P. 1
The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

|Views: 58|Likes:
Publicado porTimmot

More info:

Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

08/17/2011

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

long will make six boomerangs. distant. until it is bound as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. A piece of plank 12 in. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. as shown in Fig. 1. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. with the hollow side away from you. E. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. Toronto. Fig. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. 2 -. grasp it and hold the same as a club. The pieces are then dressed round. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. --Contributed by J. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. apart. Noble. 1.Fig. 1. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. away. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 2. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Ontario. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. wide and 2 ft. It is held in this curve until dry. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. 2. To throw a boomerang.

forcing it down closely. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. and it may be necessary to use a little water. made of 6-in. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. and with a movable bottom. high and 4 or 5 in. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. First. which makes the building simpler and easier. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. one inside of the circle and the other outside. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. A very light. blocks . minus the top. thick. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. but about 12 in. it is not essential to the support of the walls. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. A wall. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. or rather no bottom at all. the block will drop out. long. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. dry snow will not pack easily. If the snow is of the right consistency. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. however. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. 6 in.

The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. A nail. a. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. 2. which can be made of wood. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. There is no outward thrust. 1. Union. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. --Contributed by Geo. Ore. It also keeps them out. above the ground. Fig. Fig. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. or an old safe dial will do. long and 1 in. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. Goodbrod. 3. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. Fig. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. 1. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. is 6 or 8 in. D. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. 2. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. 3 -. C. wide. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. The piece of wood. and the young architect can imitate them. which is about 1 ft. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft.

The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up.When taking hot dishes from the stove. says the Sphinx. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. one pair of special hinges. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. New York. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. If ordinary butts are used. --Contributed by R. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. the box locked . S. Merrill. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. Syracuse. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. as the weight always draws them back to place. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. The bolts are replaced in the hinges.

and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. When the sieve is shaken. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Augusta. as shown in Fig. smooth surface. To make a design similar to the one shown. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. as shown in Fig. draw one-half of it. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. Place the piece in a vise. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Alberta Norrell. All . 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. With the metal shears. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. It remains to bend the flaps. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. -Contributed by L. on drawing paper. If they do not. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Ga.and the performer steps out in view. proceed as follows: First. one for each corner. as shown. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. 3. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. If the measuring has been done properly. 1. Fig. 2. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. about 1-32 of an inch. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. allowing each coat time to dry.

R. of No. heats the strip of German-silver wire. causing it to expand. which is about 6 in. Colo. The current. Denver. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. 25 gauge German-silver wire. The common cork. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. from the back end. H. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. is fitted tightly in the third hole. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. and in the positions shown in the sketch. long. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. When the current is turned off. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. C. In boring through rubber corks. if rolled under the shoe sole. B. A piece of porcelain tube. as shown at AA. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. If a touch of color is desired. A resistance. about 6 in. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. should be in the line. To keep the metal from tarnishing. in passing through the lamp. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. used for insulation. After this has dried. Galbreath. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. in diameter. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. 25 German-silver wire.the edges should be left smooth. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. --Contributed by R. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft.

Mo. 1. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. leaving a space of 4 in. . Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. between them as shown in Fig. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip.bottom ring. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. --Contributed by David Brown. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Purchase two long book straps. 3. Kansas City. as shown in Fig. 2. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Fig. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. with thin strips of wood.

and also prevent any leakage of the contents. in diameter. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. and one weighing 25 lb. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. to form a handle. as . C. just the right weight for a woman to use. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. 1. one weighing 15 lb. 3. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. are mounted on the outside of the box. Syracuse. Fig. Kane. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. N. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. which is the right weight for family use. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. long. The folds are made over the string. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Fig. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. A. 4. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Doylestown. Morse. having a gong 2-1/2 in. Y. When the aeroplane tips. --Contributed by James M. Two strips of brass. and a pocket battery. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. Fig. The string is then tied. 36 in.An ordinary electric bell... 1. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. 2. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. and tack smoothly. Pa. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. --Contributed by Katharine D. 1. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. These are shown in Fig.

1. long. four washers and four square nuts. bent as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Louis J. AA. The saw. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. machine screws. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. if once used. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. two 1/8 -in. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. in diameter. Floral Park. such as brackets. Y. 2. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. N. and many fancy knick-knacks. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. 3/32 or 1/4 in. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. 2. Day. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Frame Made of a Rod . becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest.

1 part sulphuric acid. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Drying will cause this to change to purple. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. though almost any color may be obtained. after breaking up. Rub off the highlights. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium.may be made of either brass. of water in which dissolve. Apply two coats. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. of water. --Contributed by W. An Austrian Top [12] . treat it with color. Detroit. as well as brass and copper. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Scranton. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Silver is the most desirable but. or silver. Of the leathers. be covered the same as the back. allowing each time to dry. The buckle is to be purchased. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. the most expensive. A. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. it has the correct strength. If it colors the metal red. In the design shown. Watch Fob For coloring silver. as well as the depth of etching desired. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. using a swab and an old stiff brush. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. therefore. Michigan. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. File these edges. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water.. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. copper. green and browns are the most popular. For etching. of course. use them in place of the outside nuts. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. 1 part nitric acid. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. if copper or brass. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears.

The handle is a piece of pine.F. A 1/16-in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. allowing only 1-1/4 in. long. . Parts of the Top To spin the top. thick. long. 1-1/4 in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. hole. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. pass one end through the 1/16-in. is formed on one end. Michigan. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. --Contributed by J.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Tholl. wide and 3/4 in. A handle. starting at the bottom and winding upward. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. Ypsilanti. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. Bore a 3/4-in. hole in this end for the top. 3/4 in. 5-1/4 in. When the shank is covered. in diameter.

The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. The baking surface. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Augusta. A. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. having no sides. Ga. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Houghton. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. tarts or similar pastry. Alberta Norrell. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. --Contributed by Miss L. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Northville. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Mich. --A.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. . For black leathers.

A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Stringing Wires [13] A. When you desire to work by white light. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Centralia. two turns will remove the jar. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. the same as shown in the illustration. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. says Studio Light. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. then solder cover and socket together.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . Mo. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. glass fruit jar. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal.

When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. and not tip over. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. They are fastened. 1-1/4 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. Janesville. Wis. 4 Vertical pieces. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. as shown in the cross-section sketch. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. 4 Braces. so it can be folded up. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post.for loading and development. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. square by 12 in. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. square by 62 in. 16 Horizontal bars. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. . 1-1/4 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes.

the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The front can be covered . --Contributed by Dr. -Contributed by Charles Stem. If the loop is tied at the proper place. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. The whole. Rosenthal. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. after filling the pail with water. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. and a loop made in the end. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. H. Phillipsburg. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. C. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. O. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. Cincinnati. After rounding the ends of the studs. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. New York. from scrap material.

as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. the mouth of which rests against a. 1 FIG. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. thoroughly fix. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Develop them into strong prints. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. you are. sickly one.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. --Contributed by Gilbert A. Wehr. The . and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. if you try to tone them afterward. either for contact printing or enlargements. and. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. the color will be an undesirable. The results will be poor. Baltimore. Md. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. by all rules of the game. In my own practice. By using the following method. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. principally mayonnaise dressing. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. FIG. If the gate is raised slightly.

. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.. in this solution.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.. where it will continue to bleach. Place the dry print... 2 oz. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. It will bleach slowly and evenly. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. A good final washing completes the process..... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses...." Cyanide of potassium . as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. --Contributed by T.. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. 20 gr. in size. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. preferably the colored kind...bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.... transfer it to a tray of water.. long to admit the angle support. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. Iodide of potassium . 5 by 15 in. 1 and again as in Fig. three times..... wide and 4 in. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper....... Water . A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.... With a little practice. when it starts to bleach... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. Cal.. to make it 5 by 5 in...... 16 oz. 2. When the desired reduction has taken place....... L.... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print... San Francisco. Gray... The blotting paper can . etc. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. but. without previous wetting..

Monahan. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. and a length of 5 in. having a width of 2-1/4 in.J.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Corners complete are shown in Fig. the head of which is 2 in. Oshkosh. the shaft 1 in. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Make a design similar to that shown. --Contributed by L. wide below the . and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. --Contributed by J. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. 20 gauge. 3. Wisconsin. wide. Canada. Wilson Aldred Toronto. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No.

freehand. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. then put on a second coat. which gives the outline of the design Fig. then trace the other half in the usual way. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. 3. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. but use a swab on a stick. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. The metal must be held firmly. With the metal shears. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. as shown in Fig. using carbon paper. Allow this to dry. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. 4. then coloring. using turpentine. 2. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. 1 part sulphuric acid. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. using a small metal saw. Apply with a small brush. Do not put the hands in the solution.FIG. 1. Fig. After this has dried. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. Pierce a hole with a small drill. deep. Make one-half of the design. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. . For coloring olive green. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. 1 Fig. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. 1 part nitric acid. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. after folding along the center line. After the sawing. Trace the design on the metal. With files. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. being held perpendicular to the work. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied.

Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. it does the work rapidly. on a chopping board. Conn. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. M. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. After the stain has dried. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. --Contributed by Katharine D. then stain it a mahogany color. as shown. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Ii is an ordinary staple. Syracuse. New York. attach brass handles. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. Morse. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. thick. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. When this is cold. Cal. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. .Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. East Hartford. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. --Contributed by M. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Carl Cramer. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Burnett. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. --Contributed by H. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Richmond.

The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. thick and 4 in. 1/4 in.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. in width at the shank. indicating the depth of the slots. H. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. machine screws. Kissimmee. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Atwell. Richmond. Fig. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. about 3/16 in. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. as shown in Fig. some pieces of brass. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. thick. and several 1/8-in. brass. L. saucers or pans.. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. Cal. --Contributed by Mrs. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. 4. as shown at A. two enameled. . A. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. or tin. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Florida. square. 1. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. also locate the drill holes. WARNECKE Procure some brass. one shaft. 53 steel pens. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. not over 1/4 in. holes. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass.

and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. brass and bolted to the casing. Fig. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . These are connected to a 3/8-in. can be procured. as shown. If metal dishes. wide. into the hole. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. hole in the center. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. long by 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. using two nuts on each screw. The shaft hole may also be filed square. and pins inserted. long and 5/16 in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. supply pipe. 6. with the face of the disk. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. a square shaft used. If the shaft is square. A 3/4-in. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. and the ends filed round for the bearings. with 1/8-in. lead should be run into the segments. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. machine screws. each about 1 in. 7. Fig. about 1/32 in. thick.. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. hole is drilled to run off the water. wide and bend as shown in Fig. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. 2. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. thick. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. 1. with a 3/8-in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. 2. in diameter and 1/32 in. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Bend as shown in Fig. 5. as in Fig. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. hole. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. machine screws and nuts. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. 3. Fig. 3. There should be a space of 1/16 in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together.

Cooke. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Fasten with 3/4-in.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. 8-1/2 in. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. or more in diameter. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. The lower part. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. three of which are in the basket. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. using four to each leg. from the bottom end of the legs. deep over all. make these seams come between the two back legs. Hamilton. When assembling. to make the bottom. Stain the wood before putting in the . Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. --Contributed by F. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Ill. high and 15 in. Smith. long. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. from the top of the box. Canada. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. screws. V. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. With a string or tape measure. we will call the basket. Now you will have the box in two pieces. deep and 1-1/4 in. Be sure to have the cover. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. square and 30-1/2 in. --Contributed by S. La Salle. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. The four legs are each 3/4-in.

as shown in the sketch. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. 2. and gather it at that point. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real.lining. Cover them with the cretonne. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Md. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. The side. Boston. Baltimore. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things.2 Fig. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. -Contributed by Stanley H. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Fig. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. When making the display. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. sewing on the back side. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Mass. If all the parts are well sandpapered. you can. wide. Sew on to the covered cardboards. wide and four strips 10 in. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . 1. --also the lower edge when necessary. Packard. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound.

Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. 3.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Mo. L. saving all the solid part. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Orlando Taylor. Crockett. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. with slight modifications. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. and. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Cross Timbers. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. It is not difficult to . Fig. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Gloversville. It is cleanly. --Contributed by B. Y. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. N. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. When through using the pad. --Contributed by H.

and scrape out the rough parts. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. --Contributed by Edith E. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Mass. Texas. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Bourne. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. it should be new and sharp. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. S. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. If a file is used. El Paso. remove the contents. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Lane. and secure it in place with glue or paste. After this is done. Lowell. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. After stirring. are shown in the diagram. across the face. -Contributed by C. or if desired. Both of these methods are wasteful.

Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. Turl. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Ill. Iowa. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. He captured several pounds in a few hours. --Contributed by Loren Ward. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. The insects came to the light. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. F. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. After several hours' drying. Ill. --Contributed by Geo. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Oregon.cooking utensil. Oak Park. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler. Des Moines. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Those having houses . As these were single-faced disk records. A Postcard Rack [25]. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Canton. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Greenleaf. The process works well and needs no watching. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics.

but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. plane and pocket knife.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Rosenberg. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. and as they are simple in design. Only three pieces are required. Glenbrook. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Both sides can be put together in this way. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. Worcester. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. 6 in. The single boards can then be fixed. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in.. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. by 2 ft. not even with the boards themselves. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. and the second one for the developing bench. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. material. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. 6 in. will do as well. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. --Contributed by Wm. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. but for cheapness 3/4 in.. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Conn. boards are preferable. the best material to use being matched boards. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Lay the floor next. --Contributed by Thomas E. and both exactly alike. Mass. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. the bottom being 3/8 in. Dobbins. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. one on each side of what will be the . thick.

They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 10). One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. nailing them to each other at the ridge. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. as shown in Figs. 7. 11. and the top as at C in the same drawing. and to the outside board of the sides. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. In hinging the door. so that the water will drain off into the sink. At the top of the doorway. 6.. The roof boards may next be put on. by screwing to the floor. Fig. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. 9). and shown to a larger scale in Fig. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. is cut. brown wrapping paper. which is fixed on as shown . 9 by 11 in. 5. 6 and 9. hinged to it. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. below which is fixed the sink. the closing side as at B. and in the middle an opening. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. 8. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. of the top of the door for the same reason. These are all in section and are self-explanatory.. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack.. 3 and 4. and act as a trap for the light. The developing bench is 18 in. It is shown in detail in Fig. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. 2 in section. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. so that it will fit inside the sink. 6. etc.doorway. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. and should be zinc lined. wide. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door.

