a hole in the other. as shown in Fig. B. each in the center. A bright. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. . and connect to one side of a 2-cp. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. hold in one hand. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. transmitter. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. No shock will be perceptible. ground it with a large piece of zinc. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. If there is no faucet in the house. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. Then take one outlet wire. Focus the camera in the usual manner. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. R. electric lamp. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. some wire and some carbons. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. 2. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. and the other outlet wire. as shown in Fig.Four Photos on One Plate of them. or several pieces bound tightly together. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. either the pencils for arc lamps. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. as shown in Fig. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. B.

and again wind the wire around it. One like a loaf of bread.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. at each end for terminals. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. leaving about 10 in. Emsworth. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. as indicated by E E. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. as shown. 36 wire around it. Then set the whole core away to dry. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. of course. D D are binding posts for electric wires. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. If desired. one at the receiver can hear what is said. But in this experiment. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. Wrenn. by 1 in. Ashland. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. are also needed. and about that size. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Ohio. and will then burn the string C. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Pa. J. Slattery. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. under the gable. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. B. For a base use a pine board 10 in. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. --Contributed by Geo. Several battery cells. or more of the latter has been used. They have screw ends. A is a wooden block. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. serves admirably. Dry batteries are most convenient. by 12 in. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. a transmitter which induces no current is used. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft.

Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. 2. as shown. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. The oven is now ready to be connected.. Place 16-cp. in series with bindingpost. connecting lamp receptacles. as shown. D. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. while C is open. 12 or No. in parallel. Turn on switch.wire. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. B B. 1. run a No. From the other set of binding-posts. Ohio. These should have hollow ends. until the hand points to zero on the scale. and one single post switch. for the . and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. The apparatus is now ready for operation. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. and the lamps. and switch. C. Jr. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. 14 wire. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. E. F. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. C. Fig. the terminal of the coil. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. At one side secure two receptacles. Fig. The coil will commence to become warm. Connect these three to switch. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. Newark. B B. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. First make a support. D.

7. 4 amperes. Fig. drill through the entire case and valve. 3 amperes. The core. 4. wide and 1/8 in. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 10 turns to each layer.or 4-way valve or cock.E. long. D. deep. C. The box is 5-1/2 in. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. remove the valve. but if for a 4way. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. Fig. It is 1 in. --Contributed by J. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. is made of iron. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. After drilling. If for 3-way. long. 4 in. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . 14 wire. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. although brass is better. B. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. 2. Fig.. drill a hole as shown at H. 36 magnet wire instead of No. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. Montreal. At a point a little above the center. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. wide and 1-3/4 in. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. This is slipped on the pivot. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. as shown in the cut. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. is made of wire.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. Fig. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. high. where A is the homemade ammeter. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. long and make a loop. a battery. A wooden box. a standard ammeter. 14. Dussault. until the scale is full. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. This may be made of wood. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. 5. The pointer or hand. D. 1. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. inside measurements. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. thick. and D. although copper or steel will do. Mine is wound with two layers of No. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. from the lower end. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. 3. 1. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. To make one. E. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. to prevent it turning on the axle. 1/2 in. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. 5.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. a variable resistance. is then made and provided with a glass front. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. drill in only to the opening already through. 6. wind with plenty of No. 1/4 in. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. etc.

and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. To start the light. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. provided with a rubber stopper. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. One wire runs to the switch. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. B. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. making two holes about 1/4 in. as shown. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. A. in diameter. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. This stopper should be pierced. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. high. and the other connects with the water rheostat. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. in thickness . The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. and the arc light. D. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases.performing electrical experiments. By connecting the motor. E. F. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. which is used for reducing the current. and a metal rod.

connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Having finished the interrupter. Fig. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. as shown in B. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Fig. 1. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. Carthage. where he is placed in an upright open . Fig. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. A. as shown in C. Fig. B. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. 2. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Jones. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Y. 1.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. --Contributed by Harold L. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. To insert the lead plate. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. 2. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. If the interrupter does not work at first. A piece of wood. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Turn on the current and press the button. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. 1. As there shown. long. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. If all adjustments are correct. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. N. Having fixed the lead plate in position.

The lights. If everything is not black. until it is dark there. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. to aid the illusion. within the limits of an ordinary room. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. and must be thoroughly cleansed. If it is desired to place the box lower down. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings.coffin. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. by 7 in. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. light-colored garments. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. with the exception of the glass. should be miniature electric lamps. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. L and M. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. especially L. They need to give a fairly strong light. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. giving a limp. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. loosejointed effect. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. The model. and can be bought at Japanese stores. should be colored a dull black. All . The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. A. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. could expect from a skeleton. is constructed as shown in the drawings. by 7-1/2 in. Its edges should nowhere be visible. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. the illusion will be spoiled. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. figures and lights. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes.. especially the joints and background near A. which can be run by three dry cells. as the entire interior. from which the gong has been removed. The skeleton is made of papier maché. The glass should be the clearest possible. and wave his arms up and down. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. dressed in brilliant. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. high. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. inside dimensions. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. A white shroud is thrown over his body.

by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. W. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. Fry. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. square block. as shown in the sketch. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. Two finishing nails were driven in. If a gradual transformation is desired. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. after which it assumes its normal color. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. San Jose. --Contributed by Geo.that is necessary is a two-point switch. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Cal. fat spark. placed about a foot apart. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on.

and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. with two tubes. Cohen. F. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. by small pieces of wood. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. hydrogen gas is generated. The plates are separated 6 in. as shown. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. the remaining space will be filled with air. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. A (see sketch). Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. In Fig. and should be separated about 1/8 in. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. New York. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. into the receiver G. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. One of these plates is connected to metal top. This is a wide-mouth bottle. In Fig. or a solution of sal soda. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. -Contributed by Dudley H. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. to make it airtight. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. soldered in the top. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. If a lighted match . 1. B and C.

the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. long. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. A 1/64-in. should be only 5/16 of an inch. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. 1-5/16 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. which is plugged up at both ends. If desired. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. as is shown in the illustration. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. which forms the vaporizing coil. Fig. P. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. One row is drilled to come directly on top. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. Fig. is then coiled around the brass tube.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. 2 shows the end view. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. N. copper pipe. from the bottom. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. copper pipe. A nipple. long. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. B. by means of the clips. then a suitable burner is necessary. N. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. 1. A. A. 36 insulated wire. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. says the Model Engineer. in diameter and 6 in. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. 1/2 in. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. London. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. of No. or by direct contact with another magnet. either by passing a current of electricity around it. A piece of 1/8-in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. The distance between the nipple. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. C C. A. and the ends of the tube. is made by drilling a 1/8in. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. A.

long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Cut four pieces of cardboard. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. A disk of thin sheet-iron.lamp cord. longer and 1/4 in. larger all around than the book. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. boards and all. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. 3. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. this makes a much nicer book. Fig. should be cut to the diameter of the can. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. leaving the folded edge uncut. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. 1/4 in. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. about 8 or 10 in. duck or linen. at the front and back for fly leaves. cut to the size of the pages. Turn the book over and paste the other side. fold and cut it 1 in. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . trim both ends and the front edge. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Fig. smoothly. but if the paper knife cannot be used. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Take two strips of stout cloth. with a fine saw. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. 2). After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. Fig. 1. taking care not to bend the iron.

Another tank. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. is perforated with a number of holes. In the bottom.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. E. or rather the top now. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. This will cause some air to be enclosed. but its diameter is a little smaller. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. is fitted in it and soldered. as shown. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. 18 in. C. is turned on it. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. --Contributed by Joseph N. A gas cock. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. and a little can. which will just slip inside the little can. of tank A is cut a hole. Ont. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. D. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Another can. 4). A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. pasting them down (Fig. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. . Va. the joint will be gas tight. as shown in the sketch. Toronto. is soldered onto tank A. in diameter and 30 in. --Contributed by James E. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. deep. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. is made the same depth as B. H. B. A. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Parker. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Noble. without a head. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Bedford City.

The wiring diagram. D. which may be either spruce. exactly 12 in. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. 2. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. S. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. B. should be 1/4 in. basswood or white pine. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. by 1/2 in. Bott. If the pushbutton A is closed.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. If the back armature. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. D. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. E. B. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. square by 42 in. are shown in detail at H and J. The armature. The longitudinal corner spines. and sewed double to give extra strength. The bridle knots. shows how the connections are to be made. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. should be cut a little too long. long. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. with an electric-bell magnet. The small guards. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon.. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. A. J. making the width. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. H is a square knot. N. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. The diagonal struts. A A. C. fastened in the bottom. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. Fig. long. 1. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. should be 3/8 in. Beverly. tacks. and about 26 in. which moves to either right or left. to prevent splitting. as shown at C. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. B. Fig. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. and the four diagonal struts. -Contributed by H. thus adjusting the . Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. when finished.

thus shortening G and lengthening F. Stoddard. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high.lengths of F and G. Closing either key will operate both sounders. D. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. E. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. If the kite is used in a light wind. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. to prevent slipping. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. that refuse to slide easily. for producing electricity direct from heat. shift toward F. can be made of a wooden . with gratifying results. Chicago. --Contributed by Edw. however. Clay Center. and if a strong wind is blowing. A bowline knot should be tied at J. --Contributed by A. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Kan. as shown. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Harbert. and.

When the cannon is loaded. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. which conducts the current into the cannon. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. with a number of nails. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. Then. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. spark. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. A. E. C. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. C. 16 single-covered wire. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. Chicago. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . C. 14 or No. to the cannon. placed on top. A. and the current may then be detected by means.. and also holds the pieces of wood. in position. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. by means of machine screws or. E. The wood screw. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. B. F. or parallel with the compass needle. Fasten a piece of wood. --Contributed by A.frame. A. D. A and B. with a pocket compass.

Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Marion. 1. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Chicago. but no weights or strings. Ohio. Mich. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Connect as shown in the illustration. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. H. square and 3/8 in. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. in this position the door is locked. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. In Fig. where there is a staple. 1. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Bend the strips BB (Fig. 1. Big Rapids. Keil. A. To lock the door. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. --Contributed by Henry Peck.the current is shut off. To unlock the door. to receive the screw in the center. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. A and S. Fig. screw is bored in the block. now at A' and S'. To reverse. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. within the reach of the magnet. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. press the button. A and S. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. --Contributed by Joseph B. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Fig. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. requiring a strong magnet. A hole for a 1/2 in. L. B. with the long arm at L'. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. . when in position at A'. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L.

A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. are enameled a jet black. --Contributed by C. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. or for microscopic work. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. put in the handle. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. Rand. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. gas-pipe. long. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. if enameled white on the concave side. pipe with 1-2-in. Thread the other end of the pipe.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. hole. The standard and base. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. When ready for use. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. West Somerville. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. about 18 in. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. Mass. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. and may be made at very slight expense. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. J. When the holes are finished and your lines set. and if desired the handles may . The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. and C is a dumbbell.

1. 8 in. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Fig. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. high by 1 ft. 1. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . Mass. E. This peculiar property is also found in ice. North Easton. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in.be covered with leather. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. A. as shown at A in the sketch. across. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. across. inside the pail. which shall project at least 2 in. Make a cylindrical core of wood. B. long and 8 in. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. D. with a cover.. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. M. --Contributed by C. Fig. Warren.

of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. 3) with false top and bottom. 1). to hold the clay mixture. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. which is the hottest part. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. Wind about 1/8 in. After removing all the paper. and varnish. L. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. full length of iron core. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. cutting the hole a little smaller. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. 1330°. Fig. projecting from each end (Fig. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. in diameter. strip of sheet iron. the point of the blue flame.. bottom and sides. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in.. thick. and graphite. 15%. the firing should be gradual. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. let this dry thoroughly. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. of fine wire.. When lighted. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. C. hard porcelain. This done. and on it set the paper wrapped core. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. 25%. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. make two wood ends. If the cover of the pail has no rim. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. diameter. say 1/4 in. hotel china. if you have the materials. 1). about 1 in. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. Cover with paper and shellac as before. and with especial caution the first time. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. wider than the kiln. and 3/4 in. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. E. if there is to be any glazing done. The 2 in. C. long. sand. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. carefully centering it. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. 2 in. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. such .-G. as dictated by fancy and expense. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. pack this space-top. pipe 2-ft. as is shown in the sketch. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. in diameter. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. Set aside for a few days until well dried. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. or make one yourself. C. but will be cheaper in operation. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. 60%. pipe. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. and cut it 3-1/2 in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. 2. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. 1390°-1410°. and 3/8 in. W. After finishing the core. Line the pail. Whatever burner is used. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in.mixture of clay. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. Fit all the parts together snugly. but it will burn a great deal of gas. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. long over the lid hole as a chimney. layer of the clay mixture. thick. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. and your kiln is ready for business. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. It is placed inside the kiln.

How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. overlaps and rests on the body. the next black. as shown in the sketch herewith. Then take the black cards. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. and so on. C. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A.. R. B. around the coil. . procure a new deck. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. and divide it into two piles. square them up. length of . one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. with a plane. red and black. C. as in Fig. Take the red cards. leaving long terminals.53 in. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. Of course. D. 1. bind tightly with black silk. Chicago. You can display either color called for. 8 in. about 1/16 in. as in Fig. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. C. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. and plane off about 1/16 in. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. Then. all cards facing the same way. --Contributed by J. taking care to have the first card red. every alternate card being the same color. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. square them up and place in a vise. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. 2. and discharges into the tube. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. A. The funnel. 2).Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. Washington. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. T. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. diameter. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. 2. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig.

the same ends will come together again. The upright pieces. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. The bottom glass should be a good fit.C. 1. stove bolts. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. B. Fig. Drill all the horizontal pieces. thus making all the holes coincide. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. When the glass is put in the frame a space. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. and then the frame is ready to assemble. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. as the difficulties increase with the size. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. All the horizontal pieces. To find the fall of snow. to form a dovetail joint as shown. It should be placed in an exposed location. through the holes already drilled. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. about 20 in. D. the first thing to decide on is the size. The cement. Let . After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. 1 gill of fine white sand. B. E.. of the frame. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. C. Long Branch. stove bolts. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. 1 gill of litharge. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin.J. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. A. B. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. F. A. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. and this is inexpensive to build. E. so that when they are assembled. N. angle iron for the frame. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E.

D.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Fasten the lever. Aquarium Finished If desired. if desired. a centerpiece (A. B. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. A. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. on the door by means of a metal plate. having a swinging connection at C. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . and. to the door knob. Fig.

several lengths of scantling 3 in. 6 in. from the outside top of the frame. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. as at E. AA. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. but mark their position on the frame. N. thus doing away with the spring. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. 26 in. to form the main supports of the frame. Two short boards 1 in. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Y. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. and another. --Contributed by Orton E. Cut two of them 4 ft. another. with a water pressure of 70 lb. long. To make the frame. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. 1 is the motor with one side removed. 3 shows one of the paddles. to keep the frame from spreading. Buffalo. most houses are equipped with a washing machine.. which is 15 in. hoping it may solve the same question for them. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. wide by 1 in. Fig. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. Do not fasten these boards now. for the top. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. F. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. D. and Fig. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. C. long. Fig. soldered to the end of the cylinder. A small piece of spring brass. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. approximately 1 ft. 2 ft. wide . B. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. will open the door about 1/2 in. PAUL S. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. long. Fig. 2 is an end view. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. according to the slant given C. screwed to the door frame. Cut two pieces 30 in. Fig. 2 at GG. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. 1 . another. Fig. White. long. to form the slanting part. I referred this question to my husband. 1. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. E. Fig. 1. showing the paddle-wheel in position. They are shown in Fig.

take down the crosspieces. Drill 1/8-in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. thick (HH. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. by 1-1/2 in. tapering from 3/16 in. in diameter. Take the side pieces. holes. iron. steel shaft 12 in. Fig. pipe. 4. Fig. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. remove the cardboard. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. 24 in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. When it has cooled. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Now block the wheel. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole.along the edges under the zinc to form . Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. hole to form the bearings. 2) form a substantial base. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets.burlap will do -. hole through them. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. hole through their sides centrally. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. long to the wheel about 8 in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. 1. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. that is. to a full 1/2 in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Next secure a 5/8-in. with the wheel and shaft in place. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. and a 1/4 -in. Fig. hole from the tops to the 1-in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. (I. iron 3 by 4 in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. GG. Make this hole conical. 2) with a 5/8-in. Fasten them in their proper position. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. thick. after which drill a 5/8 in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. hole through the exact center of the wheel. then drill a 3/16-in. and drill a 1/8-in. from one end by means of a key. Tack one side on. 2) and another 1 in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. as shown in Fig. hole through its center. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. These are the paddles. and drill a 1-in.

) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. as this makes long exposure necessary. sewing machine. or what is called a process plate. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. says the Photographic Times. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Focus the camera carefully. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. shutting out all light from above and the sides. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Raise the window shade half way. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Darken the rest of the window. It is obvious that. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. and as near to it as possible. of course. it would be more durable. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. remove any white curtains there may be. Correct exposure depends.a water-tight joint. The best plate to use is a very slow one. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. but now I put them in the machine. and the subject may move. . the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. start the motor. Do not stop down the lens. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. If sheet-iron is used. on the lens. ice-cream freezer. place the outlet over a drain. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. and leave them for an hour or so. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. any window will do. If the bearings are now oiled. as shown in the sketch at B. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. but as it would have cost several times as much. light and the plate. drill press. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Drill a hole through the zinc. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen.

with binding posts as shown. C. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. a glass tube. or wood. On completing . The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. or an empty developer tube. a core. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. as shown in Fig. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. hard rubber. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. The current required is very small. The glass tube may be a test tube. full of water. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. D. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. an empty pill bottle may be used. With a piece of black paper. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. and a base. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. B. without detail in the face. by twisting. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. as a slight current will answer. until the core slowly rises. and without fog. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. The core C. 2. or can be taken from an old magnet. the core is drawn down out of sight. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. A. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. 2. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. which is made of iron and cork.

1 pt. is Benham's color top. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. water and 3 oz. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. white lead. and make a pinhole in the center. and are changed by reversing the rotation. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. 1. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. and one not easy to explain. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. whale oil. The colors appear different to different people. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. according to his control of the current. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . 1 lb. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. finest graphite.

As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. Chicago. nearly every time. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. -Contributed by D. In making hydrogen.B. fan-like. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . or three spot. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. B. before cutting. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown.L. especially if the deck is a new one.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. C. As this device is easily upset. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. In prize games. A. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. deuce. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. thus partly filling bottles A and C. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. when the action ceases.. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones.

wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 9 in. long and 3 in. 12 in. Fig. as shown in Fig. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. long. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 4. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. 1. 2.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. . Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. in diameter. J. Form a cone of heavy paper. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. in length and 3 in. --Contributed by F. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. --Contributed by C. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Detroit. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. S. S. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. W. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. Fig. Jr.. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Dak. Huron. 3). Make a 10-sided stick. 10 in. (Fig. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Bently.. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft.

push back the bolt. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. will cause an increased movement of C. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. on one side and the top. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. --Contributed by Reader. it is equally easy to block that trick. Cut out paper sections (Fig. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. 6. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. but bends toward D. about the size of a leadpencil. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. E. making it three-ply thick. A. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. Fortunately. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. A piece of tin. with a pin driven in each end. allowing 1 in. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. long. Denver. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. C. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. and walk in. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. Fig. bend it at right angles throughout its length. Remove the form. A second piece of silk thread.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig.

By this arrangement one. will last for several years. posts. --Contributed by J. S. Minn.strip. B. R. The 2 by 4-in. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . as shown. S. The feet. Two wood-base switches. while the lower switch. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. are 7 ft.. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. 4 ft. Jr. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. is connected each point to a battery. long. A. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire.. W. West St. Paul. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. B. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. The upper switch. long. put together as shown in the sketch. The reverse switch. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. S S. or left to right. Fremont Hilscher. are made 2 by 4 in. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. and rest on a brick placed under each end.

it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. and valve crank S. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. Fig. H and K. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. 3/8 in. The hose E connects to the boiler. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. either an old sewing-machine wheel. pulley wheel. is an old bicycle pump. and a cylindrical . or anything available.every house. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The base is made of wood. and in Fig. 1. 2 and 3. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. the size of the hole in the bearing B. thick. The piston is made of a stove bolt. and has two wood blocks. and the crank bearing C. Fig. FF. 2. which will be described later. The valve motion is shown in Figs. E. In Fig. which is made of tin. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. cut in half. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. with two washers. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. The steam chest D.

The boiler. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. 4. Eustice. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. powder can. 1. . or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. First. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. of Cuba. W. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. using the positive wire as a pen. as it is merely a trick of photography. J. San Jose. --Contributed by Geo. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. G. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. can be an old oil can. and a very amusing trick. Schuh and A. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Fig. Wis. at that.piece of hard wood. to receive the connecting rod H. and saturated with thick oil. This is wound with soft string. is cut out of tin. G. Fig. C. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. or galvanized iron. Fry. Cal. 3. This engine was built by W. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. as shown in Fig. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. The valve crank S. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. and the desired result is obtained.

Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. and place a bell on the four ends. C. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. 1 will be seen to rotate. Cut half circles out of each stave. They may be of any size. A curious effect can be produced with Fig.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Fig. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. to cross in the center. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. Fig. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Fig. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. B. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. and pass ropes around . 1 by covering up Figs. as shown. diameter. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. and Fig. When turning. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. B. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. as shown at AA. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. The smaller wheel. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved.

which accounts for the sound. as shown in the illustration. but not on all. from the transmitter. This in turn will act on the transmitter. --Contributed by H. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E.M. To make this lensless microscope. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury..Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. produces a higher magnifying power). having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. St. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. Louis. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. long. W. Mo. From a piece of thin . A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. A (a short spool. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. such as clothes lines. which allows the use of small sized ropes. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. procure a wooden spool.G. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. and enlarge the bore a little at one end.

The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. B. cut out a small disk. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. C. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. Viewed through this microscope. or 64 times. is fastened at each end by pins. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. A. which are pieces of hard wood. C. . darting across the field in every direction. held at arm's length. as in all microscopes of any power. fastened to a wooden base. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. To use this microscope. i. D. is made of iron. The pivot. the object should be of a transparent nature. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. and look through the hole D. E. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. otherwise the image will be blurred. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. in which hay has been soaking for several days. the diameter will appear three times as large. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. The lever. by means of brads. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. place a small object on the transparent disk.. 3. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. e. The spring. which costs little or nothing to make. 1. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. can be made of brass and the armature. if the distance is reduced to one-third.. H.) But an object 3/4-in. and so on. 2. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. Fig.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. D. bent as shown. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. An innocent-looking drop of water. B. if the distance is reduced to one-half. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. and at the center. (The area would appear 64 times as large. the diameter will appear twice as large. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible.

is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. or a single piece. Cut the top. 26 wire: E. D. Fig. C. E. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. HH. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. B. fastened near the end. between the armature and the magnet. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. should be about 22 in. 2. coils wound with No. long by 16 in. KEY-A. thick. brass or iron soldered to nail. or taken from a small one-point switch. A switch. Fig. which are made to receive a pivot. D. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. 1. wood: F. similar to the one used in the sounder. wide and set in between sides AA. wide. C. K. connection of D to nail. soft iron. The base of the key. D. The door. brass. wide. 16 in. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. brass: E. AA. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. long. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. A. F. DD. long and 14-1/2 in. wide. wide.SOUNDER-A. binding posts: H spring The stop. wood: C. 16 in. brass: B. wood. can be made panel as shown. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. The binding posts. Each side. is cut from a board about 36 in. K. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. B. in length and 16 in. FF. and are connected to the contacts. nail soldered on A. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. wide and about 20 in. . The back. The binding posts are like those of the sounder.