Details of the Dark Rook .

as shown in the sections. For beating up an egg in a glass. Karl Hilbrich. mixing flour and water. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. Fig. as at I. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. though this is hardly advisable. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. 19. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 15. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. it is better than anything on the market. 14. are fastened in the corners inside. 1. 17. 20. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. Fig. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. Fig. and a tank stand on it. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. 16. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. four coats at first is not too many. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. these being shown in Fig. screwing them each way into the boards. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . Pennsylvania. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. The handle should be at least 12 in. or red light as at K. Fig. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. --Contributed by W. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. A circular piece about 2 in. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. preferably maple or ash. if desired. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. as at M. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. as in Fig. after lining with brown paper. hole bored in the center for a handle. In use. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood.in Fig. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. 2. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. 18. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. 16. but not the red glass and frame. and a 3/8-in. 13. 13. The house will be much strengthened if strips. 6. as shown in Fig. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. Erie. which makes it possible to have white light. or the room may be made with a flat roof.

Smith. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by L. Mo. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Schweiger. when put together properly is a puzzle. for a handle. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. G. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. To operate. Ark. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. which. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Eureka Springs.copper should be. Kansas City. long. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. -Contributed by E. L. D. Mitchell. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. New York. Yonkers. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. about 3/8 in. --Contributed by Wm. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] .

A number of 1/2-in. If the sill is inclined. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. The design shown in Fig. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. in order to thoroughly preserve it. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. holes should be drilled in the bottom. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. Having completed the bare box. especially for filling-in purposes. for the moment. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. the rustic work should be varnished. After the box is trimmed. 3. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. need them. 3. The corks in use are shown in Fig. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. as shown in Fig. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. to make it set level. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. . These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. as well as improve its appearance. as shown in Fig. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. which binds them together. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. the box will require a greater height in front. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. 1. 2. Each cork is cut as in Fig. as is usually the case.

being partly eaten into. When the corn is gone cucumbers. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Each long projection represents a leg. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. and observe results. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. 2. F. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. But I have solved the difficulty. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. it's easy.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. 1. drilled at right angles. cabbages. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. 3. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. too dangerous. Traps do no good. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. share the same fate. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. etc. as shown in Fig. . Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. life in the summer time is a vexation. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. can't use poison.. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. 4.

my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. strips. Iowa. . the coil does not heat sufficiently. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. of No. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. If. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. About 9-1/2 ft. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. -. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. long. by trial. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. cut some of it off and try again. and made up and kept in large bottles. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The solution can be used over and over again. cut in 1/2-in.

C. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. coffee pot. N. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. --Contributed by Katharine D. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Stir and mix thoroughly. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Fig 2. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Syracuse. to cause the door to swing shut. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Morse. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. . the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. 1) removed.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. of oleic acid with 1 gal. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. it falls to stop G. Dallas. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. and a strip. In cleaning silver. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. hot-water pot. is a good size--in this compound. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. as shown in the sketch. Kane. Y. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Pa. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. D. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Doylestown. Texas. but with unsatisfactory results. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. Do not wash them. of gasoline. --Contributed by James M. Knives. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. forks.

A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Fisher. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. of course. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. which is. La. Harrisburg. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. --Contributed by Theodore L. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Ill. negatives. later fixed and washed as usual. . --Contributed by Oliver S. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. using the paper dry. Pa.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. but unfixed. Sprout. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Waverly. New Orleans. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks.

probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. 1. then . graceful sweep of the long pendulum. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. a harmonograph is a good prescription. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. metal. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. In this uncertainty lies the charm. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. The harmonograph. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. Fig. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. To obviate this difficulty. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration.

should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. K. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. which can be regulated. and unless the shorter pendulum is. 1. Chicago. 1. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. A small table or platform. G. R. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. etc.. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. A weight. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. Gaffney. provides a means of support for the stylus. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. --Contributed by James T. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. one-fourth. to prevent any side motion. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. as shown in Fig. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. A small weight. --Contributed by Wm. Holes up to 3 in.. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. A pedestal. Arizona. ceiling. what is most important. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. or the lines will overlap and blur. 1-3/4 by 2 in. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. Rosemont. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. that is. as long as the other. of about 30 or 40 lb. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. in diameter. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. Another weight of about 10 lb. Punch a hole. makes respectively 3. with a nail set or punch. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. J. is attached as shown at H. The length of the short pendulum H. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. in the center of the circle to be cut. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. A length of 7 ft.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. for instance. as shown in the lower part of Fig.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. is about right for a 10-ft. Ingham. one-fifth. such as a shoe buttoner. exactly one-third. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then.

Fig. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. 2. Fig. The capacity of the vise.H. Chicago. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. and proceed as before.J. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. 6. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. 1. -Contributed by W. then 3 as in Fig. a correspondent of . quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. Cape May City. 3.J. of course. dividing them into quarters. Cruger.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. and 4 as in Fig. one for the sender and one for the receiver. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. 4. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. --Contributed by J. distributing them over the whole card. Morey. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 5. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. then put 2 at the top. The two key cards are made alike. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. N.

of 18-per-cent No. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. 22 gauge German-silver wire. of ferricyanide of potash. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. remove the prints. long. the portion of the base under the coil. To assemble. 30 gr. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. drill 15 holes. After preparing the base and uprights. Wind the successive turns of . The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. respectively. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. If constructed of the former. After securing the tint desired. Ga. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. of water. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. 1/4 in. citrate of iron and ammonia. Cut through the center. Asbestos board is to be preferred. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. wood-screws. 6 gauge wires shown. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. 1/2 oz. Augusta. acetic acid and 4 oz.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. says Popular Electricity. Alberta Norrell. of the uprights. from the top and bottom. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. --Contributed by L. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. deep. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. sheet of well made asbestos paper.

if one is not a smoker.. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. rivets. 14 gauge. Ampere. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. 16 gauge copper wire. as they are usually thrown away when empty. N. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. then fasten the upright in place. Ward. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. etc. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. Small knobs may be added if desired. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . Labels of some kind are needed. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. Y. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. which.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. screws. cut and dressed 1/2 in. square. but these are not necessary. --Contributed by Frederick E.

G. B. Jaquythe. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. The parts are put together with dowel pins. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. lead. zinc. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. Ark. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. tin. E and F. Kenosha. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. or has become corroded. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. D. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. the pure muriatic acid should be used. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. sandpaper or steel wool. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. If the soldering copper is an old one. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant.. S. Eureka Springs. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. and one made of poplar finished black. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. of glycerine to 16 oz." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. C. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. a piece of solder. California. brass. and rub the point of the copper on it. The material can be of any wood. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. --C. and labeled "Poison. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. galvanized iron. Larson. Heat it until hot (not red hot). The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. Richmond. In soldering galvanized iron. Copper. especially if a large tub is used. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. A. particularly so when the iron has once been used. --Contributed by W. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. being careful about the heat. then to the joint to be soldered. as shown in the sketch. of water. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. Wis. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary.14 oz. This is considerable annoyance. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. it must be ground or filed to a point. tinner's acid. . --Contributed by A.

and drill out the threads. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. such as copper. with good results. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. C. The covers of the magazines are removed. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. 2. N. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. I bind my magazines at home evenings. in diameter. thick and 1-1/4 in. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. -Contributed by H. This will leave a clear hole. W. Take a 3/4-in. Fig. Six issues make a well proportioned book. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . if such metals are in plate or sheet form. The dimensions shown in Fig. B. Y. in diameter. D. in diameter and 1-1/4 in.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. The punch A. Place the band. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Brass rings can be plated when finished. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. brass and silver. Hankin. nut. Apart from this. Troy. round iron. a ring may be made from any metal. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. The disk will come out pan shaped. which gives two bound volumes each year. This completes the die. wide. 7/8 in. Fig. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. 1. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. however. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape.

allowing about 2 in. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. size 16 or larger. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. using . pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. 1/8 in.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. on all edges except the back. through the notch on the left side of the string No. the thread being carried across from each tie from No.4. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. threaded double. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 1 in Fig. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. C. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. 2. and then to string No. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. 1. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. and a third piece. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. . passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. is used for the sewing material. and place them against the strings in the frame. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. deep. 5. The covering can be of cloth. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. The string No. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. 2. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Coarse white thread. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. The sections are then prepared for sewing. 1. is nailed across the top. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. If started with the January or the July issue. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. which is fastened the same as the first. then back through the notch on the right side. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Five cuts. of the ends extending on each side. Start with the front of the book. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. After drawing the thread tightly. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. as shown in Fig. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. Place the cardboard covers on the book. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. The covering should be cut out 1 in. 1.