How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. with 3/4-in. as shown in the sketch. Garfield. AA. Make 12 cleats. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. 2 and made from 1/4-in. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. E. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. When the electrical waves strike the needle. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. brads. 13-1/2 in. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . In operation. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. long. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. Ill.. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. cut in them. as shown. material. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in.

Y. and. pulls down the armature. through which a piece of wire is passed. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Brown. will give a greater speed. A. N. Ridgewood. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used .Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. B. when used with a motor. the magnet. The cord is also fastened to a lever. J. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. A (see sketch). is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. filled with water. and thus decreases the resistance. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. When the pipe is used. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. --Contributed by R. --Contributed by John Koehler. F. Fairport. Pushing the wire. in order to increase the surface. A fairly stiff spring. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. A. down into the water increases the surface in contact. E. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. N. C.

Borden. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. --Contributed by Perry A.for the secret contact. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. N. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. if desired. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. B. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. even those who read this description. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Of course. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Gachville. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder.

as shown in Fig. for 10in. long and full 12-in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. --Contributed by Dr. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. wide. Mangold. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. records. for 6-in. Dobson. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. wide. deep and 3/4 in. The top board is made 28-in. 1. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. Washington.whenever the bell rings. N. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. where the other end of wire is fastened. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. thick and 12-in. E. . Nails for stops are placed at DD. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. C. wide. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Compton. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. in a semicircle 2 in. Cal. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. wide. East Orange. With about 9 ft. J. D. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. apart. Two drawers are fitted in this space.. from the bottom. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. and on both sides of the middle shelf. records and 5-5/8 in. as shown in Fig. A. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. Connect switch to post B. wide. From a piece of brass a switch. C. Jr. --Contributed by H. long and 5 in. 2. H.

Va. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. When the cord is passed over pulley C. E. 1. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. closed. as shown in Fig. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. to which is fastened a cord. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. as shown by the dotted lines. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . A. Roanoke. B. which in operation is bent.

CC. In these grooves place wheels. Fig. E. one in each end. In the sides (Fig. 1 in. Bore two 1/4 in. Now put all these parts together. Fig. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. Put the rubber tube. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. excepting the crank and tubing. 1 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. against which the rubber tubing. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. B. Figs. in diameter. These wheels should be 3/4 in. in diameter.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. holes (HH. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. 3. wide. thick (A. as shown in the illustration. E. they will bind. in diameter. to turn on pins of stout wire. If the wheels fit too tightly. wide. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Figs. apart. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. square and 7/8 in. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. long. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. which should be about 1/2 in. Cut two grooves. through one of these holes. Fig. deep and 1/2 in. 5) when they are placed. it too loose. in diameter. is compressed by wheels. they will let the air through. deep. D. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. 1. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Do not fasten the sides too . 4 shows the wheel-holder. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. thick. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. 3). but a larger one could be built in proportion. The crankpin should fit tightly.

on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. Two feet of 1/4-in. AA. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. For ease in handling the pump. 15 in. is all the expense necessary. Then turn the crank from left to right.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. because he can . 1. as shown in Fig. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. the pump will give a steady stream. The screen which is shown in Fig. 2. Kan. Hubbard. and mark for a hole. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. To use the pump. The animal does not fear to enter the box. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Fig. 1. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. mark for hole and 3 in. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. and are 30 in. Cut six pieces. from each end. stands 20 in. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. long. from that mark the next hole. iron. tubing. the other wheel has reached the bottom. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. A in Fig. as it gives steadiness to the motion. from the bottom and 2 in. If the motion of the wheels is regular. 2. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. B. and 3-1/2 in. from each end. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. mark again. from each end. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. Idana. Fig. Fig. Fig. 17-1/2 in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. In the two cross bars 1 in. AA. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. though a small iron wheel is better. costing 10 cents. a platform should be added. --Contributed by Dan H. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. 1. 1. 1. beyond each of these two. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. The three legs marked BBB. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. Take the center of the bar. of material.

stirring constantly. giving it a bright. The truncated. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc.see through it: when he enters. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. some of it should be poured out. silvery appearance. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. When the bichromate has all dissolved. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. and the solution (Fig. It is useful for running induction coils. The battery is now complete. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. but if one casts his own zinc. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. 14 copper wire. acid 1 part). at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. however. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. rub the zinc well. 1) must be prepared. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. --Contributed by H. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. Meyer. If the solution touches the zinc. To cause a flow of electricity. of water dissolve 4 oz. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. long having two thumb screws. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. shuts him in. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. Place the carbon in the jar. and touches the bait the lid is released and. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. 2). the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. If it is wet. or small electric motors. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. The mercury will adhere. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. there is too much liquid in the jar. 4 oz. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. potassium bichromate. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. C. sulphuric acid. add slowly. When through using the battery. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. The battery is now ready for use. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. dropping. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. If the battery has been used before. Philadelphia. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. of the top. . one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. until it is within 3 in. or.

The price of the coil depends upon its size. Madison. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. with slight changes. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. i. the jump-spark coil . and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. which opens the door. After putting in the coal. the battery circuit. pressing the pedal closes the door.. e. while the coal door is being opened. Wis. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. If. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. however. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.Fig.

Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. 7). in a straight line from top to bottom. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. This coil. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. Now for the receiving apparatus. 6. After winding. which is made of light copper wire. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. Change the coil described. Fig. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile.7. while a 12-in. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. and closer for longer distances. 7. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. W W.described elsewhere in this book. as shown in Fig. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. W W. made of No. diameter. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. . by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. 5. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. 6. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. in a partial vacuum. 7. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. apart. as shown in Fig. the full length of the coil. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. This will make an excellent receiver. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. being a 1-in. coil.

to the direction of the current. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. B the bed and C the tailstock. being vertical.The aerial line. being at right angles. in the air. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. and hence the aerial line. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. For an illustration. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. 1). but it could be run by foot power if desired. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. I run my lathe by power. where A is the headstock. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. which will be described later.6 stranded. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. may be easily made at very little expense. as it matches the color well. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. using an electric motor and countershaft. above the ground. A. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. 90°. after all. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. 1 to 4. The writer does not claim to be the originator. Run a wire from the other binding post. only. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. 90°. Figs. at any point to any metal which is grounded. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. A large cone pulley would then be required. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. . 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). No. These circles. but simply illustrates the above to show that. are analogous to the flow of induction. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them.

is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. Fig. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. 6 Headstock Details D. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. thick. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. just touching the shaft. steel tubing about 1/8 in. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. pitch and 1/8 in. too. The bearing is then ready to be poured. 4. which pass through a piece of wood. Fig. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. and Fig. but not hot enough to burn it. which are let into holes FIG. After pouring. Fig. B. one of which is shown in Fig. 4. tapered wooden pin. on the under side of the bed. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. The headstock. 5. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . A. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 6. To make these bearings. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. If the bearing has been properly made. Fig. Heat the babbitt well. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. The bolts B (Fig.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. and runs in babbitt bearings. 5. and it is well to have the shaft hot. deep. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. 2 and 3.

To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. If not perfectly true. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. so I had to buy one. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. FIG. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. If one has a wooden walk. and a 1/2-in.other machines. Oak Park. This prevents corrosion. N. lock nut. A. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach.J. Ill. The tail stock (Fig. they may be turned up after assembling. Take up about 5 ft. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. the alarm is easy to fix up. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Newark. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. embedded in the wood. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. of the walk .7 Details of Tailstock pipe. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. B. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig.

about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. water. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. clean the articles thoroughly. to remove all traces of grease. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. save when a weight is on the trap. Finally. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Minneapolis. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. hang the articles on the wires. Fig. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Connect up an electric bell. Jackson. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. --Contributed by R. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. (A. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Then make the solution . add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. and the alarm is complete. S. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Minn. add potassium cyanide again. leaving a clear solution. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. to roughen the surface slightly. before dipping them in the potash solution. To avoid touching it. of water. so that they will not touch. 2). silver or other metal. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired.

Fig. copper.5 to 4 volts. If more solution is required. 3. Can be made of a 2-in. Take quick. long. with water. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. will serve for the key. also. a hand scratch brush is good. which is advised. Repeat six times. use 2 volts for large articles. nickel and such metals. The wooden catch. which . Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. Make a somewhat larger block (E. saw a piece of wood. Having finished washing the precipitate. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. Fig. an old electric bell or buzzer. Where Bunsen cells are used. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. 3) strikes the bent wire L. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. square. as at F. Then. Fig. silver can be plated direct. 1). Screw the two blocks together. make a key and keyhole. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. with water. In rigging it to a sliding door. This solution. B should be of the same wood. but opens the door. On brass. 1). 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. 3) directly over the hole. and the larger part (F. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. --Model Engineer. a circuit is completed. With an electric pressure of 3. lead. Fig. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. must be about 1 in. long. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. The wooden block C. To provide the keyhole. A (Fig. I. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. Before silver plating. piece of broomstick. of water. pewter. and 4 volts for very small ones. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. zinc. and then treated as copper. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. from the lower end. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. 18 wire. with the pivot 2 in. of clothesline rope and some No. 1 not only unlocks. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. if one does not possess a buffing machine. 1 in. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. German silver. If accumulators are used. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished.up to 2 qt. when the point of the key touches the tin. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. thick by 3 in. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. such metals as iron. as shown in Fig. hole in its center. 10 in. A 1/4 in. which is held by catch B. shaking. light strokes. about 25 ft. 1. When all this is set up. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down.

and a slit. The interior must be a dead black. shows catch B. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. heighten the illusion. such as forks. the requisites are a large soap box.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. 1. One thing changes to another and back again. Next. --Contributed by E. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box.. 2. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. One end is removed. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. 3. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. some black paint. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. and black art reigns supreme. is the cut through which the rope runs. he tosses it into the cave. floor. he points with one finger to the box. To prepare such a magic cave. to throw the light toward the audience. Heavy metal objects. spoons and jackknives. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. and plenty of candles. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. the illumination in front must be arranged. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. Receiving the bowl again. . 116 Prospect St. Fig. The box must be altered first. and finally lined inside with black cloth. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. enlarged. one-third of the length from the remaining end. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. Fig. and hands its contents round to the audience. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. The magician stands in front of this. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. a few simple tools. so much the better. in his shirt sleeves. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. cut in one side. the box should be painted black both inside and out. or cave. He removes the bowl from the black box. between the parlor and the room back of it. with the lights turned low. Klipstein. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Thus. Fig. should be cut a hole. H. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. no painting inside is required. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. New Jersey. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. which unlocks the door. 1. B. top. 0. sides and end. East Orange. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. 2. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. although a little more trouble. some black cloth. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. In front of you. On either side of the box. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. surrounding a perfectly black space. H. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. Next. Fig. half way from open end to closed end. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. Objects appear and disappear. with a switch as in Fig.

but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. his confederate behind inserts his hand. The exhibitor should be . into the eyes of him who looks. had a big stage. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. Consequently. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. a screen must be used. you must have an assistant. as presented by Hermann. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. one on each side of the box. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. and if portieres are impossible. in which are oranges and apples. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. The audience room should have only low lights. which are let down through the slit in the top. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. if. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. was identical with this. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. the room where the cave is should be dark. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. only he. and several black drop curtains. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. of course. which can be made to dance either by strings. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. and pours them from the bag into a dish. But illusions suggest themselves.Finally. The illusion. is on a table) so much the better. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. of course.

About the center piece H moves a disk.a boy who can talk. e1 and e2. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). c3. or binding posts. b1. when handle K is turned to one side. 1. and c1 – electricity. making contact with them.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. f2. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. 1. by 4 in. and a common screw. Then. respectively. or b2. with three brass strips. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. square. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. held down on it by two terminals. respectively. so arranged that. Finally. by means of two wood screws. b3. b3. FIG. A represents a pine board 4 in. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. 2. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. making contact with them as shown at y. is shown in the diagram. On the disk G are two brass strips. terminal c3 will show . if you turn handle K to the right. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. held down on disk F by two other terminals. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. 2. 2). held down by another disk F (Fig. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. as shown in Fig. c2. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . respectively. d. c1. c4. at L.. b2. and c2 to the zinc. and c4 + electricity. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. their one end just slips under the strips b1. terminal c3 will show +. A. b2. Fig. vice versa. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance.

3. Ohio. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. E. thus making the message audible in the receiver. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). B is a onepoint switch. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. when on No. and then hold the receiver to your ear.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. when A is on No. Newark. you have the current of one battery. 4. Joerin. . and C and C1 are binding posts. jump spark coil. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. -Contributed by A. Jr. when on No. 1.. from three batteries. from five batteries. from four batteries. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. and when on No. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . 5. Tuttle. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. --Contributed by Eugene F.

A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. so one can see the time. Thus. New Orleans. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. The device thus arranged. as shown in the sketch. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. mark. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. over the bent portion of the rule. mark. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. Handy Electric Alarm . rule. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. A. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. which may be a button or other small object. per second. and placed on the windowsill of the car. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. traveled by the thread. E. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. A. per second for each second. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of Burlington. P. When you do not have a graduate at hand. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. Redmond. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. is the device of H. La. and supporting the small weight. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Wis.. B. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. A.

--C. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal.which has a piece of metal. . When the alarm goes off. which illuminates the face of the clock. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Instead. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. Lane. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. Crafton. and with the same result. --Contributed by Gordon T. Then if a mishap comes. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. S. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. but may be closed at F any time desired. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. for a wetting is the inevitable result. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. wrapping the wire around the can several times. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. C. soldered to the alarm winder. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. Pa. B. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened.

BE. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. 1. whence it is soon tracked into the house. --Contributed by A. bearings. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. cannons. battery zincs. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. L. ornaments of various kinds. The first thing to make is a molding bench. 1 . which may. and many other interesting and useful articles. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. when it is being prepared. as shown in Fig. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. small machinery parts. It is possible to make molds without a bench. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. AA. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. Two cleats. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. If there is no foundry Fig. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. engines. New York City. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. Macey. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. C.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. A. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. as shown. binding posts. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. models and miniature objects. and duplicates of all these. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . but it is a mistake to try to do this. With the easily made devices about to be described.

Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. It is made of wood and is in two halves. try using sand from other sources. the "cope.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. and the lower pieces. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated.How to Make a Mold [96] ." or lower part. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. The dowels." or upper half. makes a very good sieve. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. as shown. is made of wood. 2 . previous to sawing. CC. A wedge-shaped piece. G. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. white metal. 2. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. high. II . Fig. The cloth bag. The rammer. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. is about the right mesh. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. as shown. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. The flask. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. a little larger than the outside of the flask. which can be either aluminum. DD. and saw it in half longitudinally. which can be made of a knitted stocking. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. and this. and a sieve. H.near at hand. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. If the box is not very strong. E. A slight shake of the bag Fig. A A. but this operation will be described more fully later on. which should be nailed in. is nailed to each end of the cope. If desired the sieve may be homemade. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. 1. Fig. say 12 in. by 8 in. and the "drag. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. J. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. An old teaspoon. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. is filled with coal dust. CC. by 6 in. is shown more clearly in Fig. 1. D. F. will be required.

It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. it has a sufficient amount of moisture." in position. It is then rammed again as before. as shown at C. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. and thus judge for himself. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. as shown. In finishing the ramming. or "cope. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. turn the drag other side up. where they can watch the molders at work. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. and by grasping with both hands. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. After ramming. in order to remove the lumps. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. and scatter about 1/16 in. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. and if water is added. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. and then more sand is added until Fig." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. as described. The sand is then ready for molding. as shown at E.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. Place another cover board on top. as it is much easier to learn by observation. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. or "drag. as shown at D. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. the surface of the sand at . of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick.

Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. The next operation is that of cutting the gate." or pouring-hole. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. it shows that the sand is too wet. as shown at G. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. place the cope back on the drag. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. This is done with a spoon. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. and then pour. After drawing the pattern. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. thus holding the crucible securely. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. as shown at F. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle.E should be covered with coal-dust. Place a brick or other flat. Fig. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. The "sprue. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. deep. in diameter. III. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. in order to prevent overheating. is next cut. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. to give the air a chance to escape. . The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. as shown at H. as shown in the sketch. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. wide and about 1/4 in. made out of steel rod. as shown at J. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. thus making a dirty casting. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. as shown at H. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. after being poured. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. 4 -Pouring the Metal If.

or from any adjacent pair of cells. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. babbitt. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. --Contributed by Harold S. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. In my own case I used four batteries. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. Minneapolis. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. Referring to the figure. If a good furnace is available. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. white metal and other scrap available. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. the following device will be found most convenient. but any reasonable number may be used. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. is very desirable.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. Morton. battery zincs. Although the effect in the illustration . used only for zinc. may be used in either direction. although somewhat expensive. 15% lead. and the casting is then ready for finishing. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. and.

How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. By replacing the oars with paddles. outward. B. B. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. may be made of hardwood. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. Then replace the table. If desired. Fig. as shown in the illustration. To make it take a sheet-iron band. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. 2. Put a sharp needle point. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. as shown at A. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. The bearings. Then walk down among the audience. A. Make one of these pieces for each arm. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . He can easily steer the boat with his feet. backward. The brass rings also appear distorted. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. Chicago. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. which will be sufficient to hold it. --Contributed by Draughtsman. shaft made. 3/4 in. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. connected by cords to the rudder.

In the same way. or under pressure. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. but when in motion.melted babbitt. Snow. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. A. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. The covers. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. E. spoiling its appearance. 2 and 3. 1. or the paint will come off. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. 1. as shown in Fig. W. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. 3. If galvanized iron is used. C. when it will again return to its original state. If babbitt is used. The hubs. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. as shown in Fig. and a weight. D. being simply finely divided ice. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. 2. It may seem strange that ice . 1. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. A block of ice. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. Fig. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. should be made of wood. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting.

. brass. in. thus giving a high resistance contact. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. Pa. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. by 1/4. no matter how slow the motion may be. --Contributed by Gordon T. it will gradually change from the original shape A. Lane. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No.should flow like water. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. sometimes only one or two feet a day. square. B. as shown on page 65. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. but. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. but by placing it between books. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. by 1/2 in. Pressing either push button. by 5 in. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. and assume the shape shown at B. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. as per sketch. The rate of flow is often very slow. which resembles ice in this respect. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. by 2 in. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. whenever there is any connection made at all. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. P. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . or supporting it in some similar way. Crafton. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight.

The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. horizontal lever. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. In the wiring diagram. B. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. vertical lever. alarm clock. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. furnace. H. and C. and five dry batteries. C. Wilkinsburg. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. about the size used for automobiles. Indianapolis. cord. as shown. as shown.thumb screws. --Contributed by A. F.000 ft. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. J. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. The success depends upon a slow current. weight. the induction coil. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. K . draft chain. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. D. pulleys. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. B. E. G. The parts are: A. draft. Ward. wooden supports. the battery. I. G. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. Pa. A is the circuit breaker.

is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . such as used for a storm window. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. 2 are dressed to the right angle. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. 3. as well as the bottom. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. will fit nicely in them. Artistic Window Boxes The top. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. The frame (Fig. Kalamazoo. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. Mich. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. material framed together as shown in Fig. which will provide a fine place for the plants. where house plants are kept in the home.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up.

An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. one can regulate the batteries as required. and the instrument will then be complete. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. Grant. This is more economical than dry cells. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. and cost 27 cents FIG. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. Thus. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. Push the needle into the cork. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. --Contributed by Wm. in any system of lamps. A certain number of these. which sells for 25 cents. since a battery is the most popular source of power. i. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. by connecting them in series. 1. this must be done with very great caution. can be connected up in series. and will give the . Canada. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. The 1/2-cp. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. as indicated by Fig. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. for some time very satisfactorily. so as to increase the current. 1 cp. S. where they are glad to have them taken away. and a suitable source of power. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom... multiples of series of three. e. a cork and a needle. However.. is something that will interest the average American boy. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. but maintain the voltage constant. N. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. It must be remembered. 1 each complete with base. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. in diameter. after a rest. However. as if drawn upon for its total output. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. Halifax. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. in this connection. W.

. as in Fig. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. lamps. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. where the water pressure is the greatest. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. and diffused light in a room. for display of show cases. or 22 lights. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. So. we simply turn on the water. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. 11 series. each. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. FIG. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. Chicago. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. double insulated wire wherever needed. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. to secure light by this method. and running the series in parallel. . In conclusion. lamps. especially those of low internal resistance. 2 shows the scheme. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. which is the same as that of one battery. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. according to the water pressure obtainable. and then lead No. and for Christmas trees. by the proper combination of these. These will give 3 cp. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. 3. Thus. Fig. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. making. 1-cp. If wound for 10 volts. if wound for 6 volts. although the first cost is greater. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. However. lamp. Thus. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. generates the power for the lights.proper voltage. 18 B & S.

DD. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Plymouth. --Contributed by F. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. Emig. Parker. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. B. simply change the switch. Cal. field of motor. or a tempting bone. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Ind. and the sides. or from one pattern. CC. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. bars of pole-changing switch. are cut just alike. as shown in the sketch. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. thus reversing the machine. a bait of meat. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. brushes of motor. To reverse the motor. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Santa Clara. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. A indicates the ground. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. AA. outside points of switch. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. After I connected up my induction coil. . and C. we were not bothered with them. center points of switch. --Contributed by Leonard E. switch.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. A. BB. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. B. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood.

the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. 903 Vine St. When the circuit is broken a weight. Melchior. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. Hutchinson. as it is the key to the lock. -Contributed by Claude B.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. and a table or bench. The experiment works best . a piece of string. a hammer. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. Cal. Minn. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. attached to the end of the armature B. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. San Jose. W. If it is not. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. which is in the door. A. one cell being sufficient. merely push the button E.. Fry. thus locking the door. To unlock the door. The button can be hidden. or would remain locked. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity.

Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. which pulls the draft open. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. 3. the stick falls away. forming a loop. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. D. run through a pulley. releasing the weight. Ontario. 4). W. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. attached at the other end. the key turns.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. A. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule.Contributed by F. Canada. On another block of wood fasten two wires. P. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. 1). in the ceiling and has a window weight. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Porto Rico. --Contributed by Geo. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. . Culebra. 18 Gorham St. C. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Madison. the current flows with the small arrows. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Brockville.. 2. as shown in Fig. where it will remain suspended as shown. I. 3. Wis. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Schmidt. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. -. Crawford Curry. Tie the ends of the string together.

including the mouthpiece.. running one direct to the receiver. and . For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. Connect two wires to the transmitter. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. and the other to the battery. Camden. Farley. S. Jr. and then to the receiver. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. First. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. The cut shows the arrangement. --Contributed by Wm. D. 6 in. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. J. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. R. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. which fasten to the horn. thence to a switch. and break the corners off to make them round. get two pieces of plate glass. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. square and 1 in. made with his own hands. or from a bed of flowers. thick.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. or tree. J. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Use a barrel to work on. N. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver.

melt 1 lb. Fig. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. 2. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. twice the focal length away. and spread on the glass. spaces. When dry. and the under glass or tool convex. wide around the convex glass or tool. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Have ready six large dishes. a round 4-in. and label. or it will not polish evenly. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. wet till soft like paint. Then warm and press again with the speculum. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. also rotate the glass. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. using straight strokes 2 in. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. Fasten.. then take 2 lb.. L. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. in length. of water. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. as in Fig. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. set the speculum against the wall. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. and a large lamp. flour emery and mix in 12 qt.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. or less. then 8 minutes. with pitch. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. unless a longer focal length is wanted. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. 1. In a dark room. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. so the light . wetting it to the consistency of cream. Fig. and is ready for polishing. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. while walking around the barrel. by the side of the lamp. 2. When polishing the speculum. When done the glass should be semitransparent. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. Use a binger to spread it on with. A. with 1/4-in. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. the coarse grinding must be continued. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in.

pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. 2. the speculum is ready to be silvered. and pour the rest into the empty dish. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. must be procured. 4 oz. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. deep. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. Then add solution B. Two glass or earthenware dishes. also how the rays R from a star . If not. cement a strip of board 8 in. 840 gr. Now add enough of the solution A. Silver nitrate ……………………………. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. With pitch.………………………………. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center.……………. Fig. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. long to the back of the speculum. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. or hills. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Place the speculum.. as in K. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Solution D: Sugar loaf .. 100 gr. that was set aside. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. 4 oz. 2. Then add 1 oz. When the focus is found. if a hill in the center.…………………………….. longer strokes. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum).. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Fig. Place the speculum S. with distilled water. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. then ammonia until bath is clear. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade... The polishing and testing done.. 39 gr. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. face down. touched with rouge. 25 gr. from the lamp. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. Fig. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. fill the dish with distilled water. Nitric acid .100 gr. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes..Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. When dry. the speculum will show some dark rings.. The knife should not be more than 6 in.

which proves to be easy of execution. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. . slightly wider than the lens mount. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. long and cost me just $15. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. cover with paper and cloth. Thus an excellent 6-in. is a satisfactory angle.John E. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. and proceed as for any picture. Mellish. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. two glass prisms. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. using strawboard and black paper. My telescope is 64 in. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. telescope can be made at home. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. Then I made the one described. Place over lens. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms.. Make the tube I of sheet iron. The flatter they are the less they will distort. deg. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. stop down well after focusing. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. About 20. with an outlay of only a few dollars.