The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. on which to hook the blade. Cal. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Divine. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. --Contributed by Clyde E.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Nebr. Encanto. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Tinplate. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Place the cover on the book in the right position. College View. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. and. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. and mark around each one. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. round iron. at opposite sides to each other. For the blade an old talking-machine . iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge.

by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Summitville. Make the blade 12 in. Moorhead. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. A. -Contributed by Willard J. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. as shown. at the same end. or double extra heavy. and a long thread plug. fuse hole at D. and another piece (B) 6 in. Then on the board put .. F. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). thick. by 4-1/2 in. with a steel sleeve. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. and 1/4 in. thick. C. B. Hays. and file in the teeth. hydraulic pipe. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. long.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame.. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Miss. Ohio. bore. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. in order to drill the holes in the ends. as it is sometimes called. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. by 1 in. On the upper side. and 1/4 in. E. with 10 teeth to the inch. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch.

of wire to each coil. Philadelphia. Boyd. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . as from batteries. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. 4 jars. about 5 ft. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. of rubber-covered wire. using about 8 in. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Connect up as shown. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. A lid may be added if desired. and some No. --Contributed by Chas. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. If you are going to use a current of low tension. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. H. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. the jars need not be very large.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. some sheet copper or brass for plates. high around this apparatus.

Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. on No. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. 30 in. An iron washer. by 2 in.the way. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added.. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. wide by 3/4 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. B and C. For the brass trimmings use No. and plane it on all edges. 4) of 3/4-in. Put arm of switch on point No. ... For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. The current then will flow through the motor. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. wide and 3/4 in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. as they "snatch" the ice. making them clear those in the front runner. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. oak boards. The top disk in jar No. by 2 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. Use no nails. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in.. long. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. by 1-1/4 in. by 1 in. with the cushion about 15 in. 7 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. long. are important. 1. The stock required for them is oak. 4. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. steel rod makes a good steering rod. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. 2. wide. as they are not substantial enough. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. then apply a coat of thin enamel. long.. No. 3. 2 and 3. thick. 4 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. At the front 24 or 26 in. and bolt through. Z. two pieces 34 in. by 6 in. two pieces 30 in. by 1-1/4 in. by 5 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. 16-1/2 in. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. 2. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. 1 and so on for No. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. The sled completed should be 15 ft. 2 is lower down than in No. First sandpaper all the wood. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. 15-1/2 in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. C. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. B. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. Use no screws on the running surface. Construct the auto front (Fig. A 3/4-in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. gives full current and full speed. and four pieces 14 in. 5 on switch. 3 and No. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. 3 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. sheet brass 1 in. long by 22 in. & S. 2 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 1 is connected to point No. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. For the front runners these measurements are: A. above the ground. To wire the apparatus. See Fig. or source of current. A variation of 1/16 in.. by 5 in. direct to wire across jars. 34 in. 27 B. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. The connection between point No. long.. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. B. is used to reduce friction. however. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. beginning at the rear. 11 in. thick. and for the rear runners: A. 1 on switch. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. Fig. wide and 2 in. apart. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. C. square by 14 ft. two for each jar. two pieces 14 in. In proportioning them the points A. 2. On the door of the auto front put the .

Fasten a horn. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. by 30 in. to improve the appearance. such as used on automobiles. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. a number of boys may share in the ownership. etc. cheap material. lunch. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. by 1/2 in. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. If the expense is greater than one can afford. long. cutting it out of sheet brass. a brake may be added to the sled. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. which is somewhat moist. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. fasten a cord through the loop. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. If desired. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . such as burlap. or with these for $25. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. brass plated. overshoes. If desired. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. to the wheel. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Then get some upholstery buttons. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. parcels. may be stowed within. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. The best way is to get some strong.

Lexington.tree and bring. . Leland. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. --Contributed by Stewart H. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Ill. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.

A small clearance space. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . made from 1/16-in. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. 2.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. This guide should have a beveled edge. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. The straight-edge. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. say 1 in. With no other tools than a hacksaw. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. thick. though more difficult. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. from F to G. FC. a compass. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. outside diameter and 1/16 in. so that the center of the blade. The first tooth may now be cut. mild steel or iron. when flat against it. London. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. which. Fig. will be over the line FG. some files. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. by drawing diameters. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. the same diameter as the wheel. Fig. 4). with twenty-four teeth. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. First take the case of a small gearwheel. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. The Model Engineer. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. Draw a circle on paper. CD. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. Fig. sheet metal. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. 3. E. 1. the cut will be central on the line.

With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. Then take one outlet wire. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. each in the center. R. Focus the camera in the usual manner. as shown in Fig. . This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. either the pencils for arc lamps. 1. hold in one hand. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. some wire and some carbons. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. A bright. 2. as shown in Fig. electric lamp. B. as shown in Fig. If there is no faucet in the house.Four Photos on One Plate of them. B. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. ground it with a large piece of zinc. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. No shock will be perceptible. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. Make a hole in the other. 1. and the other outlet wire. transmitter. or several pieces bound tightly together.

G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Then set the whole core away to dry. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. If desired. D D are binding posts for electric wires. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . Dry batteries are most convenient. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Ashland. are also needed. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. by 12 in. They have screw ends. One like a loaf of bread. as shown. under the gable. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. even though there are no batteries in the circuit.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. and about that size. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Wrenn. or more of the latter has been used. as indicated by E E. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. J. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. But in this experiment. 36 wire around it. B. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. by 1 in. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. and will then burn the string C. leaving about 10 in. of course. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. and again wind the wire around it. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Pa. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. A is a wooden block. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. a transmitter which induces no current is used. serves admirably. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. one at the receiver can hear what is said. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Several battery cells. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Emsworth. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Slattery. Ohio. at each end for terminals. --Contributed by Geo. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient.

How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. while C is open. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. the terminal of the coil. The oven is now ready to be connected. C. 14 wire. connecting lamp receptacles. Turn on switch. 2. and switch. run a No. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Fig. These should have hollow ends. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. and the lamps. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. D. C. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. for the . 1. D. First make a support. as shown. Fig. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. B B. Connect these three to switch. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. Ohio. 12 or No.. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. as shown. E. in parallel. The coil will commence to become warm. Place 16-cp. and one single post switch. Jr. Newark. From the other set of binding-posts. At one side secure two receptacles. B B.wire. The apparatus is now ready for operation. until the hand points to zero on the scale. F. in series with bindingpost. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp.

If for 3-way. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. 3. Mine is wound with two layers of No. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. A wooden box. although brass is better. is made of iron. Fig. D. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. C. This may be made of wood. 4 amperes. D. B. long. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. 1/2 in.. a standard ammeter. long and make a loop. 1/4 in. At a point a little above the center. The pointer or hand. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. but if for a 4way. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 36 magnet wire instead of No. Fig. 4. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. wind with plenty of No.or 4-way valve or cock. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. wide and 1/8 in. After drilling. is made of wire. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. a variable resistance. until the scale is full. Fig. drill in only to the opening already through. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. long. remove the valve. The core. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. from the lower end. This is slipped on the pivot. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. deep. It is 1 in. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. and D. 14 wire.E. Dussault. drill a hole as shown at H. 6. 4 in. inside measurements. --Contributed by J. as shown in the cut. Montreal. 5. to prevent it turning on the axle. etc. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. To make one. The box is 5-1/2 in. is then made and provided with a glass front. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. E. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. 14. Fig. 1. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. 5. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. 7. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. 1. where A is the homemade ammeter. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. thick.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. 10 turns to each layer. high. although copper or steel will do. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. drill through the entire case and valve. a battery. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . 3 amperes. wide and 1-3/4 in. 2.

either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. and the other connects with the water rheostat. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. By connecting the motor. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. and the arc light. This stopper should be pierced. provided with a rubber stopper. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. and a metal rod. as shown. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. B.performing electrical experiments. D. F. One wire runs to the switch. A. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. making two holes about 1/4 in. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. in thickness . which is used for reducing the current. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. To start the light. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. high. in diameter. E.

This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. To insert the lead plate. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. 1.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Having finished the interrupter. long. 2. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. If the interrupter does not work at first. As there shown. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Fig. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. as shown in B. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. 2. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Fig. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. B. N. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Jones. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. where he is placed in an upright open . Fig. as shown in C. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. A. Carthage. A piece of wood. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Turn on the current and press the button. If all adjustments are correct. Y. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Fig. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. --Contributed by Harold L. 1. 1.

which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. should be miniature electric lamps. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. and wave his arms up and down. The glass should be the clearest possible. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. L and M. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. to aid the illusion. If it is desired to place the box lower down. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. inside dimensions. A. light-colored garments. and must be thoroughly cleansed. The skeleton is made of papier maché. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. from which the gong has been removed. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. loosejointed effect. until it is dark there. They need to give a fairly strong light. especially the joints and background near A. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. the illusion will be spoiled. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. Its edges should nowhere be visible. The model. giving a limp. by 7 in. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. The lights. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. by 7-1/2 in. A white shroud is thrown over his body. high. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again.. dressed in brilliant. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. as the entire interior. especially L. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. If everything is not black. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. All . within the limits of an ordinary room. is constructed as shown in the drawings. and can be bought at Japanese stores.coffin. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. which can be run by three dry cells. figures and lights. should be colored a dull black. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. could expect from a skeleton. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. with the exception of the glass. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone.

placed about a foot apart. If a gradual transformation is desired. San Jose.that is necessary is a two-point switch. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. fat spark. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Fry. W. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. Cal. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. Two finishing nails were driven in. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Geo. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. square block. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. after which it assumes its normal color. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . a double-pointed rheostat could be used. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery.

Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. -Contributed by Dudley H. the remaining space will be filled with air. soldered in the top. with two tubes. A (see sketch). to make it airtight. 1. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. One of these plates is connected to metal top. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. into the receiver G. New York. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. F. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. as shown. In Fig. and should be separated about 1/8 in. In Fig. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. or a solution of sal soda. Cohen. hydrogen gas is generated. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. If a lighted match . This is a wide-mouth bottle. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. The plates are separated 6 in. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. B and C. by small pieces of wood. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver.

which should be magnetized previous to assembling. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. One row is drilled to come directly on top. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. which is plugged up at both ends. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. in diameter and 6 in. as is shown in the illustration. of No. 1-5/16 in. 1/2 in. C C. or by direct contact with another magnet. A nipple. long. A. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. long. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. then a suitable burner is necessary. If desired.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. N. Fig. either by passing a current of electricity around it. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. 1. Fig. A 1/64-in. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. and the ends of the tube. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. should be only 5/16 of an inch. P. A. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. is then coiled around the brass tube. is made by drilling a 1/8in. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. B. copper pipe. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. by means of the clips. copper pipe. 2 shows the end view. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. A piece of 1/8-in. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. from the bottom. A. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. The distance between the nipple. London. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. A. 36 insulated wire. says the Model Engineer. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. which forms the vaporizing coil. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. N. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank.

1/4 in.lamp cord. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. 1. Cut four pieces of cardboard. fold and cut it 1 in. 3. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . duck or linen. smoothly. with a fine saw. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. trim both ends and the front edge. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Take two strips of stout cloth. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Fig. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. 2). cut to the size of the pages. about 8 or 10 in. leaving the folded edge uncut. Turn the book over and paste the other side. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. boards and all. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. at the front and back for fly leaves. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. larger all around than the book. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Fig. but if the paper knife cannot be used. should be cut to the diameter of the can. this makes a much nicer book. Fig. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. longer and 1/4 in. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. taking care not to bend the iron.

Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. is turned on it. of tank A is cut a hole. 4). Toronto. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. pasting them down (Fig. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. This will cause some air to be enclosed. D. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. is perforated with a number of holes. Noble. A. is made the same depth as B. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. and a little can. Bedford City. as shown. Another tank. Ont. or rather the top now. --Contributed by James E. is fitted in it and soldered. A gas cock. is soldered onto tank A. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. in diameter and 30 in. Parker. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. the joint will be gas tight. C. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. In the bottom. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. B. --Contributed by Joseph N. 18 in. deep. as shown in the sketch. but its diameter is a little smaller. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. E. Another can. which will just slip inside the little can. . Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Va. without a head. H. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry.

and about 26 in. The small guards. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. The diagonal struts. -Contributed by H. basswood or white pine. tacks. 2. E.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. as shown at C. N.. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. A A. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. The armature. to prevent splitting. Bott. B. Fig. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. should be 3/8 in. and sewed double to give extra strength. making the width. If the back armature. 1. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. by 1/2 in. The bridle knots. long. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. The longitudinal corner spines. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. which may be either spruce. which moves to either right or left. thus adjusting the . but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. with an electric-bell magnet. C. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. fastened in the bottom. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. Fig. long. should be 1/4 in. H is a square knot. J. A. square by 42 in. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. should be cut a little too long. The wiring diagram. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. D. and the four diagonal struts. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. are shown in detail at H and J. B. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. S. B. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. when finished. D. Beverly. If the pushbutton A is closed. shows how the connections are to be made. exactly 12 in.

A bowline knot should be tied at J. Chicago. to prevent slipping. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. can be made of a wooden . loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. If the kite is used in a light wind. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K.lengths of F and G. Clay Center. D. for producing electricity direct from heat. as shown. that refuse to slide easily. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. the batteries do not run down for a long time. and if a strong wind is blowing. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. and. shift toward F. however. Harbert. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Stoddard. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. --Contributed by Edw. E. --Contributed by A. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. with gratifying results. Kan. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Closing either key will operate both sounders.