The window must be darkened all around the shelf. A. Do not stir it. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. push the button D. Fig. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. 1.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. and reflect through the negative. 2. Boody. Ill. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. complete the arrangement. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. . Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. but will not preserve its hardening. add the plaster gradually to the water. D. The paper is exposed. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. instead of the contrary. The rays of the clear. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. through the lens of the camera and on the board. then add a little sulphate of potash. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. Zimmerman. or powdered alum. says the Master Painter. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. To unlock. -Contributed by A. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. B. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. as shown in Fig. unobstructed light strike the mirror.

as in Fig. 3. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. also provide them with a handle. 2.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Fasten on the switch lever. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Then blow through the spool. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. use a string. 1). This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. but will remain suspended without any visible support. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. throw . To reverse. as at A and B. as shown in the sketch. so that it can rotate about these points. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. 2. Fig.

Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Go McVicker. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. North Bend. San Antonio. Neb. Take out.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. . Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. In the sketch. although this is not necessary. the armature. binding posts. L. C C. A is the electricbell magnet. San Marcos. -Contributed by Morris L. wash in running water. --Contributed by Geo. and rub dry with linen cloth. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. rinse in alcohol. Levy. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. carbon sockets. and E E. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by R. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Tex. D. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. carbons. Tex. B. Thomas. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light.

One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. 14 or No. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. --Contributed by Joseph B. 36 magnet wire. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. Bell. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. long or more. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Brooklyn. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. By means of two or more layers of No. wound evenly about this core. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. 16 magnet wire. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch.

with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. 2 yd. 4. as the maker prefers. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. 1. in diameter. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. coil illustrates the general details of the work. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. then the strip of tin-foil. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. In shaping the condenser. wide. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. as shown in Fig. The following method of completing a 1-in. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. This makes a condenser which may be folded. which is desirable. The condenser is next wrapped . each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. a box like that shown in Fig. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. which is an important factor of the coil. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. long and 5 in. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. or 8 in. When cut and laid in one continuous length.which would be better to buy ready-made. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. the entire core may be purchased readymade. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. After the core wires are bundled. No. long and 2-5/8 in. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. Beginning half an inch from one end. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. hole is bored in the center of one end. in length. diameter. and finally the fourth strip of paper. about 6 in. at a time. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. The primary is made of fine annealed No. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. A 7/8-in. with room also for a small condenser. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. but if it is not convenient to do this work. one piece of the paper is laid down. and the results are often unsatisfactory. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. making two layers. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box.

battery . The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. I. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. G. one from bell. F. open switch C. E. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell.) The wiring diagram. long and 12 in. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. 4 in. Fig. round so that the inside . whole length. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. which is insulated from the first. The alarm key will turn and drop down. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. forms the other pole or terminal. the letters indicate as follows: A. V-shaped copper strip. bell. copper lever with 1-in. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. switch. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit.securely with bands of paper or tape. go. ready for assembling. B. wide. to the door. A. lines H. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. which allows wiring at the back. by 12 in. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. long to key. C. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. and one from battery. 3. flange turned on one side. B. D. and the other sheet. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. spark. shows how the connections are made. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. shelf for clock. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour.. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips.

Short-circuit for three hours. from the bottom. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. . This is for blowing. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. of zinc sulphate. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. but add 5 or 6 oz. The circuit should also have a high resistance. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. If desired for use immediately. says the Model Engineer. instead of close to it. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. Line the furnace. Use a glass or metal shade. do not shortcircuit. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. That is what they are for. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. and the battery is ready for use. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. but with the circuit. London. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in.diameter is 7 in. 2 in. of blue stone.. and then rivet the seam. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole.

but the thing would not move at all. or think they can do the same let them try it. Ohio. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. Enlarge the hole slightly. oxygen to ozone. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. and then.9 of a volt. for others the opposite way. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. changes white phosphorus to yellow. g. as in the other movement. porcelain and paper." which created much merriment. imparting to them a violet tinge. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. herein I describe a much better trick. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. affects . On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Outside of the scientific side involved. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top.. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. If any or your audience presume to dispute. To operate the trick. below the bottom of the zinc. and therein is the trick. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. If too low. the second finger along the side. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. square and about 9 in. thus producing two different vibrations. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. Try it and see. 1. At least it is amusing. This type of battery will give about 0. while for others it will not revolve at all. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. 2. for some it will turn one way. long. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. thus making the arm revolve in one direction.

a means for holding it vertical. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. but small flowers. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand .photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. earth. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. however. an old tripod screw. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. To the front board is attached a box. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. a short-focus lens. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. chemicals. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. and one of them is photomicrography. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. and. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. but not essential. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. insects. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. but this is less satisfactory. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. if possible. says the Photographic Times.

6 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. long and 3 ft. A line. or 3 ft. 8 ft. AB. 5 in. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 65 4 lb. 697 44 lb. 179 11 lb. 7-1/2 in. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. in Cu. Ft Lifting Power. Fig. balloon. 5 ft. Mass. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. while it is not so with the quill. or 31 ft.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. Madison. in diameter. 1. 905 57 lb. and a line.--Contributed by George C. which is 15 ft. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 7-1/2 in. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. If the balloon is 10 ft. 268 17 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 12 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 11 ft. 381 24 lb. 9 ft. 7 ft. Boston. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 113 7 lb. Cap. Divide one-quarter of the circle . wide from which to cut a pattern. The following table will give the size. CD. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print.

This test will show if the bag is airtight. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. making a double seam as shown in Fig. Procure 1 gal. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. of the very best heavy body. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. of beeswax and boil well together. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. and so on. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. The pattern is now cut. on the curved line from B to C. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. 4. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. 2. The amounts necessary for a 10- . For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. keeping the marked part on the outside. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. The cloth segments are sewed together. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. 3. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Repeat this operation four times.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. 70 thread. using a fine needle and No. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing.

or a fan. should not enter into the water over 8 in. or dusting with a dry brush. . to the bag. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. with water 2 in. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. this should be repeated frequently. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. but if any grease remains on the hand. B. using a fine brush. All FIG. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. oil the spindle holes carefully. ft. B. capacity and connect them. which may sound rather absurd. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel.Green Iron ammonium citrate . About 15 lb. pipe. leaving the hand quite clean. 150 gr. of water will make 4 cu. Water 1 oz. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. A. until no more dirt is seen. When the clock has dried. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. Fill the other barrel. C. of sulphuric acid. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. of iron borings and 125 lb.ft. The outlet. if it is good it will dry off. ]. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. B. 1 lb. 5 . of iron. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. of gas in one hour. . A. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. it is not fit to use.. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. with 3/4in. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. A. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. by fixing. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. 1 lb. balloon are 125 lb. After washing a part. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. as shown in Fig. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. In the barrel. 5. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. above the level of the water in barrel A. Vegetable oils should never be used. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. C. with the iron borings.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. The 3/4-in. a clean white rag.

and keep in the dark until used. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. at the time of employment. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. . or battery. dry atmosphere will give best results. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. The negative pole. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. fix in hypo. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. toning first if desired. says the Moving Picture World. The miniature 16 cp. or carbon. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Printing is done in the sun. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Exposure. .. Dry in the dark. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. A cold. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. or zinc. Dry the plates in the dark.000 ft. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. This aerial collector can be made in . A longer exposure will be necessary. and a vigorous negative must be used. The positive pole. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell.Water 1 oz. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. 20 to 30 minutes. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. to avoid blackened skin. Port Melbourne. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. of any make.

both positive and negative. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. lay a needle. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. will soon become dry and useless. in diameter. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. lead pipe. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. and have the other connected with another aerial line. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. 5 in. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. This will complete the receiving station. when left exposed to the air. If the waves strike across the needle. holes . As the telephone offers a high resistance. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. a positive and a negative. and as less current will flow the short way. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. long. The storage cell. forming a cup of the pipe. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle.various ways. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. If the wave ceases. as described below. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. the resistance is less. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. making a ground with one wire.

on each end. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. This support or block. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. says the Pathfinder. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. an oblong one and a triangular one. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. of course. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. and the other to the negative. namely: a square hole. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. a round one. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. Two binding-posts should be attached. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. one to the positive. B.as possible. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. or tube C. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. except for about 1 in. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. D. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. by soldering the joint. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. This. or tube B. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. This box can be square. does not need to be watertight. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. When mixing the acid and water. The other plate is connected to the zinc.

. Ill. This punt. were fitted by this one plug. 2. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. long. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. in place on the wood. as it is not readily overturned. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. as shown in Fig. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. Only galvanized nails should be used. back and under. wide. C. 1. and match them together. 1. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. wide. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. and has plenty of good seating capacity. thick cut two pieces alike. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. as shown in Fig. is built 15 ft.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. Chicago. leaving about 1/16 in. C. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. 3. all around the edge. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. deep and 4 ft. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. A and B. The third piece of brass. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. 2. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. about 20 in.

The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. thick and 3-1/2 in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A. Tacoma. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. In Fig. Wash.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. square (Fig 2). Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. A piece of 1/4-in. gas pipe. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. is cut 1 in. B.

The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. In designing. Wagner. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. or "rotor. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. no more current than a 16-cp. which the writer has made. with the exception of insulated wire. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor." has no connection with the outside circuit.--Contributed by Charles H. H. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . says the Model Engineer. which can be developed in the usual manner. it had to be borne in mind that. no special materials could be obtained. and to consume. lamp. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. if possible. may be of interest to some of our readers. The winding of the armature. without auxiliary phase.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning.

No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. 3. 4. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. 2.the field-magnet. The stator is wound full with No. as shown in Fig. C. were then drilled and 1/4-in. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. B. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. holes. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. while the beginnings . wrought iron. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. A. with the dotted line. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. After assembling a second time. no steel being obtainable. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. 5. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. They are not particularly accurate as it is. and filled with rivets. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. 1. being used. as shown in Fig. this little machine is not self-starting. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. to be filed out after they are placed together. also varnished before they were put in. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. thick. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. in diameter were drilled in the corners. bolts put in and tightened up. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. Holes 5-32 in. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. Unfortunately. about 2-1/2 lb. or "stator. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. and all sparking is avoided. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes.

and as each layer of wire was wound. The rotor is wound with No. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. and would not easily get out of order. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. as shown in Fig. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. and all wound in the same direction. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. No starting resistance is needed. and especially of colored ones. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. and the other by reduction in the camera. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire.. One is by contact. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. If too late for alcohol to be of use. it would be very simple to build. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. film to film.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. 3-Contributed by C. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. The lantern slide is a glass plate. McKinney. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. Newark. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. J. Jr. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. a regulating resistance is not needed. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. 2. The image should . E. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. and as the motor runs at constant speed. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. if applied immediately. N. having no commutator or brushes. This type of motor has drawbacks. 1. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. as a means of illustrating songs. In making slides by contact. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. as before stated.

HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . and development should be over in three or four minutes. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. a little extra work will be necessary. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. 1. 4. 2. If the exposure has been correct. as shown in Fig. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. Fig. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. D. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. they are much used by travelers. Draw lines with a pencil. except that the binding is different. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. also. A. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. and then a plain glass. 5. the formulas being found in each package of plates. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. if possible. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. as shown in Fig. These can be purchased from any photo material store. B. Select a room with one window. C. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg.appear in. about a minute. over the mat. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. It is best. to use a plain fixing bath. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. 3. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Being unbreakable.

The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. A piece of canvas. in diameter and 20 in. from the end piece of the chair. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. Hastings. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. or other stout cloth. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. wide and 50 in. is to be used for the seat. 16 in. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. long.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. in diameter and 40 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. Fig. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. as shown at A. from the ends. Vt. 1. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. Fig. holes bored in the end pieces. known as rods and cones. Corinth. as shown in Fig. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. These longer pieces can be made square. If the star is in front of the left eye. from the center of this dot draw a star. long. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. 2. as shown at B. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. long. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. 1.

1. per square inch. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. A belt. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. as shown in Fig.-Contributed by P. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. J. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. 2. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. as shown in Fig. Cal. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. O'Gara. . and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A disk 1 in. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. Auburn.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. in thickness and 10 in. made from an ordinary sash cord. as well as to operate other household machines.

and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. Put the bolt in the hole. square for a support. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. wide. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. A simple. thick and 2-1/2 in. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. long. fairly accurate. The part of a rotation of the bolt. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. says the Scientific American. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. . Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. Cut out a piece from the block combination. then removing the object. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. it serves a very useful purpose. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. screwing it through the nut. and the construction is complete. or inconvenient to measure. divided by the number of threads to the inch. to the top of the bench. 3/4 in. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. with as fine a thread as possible. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. direction. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Bore a 1/4-in. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. will be the thickness of the object. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. leaving it shaped like a bench.

hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. bolt in each hole. Bore a 3/4-in. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Place a 3/4-in. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. which show up fine at night. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. material 12 ft. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. globe that has been thrown away as useless. beyond the end of the wood. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. long. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Santa Maria. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. The wheel should be open . leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. piece of wood 12 ft. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. long is used for the center pole. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Oal. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in.

long with the upper or wider part 4 in. of the ends with boards. A piece of brass 2 in. O. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. at the top and 4 in. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. A. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. square and 3 or 4 in. A cross bar. Fort Worth. C. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. from the top end. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. The spool . H and J. Tex. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. L. to be operated by the magnet coil. thick is used for the armature. C. and on its lower end a socket. The boards may be nailed or bolted. from the ends. Graham. which should be 1/4 in. The coil. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. P. and the lower part 61/2 in. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. wide and 1/8 in. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. at the bottom. pieces used for the spokes. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft.Side and Top View or have spokes. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. long. in diameter. made of the same material. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing.-Contributed by A. is soldered. B. 1/2 in. long. long. thick. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. thick. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. long. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted.

The armature. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. D and E. which is also connected to the brass ferrule.000. long. and place it against a door or window casing. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. do it without any apparent effort. and directly centering the holes H and J. This tie can be used on grain sacks.J. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. R. Randolph. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. . for insulating the brass ferrule. is drilled.is about 2-1/2 in. 2. by soldering. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. S. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. When you slide the pencil along the casing. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. Bradlev. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. S. which may be had by using German silver wire. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. one without either rubber or metal end. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. then with a firm. This is a very neat trick if performed right. A soft piece of iron. 2 the hat hanging on it. and in numerous other like instances. F. 1. that holds the lower carbon. At the bottom end of the frame. --Contributed by Arthur D. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. or a water rheostat heretofore described.--A. B. A. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. placing the end of the cord under the first loop.E. C. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. Mass.000 for irrigation work.

32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. S. with a 3/16-in. in diameter and 2 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. Fig. thick. long and 1 in. in diameter. The coil ends are made from cardboard. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The vibrator. D. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. Fig. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. in diameter. for the secondary. About 70 turns of No. The vibrator B. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. The switch. C. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. 1. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. about 1 in. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. B. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. in diameter and 1/16 in. hole in the center. 2. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick.500 turns of No. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. F. for the primary. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. and then 1. The core of the coil. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. about 1/8 in. S. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. long.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. from the core and directly opposite. leaving the projections as shown. about 3/16 in. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. mixed with water to form a paste. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. wide. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. for adjustment. is connected to a flash lamp battery. is constructed in the usual manner. 1. A.

was to be secured by only three brass screws. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. with which to operate the dial. 2 to fit the two holes. which seemed to be insufficient. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. it laps down about 8 in. 16 in. long and when placed over the board. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. The knob on the dial extends out too far. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. in an ordinary water glass. lighted. The hasp. as shown in the sketch. 1. Fig.Place a small piece of paper. as shown. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. thick on the inside. brass plate. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. which is cut with two holes. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. The tin is 4 in. between the boards. 1. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. which is only 3/8-in. The three screws were then put in the hasp. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. board. and the same distance inside of the new board. wide. The lock. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. . The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. and then well clinched.

If the box is made large enough. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. square and 10-1/2 in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. square and 8-1/2 in. high for use in window displays. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. and the back left dark. which completely divides the box into two parts. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. the glass. but when the front part is illuminated. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. not shiny. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. black color. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. When the rear part is illuminated. one in each division. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. When making of wood. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. clear glass as shown. or in the larger size mentioned. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. any article placed therein will be reflected in.

a tank 2 ft. . Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H.. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. When there is no electric current available. and with the proper illumination one is changed. as shown at A in the sketch. wide will be about the right size. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. into the other. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. above the top of the tank. When using as a window display. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. long and 1 ft. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. alternately. as it appears. as shown in the sketch.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

Three windows are provided. with a length of 13 in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. square and 40 in. radius. each. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. is built on the front. If a planing mill is near. hole. Iron sulphate. 2 ft. high. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. wide. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. hole bored the full length through the center. bore from each end. bit. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. under sides together. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. This hole must be continued . one for each side. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. but with a length of 12 in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. is the green vitriol. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. as shown. square. using a 3/4-in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. 6 in. 5 ft. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. and 6 ft. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. 1 in. O. then use a red-hot iron to finish. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. and a door in front.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. thick and 3 in. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. however. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. A small platform. Shape the under sides first. lines gauged on each side of each. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. The 13-in. This precipitate is then washed. or ferrous sulphate. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. from the ground. two pieces 1-1/8 in. long. and a solution of iron sulphate added. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. Columbus. long. wide. gauge for depth. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. The pieces can then be taken out.

Electric globes--two. The sketch shows one method of attaching. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. square and drawing a diagonal on each. three or four may be attached as shown. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. When this is dry. if shade is purchased. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. hole in each block. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. apply two coats of wax. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. If the parts are to be riveted. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Saw the two blocks apart. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. For art-glass the metal panels are . Directions will be found on the filler cans. thick and 3 in. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout.through the pieces forming the base. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. A better way. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. When the filler has hardened. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler.

as brass.Construction of Shade . and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.The Completed Lamp cut out. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. METAL SHADE . such as copper. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.

the object and the background. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . and Fig. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. 2 the front view of this stand.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. Figure 1 shows the side. as in ordinary devices. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. as shown in the sketch. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. one way and 1/2 in. The arms holding the glass. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. the other. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow.

pointing north and south. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. about 1-1/4 in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. wide and 6-5/16 in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. as shown in the cut. outside diameter. in diameter for a base. wide and 11 in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. and an inside diameter of 9 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Before mounting the ring on the base. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Put the ring in place on the base. long. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. and swinging freely. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. in diameter. as shown in the sketch. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. as it is very poisonous. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. thus forming a 1/4-in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. uncork and recork again. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. An ordinary pocket compass. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. If the light becomes dim. thick 5/8-in.

Corresponding mirrors. of the top. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. are mounted on a base. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. The results given should be multiplied by 1. above the half can. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. and north of the Ohio river. AA. and mirrors.600 .cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. 1 oz.500 . A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.182 . EE. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. from the second to the third. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. into these cylinders.289 .088 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. Place on top the so- . The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. CC. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. black oxide of copper.715 . to which a wire has been soldered for connections.420 .865 1. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. in diameter and 8 in. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. B.

the threads should be painted with pure white lead. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. then they will not rust fast. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. slender bottle. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. When renewing.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. of pulverized campor. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. University Park. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. the wheel will revolve in one direction. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. 62 gr. which otherwise remains clear. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. In Fig. alcohol. Put the solution in a long. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. always remove the oil with a siphon. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. 31 gr. little crystals forming in the liquid. Colo. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. says Metal Worker.

a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. This is used in place of the spoon. If zinc and copper are used. A paper-fastener box. If two of them are floating on the same solution. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. about 1-1/4 in. will allow the magnet to point north and south. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. If zinc and carbon are used. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. Lloyd Enos. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. Solder in the side of the box . Attach to the wires. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. floating on a solution. on the under side of the cork. --Contributed by C. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid.

one on each side of the board. Put ends. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. A. Thos. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. long.1-in. as shown in Fig. thick. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in.in. C.not shorter than 18 in. 1-1/4 in. 1. long that has about 1/4-in. or made with a little black paint. C. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. E. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. 1/2. and then solder on the cover. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. piece of 1/4-in. brass tubing. D. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Use a board 1/2. E. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. If the hose is not a tight fit. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . B. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. wide and 2-1/2 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. B. Wind evenly about 2 oz. stained and varnished. H. of No. The base. is made from a piece of No. 10 wire about 10 in. Bore holes for binding-posts. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper.Contributed by J. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. wide and 6 in. 3 in. 14 wire will do. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. of wire on each end extending from the coil. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Take a small piece of soft iron. C.in. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. F. The spring should be about 1 in. hole. . to it. To this standard solder the supporting wire. glass tubing . A. D. The bottom of the box. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. G--No. away. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. long. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. can be made of oak. Rhamstine. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. and on the other around the glass tube. A circular piece of cardboard. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. The standard. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. D.

E. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. of mercury will be sufficient.--Contributed by R. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. . long. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. Y. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end.--Contributed by Edward M. making a support as shown in Fig. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in.of the coil. 5. is drawn nearer to the coil. in diameter. D. of 8-oz. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. four hinges. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Teasdale. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. long. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. The iron plunger. as shown in Fig. Smith. long are used for the legs. about 1 in. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. J. 3. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. 3 in. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. 2. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. 1. long. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. When the glass becomes soft. Cuba. two pieces 2 ft. About 1-1/2 lb.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. N. long. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. long. from the right hand. canvas. Milwaukee. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. 3-in. of No. Wis.

The tube now must be filled completely. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . Keys.. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. 2. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top.. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. of vacuum at the top. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. 6. 4. Can. 3. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. Break off the piece of glass. long. Toronto. Take 1/2 in. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. This tube as described will be 8 in. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. holding in the left hand. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. 5. Measure 8 in. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. expelling all the air. --Contributed by David A. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. Fig. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. small aperture in the long tube. thus leaving a. leaving 8 in.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point.

All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. thick. 6. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. long. 3. thick. A crosspiece 3/4-in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. thick. 2. This forms a slot. but yellow pine is the best. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. wide and 12 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. These are bent and nailed. 4 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. Four blocks 1/4 in. material 2 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. long. as shown in Fig. The large pulley is about 14 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. long. Fig. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. long. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. 5. wide and 5 ft.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. 7. thick. from the end of same. cut in the shape shown in Fig. FIG. thick. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. and 1/4 in. 3 in. wood screws. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms.6 -. 3 in. 1 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. in diameter. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. as in Fig. as shown in Fig. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 1. wide and 5 ft. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. 4. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. joint be accurately put together. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 1 in. wide and 3 in. with each projection 3-in. 9 in. wide and 5 ft.

Water 1 oz. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. . Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. --Contributed by C. leaving the greater part of the screw extending.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Welsh. Kan. Manhattan. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. by 1-in. says Photography. first removing the crank. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. R. attach runners and use it on the ice. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. above the runner level. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim.

Printing is carried rather far. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. also. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. --Contributed by Edward M. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. 2. Mass. --Contributed by Wallace C. and very much cheaper. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. as shown in Fig. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. 1 oz.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. 3. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. from an ordinary clamp skate. 1. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Treasdale. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. The print is washed. Newton. . fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. of water. Leominster. This is done with a camel's hair brush. as shown in Fig.

and bend them as shown in the sketch. high for rabbits. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. and 3 ft. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. say. long. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. wide. Church. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. 2. hole. --Contributed by H. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. F. Alexandria. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. Fig. as shown in the sketch. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. 1. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. Fig. extending the width of the box. wide and 4 in. The swing door B. Place a 10-in. The thread is broken off at the . 1-1/2 ft. 1. 1 ft. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. Then. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. with about 1/8-in. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. about 10 in. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. high. from one end. causing the door to swing back and up. Take two glass tubes. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Va. which represents the back side of the door. and to the bottom. square piece. fasten a 2-in. too. A.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box.

automobiles. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge.. inside of the opening.by 5-in. 3. but cut it 1/4 in. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Chicago. 1. plates. D. Take two pieces of pasteboard. say 8 in. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. being 1/8 in. This opening. Fig. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. long. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. wide and 5 in. wide. trolley cars. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. 1 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. -Contributed by William M. B. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. Out two rectangular holes. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. in size. in size. 2. 10 in. as shown in Fig. C. Fig. says Camera Craft. and exactly 5 by 7 in. camera and wish to use some 4. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. A and B. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. shorter at each end. horses and dogs. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. to be used as a driving pulley. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. and go in the holder in the same way. long. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. wide. shorter. Crilly. Jr. . black surfaced if possible. Cut an opening in the other piece. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in.by 7-in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape.proper place to make a small hole. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. Paste a piece of strong black paper. high and 12 in. one in each end and exactly opposite each other.

A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. making a . into which the dog is harnessed.." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. if it has previously been magnetized. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. long and 6 in. A cell of this kind can easily be made. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. The needle will then point north and south. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass.in. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. wide will be required. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. in diameter.

Secure three carbon rods 1/2. when the paraffin is melted. one that will hold about 1 qt. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. in diameter and 6 in. 3/4 lb. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. fuel and packing purposes. . only the joints. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A.watertight receptacle. short time. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. in which P is the pan. fodder. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. of water. and a notch between the base and the pan. of the plate at one end. Pack the paste in. zinc oxide. pull out the wire as needed. of rosin and 2 oz. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb.in. sal ammoniac. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. Form a 1/2-in. 1 lb. B is a base of 1 in. of the top. File the rods to remove the copper plate. pine. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. filter. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. long which are copper plated. under the spool in the paraffin. F is a spool. for a connection. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Do not paint any surface. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. leaving about 1/2-in. plaster of paris. 1/4 lb. This makes the wire smooth. says Electrician and Mechanic. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. A is a block of l-in. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. with narrow flanges. Place the pan on the stove. beeswax melted together.

Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. for others the opposite way. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. for some it will turn one way. If any of your audience presume to dispute. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. but the thing would not move at all. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. by the Hindoos in India." which created much merriment. long. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. and therein is the trick. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Toledo. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Enlarge the hole slightly. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and one friend tells me that they were . so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. and then. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. let them try it. as in the other movement. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. 2.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. from vexation. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Ohio. At least it is amusing. grip the stick firmly in one hand. square and about 9 in.. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and he finally. thus producing two different vibrations. while for others it will not revolve at all. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. g. or think they can do the same. Try it and see.

although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The experiments were as follows: 1. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. secondly. the rotation may be obtained. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. and I think the results may be of interest. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. p. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. If the pressure was upon an edge. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. by means of a center punch. 5. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. Thus a circular or . 2.100 r. 4. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. To operate. 3. no rotation resulted. 7. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. Speeds between 700 and 1. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. 6. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. rotation was obtained. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. and. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. m. A square stick with notches on edge is best. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. gave the best results. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion.

Ph. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. --Contributed by G. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. Lloyd. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Washington. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News.D. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Minn. if the pressure is from the left. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. a piece of wire and a candle. Sloan.. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. unwetted by the liquid. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. G. as shown. is driven violently away. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. and the resultant "basket splash. so far as can be seen from the photographs. the upper portion is. D. forming a handle for carrying. at first. C. or greasy. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. --Contributed by M. it will be clockwise.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. . Duluth. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). A. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. is proved by experiments 3 and 4.. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. A wire is tied around the can. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. about 2-5/8 in. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. hole drilled in the center. long. 1. flange and a 1/4-in. Each wheel is 1/4 in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. thick and 1 in. as shown in Fig. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. with a 1/16-in. in diameter. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. as shown. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. axle. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles.

3. 4. The first piece. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. Fig. The parts.brass. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. bent as shown. Fuller. 2. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. wide and 16 in. bottom side up. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. 2. The motor is now bolted. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. or main part of the frame. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. put together complete. Texas. lamp in series with the coil. is made from a piece of clock spring. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail.50. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . wood. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. and the locomotive is ready for running. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. of No. A trolley. which must be 110 volt alternating current. --Contributed by Maurice E. as shown in Fig. with cardboard 3 in. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. as shown in Fig. Fig. 6. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. If the ends are to be soldered. San Antonio. 5. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. long. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The current. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. each in its proper place. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. 1 from 1/4-in. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. holes 1 in. is made from brass. 3/4 in. These ends are fastened together. 3. This will save buying a track. are shown in Fig. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together.

O. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. and as this end . Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. 1. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. as shown in Fig. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. then continue to tighten much more. the length of a paper clip. as shown in Fig. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Fig. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. and holes drilled in them. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. 3. Cincinnati. 2. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. but do not heat the center. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Fig 1.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. The quarter will not go all the way down. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece.

and adjusted . One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. or should the lathe head be raised. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. has finished a cut for a tooth. 2 and 1 respectively. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. When the cutter A. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. When the trick is to be performed. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. In the sketch. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. or apparent security of the knot. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. A pair of centers are fitted. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel.

book mark. at the same time striking light. Fig. coin purse. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. tea cosey.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. lady's belt bag. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Bunker. tea cosey. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. holding it in place with the left hand. N. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Brooklyn.) Make on paper the design wanted. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. twisted around itself and soldered. (5. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). An ordinary machine will do. blotter back.) Place the paper design on the leather and. Y. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. watch fob ready for fastenings. note book. if four parts are to be alike. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. (6. long. When connecting to batteries. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Bott. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. gentleman's card case or bill book. trace the outline. or one-half of the design. above the surface. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Second row: -Two book marks. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . if but two parts. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. dividing it into as many parts as desired. lady's card case. Fold over along these center lines. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. In this manner gears 3 in. --Contributed by Samuel C. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. 1. and a nut pick. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post.to run true. (3. (2. (1. swing lathe.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. about 1-1/2 in. 2. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). The frame holding the mandrel. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. --Contributed by Howard S. (4. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. draw center lines across the required space. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. such as brass or marble.

and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose. Secure .

through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. and bore a hole through the center. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. C. a distance of 900 miles. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. B. and push it through a cork. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. A.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. D. Florida. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water.. from Key West. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. into which fit a small piece of tube. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle.C. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. The electrodes are made . Thrust a pin. If the needle is not horizontal. where it condenses. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals.

apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. long. long. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. and also to keep it steady in its flight. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. thick. as shown in Fig. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. 1-1/2 in. long. using a high resistance receiver. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. wide and 20 ft. both laterally and longitudinally. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. 2. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. wide and 4 ft. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. 3. 2 in. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. which is tacked to the front edge. D. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. thick.in. 1. as shown in Fig. take the glider to the top of a hill. Connect as shown in the illustration. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. Washington. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. If 20-ft. 2 arm sticks 1 in. lengths and splice them. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. 3/4 in. free from knots.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. To make a glide. 12 uprights 1/2 in. slacken speed and settle. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. wide and 3 ft. apart and extend 1 ft. thick. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. 2. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. 1-1/4 in. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. The operator can then land safely and . These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. All wiring is done with No. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. thick. 1. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. 1. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. C. Powell. wide and 4 ft long. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. as shown in Fig. long. long. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. wide and 3 ft. square and 8 ft long. Four long beams 3/4 in. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. 16 piano wire. by 3/4 in. 1/2. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. or flying-machine. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. lumber cannot be procured. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. --Contributed by Edwin L. several strips 1/2 in. wide and 4 ft. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. long for the body of the operator. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. use 10-ft. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. thick.

Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Of course. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. but this must be found by experience. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Glides are always made against the wind.gently on his feet. Great care should be .

A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Olson.exercised in making landings. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. 1. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. --Contributed by L. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. When heated a little. 2. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. M. as shown in Fig. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. which causes the dip in the line. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. a creature of Greek mythology. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. Bellingham. half man and half horse. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle.

To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. square. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. long and about 3/8 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. will complete the material list. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. outside the box. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. at the other. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. in diameter. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. long. about the size of stove pipe wire. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. While at the drug store get 3 ft. of small rubber tubing. 14 in. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. about the size of door screen wire. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. The light from the . a piece of brass or steel wire. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. making it 2-1/2 in. this will cost about 15 cents. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus.

O. as shown in Fig. Dayton. --Photo by M.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Hunting. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. while others will fail time after time. M. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. as shown in the sketch. 1. This is very simple when you know how. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. If done properly the card will flyaway. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. as shown in Fig.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. 2. . The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord.

When the desired shape has been obtained. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. hold the lump over the flame. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. closing both hands quickly. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. as described. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. If a certain color is to be more prominent. place the other two. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. as shown. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. as before. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. Cool in water and dry. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. then put it on the hatpin head." or the Chinese students' favorite game.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. This game is played by five persons.

and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. or more in width. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. distribute electric charges . This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. these sectors. passing through neutralizing brushes.

C C. 1-1/2 in. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. and 4 in. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. The plates are trued up. 2. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. Two solid glass rods. The two pieces. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. in diameter. 3/4 in. The collectors are made. as shown in Fig. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. and this should be done before cutting the circle. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. 4. brass tubing and the discharging rods. GG. are made from 7/8-in. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. from about 1/4-in. long and the standards 3 in. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. after they are mounted. wide. RR. D. in diameter. 1. and pins inserted and soldered.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. Fig. in diameter and 15 in. These pins. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. in diameter. The plates. long and the shank 4 in. 1 in. Fig. long. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. The drive wheels. wide at one end. EE. 3. and the outer end 11/2 in. in diameter. material 7 in. the side pieces being 24 in. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. at the other. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. long. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. Two pieces of 1-in. and of a uniform thickness. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. are made from solid. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. in diameter. or teeth. free from wrinkles. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. turned wood pieces. 3. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. as shown in Fig. to which insulating handles . The fork part is 6 in. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. in diameter.

Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. ball and the other one 3/4 in. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. wide and 22 ft. Lloyd Enos. 12 ft. Colo. D. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Colorado City. and the work was done by themselves.. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . --Contributed by C. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. in diameter. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. which are bent as shown. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. one having a 2-in.are attached. KK. long. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results.

deep. string together. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold.is a good one. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. pens . The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. yet such a thing can be done. as at A. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. using a 1-in. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. bit. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. The key will drop from the string.

the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Draw one-half the design free hand. using a nail filed to chisel edge.. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. unless it would be the metal shears. then the other side. very rapid progress can be made. Use . This is to make a clean. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. and the third one 1/4 in. also trace the decorative design. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. Having determined the size of the tray. stamp the background promiscuously. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. etc. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. inside the first on all. 6. The second oblong was 3/4 in. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. above the work and striking it with the hammer. etc. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. 7. When the stamping is completed. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. above the metal. flat and round-nosed pliers. inside the second on all. Proceed as follows: 1. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. They are easily made. 2. Inside this oblong. slim screw. 9. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. extra metal on each of the four sides. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray.and pencils. Raise the ends. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. two spikes. about 3/4-in. 23 gauge. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. 4. they make attractive little pieces to have about. 5. or cigar ashes. 3. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. file. draw on paper an oblong to represent it.. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. sharp division between background and design. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. 8.

Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. 7. and fourth fingers. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. first fingers. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. 9. and the effect will be most pleasing. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. 8. second fingers. third fingers. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 6. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 10. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. In the first numbering. The eyes. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table.

On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. 12. which would be 70. renumber your fingers. In the second numbering. 2 times 2 equals 4. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. thumbs.. above 20 times 20. above 15 times 15 it is 200. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Let us multiply 12 by 12. first fingers. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. viz.. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. which tens are added. 600. or the product of 6 times 6. or 60. the product of 12 times 12. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. . or numbers above 10. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. etc. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Two times one are two. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. 25 times 25. if we wish. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. Still. there are no fingers above. etc. 11. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. which would be 16. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. or 80. At a glance you see four tens or 40. etc. Put your thumbs together. At a glance you see seven tens or 70.. and the six lower fingers as six tens. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. or the product of 8 times 9. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. 400. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. but being simple it saves time and trouble. as high as you want to go. below the thumbs are four units on each hand.

not rotation. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. and so on. For figures ending in 6. 21. 8. 75 and 85. thirties. beginning the thumbs with 16. being 80). Take For example 18 times 18. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. any two figures between 45 and 55. 3. about a vertical axis. and. when he removes his spectacles. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. 7. further. adding 400 instead of 100. . 2. or from above or from below. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. For example. first finger 17. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. whether the one described in second or third numbering. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. thumbs. however. first fingers 22. the value of the upper fingers being 20. or what. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. lastly. Proceed as in the second lumbering. as one might suppose. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. twenties. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. It takes place also. which is the half-way point between the two fives. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. at the will of the observer. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. the revolution seems to reverse. And the lump sum to add. forties. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. the lump sum to add. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. The inversion and reversion did not take place. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. the value of the upper fingers would be 50.. the inversion takes place against his will. the value which the upper fingers have. in the case of a nearsighted person. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. etc.

Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. the other appearance asserts itself.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. Looking at it in semidarkness. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The ports were not easy to make. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. sometimes the point towards him. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. when he knows which direction is right. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. A flat slide valve was used. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. tee. and putting a cork on the point. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. as . The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette.

21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. The eccentric is constructed of washers. it is easily built. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. Kutscher. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. about 2 in. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. as in a vise. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Next take a block of wood. While this engine does not give much power. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. H. deep. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. pipe 10 in. secure a piece of No. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. and make in one end a hollow. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. inexpensive. if continued too long without proper treatment. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. saw off a section of a broom handle. The steam chest is round. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. bottom side up.. The tools are simple and can be made easily. in diameter. Springfield. apart. Ill. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. -Contributed by W. Beating copper tends to harden it and. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. across the head. Fasten the block solidly. across and 1/2 in. pipe. If nothing better is at hand. such as is shown in the illustration. .

C. as it softens the metal. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . Hay. the other to the left. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. S. This process is called annealing. O. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot.will cause the metal to break. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. To overcome this hardness. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. Vinegar. --Contributed by W. especially when the object is near to the observer. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. Camden. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. To produce color effects on copper. and. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat.

the further from the card will the composite image appear. as for instance red and green. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. from the stereograph. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored.stereoscope. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. in the proper choice of colors. it. It is just as though they were not there. because. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. In order to make them appear before the card. with the stereograph. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. the left eye sees through a blue screen. orange. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. and lies to the right on the picture. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. although they pass through the screen. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. and without any picture. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. would serve the same purpose." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. diameter. while both eyes together see a white background. because of the rays coming from them. The red portions of the picture are not seen. only the orange rays may pass through. the one for the left eye being blue. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. they must be a very trifle apart. The further apart the pictures are. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. But they seem black. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. disappears fully. that for the right. however. . not two mounted side by side. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. So with the stereograph. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed.

The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. 1/4 in. Cal. wireless. wide and 1 in. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. A No. in diameter. San Francisco. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. or the middle of the bottle. etc. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. This should only be bored about half way through the block. The weight of the air in round . thick. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. in the shape of a crank. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. long and a hole drilled in each end. Place a NO. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. 12 gauge wire.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals.

6) 1 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. the contrary. The 4 in. will calibrate itself. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. Before fastening the scale. square. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. high. long. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. wide and 40 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. 30 in. or. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. square. a glass tube 1/8 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. In general. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. a bottle 1 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. long. or a column of mercury (density 13. if you choose. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. inside diameter and 2 in. thick. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. . a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. the instrument. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. but before attempting to put in the mercury. But if a standard barometer is not available. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. high. high.numbers is 15 lb. long. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. if accurately constructed. 34 ft. Only redistilled mercury should be used. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. pine 3 in. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. wide and 4 in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. and a slow fall. internal diameter and about 34 in..

2. the size of the outside of the bottle. thick. Number the pieces 1. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. Procure a metal can cover. 1. 6 and 7. long.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. wide and 10 in. 3. 5. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. a cover from a baking powder can will do. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Mark out seven 1-in. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. which is slipped quickly over the end. and place them as shown in Fig. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in.

Position of the Men move only one at a time.J. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 1 to No. 5's place. l over No. 2. 6. 1 into No. 5. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 3. Cape May Point. Move 7-Jump No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. Move 13-Move No. L. Move ll-Jump No. shaped like Fig.-Contributed by W. 2 over No. 3 into No. 6. 2 over No. 2 . 6 into No. This can be done on a checker board. 3. 7 over No. 6 over No. 2's place. 3 over No. N. Move 2-Jump No. in diameter. which is the very best material for the purpose. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 6 to No. Move 14-Jump No. Move 6-Move No. 5 over No. 1. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 6 in. To make such a tent. 3. 7's place. long and 2 ft. 3 to the center. using checkers for men. Move 15-Move No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. procure unbleached tent duck. 7. Move 10-Move No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 12-Jump No. 5 over No. Woolson. as shown in Fig. 1. Move 8-Jump No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 2's place. 2. Move 5-Jump No. Move 4-Jump No. 7 over No. each 10 ft. 5's place. Move 9-Jump No. Move 3-Move No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. Make 22 sections.

making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. fill with canvas edging. high. wide at the bottom. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. will do. Use blocks. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Fig. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. long and 4 in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. --Contributed by G. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. to a smooth board of soft wood. 6. Tress. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. made in two sections.. diameter. round galvanized iron. Nail a thin sheet of brass. added. After transferring the design to the brass. wide at the bottom. 6-in. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. about 9 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. leaving the rest for an opening. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. 9 by 12 in. Punch holes in the brass in . back of the rice paper and before a bright light. long. in diameter. 3 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Emsworth. In raising the tent. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. 2 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. 5) stuck in the ground. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft.in. These are ventilators. as in Fig. Fig. from the top. Pa. 2. 5. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in.J. wide by 12 in. Have the tent pole 3 in. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. As shown in the sketch. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip.

the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The pattern is traced as before. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. excepting the 1/4-in. . the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. cut out the brass on the outside lines. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. bend into shape. Corr. apart. Chicago. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. but before punching the holes. When all the holes are punched. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. around the outside of the pattern. It will not.the spaces around the outlined figures. When the edges are brought together by bending. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief.

If a wheel is selected. Oregon. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Stevens.however. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. partially filled with cream. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. G. allowing 2 ft. Dunham. pipe is used for the hub. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. --Contributed by H. E. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. A 6-in. Que. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. pipe. or less. better still. or center on which the frame swings. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. --Contributed by Geo. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. These pipes are . between which is placed the fruit jar. or.. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. A cast-iron ring. Badger. Mayger. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil.

pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe clamps. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. bent to the desired circle. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. An extra wheel 18 in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] .

In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. as shown in Fig. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. and the guide withdrawn. which was placed in an upright position. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The performer. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. while doing this. 1. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. and dropped on the table. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. 3. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover.

cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Denver. The box can be made of selected oak or . -Contributed by C. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. 1. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. White. Harkins. it requires no expensive condensing lens. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. first. D. 2. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. in a half circle.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Mo. and second. F. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. St. in diameter on another piece of tin. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Louis. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Colo. --Contributed by H.

A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. high and must . A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. fit into the runners. AA. If a camera lens is used. Two or three holes about 1 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. 3-1/2 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. An open space 4 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. The door covering this hole in the back. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. 5-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. long. but not tight. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. from each end of the outside of the box. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. 1. wide by 5 in. high and 11 in. from each end. focal length. This will be 3/4 in. and 2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. long. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. as shown in Fig. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. and. wide and 5 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. long and should be placed vertically. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in.mahogany. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. 2. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. wide.

Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. 1. the article may be propped up . but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. then the second knuckle will be March. C. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles." etc. and so on. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. Ohio. West Toledo. Bradley. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. April. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. provided it is airtight. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. and extending the whole height of the lantern. This process is rather a difficult one. calling this February. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. as it requires an airtight case. June and November.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. calling that knuckle January.. --Contributed by Chas.

one of lead and one of aluminum. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. N. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. running small motors and lighting small lamps. fruit jars are required. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. and set aside for half a day. taking care to have all the edges closed. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. 2. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. Crawford. In both Fig. Pour in a little turpentine. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. Schenectady. 1 and 2. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. . The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. giving it an occasional stir. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. H. The top of a table will do. in. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. the lid or cover closed.with small sticks. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. in. 1. --Contributed by J. Y. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. but waxed. and the lead 24 sq. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. or suspended by a string. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. In each place two electrodes. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier.

You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. This trick is very simple.. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Cleveland. you remove the glass. he throws the other. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. as you have held it all the time. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. After a few seconds' time. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. He. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. O. You have an understanding with some one in the company. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . as well as others. which you warm with your hands. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine.

and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. but in making one. Colo. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Victor. on a table. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely.take the handiest one. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. if any snags are encountered. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Pull the ends quickly. Be sure that this is the right one. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. but by being careful at shores.-Contributed by E. in diameter in the center. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Crocker. J. . The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. put it under the glass. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. near a partition or curtain.

as illustrated in the engraving. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 11 yd. Both ends are mortised. 1 piece. 50 ft.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 7 ft. by 2 in. selected pine. thick and 3/4 in. Fig. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. wide and 12 ft. of 1-yd. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 2 and braced with an iron band. 1 mast. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. at the ends. drilled and fastened with screws.. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. long. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 3 in. 9 ft. by 15 ft. 8 in. 4 outwales. one 6 in. 3 in. for cockpit frame. the smaller is placed 3 ft. of 1-1/2-yd. ducking. by 10 ft. wide unbleached muslin. 1/8 in. 1/4 in. 2 gunwales. 2 in. 1 in. for center deck braces. 3 and 4. for the bow. and is removed after the ribs are in place. Paint. for the stern piece. apart. clear pine. 1 in. by 16 ft. The keelson. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. long. by 2 in. 8 yd. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 1. by 16 ft. by 8 in. square by 16 ft. 1 piece. 1 in. are as follows: 1 keelson. wide and 12 ft. screws and cleats. and.. and fastened with screws. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. 14 rib bands. from the bow and the large one. wide. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. wide 12-oz. by 12 in. from each end to 1 in. from the stern. and the other 12 in. of rope. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. long. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 1 in. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. is 14 ft. long.

Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. from the bow. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. a piece 1/4 in. 4 in. thick. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 1 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. thick. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. A piece of oak. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. is a cube having sides 6 in. thick 1-1/2 in. Before making the deck. The deck is not so hard to do. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. corner braces. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. 3-1/2 ft. Fig. 6. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. Figs. gunwales and keelson. 9. Braces. also. The trimming is wood. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. long is well soaked in water. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. Fig. and fastened to them with bolts. thick and 12 in. long. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. . bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. 1 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. long. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. These are put in 6 in. This block. thick and 1/2 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. wide and 14 in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. wood screws. length of canvas is cut in the center. wide. 6 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. in diameter through the block. A block of pine. 6 and 7. screws. wide. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. is cut to fit under the top boards. A 6-in. 1/4 in. long. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. apart. wide and 24 in. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. wide and 3 ft. 5. They are 1 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. 7 and 8. doubled. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. The 11-yd.

long. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. in diameter and 10 ft. The sail is a triangle. long. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. A strip 1 in. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. E. The mast has two side and one front stay. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. each 1 in. apart in the muslin. Ill. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. thick by 2 in.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. . 10 with a movable handle. --Contributed by O. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. 11. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. 12. at the other. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Wilmette. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. are used for the boom and gaff. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. wide at one end and 12 in. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. wide. The house will accommodate 20 families. Fig. The keel. is 6 in. Tronnes.

The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. five 1/2-in. thick. flat-headed screws. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 1. E. Ill. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. Fig. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. and the other 18 in. Wilmette.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. Tronnes. 2-1/2 in. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. flat on one side. with the ends and the other side rounding. 2-1/2 in. 2 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. thick. 3. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. long.into two 14-in. 1 yd. long. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. wide and 2 ft. --Contributed by O. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. 5. long and five 1/2-in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. one 11-1/2 in. flat headed screws. about 5/16 in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. Cut the maple. 2. square. as shown in Fig. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. 4. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. thick. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. wide. wide. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Take this and fold it over . and 3 ft. long. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. wide and 30 in. Bevel both sides of the pieces. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in.

pieces 2-5/8 in. Wind three layers of about No. thick and 3 in. 2 and 3. 1-1/4 in. About 1/2 in. 1. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. wide and 4-1/2 in. When the glue is set. If carefully and neatly made. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. C. F. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. about 3/8 in. the top and bottom. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. A. are rounded. The front. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. and take care that the pieces are all square. 3 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft.once. as well as the edges around the opening. The bag is then turned inside out. then centered. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. --Contributed by W. leaving a small opening at one corner. long. square. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. Another piece. soaked with water and blown up. 5 from 1/16-in. wide and 6-3/4 in. wide and 5 in. long. but can be governed by circumstances. Bliss. 3/8 in. D. long. square. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. wide and 2-3/4 in. B. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. 6-1/2 in. is set. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. Louis. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. thick. Make a double stitch all around the edge. Figs. Fig. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. wide and 6-1/2 in. A. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. thick. long. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. the mechanical parts can be put together. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. E. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. forming an eye for a screw. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. After the glue. Glue a three cornered piece. long. C. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. this square box is well sandpapered. long. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. and the four outside edges. long. St. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. The sides are 3-1/4 in. wide . to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. of each end unwound for connections. Cut another piece of board. 3-1/4 in. long. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. Mo. wide and 3 ft. and make a turn in each end of the wires.

A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. 1/4 in. A pointer 12 in.R. from one end. long. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips.A. --Contributed by George Heimroth. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. Like poles repel each other. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. board. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. thick. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. Place the tin. 5-1/2 in. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. F. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. bored in the back. Another strip of tin. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. These wires should be about 1 in. hole is fastened to the pointer. from the spindle.and 2-5/8 in. Chapman. and as the part Fig. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. wide and 2-1/2 in. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. Fig. that has the end turned with a shoulder. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. The base is a board 5 in. 5. When the current flows through the coil. and the farther apart they will be forced. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. the same size as the first. showing a greater defection of the pointer. and fasten in place. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. I.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. the part carrying the pointer moves away. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. G. The resistance is now adjusted to show . Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. 4. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. The instrument is now ready for calibrating.S. in diameter. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. The stronger the current. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. Fig. 4. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. The end of the polar axis B. W. long. R. Yorkshire. L. 4 is not movable. 1/16 in. Richmond Hill. Austwick Hall. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . long. wide and 9 in. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. so it will just clear the tin. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. C. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut.

The following formula will show how this may be found. A. and vice . Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. shows mean siderial. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. 10 min. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. 1881. thus: 9 hr. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. at 9 hr. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. say Venus at the date of observation. 10 min. 30 min. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. M. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock.

Hall. and then verify its correctness by measurement. . --Contributed by Robert W. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. get a glazed vessel of similar construction.m. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess.f. or. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. if one of these cannot be had. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Conn. New Haven.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. owing to the low internal resistance. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery.

Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. thick. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. The boring bar. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. fresh grass. long. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. inside diameter and about 5 in. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. cover up with the same. put the fish among the ashes. When the follower is screwed down. especially for cooking fish. Then. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. 3/8 in. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. arsenic to every 20 lb. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. leaves or bark. 1-3/4 in. and heap the glowing coals on top. of alum and 4 oz. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Wet paper will answer. Fig. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. 1. as shown in the accompanying picture. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. consisted of an old shaft with a hole .

Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. thick. when they were turned in. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. pipe. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. pipe. fastened with a pin. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. and threaded on both ends. about 1/2 in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head.

The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. Fig. as the one illustrated herewith. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. but never one which required so little material. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. 30 in. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. wide. labor and time. Clermont. bent in the shape of a U. square iron. The rough frame. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. If the valve keeps dripping. thick and 3 in. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. a jump spark would be much better. 5. and which gave such satisfactory results.valve stems. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. It . and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. Fig. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. 4. then it should be ground to a fit. Iowa. 3. Fig. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. however. A 1-in. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. long. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. This plate also supports the rocker arms. was then finished on an emery wheel. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. 2. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. the float is too high.

strong clear material only should be employed. W. butting against short stakes. no matter what your age or size may be. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. square. long is the pivot. from all over the neighborhood. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. Use a heavy washer at the head. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. in the ground with 8 ft. long. timber. hole bored in the post. and. Nieman. being held in position by spikes as shown. long. set 3 ft. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. 12 ft. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. extending above. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. This makes an easy adjustment. square and 2 ft. in fact. in diameter and 15 in. so it must be strong enough. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. 3/4 in. If it is to be used for adults. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. It looks like a toy. for the "motive power" to grasp." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. rope is not too heavy. The illustration largely explains itself. --Contributed by C. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. strengthened by a piece 4 in. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. The seats are regular swing boards. and a little junk. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. square and 5 ft.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. A malleable iron bolt. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. completes the merry-go-round. with no trees or buildings in the way. As there is no bracing. A 3/4 -in. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. from the center. The crosspiece is 2 in. long." little and big.

which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. then it is securely fastened. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. To wind the string upon the reel. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. as shown in Fig.the fingers. Both have large reels full of . if nothing better is at hand. The bow is now bent. a wreck. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. and 18 in. square. 1. 2. These ends are placed about 14 in. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. 1/4 by 3/32 in. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. light and strong. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The backbone is flat. 4. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. A reel is next made. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. one for the backbone and one for the bow. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. away. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. and sent to earth. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. Having placed the backbone in position. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. long. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other.2 emery. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel.

often several hundred yards of it. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Mass. the balance. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. If the second kite is close enough. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Y. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. First. common packing thread. --Contributed' by Harry S. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw.-Contributed by S. Newburyport. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The handle end is held down with a staple. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. he pays out a large amount of string. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Bunker. C. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. or glass-covered string. Moody. Brooklyn. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite.string. N.

Hastings. square (Fig. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. --Contributed by Earl R. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. then draw the string up tight. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. each the size of half the table top. must be attached to a 3-ft. lengths (Fig. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. then a dust protector. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. cutting the circular piece into quarters. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Vt. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. If the table is round.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. such as mill men use. length of 2-in. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Corinth.

any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad.. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. from C to D. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. Wharton. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. which spoils the leather effect. 16-1/4 in. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Oakland. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. hard pencil. G to H. trace the design carefully on the leather. Calif. 6-1/4 in. E. from E to F.-Contributed by H. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. and E to G. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. Use a smooth..Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. 17-1/2 in. Moisten the . 2-1/4 in. .9-1/4 in.. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions.

with the rounded sides of the tools. is taken off at a time. if not more than 1 in. get something with which to make a lining.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. place both together and with a leather punch. I made this motor . To complete the bag. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. and E-G. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. and lace through the holes. Cut it the same size as the bag. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. apart. also lines A-G. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. about 1/8 in. H-B. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. G-J. Trace the openings for the handles. wide. Now cut narrow thongs. and corresponding lines on the other side.

bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. long. 1. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. in length. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. of No. Shannon. each being a half circle. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. 2. D. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. B. Calif. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. iron. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. . The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. as shown in Fig. 24 gauge magnet wire. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. 2-1/4 in. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. --Contributed by J. Pasadena. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support.M. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. 1.

near the center. high. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. 1.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. balloon should be about 8 ft. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. from the bottom end. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. are the best kind to make. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. pasted in alternately. and the gores cut from these. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. The gores for a 6-ft. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn.

The steam. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. These are to hold the wick ball. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. using about 1/2-in. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. leaving the solution on over night. leaving a long wake behind. coming through the small pipe A. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. 1. After washing. B. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. E. as shown in Fig. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. 2. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. --Contributed by R. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. lap on the edges. 4. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. saturating it thoroughly. Staunton. A. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. in diameter. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. In removing grease from wood. Fig. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. 5. In starting the balloon on its flight. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. If the gores have been put together right. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. 3. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. so it will hang as shown in Fig. after which the paint will adhere permanently. somewhat larger in size.widest point. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. The boat soon attains considerable speed. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. As the boat is driven forward by this force. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . as shown in Fig.

The blocks are about 6 in. long and each provided with a handle. 1. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. wide by 6 in. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. as is shown in Fig. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. Third. apart on these lines. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. high and 8 in. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. In using either of the two methods described. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. There are three ways of doing this: First. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. Second. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. in bowling form. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . if you have several copies of the photograph. long. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean.

1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. N. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. --Contributed by John A. Rinse the plate in cold water. Albany. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. being careful not to dent the metal. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Hellwig. not pointed down at the road at an angle. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in.Fig. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. 2. thick. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Fig. Y. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution.

These corner irons are also screwed to. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. In Fig. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. A. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . through which passes the set screw S. --Contributed by R. and not produce the right sound. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. B. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. Richmond. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. and Fig. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. 2 the front view. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Corner irons. and. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. thick. CC. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. S. 5 in. in diameter. A circular piece of wood. With this device. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. A. which is 4 in. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. 1 Fig. Va. wide and 8 in. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. are screwed to the circular piece. Paine. Break off the frame. long for the base. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. 6 in. If the bottom is not perfectly flat.upon any particular object. is fastened to a common camera tripod. with a set screw. wide and of any desired height. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store.

This will make a very compact electric horn. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. Ill. . D. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Kidder. I made a wheel 26 in. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Lake Preston. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. as only the can is visible. R. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. pine boards. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. thus producing sound waves. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. This horn. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. S. -1. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. La Salle.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. in diameter of some 1-in. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away.

Feet may be added to the base if desired. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. O. The frame is made of a heavy card. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. --Contributed by C. If the collection consists of only a few coins. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. If there is a large collection of coins. the same thickness as the coins. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. 2. Ghent. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. 1. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Kane. B. square. 1. Doylestown. thick and 12 in. Purdy. A. --Contributed by James R. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Fig. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet.

Noble. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. --Contributed by R. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. One Cloud. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. border all around. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. they become uninteresting. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. plus a 3/8-in. into which to place the screws . as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. of developer. The material required is a sheet of No. and then glued together as indicated.E. Toronto. Canada. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Milwaukee. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. melted and applied with a brush. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. If desired. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Neyer. Smith. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. a hammer or mallet. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. for after the slides have been shown a few times.J. several large nails. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. --Contributed by J. cut and grooved. --Contributed by August T. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Wis. though not absolutely necessary. Cal. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. It will hold 4 oz. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. A rivet punch is desirable. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. A lead pencil. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. thick. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner.

There are several ways of working up the design. Remove the screws. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. draw one part. using 1/2-in. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. never upon the metal directly. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. both outline and decoration. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Take the nail. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. like the one shown. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. and file it to a chisel edge. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. screws placed about 1 in.

for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. each 1 in. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Provide four lengths for the legs. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. long. in the other. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. using a 1/2in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail.wall. long. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. 3. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. . A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. of 11-in. and two lengths. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. long. for the lower rails. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. The pedal. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. as shown in Fig. square. About 1/2 yd. l-1/8 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. square and 181/2 in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. 3/4 in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. square and 11 in. 1. Rivet the band to the holder. being ball bearing. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. Do not bend it over or flatten it. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. for the top. 2. up from the lower end. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. two lengths. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg.

was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. --Contributed by W. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. New York City. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. having quite a length of threads. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. F. Quackenbush. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Ala. --Contributed by John Shahan. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. Attalla. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners.

. long. college or lodge colors. initial. Ironwood. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. one about 1 in. from the end. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Two pieces of felt. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . Luther. in depth. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. long. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. wide and 4-1/4 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. The desired emblem. wide and 8-1/4 in. and two holes in the other. the end of the other piece is folded over. --Contributed by C. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Mich. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. and 3/8 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. each 1-1/4 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. long. making a lap of about 1 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. from one end. stitched on both edges for appearance. D. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. something that is carbonated. using class. and the other 2-3/4 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in.

which can be procured from a plumber. Ind. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. if desired by the operator. about 2 in. 1. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. as shown in the sketch. or a pasteboard box. in the cover and the bottom.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. This method allows a wide range of designs. Schatz. Punch two holes A. from the center and opposite each other. as shown at B. 1/4 in. and the cork will be driven out. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. in diameter and 2 in. 2. --Contributed by John H. or more in height. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. Indianapolis. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Fig. A piece of lead. which can be made at home with ordinary tools.

Columbus. O. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. or marble will serve. 4. Fig. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. 1. allowing the two ends to be free. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. and the ends of the bands looped over them. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. When the can is rolled away from you. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. 5. . The pieces of tin between the holes A.Rolling Can Toy lead. are turned up as in Fig. A piece of thick glass. 3. metal. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. it winds up the rubber band. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. putting in the design. as shown in Fig. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. on both top and bottom. These tools can be bought for this special purpose.

After this has been done. If it is desired to "line" the inside. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. The edges should be about 1/8 in. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. from each end. long and bored a 1/2-in. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. and. Next place the leather on the glass. hole through it. A pencil may be used the first time over. thicker than the pinion. deep in its face. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. mark over the design. 1 in. face up. New York City. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. wide and 20 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. or more thick on each side. 3 in. I secured a board 3/4 in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. thick. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off.

then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. M. 2 by 12 by 77 in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1 back board. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 2 end rails. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 2 by 2 by 18 in. Now fit up the two clamps. in diameter. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Cut the 2-in.in the board into the bench top. 1 top board. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Y. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. lag screws as shown. 1. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. N. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. pieces for the vise slides. 1 piece for clamp. much of the hard labor will be saved. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1 screw block. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Make the lower frame first. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 1 piece. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 4 guides. 1 piece for clamp. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Fig. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. thick top board. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 2 side rails. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. --Contributed by A. New York. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. Rice. Syracuse. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 1 top board. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Brooklyn. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 2 crosspieces. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 2. 3 by 3 by 36.

in diameter. 1 nail set. 1 rip saw. rule. 1 pair dividers. 1 countersink.. 24 in. 1 bench plane or jointer. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 set gimlets. 1 brace and set of bits.screws. . will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. it can be easily found when wanted. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 2-ft. The bench is now complete. 1 pair pliers.. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 wood scraper. 24 in. 2 screwdrivers. They can be purchased at a hardware store.. If each tool is kept in a certain place. The amateur workman. Only the long run. 1 marking gauge. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 jack plane or smoother. as well as the pattern maker. 1 set chisels. 1 monkey wrench. 1 claw hammer. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 3 and 6 in. 1 compass saw. 1 pocket level. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 cross cut saw.

1 6-in. 1 oilstone. The calf skin. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. 3. Pa. 2 and 00 sandpaper. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. ---Contributed by James M. after constant use. Fig. No. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. being softer. Fig. the projecting point A. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 1. Doylestown. Fig. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin.1. will be easier to work. but will not make . try square. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 2. will sink into the handle as shown at D. becomes like A. Fig. Kane. 1.

After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. water or heat will not affect. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Turn the leather. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. but a V-shaped nut pick. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. If calf skin is to be used. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. First draw the design on paper. Having prepared the two sides. when dry. Two pieces will be required of this size. such as copper or brass. will do just as well. -Contributed by Julia A. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. then prepare the leather. the same method of treatment is used. New York City. and the length 6-5/8 in. secure a piece of modeling calf. . and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. The form can be made of a stick of wood. lay the design on the face. cover it completely with water enamel and.as rigid a case as the cow skin. White. After the outlines are traced. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. which steam. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. If cow hide is preferred. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges.

Cal. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Portland. . This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Herrman. C. --Contributed by Chas. and an adjustable friction-held loop. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Cobb. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. New York City. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. A. --Contributed by Chester L. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Richmond. as shown in the sketch. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe. Maine.

as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Roberts. . Cambridge. Middletown.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. --Contributed by Geo. Conn. an inverted stewpan. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. B. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop.. A thick piece of tin. --Contributed by Wm. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Mass. for instance. This was very difficult. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. was marked out as shown. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Wright. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller.

When dry. but only an odor which soon vanished. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. A beautifully bound book. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. and quite new. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. --Contributed by Paul Keller. which has been tried out several times with success. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Illinois. of boiling water. face down. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Bone. pulverized and applied. as shown. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. well calcined and powdered. Ind. If the article is highly polished. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. F. used as part of furniture. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. The next morning there was no trace of oil. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. There was no quicklime to be had. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. L.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Indianapolis. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. apply powdered calcined magnesia. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Chicago. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. such as chair seats. Herbert. If any traces of the grease are left. on a clear piece of glass. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. and the grease will disappear.. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. --Contributed by C. but not running over. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. . so some bones were quickly calcined.

. 2 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make.. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. Tarrytown. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. A. Howe. --Contributed by Geo. deep and 5 in. thick.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. If properly adjusted. high and are bolted to a block of wood. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. The pieces marked S are single. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. New York. wide and 12 in. 6 in. long. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. soft steel with the opening 6 in. the pieces . set and thumbscrews. says Scientific American. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in.

If the letters are all cut the same height.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . says Camera Craft. E. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. they will look remarkably uniform. Their size depends on the plate used. The seat is a board. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. A sharp knife. for sending to friends. no doubt. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. albums and the like. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. to the underside of which is a block.

pasting the prints on some thin card. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. after." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. photographing them down to the desired size. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. The puzzle is to get . If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. mount them on short pieces of corks. and. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. for example. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. using care to get it in the right position. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. So made. So arranged. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. In cutting out an 0.

says the American Thresherman. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. snow or anything to hide it. He smells the bait. Old-Time Magic . Bayley.-Contributed by I.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. so they will lie horizontal. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. of its top. G. long that will just fit are set in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. with the longest end outside. N. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. A hole 6 or 7 in. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in.J. hung on pivots.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. Cape May Point. squeezes along past the center of the tube.

then spread the string. --Contributed by L. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Rhode Island. Press the hands together. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Pawtucket. Y. then expose again. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . or rub the hands a little before doing so. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Szerlip. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. E. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. N. Idaho. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Pocatello. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Brooklyn. --Contributed by L. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined.faced up. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Parker.

says the English Mechanic. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. they will look very much like the genuine article. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. thick. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. or green oil paint. The blade should be about 27 in. 3 Fig. The pieces. narrower. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set.. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. in width. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. 4 on the blade. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. wipe the blade . 1. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. When the whole is quite dry. full size. if any. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. long. whether he requires a single sword only. using a straightedge and a pencil. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. 2 Fig. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. in building up his work from the illustrations. dark red. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. wide and 2 in.. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. 1 Fig. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. Glue the other side of the blade. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. and if carefully made. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. or a complete suit of armor. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. near the point end. The handle is next made.Genuine antique swords and armor. end of the blade. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in.

4. This sword is about 68 in. in diameter. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. 1. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. should be about 9 in. 1. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. the other two are identical. take two pieces of wood. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. 3. The length of the handle. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. shows only two sides. 1/8 in. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. thick and 5 in. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. follow the directions as for Fig. of course. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. In the finished piece. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. not for use only in cases of tableaux. 2. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. the illustration. the length of the blade 28 in. the other is flat or halfround. and 3 in. In making. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. 2. as it is . Fig. about 1-1/2 in. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. square and of any length desired. long. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. in the widest part at the lower end. preferably of contrasting colors. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration.. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose.. Both edges of the blade are sharp. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 1. 3. 1. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. allowing for a good hold with both hands.with light strokes up and down several times. the other is flat or half-round. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. In making this scimitar. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood.

Mass. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. about 3/8 in. Morse. and if so. Franklin. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Doctors probed for the button without success. It is made of a plank. A piece of mild steel. or an insecure fastening. N. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. as there was some at hand. each about 1 ft. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. square. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. and. --Contributed by Katharine D. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. at the lower end. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. --Contributed by John Blake. however. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. The thinness of the plank. in an attempt to remove it. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. as shown in the sketch. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. A cold . On each edge of the board. long. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Both can be made easily. Syracuse. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. piping and jackets by hard water. as can the pitch bed or block. Y. 2 in.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring.

place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. secure a piece of brass of about No. a file to reduce the ends to shape. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. on the pitch. When the desired form has been obtained. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow.. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. To put it in another way. tallow. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. 5 lb. 18 gauge. design down. The metal will probably be warped somewhat.. When this has been done. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. plaster of Paris. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. To remedy this. using a small metal saw. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. 5 lb.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. Trim up the edges and file them .

000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. in one minute or 550 lb.000 lb. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. to keep it from floating. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. 1 ft. Fill the 3-in. The smaller is placed within the larger. 1 ft. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. and still revolve. it may be well to know what horsepower means. This in turn divided by 33. space between the vessels with water. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. 30 ft. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. in one second. That is lifting 33. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. over the smaller vessel. in diameter (Fig.000 ft. --Contributed by Harold H. 3. living together in what seems like one receptacle. A. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. per second.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. 1) and the other 12 in. or fraction of a horsepower. but not to stop it. 2). or 550 ft. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. lb. Fig. Clean the metal thoroughly. using powdered pumice with lye. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. in the center. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. in diameter (Fig. . Cutter. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Before giving the description. make an unusual show window attraction. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. per minute. lb. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. and hang a bird swing. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright.smooth. one 18 in.

--Contributed by J. 1 Fig. Diameter 12 in. or on a pedestal.18 in. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Y. F. Szerlip. 2 Fig. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. The effect is surprising. Brooklyn. N. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Somerville. by L. Campbell. --Contributed. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Diameter Fig. Mass.3 Fig.

From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. This compound is impervious to water. the same as removing writing from a slate. unsatisfactory. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. often render it useless after a few months service. In riveting. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. and the clay . which. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Do not be content merely to bend them over. and cut out the shape with the shears. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. after which it is ready for use. to keep the metal from tarnishing. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. with the pliers. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator.copper of No. as a rule. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. which may be of wood or tin. with other defects. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. Polish both of these pieces. keeping the center high. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. then by drawing a straightedge over it. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. away from the edge. using any of the common metal polishes. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. is. Rivet the cup to the base. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. and then. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad.