C.frame. D. E. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after .. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. C. spark. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. Then. placed on top. with a number of nails. which conducts the current into the cannon. or parallel with the compass needle. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. --Contributed by A. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. and the current may then be detected by means. 14 or No. A. The wood screw. 16 single-covered wire. C. When the cannon is loaded. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. E. B. Chicago. F. to the cannon. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. A and B. A. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. in position. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. Fasten a piece of wood. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. and also holds the pieces of wood. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. by means of machine screws or. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. A. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. with a pocket compass.

Chicago. 1. H. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. within the reach of the magnet. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. with the long arm at L'. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Keil. To lock the door. L. A hole for a 1/2 in. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Ohio. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Bend the strips BB (Fig. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. A. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. square and 3/8 in. to receive the screw in the center. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. 1. B. screw is bored in the block. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. 1.the current is shut off. Connect as shown in the illustration. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. A and S. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. in this position the door is locked. --Contributed by Joseph B. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Fig. now at A' and S'. . A and S. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. To unlock the door. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Fig. Marion. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. when in position at A'. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. requiring a strong magnet. but no weights or strings. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. To reverse. --Contributed by Henry Peck. where there is a staple. Mich. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. In Fig. Big Rapids. press the button. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms.

Rand. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. hole. are enameled a jet black. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. J. --Contributed by C. and may be made at very slight expense. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and C is a dumbbell.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. put in the handle. pipe with 1-2-in. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. When the holes are finished and your lines set. When ready for use. Thread the other end of the pipe. Mass. The standard and base. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and if desired the handles may . or for microscopic work. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. about 18 in. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. if enameled white on the concave side. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. gas-pipe. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. long. West Somerville. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited.

and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C.be covered with leather. A. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . inside the pail. Mass. across. --Contributed by C. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. across. as shown at A in the sketch. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. 1. 8 in. B. D. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. E. North Easton. long and 8 in. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. 1. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Make a cylindrical core of wood.. which shall project at least 2 in. with a cover. Warren. high by 1 ft. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. M. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Fig. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Fig.

While these are drying you may be making a muffle. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. The 2 in. This done. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. projecting from each end (Fig.. as dictated by fancy and expense. W. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. of fine wire. passing wire nails through and clinching them. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. 15%. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. Wind about 1/8 in. but will be cheaper in operation. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. After removing all the paper. If the cover of the pail has no rim. and your kiln is ready for business. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. E. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. Whatever burner is used. strip of sheet iron. in diameter. 60%. long. if you have the materials. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. hotel china. 3) with false top and bottom. or make one yourself. and on it set the paper wrapped core. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. thick. pipe 2-ft. 1). to hold the clay mixture. and 3/8 in. and graphite. 1). cutting the hole a little smaller. C. C. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. such . These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. layer of the clay mixture. but it will burn a great deal of gas. as is shown in the sketch. bottom and sides. say 1/4 in. carefully centering it. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. L. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. Set aside for a few days until well dried. the firing should be gradual. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. It is placed inside the kiln. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. sand. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. let this dry thoroughly. and with especial caution the first time. pipe. Cover with paper and shellac as before. Fit all the parts together snugly. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. which is the hottest part. After finishing the core. about 1 in. in diameter. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. thick. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. and varnish. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. make two wood ends. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. 1390°-1410°. hard porcelain..mixture of clay. 2.-G. the point of the blue flame. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. diameter. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. When lighted. if there is to be any glazing done.. 25%. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. wider than the kiln. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. and 3/4 in. C. full length of iron core. pack this space-top. and cut it 3-1/2 in. Fig. long over the lid hole as a chimney. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. 1330°. 2 in. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. Line the pail.

all cards facing the same way. Then take the black cards. Next restore all the cards to one pack. bind tightly with black silk. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. A. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. the next black. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. with a plane. Of course. 8 in. T.. every alternate card being the same color. Washington. and plane off about 1/16 in. taking care to have the first card red. R. The funnel. . plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. C. and discharges into the tube. Then. C. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. You can display either color called for. square them up. about 1/16 in. and divide it into two piles. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. Chicago. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. diameter. length of . 2). we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. procure a new deck. red and black. as shown in the sketch herewith. 2. and so on. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. around the coil. 2. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. Take the red cards. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. 1.53 in. C. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. leaving long terminals. B. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. square them up and place in a vise. as in Fig. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. overlaps and rests on the body. as in Fig. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. D. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. --Contributed by J. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience.

thus making all the holes coincide. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. It should be placed in an exposed location. To find the fall of snow. 1 gill of litharge. E. A. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. The cement. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. The bottom glass should be a good fit. When the glass is put in the frame a space.C. to form a dovetail joint as shown. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. F. 1 gill of fine white sand. as the difficulties increase with the size. and this is inexpensive to build. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. so that when they are assembled. Fig. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. Long Branch. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. the same ends will come together again. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. stove bolts. and then the frame is ready to assemble. N. B. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. angle iron for the frame. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. Let .. C. The upright pieces. Drill all the horizontal pieces. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. about 20 in. B. All the horizontal pieces. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. through the holes already drilled. B. stove bolts. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. A. 1. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. D.J. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. E. of the frame. the first thing to decide on is the size.

Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. having a swinging connection at C. to the door knob. B. a centerpiece (A. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Aquarium Finished If desired. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. A. Fasten the lever. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. D. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. if desired. on the door by means of a metal plate. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. and. Fig. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown.

as at E. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. 6 in. showing the paddle-wheel in position. to form the main supports of the frame. will open the door about 1/2 in. D. according to the slant given C. White. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. I referred this question to my husband. for the top. Fig. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. Two short boards 1 in. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. B. 26 in. long. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. soldered to the end of the cylinder. To make the frame. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Fig. 1. Do not fasten these boards now. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. and Fig. screwed to the door frame. several lengths of scantling 3 in. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 1 . with a water pressure of 70 lb. AA. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. but mark their position on the frame. 2 ft. Fig. E. which is 15 in. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. long. 2 at GG. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. 3 shows one of the paddles. thus doing away with the spring. to form the slanting part. Buffalo. wide . approximately 1 ft.. 2 is an end view. another. A small piece of spring brass. from the outside top of the frame. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Fig. PAUL S. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Y. N. Cut two of them 4 ft. and another. Fig. long. Cut two pieces 30 in. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. Fig. 1.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. C. long. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. F. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. --Contributed by Orton E. They are shown in Fig. wide by 1 in. to keep the frame from spreading. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. another.

that is. long to the wheel about 8 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . GG.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Now block the wheel. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. to a full 1/2 in. with the wheel and shaft in place. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. and drill a 1-in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. remove the cardboard. iron 3 by 4 in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. steel shaft 12 in. in diameter. hole through their sides centrally. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. then drill a 3/16-in. These are the paddles. hole through them. thick. Make this hole conical. tapering from 3/16 in. 2) and another 1 in. pipe. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in.burlap will do -. hole from the tops to the 1-in. (I. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. and a 1/4 -in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Take the side pieces. 2) form a substantial base. holes. iron. When it has cooled. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. after which drill a 5/8 in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Fasten them in their proper position. by 1-1/2 in. Tack one side on. hole to form the bearings. Drill 1/8-in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Fig. hole through its center. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. Next secure a 5/8-in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. take down the crosspieces. 2) with a 5/8-in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. 1. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Fig. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Fig. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. from one end by means of a key. 4. thick (HH. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. 24 in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. and drill a 1/8-in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. as shown in Fig. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. hole through the exact center of the wheel.

and the subject may move. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. of course. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. shutting out all light from above and the sides. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. If sheet-iron is used. The best plate to use is a very slow one. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Correct exposure depends. any window will do.a water-tight joint. Raise the window shade half way. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Focus the camera carefully. . start the motor. ice-cream freezer.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. and leave them for an hour or so. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. or what is called a process plate. drill press. as this makes long exposure necessary. as shown in the sketch at B. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. but now I put them in the machine. It is obvious that. place the outlet over a drain. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Do not stop down the lens. sewing machine. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. light and the plate. but as it would have cost several times as much. and as near to it as possible. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. If the bearings are now oiled. remove any white curtains there may be. on the lens. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Drill a hole through the zinc. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. it would be more durable. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. says the Photographic Times. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Darken the rest of the window.