Shettleston. Houghton. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Mich.can be pressed back and leveled. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. 2. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. . The siphon is made of glass tubes. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. long. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. It is made of a glass tube. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. -Contributed by Thos. the device will work for an indefinite time. in diameter and 5 in. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. 3/4 in. Northville. Dunlop. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. as shown in Fig. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. --Contributed by John T. --Contributed by A. 1. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Scotland. Grand Rapids. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. A. Mich. DeLoof.

FIG. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. London. This sword is 4 ft. put up as ornaments. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. long. stilettos and battle-axes. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. 1.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. in width and 2 in. As the handle is to . The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.1 FIG.

with both edges of the blade sharp. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. Cut two strips of tinfoil. then glued on the blade as shown. long. in length. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. This weapon is about 1 ft. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. very broad. The handle is of wood. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint.represent copper. These must be cut from pieces of wood. with wire or string' bound handle. the upper part iron or steel. paint it a dark brown or black. 20 spike. A German poniard is shown in Fig. narrower. 7. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. A German stiletto. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. is shown in Fig. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. firmly glued on. studded with brass or steel nails. When the whole is quite dry. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. which is about 2-1/2 ft. When the glue is thoroughly dry. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. string. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. Three large. the axe is of steel. small rope and round-headed nails. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. the same as used on the end of the handle. 9. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. with both edges sharp. In Fig. 4. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. 5. This weapon is also about 1 ft. glue and put it in place. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. in width. This stiletto has a wood handle. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. The sword shown in Fig. 8. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. Both handle and axe are of steel. This sword is about 4 ft. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. In Fig. sharp edges on both sides. The crossbar and blade are steel. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. one about 1/2 in. 3 is shown a claymore. long with a dark handle of wood. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. This axe is made similar to the one . 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. The ball is made as described in Fig. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. in length. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. 11 were used. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. wood with a keyhole saw. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The lower half of the handle is of wood. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. When dry. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. sometimes called cuirass breakers. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. 6. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. In Fig.

Old-Time Magic .The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. This will make a very good flexible belt. the ends are tied and cut off. such as braided fishline. When wrapped all the way around. --Contributed by E. high. . Davis. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. will pull where other belts slip. together as shown in Fig. W. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. 10. 2. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper.described in Fig. so the contents cannot be seen. Chicago. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. and as the tension members are all protected from wear.

3 show the position of the wires and flowers.J. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. four glass tumblers. S. Calif. There will be no change in color. apparently. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Bridgeton. or using small wedges of wood. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. with the circle centrally located. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. causing the flowers to grow. The dotted lines in Fig. some of the liquid.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. --Contributed by A. an acid. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Before the performance. held in the right hand. To make the flowers grow in an instant. filled with water. 2. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. These wires are put in the jar. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Oakland. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. 1 and put together as in Fig. N. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. in a few seconds' time. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Macdonald. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. about one-third the way down from the top. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine.

Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. A. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. --Contributed by W. When many slides are to be masked. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. and equally worthy of individual treatment. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. This outlines the desired opening. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. not only because of the fact just mentioned. 2 for height. Jaquythe. 4 for width and No. unless some special device is used. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. Richmond. If the size wanted is No. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. says a correspondent of Photo Era. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. practical and costs nothing. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. which are numbered for convenience in working. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. Cal. and kept ready for use at any time.

The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. or. This done.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. which is dangerous. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. possibly. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. With a stick. using the carbon paper. and do not inhale the fumes. The one shown is merely suggestive. may be changed. too. 16 gauge. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. is about right for the No. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. about half and half. When etched to the desired depth. or a pair of old tongs. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. Secure a sheet of No. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. but they can be easily revived. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. The decoration. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. a little less acid than water. Draw a design. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. the margin and the entire back of the metal. and the extreme length 7 in. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. the paper is folded along the center line. paint the design. not the water into the acid. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish.

plunge it into the acid bath quickly. about 1 in. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. or more wide. Paint the table any color desired. Fig. 24 parts water. Fig. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. and about 2-1/2 ft. C and D. 2. through it. Cut out a piece of tin. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. and bore two holes. thick. repeat as many times as is necessary. high. The connections are simple: I. about 2-1/2 in. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. Fig. A. 3/8 in. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. 0 indicates the batteries. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Fig. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. to the table. as at H. so that when it is pressed down. the bell will ring. long. 1. 5. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. It may be either nailed or screwed down. 4. . with the wires underneath. Then get two posts. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. about 8 in. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. long and 1 ft. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. J is another wire attached in the same way. 5. it will touch post F. in diameter and 1/4 in. 2. wide. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. as shown in Fig. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. 2. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. about 3 ft. 3. as in Fig. as shown in the illustration. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. attached to a post at each end. When the button S is pressed. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. Fig. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Nail a board. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. wide and of the same length as the table.

These rings can be carved out. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long serves as the dowel. 1. is to appear as steel. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. says the English Mechanic. long. The entire weapon. handle and all. 2. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. The imitation articles are made of wood.. such as . A wood peg about 2 in. The circle is marked out with a compass. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. the wood peg inserted in one of them. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. thick. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. After the glue is dry. This weapon is about 22 in. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts.Imitation Arms and Armor . but they are somewhat difficult to make. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. used at the end of the fifteenth century. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. also. The handle is of steel imitation. covered with red velvet. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. 8. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The axe is shown in steel. The spikes are cut out of wood. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. as described in Fig. 2. This weapon is about 22 in. The lower half of the handle is wood. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. long. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The entire handle should be made of one piece. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. is shown in Fig. as shown. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. etc. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. studded with large brass or steel nails. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. or the amateur cannot use it well. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. leaves. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 6. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet.ornamental scrolls. If such a tool is not at hand. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. flowers. 5. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. . The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. 3. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. Its length is about 3 ft. the hammer and spike. The handle is of wood. All of these axes are about the same length. The upper half of the handle is steel. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. with a sharp carving tool. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. as before mentioned.

3. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. a three-base hit. as shown in Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 7) calls for one out. Chicago. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. 2. the knife resting on its back. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. Fig. as in Fig. 1. The knife falling on its side (Fig. 6. 4). then the other plays. Each person plays until three outs have been made. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. calls for a home run. . and so on for nine innings. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 5.

Mass. of the rope and holds it.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. It may be found that the negative is not colored. with the rope laced in the cloth. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. This he does. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Old-Time Magic . 2. Campbell. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. 1. one of them burning . The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. as shown in Fig. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. If it is spotted at all.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. while the committee is tying him up. 3. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. of water for an hour or two. Somerville. hypo to 1 pt. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. as shown in Fig. F.-Contributed by J. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right.

with which he is going to light the other candle. Ky. . and the audience gaze on and see nothing. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Louisville. the other without a light. Drill Gauge screw. 4 oz. of sugar. Ky. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. bolt. --Contributed by L. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. --Contributed by C. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. of water and 1 oz. Evans. B. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. shades the light for a few seconds. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. thus causing it to light. Brown. New York City. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. of plumbago. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. Thome. showing that there is nothing between them. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb.. 4 oz. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. He then walks over to the other candle.Contributed by Andrew G. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. The magician walks over to the burning candle. Lebanon. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper.brightly. of turpentine. and. etc. 3/4 in. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. invisible to them (the audience). thick.

In making up the solution. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Do not add water to the acid. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. about 5 in. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. long. To make the porous cell. Denniston. into a tube of several thicknesses. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Pulteney. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. --Contributed by C. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Y. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. for the material. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. diameter. which will give a strong. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. thick. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. Its current strength is about one volt. H. but is not so good. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. 5 in. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. or blotting paper. steady current. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. N. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money.

steel. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. steel. One hole was bored as well as possible. one drawing them together. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. Finally. steel. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in.station. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. the other holding them apart. carrying the hour circle at one end. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The . After much experimentation with bearings. To insure this. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. while the other end is attached by two screws. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. long with a bearing at each end. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. As to thickness. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. a positive adjustment was provided. but somewhat lighter. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other.) may be obtained. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in.

is provided with this adjustment. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object.. The pole is 1 deg. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. save the one in the pipe. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. Instead. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial." Only a rough setting is necessary. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. When properly set it will describe a great circle. The pointer is directed to Alpha.. Point it approximately to the north star. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result." When this is done. apart. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . subtract 24. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. It is. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. Cassiopiae. Each shaft. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. in each direction from two points 180 deg. and if it is not again directed to the same point. Declination is read directly.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. To find a star in the heavens. are tightened. 45 min. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. once carefully made. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. Set the declination circle to its reading. If the result is more than 24 hours. need not be changed. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. All set screws. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. turn the pointer to the star. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. To locate a known star on the map. excepting those on the declination axis. All these adjustments. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. The aperture should be 1/4 in. and 15 min.

add a little more benzole. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. -Contributed by Ray E. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. is folded several times. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. taking care not to add too much. La. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. The dance will begin. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. Plain City. In reality the first ball. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. then add 1 2-3 dr. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. which is the one examined. a great effect will be produced. long. The ball is found to be the genuine article. cannon balls. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. is the real cannon ball. Ohio. the others . benzole.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. as shown in the sketch. If this will be too transparent. New Orleans.. Strosnider. 3 or 4 in. of ether.

are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. San Francisco. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Somerville. 1). A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. --Contributed by J. Wis. In boxes having a sliding cover. Milwaukee. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. as shown in the illustration.. Mass. Campbell. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Fig. F. Return the card to the pack. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. without taking up any great amount of space. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. etc. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Cal. small brooches. 2. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. taps. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized .

Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. round pieces 2-1/4 in. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Beller. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. as shown in the illustration. . the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. from the bottom of the box. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Connecticut. prints. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. slides and extra brushes. thus giving ample store room for colors.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Hartford. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. This box has done good service.

Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. or placed against a wall. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. When the ends are turned under. 1). O. costing 5 cents. about threefourths full.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. . This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. -Contributed by C. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. Darke. West Lynn. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Mass.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. tacking the gauze well at the corners. with well packed horse manure. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. will answer the purpose. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. FIG. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. 2). and pour water on it until it is well soaked. Fill the upper tub. holes in the bottom of one. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet.

If the following directions are carried out. If plugs are found in any of the holes. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. if this is not available. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. cutting the cane between the holes. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. when they are raised from the pan. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. oil or other fluid. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. they should be knocked out. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. Chicago. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. Eifel.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. and each bundle contains . often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. M. --Contributed by L. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position.

No plugs . and. as it must be removed again. In addition to the cane. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. after having been pulled tight. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. put about 3 or 4 in. it should be held by a plug. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. then across and down. 1. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. a square pointed wedge. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. as shown in Fig. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. held there by inserting another plug.

a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. is the horizontal dial. the height of the line BC. we have 4. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. R. This will make three layers. trim off the surplus rosin. Patrick. in this case) times the . and the one we shall describe in this article. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. From table No. Their difference is . If you have a table of natural functions. Detroit. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts.075 in. and for lat. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. the next smallest.2 in. as for example. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. No weaving has been done up to this time. 3. but the most common.3 in. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. When cool. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. it is 4. Start at one corner and weave diagonally.15 in. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. During the weaving.5 in. 4. 1. There are several different designs of sundials. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. 1. --Contributed by M. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. Fig. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. 1. The style or gnomon. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. After completing the second layer. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig.2+. Fig. as shown in Fig. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. All added to the lesser or 40°. as the height of the line BC for lat. as shown in Fig. 1 lat. using the same holes as for the first layer.075 in. 40°.= 4. 3. 5. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. the height of which is taken from table No. for 2°. lat. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day.42 in. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. D. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. -Contributed by E. It consists of a flat circular table.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. is the base (5 in. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. Michigan. W. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. or the style. as it always equals the latitude of the place. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. 5 in. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. 42° is 4. 41°-30'. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. 41 °-30'. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. If handled with a little care. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. and for 1° it would be . the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. stretch the third one.15+. Even with this lubrication. called the gnomon.

33 . Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. Table NO. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.11 3.66 1.87 1.82 5.30 1.66 latitude.55 5.96 32° 3.39 .82 3. according to the size of the dial.55 30° 2.18 28° 2.46 .57 3. For latitudes not given.03 3.14 5.12 52° 6.40 34° 3.33 42° 4.16 1.85 35 . Height of stile in inches for a 5in.07 4.56 .46 3.93 6.49 3. Its thickness.93 2.55 46° 5. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. Fig. long.82 2.55 4.28 .16 40 .42 45 . A line EF drawn through the points A and C.02 1. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. Chords in inches for a 10 in.27 2.85 1. To layout the hour circle.99 2.57 1.00 40° 4.76 1. and perpendicular to the base or style. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. using the points A and C as centers.tangent of the degree of latitude. an inch or two.97 5 7 4. if of metal. .29 4-30 7-30 3.94 1. or if of stone. or more.26 4.10 6.23 6.89 50° 5.42 . 2 for given latitudes. and intersecting the semicircles. base.19 1.40 1. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.42 1.44 44° 4.64 4 8 3. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.68 5-30 6-30 5. which will represent the base in length and thickness. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. gives the 6 o'clock points.38 .79 4. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . circle Sundial.81 4. 2. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.37 5.32 6. Draw two semi-circles. and for this size dial (10 in. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. 2.66 48° 5.37 54° 6. Draw the line AD.88 36° 3. with a radius of 5 in.50 26° 2.30 2.41 38° 3. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.59 2.83 27° 2.77 2.87 4.63 56° 7.06 2.91 58° 8.49 30 . 1.20 60° 8.

As they are the genuine reproductions. then the watch is slower. An ordinary compass.54 60 . April 16.add those marked + subtract those Marked . after allowing for the declination.57 1. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.21 2.79 6.19 2.60 4.50 55 .63 1. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.72 5. The + means that the clock is faster.06 2.46 5. 2 and Dec.68 3.87 6. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. and the .34 5. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.89 3. will enable one to set the dial.71 2.37 2.52 Table No. 25. 3.50 .93 6. Iowa.82 3. says the English Mechanic. June 15.49 5. adding to each piece interest and value. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.01 1. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .14 1. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.46 4.08 1. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.77 3. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.24 5. 3. and for the difference between standard and local time. Sun time to local mean time.means that the dial is faster than the sun.12 5. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. Each weapon is cut from wood. Sioux City. E. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.30 2.98 4. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. it will be faster. London. This correction can be added to the values in table No. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. 900 Chicago. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. --Contributed by J. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.53 1. Sept. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.49 3..from Sundial lime. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. if west. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.10 4. Mitchell. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. each article can be labelled with the name.

Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Glaive and Voulge brass nails.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. 3. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. the length of which is about 5 ft. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. 1. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle.. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. Partisan. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. When putting on the tinfoil. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. . The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil.

6 ft. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The length of this bar is about 5 in. long. long with a round wooden handle. press it well into the carved depressions. which are a part of the axe. 8. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The spear is steel. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. This weapon is about 6 ft. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. is shown in Fig. in diameter. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. 5. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. It is about 6 ft. The edges are sharp. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. 7. long with a round staff or handle. the holes being about 1/4 in. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. A gisarm or glaive. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. used about the seventeenth century. about 4 in. sharp on the outer edges. . The extreme length is 9 ft. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in.which is square. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. long.

Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. 2 and 3. The twisted cross cords should . a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. or in holes punched in a leather strap. B. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. 4. used for spacing and binding the whole together. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. the cross cords. 1. In Figs. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. apart. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. 5. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. Loudonville. Substances such as straw. are less durable and will quickly show wear. Cut all the cords the same length. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished.-Contributed by R. H. They can be made of various materials. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. Workman. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. Ohio. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. as shown in Fig. the most durable being bamboo. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. are put in place. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. This is important to secure neatness. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire.

--Contributed by Maurice Baudier. in which was placed a piece of glass. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. wide. shaped as shown at C. 3 in. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. This was turned over the top of the other can. The first design shown is for using bamboo. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Lockport. M. A slit was cut in the bottom. New York. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. for a length extending from a point 2 in. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. New Orleans. Harrer. Four V-shaped notches were cut. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping.be of such material. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. below the top to within 1/4 in. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. La. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. bamboo or rolled paper. of the bottom. To remedy this. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. -Contributed by Geo. as shown at B.

gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. N. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. Cal. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. and two along the side for attaching the staff. giving the appearance of hammered brass. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. wide. --Contributed by Chas. Shay. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. This plank. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. the brass is loosened from the block. Sanford. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Y. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . This should be done gradually. turned over but not fastened. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. do not throw away the gloves. about 1/16 in. Newburgh. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves.tape from sticking to the carpet. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. Pasadena. Maywood. --Contributed by Joseph H. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Ill. After this is finished. --Contributed by W. Schaffner. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. H. is shown in the accompanying sketch.

It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. -Contributed by W. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Marshall. A. --E. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. K. in diameter. Richmond. Cal. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Jaquythe. Unlike most clocks. Ill. the pendulum swings . Oak Park. bent as shown. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob.

The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. --Contributed by V. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Fasten another board. and the other two 2-5/8 in. about 12 in. long and at each side of this. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. only have the opposite side up. in diameter. Secure a board. thick.. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. A. high. by 1-5/16 in. 6 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. B. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. 5/16 in. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. high. Metzech. Now place the board to be joined. C. are secured in the base bar. on the board B. 3/4 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. such as this one. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Chicago. about 6 in. high. In using this method. bearing on the latter. says the Scientific American. Two uprights. away. wide. is an electromagnet. . Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. wide that is perfectly flat. bar. high and 1/4 in. to the first one with screws or glue. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. 7-1/2 in. The construction is very simple. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported.

It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. Vanderslice. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. 1. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. from one end. The assembled parts are shown in Fig.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. 1. as shown at A. is fastened in the hole A. . Fig. 2. 3. wide and 1 in. square. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. square inside. long. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. The trigger. Phoenixville. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. 1. --Contributed by Elmer A. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. by driving a pin through the wood. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. or more. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. wide and 5 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. 4. whose dimensions are given in Fig. plates should be made 8 in. Fig. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. Pa.

on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Ohio. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. -Contributed by J. one-half the length of the side pieces. rubbing varnish and turpentine.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Simonis. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite.A. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. which allows 1/4 in. if only two bands are put in the . are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 5 parts of black filler. Fostoria. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. square. by weight. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. 2 parts of whiting. as shown in the illustration.

II. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. DeLoof. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. is set at an angle of 45 deg. Dartmouth. It must be kept moist and well . A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. and it may be made as a model or full sized. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. preferably copper. is necessary. A mirror. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. London. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. Grand Rapids. 1. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. long. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. --Contributed by Thos. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. Mass.lower strings. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. place tracing paper on its surface. as shown in Fig. wide and about 1 ft. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. deep. Michigan. A double convex lens. A piece of metal. In constructing helmets. Shaw. says the English Mechanic. No. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. in the opposite end of the box. keeps the strong light out when sketching. which may be either of ground or plain glass. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. If a plain glass is used. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. G. -Contributed by Abner B. and the picture can be drawn as described. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. 8 in. In use.

kneaded. as in bas-relief. shown in Fig. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. or some thin glue. 2. The clay. All being ready. as shown in Fig. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. will be necessary. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. brown. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. with a keyhole saw. and over the crest on top. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. 1. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. 1. After the clay model is finished. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . Scraps of thin. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and the deft use of the fingers. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. the clay model oiled. joined closely together. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. take. 3. a few clay-modeling tools. on which to place the clay. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. and left over night to soak. and continue until the clay is completely covered. This being done. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses.

The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. then another coating of glue. a few lines running down. as shown: in the design. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. Indianapolis. They are all covered with tinfoil. a crest on top. In Fig. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. The band is decorated with brass studs. 7. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. and so on. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. owing to the clay being oiled. 1. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. Indiana. with the exception of the vizor. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. square in shape. In Fig. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. The center of the ear guards are perforated. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. the piecing could not be detected. Before taking it off the model. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable.as possible. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. one for each side. When dry. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. should be modeled and made in one piece. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. When perfectly dry. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. 5. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. 9. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. When the helmet is off the model. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. or. The whole helmet. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. as seen in the other part of the sketch. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. --Contributed by Paul Keller. which should be no difficult matter. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . This contrivance should be made of wood. the skullcap. will make it look neat. and the ear guards in two pieces.

as it stands a higher temperature. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. 4. thick sheet asbestos. until it is within 1 in. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. of the top. The mineral wool. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. long. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. Fig. FF. as shown in Fig. Fig. 4. This will make an open space between the plates. long. A round collar of galvanized iron. 2. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. Fig. Fig. The reverse side of the base. which can be bought from a local druggist. two ordinary binding posts. high. of fire clay. 4 lb. 4. should extend about 1/4 in. is then packed down inside the collar. also the switch B and the fuse block C. Fig. is shown in Fig. 3 in. Fig. to receive screws for holding it to the base. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 2. one small switch. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. Fig. one fuse block. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. 2. The plate. If a neat appearance is desired. The two holes. 1 in. about 80 ft. and. Fig. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. AA. in diameter and 9 in. AA. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. 1. 1. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. Fig. 4. wide and 15 in. AA. The holes B and C are about 3 in. E and F. the fuse block. the holes leading to the switch. of mineral wool. about 1/4 in. or. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. one oblong piece of wood. with slits cut for the wires. screws. 1. Fig. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. and C. as shown in Fig. if this cannot be obtained. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. 1. thick. GG. above the collar. Fig. 3. 1. about 1 lb. If asbestos is used. 1. This will allow the plate. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. if the measurements are correct. 4. for connections. 4. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. Fig. JJ. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. 22 gauge resistance wire. each 4-1/2 in. 4. and two large 3in. as shown in Fig. when they are placed in opposite positions. 12 in. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. of No. Fig. one glass tube. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. are allowed to project about 1 in. long. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections.same size. German-silver wire is better. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D.

While the clay is damp. so that the circuit will not become broken. when heated. allowing a space between each turn. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. As these connections cannot be soldered. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. as the turns of the wires. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. will slip and come in contact with each other. more wire should be added. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. Next. Can. A. then. This point marks the proper length to cut it. Jaquythe. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. If this is the case. --Contributed by W. steam will form when the current is applied. Cnonyn. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. and pressed into it. --Contributed by R. 2. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. It should not be left heated in this condition. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. deep. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. using care not to get it too wet. causing a short circuit. Cut a 1/2-in. St. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . Catherines. Cover over about 1 in. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. H. If it is not thoroughly dry. Fig. Fig. KK. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. Cal. it leaves a gate for the metal. Richmond. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. 4. The clay. II. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. When this is done. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. above the rim. When the tile is in place. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. apart. when cool. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. It should not be set on end. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. A file can be used to remove any rough places. This completes the stove.

--Contributed by Andrew G. square material in any size. and the frame set near a window. is large enough. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Louisville. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. and the prints will dry rapidly. Thorne. constructed of 3/4-in." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Ky. the pie will be damaged. as shown. says the Photographic Times. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. but 12 by 24 in. Then clip a little off the . The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher.

1. 14 in. slip on two cardboard washers. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. W. 1. 22 gauge magnet wire. thick and 3 in. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. long. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. Fig. in diameter. 1/2 in. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. wide and 3 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. long. which gives the shaft a half turn. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. An offset is bent in the center. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. Fig. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. -Contributed by S. 1. thick. in diameter and about 4 in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. The connecting rod E. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. The board can be raised to place . The driving arm D. Le Mars. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. at GG. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. 3. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. each 1 in. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. which are fastened to the base. thick and 3 in. allowing each end to project for connections. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. 1 and 3. Fig. 1/2 in. each 1/2 in. high. wide. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. Herron. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. A 1/8-in. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. 2. Figs. Two supports. 4 in. open out. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. long. 1. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. The upright B.Paper Funnel point. The connections are made as shown in Fig. wide and 7 in. 2-1/2 in. Iowa. thereby saving time and washing. high. As the shaft revolves. for the crank. causing a break in the current. high. long. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. as shown. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel.

the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. on a board. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Place the pot. 3 in. . bottom side up. in height. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. as shown in the sketch. Dorchester. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Stecher. --Contributed by William F. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. In designing the roost. One or more pots may be used. Mass. making a framework suitable for a roost.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him.

it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. without any corresponding benefit. will produce the pattern desired. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. The bottom part of the sketch. The materials required are rope or. Fig. and give it time to dry. as shown in Fig. grills and gratings for doors.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. 1. F. if it is other than straight lines. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. adopt the method described. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. F. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. shelves.. Wind the . in diameter.. preferably. odd corners. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. 1. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. that it is heated. paraffin and paint or varnish. when combined. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. ordinary glue. etc. windows.

six designs are shown. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. M. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Harrer. Fig. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. cut and glue them together. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Y. N. Lockport. 2. -Contributed by Geo.Fig.

. but no farther. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. 1. This piece of horse armor.. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches.. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. London. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. which was used in front of a horse's head. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. etc. when it will be observed that any organic matter. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. and the sides do not cover the jaws. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. will be retained by the cotton. chips of iron rust. As the . Pour the water in until the filter is filled. etc. says the English Mechanic.

and therefore it is not described. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. This can be made in one piece. All being ready. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. with the exception of the thumb shield. except the thumb and fingers. as shown in the sketch. which can be made in any size. In Fig. but the back is not necessary. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. 2.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. as the surface will hold the clay. the same as in Fig. which is separate. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. the rougher the better. This will make the model light and easy to move around. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. but for . The armor is now removed from the model. This being done. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. This triangularshaped support. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. 4. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. 8. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. 6 and 7. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. 2. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. An arrangement is shown in Fig. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. and the clay model oiled. then another coat of glue. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. and will require less clay. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved.

N. are better shown in Fig. If it does not hold a charge. When locating the place for the screw eyes. Buxton. the top of the rod. . but 3-1/2 in. running down the plate. 9. A piece of board. Fasten a polished brass ball to. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. 1/2 in. Goshen. La Rue. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. wide and 1/2 in. --Contributed by John G. cut into the shape shown in Fig. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. --Contributed by Ralph L. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. and the instrument is ready for use. Calif. the foils will not move. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. will be about right. are glued to it. each about 1/4 in. fastened to the rod. the two pieces of foil will draw together. two for the jaws and one a wedge. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. long. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. Redondo Beach. two in each jaw. Y. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. The two pieces of foil. in depth. 2.

about 15 in. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. hole bored through it. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. from the smaller end. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. The can may be bronzed. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. pine board. as indicated in the . thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. Texas. When a fish is hooked. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. M. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. 2-1/2 in. Bryan. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. long.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. --Contributed by Mrs. silvered. At a point 6 in. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. A. enameled or otherwise decorated. as shown in the illustration. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. Corsicana. is made of a 1/4-in. as this will cut under the water without splashing. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman.

Any kind of wood will do. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. punch the holes. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. or even pine. take a piece of thin wood. wide by 6 in.Match Holder accompanying sketch." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. as shown. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. thick. When it has dried over night. Polish the metal. long over all. using powdered pumice and lye. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Basswood or butternut. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. using a piece of carbon paper. 22 is plenty heavy enough. If soft wood. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. and trace upon it the design and outline. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. such as basswood or pine was used. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. then with a nail. A good size is 5 in. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. put a coat or two of wax and polish . 3/8 or 1/4 in. Having completed the drawing. Next prepare the metal holder. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. will do as well as the more expensive woods.

each 1 in. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. Two wire nails. the whole being finished in linseed oil. Richmond. If carving is contemplated. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. Instead of the usual two short ropes. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. --Contributed by W. A. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. Cal. wide and 5 in. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. of pure olive oil. . The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. can be made on the same standards. long. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. are used for the cores of the magnets. 1/2 in. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. thick. is used for the base of this instrument. Jaquythe. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. long. 2 in.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. If one has some insight in carving. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. It is useful for photographers. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. yet protects the skin from the chemicals.

The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. similar to that used in electric bells. 3. cloth or baize to represent the legs. 1. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. at A. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. except that for the legs. cut in the shape of the letter T. Lynas. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. as shown in Fig. . and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. about No. then covered with red. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. --Contributed by W. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. leaving about 1/4 in. About 1 in. as shown by the dotted lines. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. acts as a spring to keep the key open. A rubber band. when the key is pushed down. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. London. the paper covering put on. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. says the English Mechanic. All of the parts for the armor have been described. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. in the shape shown in the sketch. 25 gauge. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. A piece of tin. H. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key.

When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Silver paper will do very well. in the other end. completes the equipment. These can be purchased at a stationery store. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. at each end. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. long.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. apart. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. Take the piece shown in Fig. apart. can be made in a few minutes' time. make the same series of eight small holes and. Instead of using brass headed nails.. about 1 in. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. By moving the position of the bolt from. one to another . and eight small holes. drill six 1/4-in. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. not too tight. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. In one end of the piece. flat headed carriage bolt. for the sake of lightness. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. So set up. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. or ordinary plaster laths will do. holes. Fig. says Camera Craft. 2. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. 1 in. A 1/4-in. Secure two strips of wood. 3 in. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. Cut them to a length or 40 in. 1 and drill a 1/4in. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. hole in the center. The two pieces are bolted together.

long. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. taking the same start as for the square fob. Then take B and lay it over A. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. the one marked A. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. A round fob is made in a similar way. 2. C over D and B. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. of the ends remain unwoven. lay Cover B and the one under D. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. as shown in Fig. 2. and lay it over the one to the right. In this sketch. as in portraiture and the like. Fig.of the larger holes in the strip. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. doubled and run through the web of A. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. 4. A is the first string and B is the second. Start with one end. but instead of reversing . then B over C and the end stuck under A. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. and the one beneath C. in Fig. Then draw all four ends up snugly. 2. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. D over A and C. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. for instance. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. 1.

5. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. long. Monroeville. Other designs can be made in the same manner. A loop. as in making the square fob. especially if silk strings are used. is left out at the center before starting on one side. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. as B. Ohio. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. always lap one string. as at A in Fig. Rupp. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. --Contributed by John P. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. the design of which is shown herewith. is to be made of leather. The round fob is shown in Fig. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . over the one to its right.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. 1-1/2 in. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. 3.

using the reverse side. door facing or door panel. When the supply of wax is exhausted. . pressing it against the wood. such as a nut pick. A. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. Mich. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. beeswax or paraffin. it can be easily renewed. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. -Contributed by A.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Northville. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. filling them with wax. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. Any smooth piece of steel. Houghton. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper.

apart and driven in only part way. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. thick. Fold together on lines C. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. and about 12 in. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. . Y. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. D. long. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. leaving about 1/4 in. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Enough plaster should. --Contributed by O. but any kind that will not stick may be used. N. J. Select the print you wish to mount. although tin ones can be used with good success. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. The tacks should be about 1 in.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Petersburg. Thompson. place it face down in the dish. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. those on matte paper will work best. remaining above the surface of the board. if blueprints are used. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. and after wetting. E and F. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. says Photographic Times. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. New York. it is best to leave a plain white margin. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Ill.

One of the . etc. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells.. as shown in the right of the sketch. roses. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. without mixing the solutions. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. as shown at the left in the sketch. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Lower into the test tube a wire. bell flowers. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. filling the same about onehalf full. violets. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. will be rendered perfectly white.

Fig. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. L. made of heavy tin. not too tightly. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. --Contributed by L. 1-7/8 in. shading. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. 1. A rod that will fit the brass tube. in diameter and 1 in. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. long. South Dakota. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The first point should be ground blunt. as shown.. is about 2-1/2 in. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. as shown in the sketch. to keep the core from coming off in turning. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. Shabino. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The diaphragm. The sound box. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . or delicate tints of the egg. thick. should be soldered to the box.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. but which will not wobble loose. The tin horn can be easily made. Millstown. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. about 1/8s in. turned a little tapering. When soldering these parts together. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. long and made of wood. 3. and at the larger end. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. 2.

Victor. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Colo. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. put a board on top.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. and. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. says the Iowa Homestead. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. E. wondering what it was. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Jr. mice in the bottom.Contributed by E. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Ill. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Gold. Chicago. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away.

and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. N. Y. . A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Buffalo. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. --Contributed by Lyndwode. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Ottawa. Can.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Pereira. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages.

The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. a piece of tin. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. --Contributed by W. Grand Rapids. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. as shown. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Cal. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. above the end of the dasher. longer than the length of the can. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. cut round.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. --Contributed by Thos. by means of a flatheaded tack. This cart has no axle. Put a small nail 2 in. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Richmond. Jaquythe. through which several holes have been punched. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. A. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. and at one end of the stick fasten. Mich. De Loof. as it can be made quickly in any size.

wide and 1/8 in. cut in the center of the rounding edge. 2. New Orleans. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. La. Notches 1/8 in. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. of course. Doylestown. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. A wedge-shaped piece of . 1 ft. Kane. as shown. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. wide. screwed it on the inside of a store box. deep and 3 in. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. 2. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. 1. 2. board. 1-1/2 in. Fig. apart. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.1. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. Pa. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. thick. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. The candles.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. long. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. 2 in. The baseboard and top are separable. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. wide and 3 ft. wide and as long as the box. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. I reversed a door gong. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. were below the level of the bullseye. --Contributed by James M. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. 1/4 in.

raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. 1. --Contributed by G.. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. as shown in Fig. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. After completing the handle. when placed as in Fig. Mass. take two pieces of hard wood. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. can be picked up without any trouble. West Union. wide rubber bands or felt. the blade is put back into the groove . the reason being that if both were solid. Cover the block with rubber. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. For the handle. Worcester. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. it can be removed without marring the casing. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. the shelf could not be put on the window. will. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Ia. Wood. dressing one surface of each piece. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. After the glue has dried. A. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it.Book Back Holders metal. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. The block can also be used as a paperweight. wide into each side of the casing. scissors. When not in use. 3. by cutting away the ends. etc. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. stone or wood. This device is very convenient for invalids. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Needles.

Jacobs. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Ohio. 2. is shown in the accompanying sketch. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. --Contributed by H. thus carrying the car up the incline. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. If desired. long. -Contributed by W. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained.and sharpened to a cutting edge. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. as shown in Fig. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Hutchins. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. 1. 1 in. S. A. Cleveland. --Contributed by Maud McKee. as shown in Fig. Malden. . Erie. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Mass. Pa. A notch is cut in one side. Each one is made of a hardwood block. square and 4 in.

The letters can be put on afterward. and an awl and hammer. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. N.. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material.J. This will insure having all parts alike. 6 by 9-1/2 in. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Cape May Point. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. Prepare a design for the front. a board on which to work it. . and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. will be needed. One sheet of metal.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. If one such as is shown is to be used.

flat brush. mandolin or guitar. to right angles. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. but weird and distant. that can be worked in your own parlor. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. in the waste metal. varnish. turpentine. or. So impressive are the results. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. 1 part. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. a violin." In all appearance. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. On the back. Remove the metal. paste the paper design right on the metal. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. 3/4 part. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. as shown. which is desirable. . that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. One coat will do. says Master Painter. The stick may be placed by the side of. if desired. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. The music will not sound natural. applied by means of a brush. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. 1/4 part. 2 parts white vitriol. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. placed on a table. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. behind or through the center of a table leg. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine.Fasten the metal to the board. only the marginal line is to be pierced. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. If any polishing is required.

each 28 in. wide. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. without them. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. apart. round-head machine screws. it might be difficult. each 6 in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. square bar iron. The longest piece. across the top. 3. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. long. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. . after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. thick by 1/2 in. and is easy to construct. London. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. long and spread about 8 in. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. Two pairs of feet. With proper tools this is easy. are shaped as shown in Fig. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. long and measuring 26 in. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. says Work. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. 2.

This method is pursued until the glass is complete. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. 6. 5. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. or. lead. Place the corner piece of glass. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. special flux purchased for this purpose. 5. A. The brads are then removed.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. The glass. in the grooves of the borders. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. Fig. and the base border. is held by the brads. cut a long piece of lead. Fig. After the joints are soldered. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. better still. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. 7. using rosin as a flux. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. as shown in Fig. D. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. While the piece of lead D. 4. B. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. the latter being tapped to . the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. on it as shown. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The design is formed in the lead. After the glass is cut. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. C. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered.

long. bolt. 8.the base of the clip. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. in diameter and 1/4 in. and two wood blocks. N. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Fasten the plates to the block B. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. square and of the length given in the drawing. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. one on each side and central with the hole. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. and round the corners of one end for a ring. J. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. bolt. Bore a 3/4-in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. H. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. holes through their centers. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Make three washers 3-in. in diameter and about 9 in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used.. long. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Camden. Bore a 5/8-in. --Contributed by W. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Jr. wood screws in each washer. This ring can be made of 1-in. as shown in Fig. long. then flatten its end on the under side. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. then drill a 3/4-in. The center pin is 3/4-in. This . A and B. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. rounded at the top as shown. plates. plank about 12 ft. thick and drill 3/4-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. Secure a post. Dreier. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. rocker bolt. not less than 4 in.

Draw a line on the four 7-in. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. shanks. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts.will make an excellent cover for a pot. maple. 16 screws. long. long and 1 piece. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. from one edge. 1-1/4in. long. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. in diameter and 7 in. 1 by 7 in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. To substitute small. screws. If trees are convenient. square by 9-1/2 ft. The four 7-in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. long. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. hickory. 4 in. New Orleans. 4 pieces. 4 pieces. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 1/2 in. 50 ft. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. 3/4 by 3 in. by 6-1/2 ft. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. chestnut or ash. long. 2-1/2 in. boards along the side of each from end to end. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. because it will not stand the weather. 7 in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. and some one can swing an axe. long. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 3 in. by 2 ft. 4 filler pieces. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . horse and rings. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. long. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 2 by 4 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. straight-grained hickory. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. bit. La. bolts and rope. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. by 3 ft. 1. of 1/4-in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. square by 5 ft. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 4 in. 9 in. can make a first class gymnasium. as shown in the top view of the post Fig.

. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. so the 1/2-in. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. each 3 ft. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. apart. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. boards coincide. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. 8 in. from the end. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. apart.. piece of wood. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. at each end.bored. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. 2. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. Bore a 9/16-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. deep and remove all loose dirt.

He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. just visible against the dark evening sky. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. and then passes in a curve across the base. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. W. and ascends the stem. but most deceptive at dusk. When the interest of the crowd. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. and materially heightened the illusion. which at once gathered. was at its height. about 100 ft. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. it follows the edge for about 1 in. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. in an endless belt. And all he used was a black thread. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible.. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. . He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. disappearing only to reappear again. not much to look at in daytime. apart. not even the tumbler. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. passing through a screweye at either end. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom." which skimmed along the distant horizon. it is taken to the edge of the foot. If the tumbler is rotated. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. He stretched the thread between two buildings. the effect is very striking. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses.

8 in. 2 in. 2 cross braces. 2 base pieces. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 4 bolts. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 8 bolts. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. by 2 ft. 8 in. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 3 in. by 3 ft. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. and turned in a spiral D. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. large spikes.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 4 knee braces. 6 in. long and 1 doz. long. 4 wood screws. long. long. so the point will be on top. 4 in. wide and 1 in. 8 in. long. Bevel the ends of . long. preferably cedar. by 7 ft. 4 in. Fig. 2 by 4 in. To make the apparatus. by 10 ft. La. long. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. Chisel out two notches 4 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. New Orleans. A wire about No. The cork will come out easily. beginning at a point 9 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 7 in. 2 by 4 in. from either side of the center. square and 51/2 ft. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. long. 1. long. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 2 side braces. deep. square and 6 ft.

The wood so treated will last for years. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. except the bars. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. but even unpainted they are very durable. If using mill-cut lumber. as shown in the diagram. which face each other. Jaquythe. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. --Contributed by W. and countersinking the heads. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Cal. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. jellies. leaving the strainer always in position. After the trenches are dug. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. etc. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. additional long. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. of 7 ft. save the bars. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. Two endpieces must be made. equipped with a strainer. . ( To be Continued. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups.. A. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. leave it undressed. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. so the bolts in both will not meet. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. A large sized ladle.the knee braces. Richmond. These will allow the ladle to be turned. screws. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. using four of the 7-in bolts. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather.

This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. or various cutting compounds of oil. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. thus holding the pail as shown. of sufficient 1ength. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. partly a barrier for jumps. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. milling machine. In order to accomplish this experiment. drill press or planer. Oil. which seems impossible. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. it is necessary to place a stick. . and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. A.

3 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. long. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. 7 in. and free from knots. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. but 5 ft. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces.. These are placed 18 in. 4 knee braces. square by 5 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. 2 by 4 in. in the ground. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. 4-1/2 in. Hand holds must be provided next. stud cut rounding on one edge. projections and splinters. by 3 ft. two 1/2-in. bolts. 4 in. Procure from a saw mill. long. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. to fasten the knee braces at the top. long. by 3 ft. The material required is as follows: Two posts. is a good length. ten 1/2-in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. long. 1 cross brace. beginning 1-1/2 in. square by 5-1/2 ft. 2 by 4 in.. These are well nailed in place. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. To construct. 4 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . 1 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. by 3 ft.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. 4 in. apart in a central position on the horse. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. piece of 2 by 4-in. bolt. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. The round part of this log must be planed. in diameter--the larger the better. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. wood yard or from the woods. bolts. from each end. 2 by 4 in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 2 bases. long. long. long. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. long. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 2 adjusting pieces. apart. bolts.

it is caused by an overloaded shell. then bending to the shape desired. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. etc. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Such a hand sled can be made in a . such as a dent. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts.--Contributed by W. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Also. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. over and around. Cal. snow. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Richmond. but nevertheless. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. pipe and fittings. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. water. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. no one is responsible but himself. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder.horse top. A. Jaquythe. it is caused by some obstruction. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle.

. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. --Contributed by Arthur E. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. The end elevation. in width and 1/32 in. then run a string over each part. which. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Toronto. Boston. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Mass. 1/4 or 3/16 in.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Paris. --Contributed by J. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Joerin. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. 2. thick. --Contributed by James E. are all the tools necessary. Vener. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. W. Noble. 1. at E and F. Ontario. is much better than a wood sled. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. when straightened out. France. when complete. will give the length. These. with a pair of flat-nose pliers.

Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. . The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. It is best to use soft water. AA and BB. 3. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The method shown in Figs. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. are nailed. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. nor that which is partly oxidized. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. and the latter will take on a bright luster. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. 4.

The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. as shown in Fig. or unequal widths as in Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 8 and 9. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 1). Broad lines can be made. The materials used are: backbone. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 4. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. . Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 2. Percy Ashley in Rudder. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 2. 3. or various rulings may be made. class ice-yacht. as shown in Fig.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. 1. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. bent and drilled as shown. pipe.Fig. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. a tee and a forging. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. a larger size of pipe should be used. A good and substantial homemade lathe. but if it is made much longer. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. long. Both the lower . out from the collar. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. pins to keep them from turning. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. It can be made longer or shorter. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The headstock is made of two tees. about 30 in. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened.

square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. . Boissevain. --Contributed by M. Musgrove. or a key can be used as well. To do this.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. It is about 1 in. Fruitvale. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. 3/4 or 1 in. thick as desired. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. but also their insulating properties. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. Man. Held. UpDeGraff. a corresponding line made on this. Laporte. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. else taper turning will result. 2. and will answer for a great variety of work. M. 1. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. W. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. --Contributed by W. a straight line should be scratched Fig. 2. 2. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Cal. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. --Contributed by W. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Indiana.

The handle is of pine about 18 in. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Ark. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. Ft. In use. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. To obviate this. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Smith. --Contributed by E. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . as shown. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. long. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. Cline. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. J. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn.

This prevents the drill from wobbling. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. --Contributed by Walter W. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. which should be backed out of contact. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. After being entered. if this method is followed: First. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. the drill does not need the tool. on starting the lathe. and when once in true up to its size. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. New Orleans. centering is just one operation too many. La. face off the end of the piece. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Colo. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Denver. take . To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. White.

The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. shown at C. It can be used in a great number of tricks. by applying caustic soda or . after being shown empty. and can be varied to suit the performer. the cap is placed over the paper tube. is put into the paper tube A. unknown to the spectators. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. The handkerchief rod. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. and this given to someone to hold. a long piece of glass tubing. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. In doing this.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. says the Sphinx. as shown in D. After the wand is removed. a bout 1/2 in. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. vanishing wand. all the better. The glass tube B. shorter t h a n the wand.

2 Sides. Glue strips of soft wood. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. long. 1. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck.potash around the edges of the letters. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. 1/4 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. This dimension and those for the frets . 1 End. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. The sides. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. across the front and back to strengthen them. square and 1-7/8 in. 1 Neck. can be made by the home mechanic. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. preferably hard maple. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. and glue it to the neck at F. 1 Bottom. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. thick. Glue the neck to the box. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. as shown by K. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. with the back side rounding. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Cut a piece of hard wood. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. by 14 by 17 in. End. The brace at D is 1 in. cut to any shape desired. With care and patience. As the cement softens. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. 3/16.

O. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. wide and 11-1/2 ft. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. 3/16 in. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. long is used for a keel. Six holes. Stoddard. thick and about 1 ft. toward each end. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. and beveled .should be made accurately. A board 1 in. H. in diameter. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. but it is not. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Norwalk. or backbone. Frary. E. --Contributed by Chas. Carbondale. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place.Pa. 1) on which to stretch the paper. -Contributed by J. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit.

Fig. procure at a carriage factory. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Green wood is preferable. thick. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. or similar material. 3. as shown in Fig. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. a. 3/8 in. such as is used for making chairbottoms. These are better. b. b. slender switches of osier willow. Fig. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig.) in notches. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. apart. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. twigs 5 or 6 ft. will answer nearly as well. In drying. 3). by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. buy some split cane or rattan. and so. in thickness and should be cut. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. B. some tight strips of ash. Fig. but twigs of some other trees. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. Fig. 2). and notched at the end to receive them (B. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. The ribs. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. For the gunwales (a. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Fig. 13 in. are next put in. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. long. 3). two twigs may be used to make one rib. Shape these as shown by A. C. .. 4).Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. Fig. wide by 26 in. 1. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. the loose strips of ash (b. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. Fig. Any tough. 3. with long stout screws. when made of green elm. 1 and 2. long are required. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. by means of a string or wire. 2. and are not fastened. as they are apt to do. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. such as hazel or birch. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. thick. as shown in Fig. 4. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. which are easily made of long. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. probably. and. Fig. but before doing this. in such cases. or other place. Osiers probably make the best ribs. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. two strips of wood (b. as before described. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. C. 2). The cross-boards (B. b. Fig. and the smaller ends to the gunwales.

It should be smooth on the surface. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. When thoroughly dry. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. but with less turpentine. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. It should be drawn tight along the edges. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. If not. of very strong wrapping-paper. wide. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. B. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. but neither stiff nor very thick. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. however. and held in place by means of small clamps. after wetting it. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. 5). tacking it to the bottom-board. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. Being made in long rolls. and steady in the water. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. The paper is then trimmed. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. and very tough. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. If the paper be 1 yd. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. When the paper is dry. preferably iron. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. if it has been properly constructed of good material. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. Fig. You may put in . apply a second coat of the same varnish. and as soon as that has soaked in. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Then take some of the split rattan and. and light oars.

and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. fore and aft. 1 and the end in . Fig. and make a movable seat (A.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. We procured a box and made a frame. Drive the lower nail first. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. 5. and if driven as shown in the cut. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. 5). 1. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. 2. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. Fig. to fit it easily. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. Fig. they will support very heavy weights.