On completing . as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. 2. or wood. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. a core. as a slight current will answer. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. The glass tube may be a test tube. With a piece of black paper. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. C. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. a glass tube. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. or can be taken from an old magnet. A. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. the core is drawn down out of sight. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. B. an empty pill bottle may be used. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. and without fog. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. and a base. without detail in the face. full of water. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. until the core slowly rises. D. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. with binding posts as shown. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. 2. The current required is very small. The core C. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. which is made of iron and cork. or an empty developer tube. as shown in Fig. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. hard rubber. by twisting. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube.

Interior View the circuit the core will descend. This is a mysterious looking instrument. 1. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. and one not easy to explain. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. 1 pt. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. is Benham's color top. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. 1 lb. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. The colors appear different to different people. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. and make a pinhole in the center. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. according to his control of the current. whale oil. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. water and 3 oz. and are changed by reversing the rotation. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. white lead. finest graphite. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part.

which is then replaced in any part of the pack.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. In making hydrogen. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. fan-like. As this device is easily upset. deuce. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. In prize games. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. C. Chicago.L. -Contributed by D. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. thus partly filling bottles A and C. A. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which .B. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. B. especially if the deck is a new one. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. before cutting. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. nearly every time. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose.. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. when the action ceases. or three spot. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words.

4. as shown in Fig. S. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. Detroit. in diameter. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Fig.. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. W. Detail of Phonograph Horn . --Contributed by F. Make a 10-sided stick. (Fig. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. 1. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. long. 12 in. 2. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 9 in. S. 10 in.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Huron. Fig. J. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Bently. 3). that will fit loosely in the tube A. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. --Contributed by C. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Dak. in length and 3 in. Form a cone of heavy paper.. . wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. long and 3 in. Jr.

which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. on one side and the top. but bends toward D. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. push back the bolt. bend it at right angles throughout its length.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. long. making it three-ply thick. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. 6. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. Remove the form. and walk in. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. C. Denver. Cut out paper sections (Fig. about the size of a leadpencil. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. it is equally easy to block that trick. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. Fig. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. allowing 1 in. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. E. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. --Contributed by Reader. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. A piece of tin. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. Fortunately. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. with a pin driven in each end. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. A. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. A second piece of silk thread. will cause an increased movement of C.

The 2 by 4-in. The upper switch. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. --Contributed by J. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. are 7 ft. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. R. West St. long. S. A.. put together as shown in the sketch. will last for several years. Jr. posts. Two wood-base switches. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. S. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. W. is connected each point to a battery. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. and rest on a brick placed under each end. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . S S. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. Fremont Hilscher. long. or left to right. as shown.strip. The reverse switch. while the lower switch. By this arrangement one. B. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. are made 2 by 4 in. Paul. 4 ft. The feet. Minn. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire.. B.

If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. H and K. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood.every house. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. Fig. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. The valve motion is shown in Figs. cut in half. FF. In Fig. 2. and in Fig. pulley wheel. and valve crank S. the size of the hole in the bearing B. The steam chest D. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. either an old sewing-machine wheel. 2 and 3. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. and has two wood blocks. The hose E connects to the boiler. E. and the crank bearing C. 3/8 in. thick. which will be described later. which is made of tin. The base is made of wood. The piston is made of a stove bolt. the other parts being used for the bearing B. or anything available. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. Fig. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. with two washers. 1. is an old bicycle pump. and a cylindrical . is part of the piston tube of the same pump.

A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. can be an old oil can. as shown in Fig. 4. to receive the connecting rod H.piece of hard wood. of Cuba. This is wound with soft string. W. at that. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. . and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. and the desired result is obtained. San Jose. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. or galvanized iron. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Fry. using the positive wire as a pen. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Fig. J. and saturated with thick oil. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. as it is merely a trick of photography. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. The valve crank S. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Eustice. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. C. and a very amusing trick. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. First. The boiler. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. is cut out of tin. G. powder can. This engine was built by W. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Schuh and A. Fig. --Contributed by Geo. G. Cal. 3. Wis. 1.

The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Fig. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. Fig. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. to cross in the center. as shown. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 1 by covering up Figs. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. 1 will be seen to rotate. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. The smaller wheel. B. Cut half circles out of each stave. They may be of any size. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. B. and Fig. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. as shown at AA. C. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. and place a bell on the four ends. When turning. Fig.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. and pass ropes around . diameter.

Mo. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. long. To make this lensless microscope. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. produces a higher magnifying power). procure a wooden spool. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. which allows the use of small sized ropes. St. as shown in the illustration. Louis. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer.M. from the transmitter. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. This in turn will act on the transmitter. but not on all.. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. --Contributed by H. which accounts for the sound. From a piece of thin . and enlarge the bore a little at one end. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm.G. W. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. A (a short spool. such as clothes lines.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B.

and has the general appearance shown in Fig. the diameter will appear three times as large. A. E. Fig. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. 3. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. B. e. or 64 times. H. as in all microscopes of any power. C. which are pieces of hard wood. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. 2. The pivot. 1. bent as shown. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. B. i. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms.. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. is made of iron. . a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. the diameter will appear twice as large. if the distance is reduced to one-half. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. and at the center. otherwise the image will be blurred.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. and so on. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. The lever. An innocent-looking drop of water. which costs little or nothing to make. the object should be of a transparent nature. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. D. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. darting across the field in every direction. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters.) But an object 3/4-in. The spring. and look through the hole D. place a small object on the transparent disk. Viewed through this microscope. (The area would appear 64 times as large. D. in which hay has been soaking for several days. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. fastened to a wooden base. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. cut out a small disk. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. by means of brads. is fastened at each end by pins. To use this microscope. C. if the distance is reduced to one-third. held at arm's length. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. which may be moistened to make the object adhere.. can be made of brass and the armature.

brass: E. 26 wire: E. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. soft iron. FF. Fig. 16 in. nail soldered on A. and are connected to the contacts. fastened near the end. 16 in. KEY-A. wide. D. binding posts: H spring The stop. should be about 22 in. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. C. wood: C. or a single piece. is cut from a board about 36 in. B. Cut the top. C. wide and about 20 in. D. K. Fig. D. similar to the one used in the sounder. The back. wide. coils wound with No. HH. wide and set in between sides AA. long. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. Each side. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. The door. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. The base of the key. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. can be made panel as shown. between the armature and the magnet. wide. or taken from a small one-point switch. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. brass or iron soldered to nail. wood: F. F. AA. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. 2. brass. wood. . E. A switch. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. wide. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. 1. B. in length and 16 in. thick. K. long and 14-1/2 in. DD. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch.SOUNDER-A. which are made to receive a pivot. long by 16 in. The binding posts. connection of D to nail. A. brass: B.

two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. cut in them.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. 13-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver.. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. Garfield. long. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. AA. E. with 3/4-in. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. brads. In operation. material. 2 and made from 1/4-in. When the electrical waves strike the needle. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. as shown. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . the only materials necessary being a glass tube. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. Ill. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Make 12 cleats. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above.