Fig. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. 4. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. being softer where the flame has been applied. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. and the result is. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. and the glass. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. Pittsburg. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. Close the other end with the same operation. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. this makes the tube airtight. A good way to handle this work. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. 5. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. Pa. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. This is an easy . and melt it down and close the end at the same time. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. This way has its drawbacks. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. 3. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick.

fifth. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. -Contributed by A. The candle holders may have two. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. file.way to make a thermometer tube. flat and round-nosed pliers. above the work and striking it with the hammer. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. metal shears. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. then reverse. Oswald. very rapid progress can be made. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. Sixth. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. also trace the decorative design. or six arms. After the bulb is formed. three. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. Seventh. third. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. second. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. with a piece of carbon paper. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. thin screw. rivet punch. four. fourth. above the metal. 23 gauge. Give the metal a circular motion. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. extra metal all around.

The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Having pierced the bracket. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. drip cup. and holder.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Metal polish of any kind will do. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Small copper rivets are used.

except they had wheels instead of runners. N. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. hammer. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. of glycerine to about 200 deg. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. Soak 1 oz. and other things as they were needed. J. The gaff. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. sugar 1 part. thus it was utilized. I steer with the front wheel. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. and it will be ready for future use. when it will be ready for use. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. deep. is a broomstick. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. winding the ends where they came together with wire. glycerine 4 parts. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Twenty cents was all I spent. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. they were like an ice boat with a sail. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. on a water bath. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. Mother let me have a sheet. alcohol 2 parts. and in a week . The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. F. The boom. the stick at the bottom of the sail. Shiloh. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. and water 24 parts. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. A saw. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. smooth it down and then remove as before. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. and add the gelatine. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. if it has not absorbed too much ink. all the rest I found. and brace and bit were the tools used. Fifty. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. using a steel pen. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.

at a distance of 24 ft. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. well seasoned pine. wire brads. long. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. but if such a box is not found. wide. as desired. above the center. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. H. slide to about 6 ft. describe a 9-in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. A and B. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. or a lens of 12-in. and the work carefully done.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. and a projecting lens 2 in. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. wide and 15 in. If a small saw is used. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. and 14 in. DD. high. E. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. 1. or glue. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. at a point 1 in. 1/2 to 3/4 in. The board is centered both ways. are . 3. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. A table. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. about 2 ft. thick. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. and the lens slide. G. Fig. 8 in. focus enlarging a 3-in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. This ring is made up from two rings. The slide support. provided the material is of metal.. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. and.

light burning oil. and when the right position is found for each. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in.constructed to slip easily on the table. the strips II serving as guides. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. St. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. A sheet . The arrangement is quite safe as. the water at once extinguishes the flame. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. Minn. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. of safe. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. E. Small strips of tin.-Contributed by G. JJ. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. apply two coats of shellac varnish. P. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. Paul. B. placed on the water. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. but not long enough. To reach the water. should the glass happen to upset.

3 in. by 12 ft. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 3. If one of these clips is not at hand. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Fig. to cover the mattresses. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . --Contributed by J. Schenectady.. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. I ordered a canvas bag. Crawford. N. 9 in. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. from a tent company. Y. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 2. form a piece of wire in the same shape. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 1. 4. 3.H. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 12 ft. Fig. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart.

A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. A Film Washing Trough [331] . and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. V. Fig. Fig. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. open on the edges. as shown in Fig. C. so as to form two oblong boxes. White. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. A rubber band. 1/2 in. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. apart. 2. for amperes and the other post. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. through which the indicator works. An arc is cut in the paper. long and 3/16 in. 2. 1/2 in. Attach a piece of steel rod. Pa. 2. 1. long. to keep it from unwinding. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. To calibrate the instrument. 3/4 in. holes in the edge. 3/4 in. --Contributed by Walter W. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Colo. Do not use too strong a rubber. D. --Contributed by Edward M. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. thick. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Denver. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed.each edge. drill two 3/16 in. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. and insert two binding-posts. 1. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Warren. 3 to swing freely on the tack. in the center coil. to the coil of small wire for volts. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. wide. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. first mark the binding-post A. insulating them from the case with cardboard. Teasdale.

Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Dayton. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. --Contributed by M. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Place this can on one end of the trough. M. Wood Burning [331] . Cut a 1/4-in. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Hunting. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. as shown. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. O. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. with the large hole up.

then into this bottle place. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. mouth downward.

How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. 2. Whitehouse. Ala. Place the small bottle in as before. long. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. provided the bottle is wide. 3/4 in.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. wide and 4 in. If the cork is adjusted properly. --Contributed by Fred W. Upper Troy. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. but not very thick. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. 1. many puzzling effects may be obtained. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. as shown in the sketch. If the small bottle used is opaque. This will make a very pretty ornament. --Contributed by John Shahan. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume.Y. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Auburn. N. thick.

3. thick. G. K. 2. pulley F. Fig. The bearing blocks were 3 in. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. which was nailed to the face plate. B. or ordinary telephone transmitters. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. which extended to the ground. Fig. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. Fig. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. Fig. pulley. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. 4. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. wide. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Both bearings were made in this manner. sugar pine on account of its softness. high without the upper half.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. were constructed of 1-in. If a transmitter is used. I. On a 1000-ft. which gave considerable power for its size. 1. thick and 3 in. Milter. even in a light breeze. The wire L was put . 1. 1 in. such as blades and pulleys. 1. thick. was keyed to shaft C. to the shaft. iron rod. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. 2 ft. was 1/4in. 1. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. long. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. by the method shown in Fig. line. which was 6 in. W. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. in diameter and 1 in. Fig. A staple. Its smaller parts. The shaft C. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. 1. --Contributed by D. The 21/2-in. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone.

thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. hole for the shaft G was in the center. H. 6. washers were placed under pulley F. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. 5. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Fig. 1. long and 3 in. Fig. Fig. in diameter. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. Two washers were placed on shaft C. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. 1) 4 in. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. across the thin edge of a board. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. The other lid. 6. This completes the receiver or sounder. strips. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. long and 1/2 in. This fan was made of 1/4-in. for instance. and was cut the shape shown. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. hole was bored for it. long. The bed plate D. with all parts in place. Fig. when the windmill needed oiling. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. The smaller one. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Fig. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. 1. If you have no bell. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. 1. in the center of the board P. a 1/2-in. There a 1/4-in. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. The power was put to various uses. through the latter. To lessen the friction here. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. long. wide and 1 in. was 2 ft. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. Fig. with brass headed furniture tacks. 2. pine 18 by 12 in. Fig. providing one has a few old materials on hand.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. To make the key. long and bend it as shown at A. so that the 1/4-in. apart in the tower. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. 0. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. was tacked. 1. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. R. as. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. long and bend it as . This board was 12 in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. G. top down also. 3 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. 25 ft. cut out another piece of tin (X.

Going back to Fig. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. McConnell. as indicated. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. at the front. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts.shown. The rear barrels are. Now. 2. -Contributed by John R. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. using cleats to hold the board frame. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. leaving the other wire as it is. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. like many another device boys make. fitted with paddles as at M. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. 1. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Before tacking it to the board. after the manner of bicycle wheels. as shown at Water. although it can be made with but two. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. When tired of this instrument. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. and. Thus a center drive is made. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. causing a buzzing sound. By adjusting the coils.

When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. If the journals thus made are well oiled. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. as shown in Fig. There is no danger. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. feet on the pedals. or even a little houseboat. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. To propel it. The speed is slow at first. there will not be much friction. which will give any amount of pleasure. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. copper piping and brass tubing for base. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. 3. can be built. 1.

If it is desired to make the light very complete. D. and so creating a false circuit. 2.of pleasure for a little work. If magnifying glass cannot be had. 1. or it may be put to other uses if desired. B. A. C. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Fig. Fig. 1. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. Fig. 2. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Place one brass ring in cylinder. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Shape small blocks of boxwood. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Fig. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. 2. Turn a small circle of wood. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . 1. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through.

by having the switch on the baseboard. long. Utah. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. such as is used for cycle valves. H. and pulled tight. In placing clock on shelf. or 1/4in. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock.india rubber tubing. 3/8 in. Chatland. some glue will secure them. --Contributed by Geo. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone.. S. wide and 1/16 in. The parts indicated are as follows: A. bracket. if too small. 4 in. C. contact post. shelf. key of alarm clock. B. I. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . after two turns have been made on the key. E. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. G. X. which stops bell ringing. switch. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. To operate this. When alarm goes off. wire from light to switch. thick. wire from bell to switch. To throw on light throw levers to the left. Throw lever off from the right to center. long. brass strip. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. Pa. dry batteries. J. F. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. Swissvale. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. Ogden. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. wire from batteries to switch. after setting alarm. set alarm key as shown in diagram. brass rod. T. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. C. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . copper tubing. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. 4-1/2 in. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. near the bed. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. while lying in bed. 5-1/4 by 10 in. --Contributed by C. bell. Brinkerhoff. To get the cylinder into its carriage. D.

Fig. Having finished this. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. All that is required is a tin covering. being careful not to get the sand in it. in diameter. making it as true and smooth as possible. Fig. long. 2. as . beyond the end of the spindle. Fig. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. place stick and all in a pail of sand. as at A. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Lanesboro. Chapman. This is to form the fuse hole. a bed warmer. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. 1/4 in. A flannel bag. 1. 2. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. will do the heating. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. letting it extend 3/4 in. which can be made of an old can. Make the spindle as in Fig. from one end. gives the heater a more finished appearance. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. as at B. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. Minn. 4 in.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Make a shoulder. 3. S. --Contributed by Chas. as at A. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. about 3-1/2 in. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. 1. Pull out the nail and stick. about 6 in. for instance. in diameter. as in Fig. wide.

some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. 5/8 in. wide and 6 ft. A piece of oak. or hickory. thick. Joerin. spring and arrows. A piece of tin. 11/2 in. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. 1. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. 1 in. long. but if this wood cannot be procured. 6 in. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. wide and 3/8 in. this is to keep the edges from splitting. ash. The illustration shows how this is done. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. deep. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. wide and 3 ft. long. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. good straight-grained pine will do. will be sufficient to make the trigger. thick. The material must be 1-1/2 in. 3/8 in. --Contributed by Arthur E.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. thick. long.

3. When the trigger is pulled. Such a temporary safe light may be . 4. or through the necessity of. it lifts the spring up.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. The bow is not fastened in the stock. To throw the arrow. --Contributed by O. Ill. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. as shown in Fig. thick. from the opposite end. 8. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. The stick for the bow. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. Trownes. Fig. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. The trigger. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. 6. having the latter swing quite freely. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. from the end of the stock. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. better still. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. 2. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. in diameter. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Fig. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. E. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. which is 1/4 in. 9. and one for the trigger 12 in. Wilmette. A spring. as shown in Fig. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. To shoot the crossbow. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. wide at each end. place the arrow in the groove. 7.

The Indian camp is the easiest to make. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. apart. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. from the ground. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. and nail it in position as shown at A. it is the easiest camp to make. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. since the flame of the candle is above A. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Remove one end. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Moreover. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. the bark lean-to is a . C. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. making lighting and trimming convenient. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. This lamp is safe. respectively. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Remove the bottom of the box. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. make the frame of the wigwam. from the ground. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. The hinged cover E. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. and replace as shown at B. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. By chopping the trunk almost through. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. says Photo Era. The cut should be about 5 ft. is used as a door.

and when the camp is pitched. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. A piece of elm or hickory. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. nails are necessary to hold it in place. and split the tops with an ax. make the best kind of a camp bed. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. will dry flat. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. deep and covered with blankets. piled 2 or 3 ft. wide and 6 ft. Tongs are very useful in camp. long and 2 or 3 ft. 6 ft. are a convenient size for camp construction. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. and cedar. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. In the early summer. long and 1-1/2 in. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. spruce. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. selecting a site for a camp. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. For a permanent camp. a 2-in. For a foot in the middle of the stick. Where bark is used. Sheets of bark. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. . The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. long. thick. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. wide. 3 ft. makes a good pair of tongs. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in.

Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and affording accommodation for several persons. . A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. hinges. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.

deep and 4 in. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. A. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Doylestown. about 4 in.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. I drove a small cork. changing the water both morning and night. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. and provide a cover or door. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. --Contributed by James M. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Pa. B. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Fig. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. 1. Kane. to another .. the interior can. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. wide. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. B. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube.

limit. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. until. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. 2. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. 4 and 5). such as ether. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. E. 2. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. if necessary. for instance. The current is thus compelled. which project inside and outside of the tube. to pass through an increasing resistance. C. fused into one side. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. Fig. The diagram. for instance.glass tube. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. a liquid. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. This makes . 3.

Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. larger than the dimensions given. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. is composed of wrought sheet iron. and for the outside of the frame. therefore. assemble and rivet them solidly. or pattern. After cleaning them with the solution. when several pieces are placed together. thick. When the frame is finished so far. The bearing studs are now made. 1. 4-1/2 in. If the thickness is sufficient. Alpena. Fig. Before removing the field from the lathe. clamp the template. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. 3. as shown in the left-hand sketch. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. cannot be used so often. After the template is marked out. on a lathe. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. These holes are for the bearing studs. tap. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. by turning the lathe with the hand. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. thick. 3-3/8 in. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. which will make it uniform in size. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. hole is . two holes. bent at right angles as shown. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. mark off a space. making it 1/16 in. in diameter. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A 5/8in. but merely discolored.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. Michigan. which may be of any thickness so that. as shown in Fig. to allow for finishing. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. A. 3-3/8 in. between centers. 2. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. brass. drill the four rivet holes. or even 1/16 in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. screws. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. Fig. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. thicker. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. in diameter. set at 1/8 in. they will make a frame 3/4 in. Then the field can be finished to these marks. brass or iron.

These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. or otherwise finished. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. When the bearings are located. Fig. and build up the solder well. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. brass rod is inserted. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . soldered into place. solder them to the supports. The shaft of the armature. 4. file them out to make the proper adjustment. is turned up from machine steel. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe.

Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. brass rod. holes through them for rivets. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. being formed for the ends. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. 3. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. 3. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. 6. When annealed. 5. as shown m Fig. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. hole and tap it for a pin. 1/8 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. as shown in Fig. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. inside diameter. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. 7. by 1-1/2 in. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. sheet fiber. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. washers. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. thick. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. Make the core 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. deep and 7/16 in. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. thick. Find the centers of each segment at one end. thick. to allow for finishing to size. and then they are soaked in warm water.. The sides are also faced off and finished. 3/4 in. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. and held with a setscrew. Procure 12 strips of mica. 9. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. then drill a 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. threaded. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. wide. After they . one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. When this is accomplished. 8. thick and 1/4 in. wide. Armature-Ring Core. as shown in Fig. Rivet them together. thick are cut like the pattern. or segments. 1-1/8 in. 6. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. After the pieces are cut out. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. The pins are made of brass. in diameter and fit in a brass spider.

The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. being required. which will take 50 ft. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. wide and 1 in. the two ends of the wire. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current.have dried. 8 in. In starting to wind. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. Run one end of the field wire. To connect the wires. After one coil. The winding is started at A. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. long. after the motor is on the stand. shown at B. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. 6 in. The field is wound with No. they are glued to the core insulation. 5. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. Fig. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. This winding is for a series motor. sheet fiber. The two ends are joined at B. and bring the end of the wire out at B. until the 12 slots are filled. thick. yet it shows a series of . When the glue is set. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. by bending the end around one of the projections. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. and wind on four layers. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. All connections should be securely soldered. of No. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. of the end to protrude. 1. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. 1. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. of the wire. shown at A. sheet fiber. Fig. about 100 ft. The source of current is connected to the terminals. are soldered together. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. or side.

by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. as in the case of a spiral. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. A 1/2-in. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. or. Nine wires run from the timer. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. still more simply. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. is fastened to the metallic body. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. and one. one from each of the eight contacts. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. which serves as the ground wire. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of .

45 deg. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. It should be . thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Without this attachment. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. 6 in. Covering these is a thin. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. board. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. thus giving 16 different directions. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial.The Wind Vane. of the dial. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. circle. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. long. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it.

Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. N. making it heavy or light. however. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. though a special knife." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. To work these outlines. will answer the purpose just as well. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. . nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. To make it. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. according to who is going to use it. called a chip carving knife. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Y. will be sufficient. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. Place the leather on some level. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. high. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. long to give the best results. will be enough for the two sides. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. Blackmer. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. if not too high. also a piece of new carpet. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with.about 6 ft. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. Before tacking the fourth side. Fill the box with any handy ballast. or. thus making a universal joint. Cut 3-in. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. is most satisfactory. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. and securely nail on the top of the box. Buffalo. 14 by 18 in. -Contributed by James L. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. and about 6 in.

Paste the silk plush to the inner side. An ordinary sewing-machine .Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. A good leather paste will be required. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.

as in cases of a sprained ankle. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. temporary lameness. away from it. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. of common salt and 10 lb.will do if a good stout needle is used. square and tying a piece of . Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. If a fire breaks out. --Contributed by Katharine D. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. rather than the smooth side. a needle and some feathers. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. B. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. and tie them together securely at the bottom. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Syracuse. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. or a hip that has been wrenched. of water. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. N. Morse. Y. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used.

The strings should be about 15 in. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. Paterson. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. Gordon Dempsey. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. B. commonly called tintype tin. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. This not only keeps the rats out. as shown. board all around the bottom on the inside. N. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. thus helping the rats to enter. and a coil of wire. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. but not sharp. . A.. long.string to each corner. long. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. high. 1/8 in. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. cut to the length of the spool. and the receiver is ready for use. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. is cut on the wood. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. G.J. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. F. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. The coil is 1 in. made up of four layers of No. A small wooden or fiber end. which is the essential part of the instrument. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. letting it go at arm's length. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. wound on the head end. The body of the receiver. --Contributed by J. Hellwig. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. Ashland. the corners being wired. and tacked it to the boards. Y. setting traps. laying poisoned meat and meal. Albany. E. --Contributed by John A. N. Wis. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. wide and 1/16 in. The end is filed to an edge. deep. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. There is a 1-in. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. etc. The diaphragm C. One end is removed entirely.

Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. better still. Take a piece of string or. Take a pair of round-nose pliers.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. gold. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. A single line will be sufficient. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. begin with the smallest scrolls. To clean small articles. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. wide. The vase is to have three supports. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. and bend each strip in shape. a piece of small wire. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. to .

from C to D. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. Press or model down the leather all around the design. using a duller point of the tool. 3-1/2 in. . Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. sharp pencil. Fold the leather on the line EF. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather.. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. About 1 in. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. wide when stitching up the purse. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. through which to slip the fly AGH.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. from E to F. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. and does not require coloring. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. from the lines EF on the piece. 6-3/8 in. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. 4-1/4 in. Trace also the line around the purse. After taking off the pattern. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. 3-1/4 in. Work down the outside line of the design. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct.. as shown in the sketch. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. thus raising it. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily.which the supports are fastened with rivets.

and. with the largest side down. long. 1/2 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. then nail it. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. and cut it out as shown in Fig. all the way around. with pins or small nails. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. square. Then nail the wheel down firmly. with a compass saw. leaving the lug a. It can be made without the use of a lathe. following the dotted lines. 2. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. This also should be slightly beveled. 1. When it is finished. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. 3. the "open" side. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. Make the lug 1/4 in. around the wheel. and cut out a wheel. then place the square piece out of which Fig. and which will be very interesting. Fit this to the two . First. deep. by 12 ft. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. It is neat and efficient. as well as useful. Now take another piece of wood. 1 was cut. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. as shown in Fig. b.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. and a model for speed and power. thick. with the open side down. Cut off six pieces 12 in. being cast in wooden molds. and the projections B.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. and tack the other piece slightly. deep.

deep. Now take another of the 12-in. hole 1/4 in. 1. then bolt it together.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. hole bored through its center. as shown by the . one of which should have a 3/8-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. bolts. place it between two of the 12-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. slightly beveled. and boring a 3/8-in. in the center of it. and cut it out as shown in Fig. After it is finished. square pieces of wood. holes through it. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and clean all the shavings out of it. square pieces of wood. and lay it away to dry. and bore six 1/4-in. hole entirely through at the same place.pieces just finished. 4. Now put mold No. Take the mold apart.

and pour babbitt metal into it. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. drill in it. Let it stand for half an hour. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and two 1/4-in. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. see that the bolts are all tight. b. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. so that it will turn easily. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. Using the Brace . If there should happen to be any holes or spots. 1. as shown in illustration. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. place the entire machine in a vise. This is for a shaft. and bore three 1/4-in. from the one end. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. over the defective part. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. d. 5. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. lay it on a level place. put the top of the brace through this hole.black dots in Fig. holes. one in the projections. B. A piece of mild steel 5 in. 6. the other right-handed. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. This is mold No. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. Fig. Now cut out one of the 12-in. long.1. and the exhaust hole in projection b. long.1. 4. instead of the right-handed piece. and run in babbitt metal again.2. Now take mold No. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and the other in the base. and drill it entirely through. and drill them in the same manner. Then bolt the castings together. This will cast a paddle-wheel. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. one in the lug. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. holes at d. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. Commencing 1-1/2 in. Pour metal into mold No. where the casting did not fill out. until it is full.2. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. true it up with a square. After it is fitted in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. only the one is left-handed. wide and 16 in. Put this together in mold No. and lay it away to dry. and connect to the boiler. and 3/8-in. take an ordinary brace. 6. screw down. This is the same as Fig. fasten a 3/8-in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. place it under the drill. in diameter must now be obtained.

Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft.. long.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. and if instructions have been carefully followed. will do good service. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. turn the wheel to the shape desired. and. while it is running at full speed. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. At each end of the 6ft. one 6 ft. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and the other 8 ft. with a boss and a set screw. and with three small screw holes around the edge. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Plan of Ice Boat . Then take a knife or a chisel. piece and at right angles to it. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in.

at the end.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. in front of the rudder block. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . long. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. plank. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. boards to make the platform. 2 by 3 in. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. where they often did considerable damage. so much the better will be your boat. 3. 1. in the top before the skate is put on. long. in diameter at the base. The tiller. which may come in handy in heavy winds. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. projecting as in Fig. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. distant. 8 a reef point knot. 1. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Fig. Make your runners as long as possible. Fig. Over the middle of the 6-ft. piece and at right angles to it. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. should be of hardwood. Run the seam on a machine. in diameter. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. To the under side of the 8-ft. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. plank nail 8-in. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. as the runners were fastened. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. and about 8 in. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. bolt the 8-ft. The spar should be 9 ft. in diameter in the center. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. at the top. This fits in the square hole. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. at the butt and 1 in. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. long and 2-1/2 in. leaving 1 ft.

Pa.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. Its parts are as follows: A. The . but one that will afford any amount of amusement. block of wood nailed to A. R. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. Phoenix. so that they come in contact at C. and the alarm bell will ring. --Contributed by J. wide. P. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. Comstock. The arrangement proved quite too effective. B. small piece of wood. bent into a hook at each end. to block B. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. Ariz. S S. allowing the springs to contact at C. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. P. Mechanicsburg. Adams. and place it behind a stove. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. --Contributed by John D. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell.

The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. 2. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. The center pole should be 10 ft. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. Take the glass. Gild the pan all over. The stump makes the best support. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An ine