An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. N. A (see sketch). Brown.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. through which a piece of wire is passed. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . When the pipe is used. --Contributed by John Koehler. A. A. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. and. Ridgewood. E. filled with water. the magnet. --Contributed by R. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. N. in order to increase the surface. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. B. A fairly stiff spring. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Pushing the wire. Y. Fairport. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. J. The cord is also fastened to a lever. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. and thus decreases the resistance. C. will give a greater speed. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. when used with a motor. F. pulls down the armature.

Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door.for the secret contact. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. even those who read this description. Gachville. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. N. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. if desired. B. --Contributed by Perry A. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. Borden. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Of course. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time.

long and full 12-in. H. E. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. C. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. N. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. Cal. thick and 12-in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. Dobson. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. J. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. C.whenever the bell rings. long and 5 in. records. apart. for 10in.. The three shelves are cut 25-in. From a piece of brass a switch. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. Compton. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. 1. Washington. records and 5-5/8 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. East Orange. . wide. Mangold. from the bottom. and on both sides of the middle shelf. as shown in Fig. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. 2. Two drawers are fitted in this space. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. --Contributed by H. wide. deep and 3/4 in. wide. D. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. Jr. in a semicircle 2 in. With about 9 ft. where the other end of wire is fastened. Nails for stops are placed at DD. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. --Contributed by Dr. wide. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. The top board is made 28-in. for 6-in. as shown in Fig. wide. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. Connect switch to post B. A.

B. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . --Contributed by Douglas Royer. as shown by the dotted lines. When the cord is passed over pulley C. which in operation is bent. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. closed. E. as shown in Fig. to which is fastened a cord. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. Va.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Roanoke. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. A. 1.

1 in. apart. they will bind. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. to turn on pins of stout wire. in diameter. Fig. If the wheels fit too tightly. deep. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. thick (A. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. which should be about 1/2 in. holes (HH. against which the rubber tubing. Now put all these parts together. Figs. is compressed by wheels. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. B. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. long. in diameter. In the sides (Fig. E. 1. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. E. one in each end. Bore two 1/4 in. deep and 1/2 in. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. in diameter. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. 3. wide and a little less than 7/8 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. Put the rubber tube. 3). through one of these holes. in diameter. Do not fasten the sides too . but a larger one could be built in proportion. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. Notice the break (S) in the track. thick. CC. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. 4 shows the wheel-holder. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. Fig. Cut two grooves. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. as shown in the illustration. excepting the crank and tubing. they will let the air through. 1 in. Fig. Figs. square and 7/8 in. In these grooves place wheels. wide. wide. The crankpin should fit tightly. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. it too loose. D. 5) when they are placed.

17-1/2 in. The animal does not fear to enter the box. Cut six pieces. Fig. Idana. 1. If the motion of the wheels is regular. though a small iron wheel is better. 1. the pump will give a steady stream. mark again. Hubbard. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. from that mark the next hole. Then turn the crank from left to right. from each end. Fig.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. To use the pump. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. stands 20 in. and mark for a hole. 2. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. 1. is all the expense necessary. from each end. 15 in. AA. iron. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. long. a platform should be added. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. tubing. 1. as shown in Fig. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. mark for hole and 3 in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. B.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. The three legs marked BBB. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. In the two cross bars 1 in. Kan. --Contributed by Dan H. costing 10 cents. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. the other wheel has reached the bottom. as it gives steadiness to the motion. The screen which is shown in Fig. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. Two feet of 1/4-in. Take the center of the bar. AA. 2. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. from the bottom and 2 in. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. of material. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. from each end. and are 30 in. and 3-1/2 in. Fig. Fig. beyond each of these two. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. A in Fig. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. because he can . For ease in handling the pump. 1.

and touches the bait the lid is released and. If the solution touches the zinc. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. The mercury will adhere. of the top. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. When through using the battery. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. but if one casts his own zinc. acid 1 part). To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. The battery is now ready for use. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. 1) must be prepared. of water dissolve 4 oz. add slowly. or. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. until it is within 3 in. . stirring constantly. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. rub the zinc well. --Contributed by H. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. however. potassium bichromate. 2). 14 copper wire. Meyer. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. The battery is now complete. dropping. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. Philadelphia. long having two thumb screws. and the solution (Fig. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. The truncated. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. shuts him in. When the bichromate has all dissolved. To cause a flow of electricity. If the battery has been used before. some of it should be poured out. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. there is too much liquid in the jar. If it is wet. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. It is useful for running induction coils. C. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Place the carbon in the jar. giving it a bright. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. silvery appearance. or small electric motors. sulphuric acid.see through it: when he enters. 4 oz.

If. the jump-spark coil . When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. The price of the coil depends upon its size. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. however.. After putting in the coal. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. e. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. with slight changes. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. which opens the door. Wis. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. i. Madison. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. pressing the pedal closes the door. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. the battery circuit.Fig. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. while the coal door is being opened.

while a 12-in.7. This coil. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. This will make an excellent receiver. 7. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. . and closer for longer distances. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. the full length of the coil. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. 7. 6. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. After winding. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. in a straight line from top to bottom. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. as shown in Fig. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line.described elsewhere in this book. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. 6. as shown in Fig. Fig. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. being a 1-in. W W. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. apart. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. in a partial vacuum. which is made of light copper wire. Now for the receiving apparatus. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. 7). diameter. Change the coil described. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. 5. made of No. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. W W. coil.

6 stranded. 90°. to the direction of the current. only. A large cone pulley would then be required.The aerial line. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. These circles. B the bed and C the tailstock. No. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. 1). . is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. in the air. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. may be easily made at very little expense. being at right angles. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. where A is the headstock. 90°. after all. above the ground. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. and hence the aerial line. Figs. as it matches the color well. are analogous to the flow of induction. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. using an electric motor and countershaft. For an illustration. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. which will be described later. The writer does not claim to be the originator. A. being vertical. but simply illustrates the above to show that. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. at any point to any metal which is grounded. Run a wire from the other binding post. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. but it could be run by foot power if desired. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). 1 to 4. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. I run my lathe by power.

Heat the babbitt well. but not hot enough to burn it. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. thick. 5. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. If the bearing has been properly made. Fig. Fig. just touching the shaft. Fig. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. 2 and 3. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. and it is well to have the shaft hot. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. 4. Fig. on the under side of the bed. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. 4. To make these bearings. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. and Fig. one of which is shown in Fig. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. too. tapered wooden pin. The bearing is then ready to be poured. which are let into holes FIG. 5. and runs in babbitt bearings. 6. A. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. The bolts B (Fig. B. steel tubing about 1/8 in. which pass through a piece of wood. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. After pouring. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. deep. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. The headstock. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . pitch and 1/8 in. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 6 Headstock Details D. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side.

--Contributed by Donald Reeves. FIG. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. N. of the walk . Newark. Ill. A. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. they may be turned up after assembling. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. If not perfectly true. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. so I had to buy one. the alarm is easy to fix up. B. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in.other machines. lock nut.J. The tail stock (Fig. If one has a wooden walk. Take up about 5 ft. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. and a 1/2-in. This prevents corrosion. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. embedded in the wood. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. Oak Park. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock.7 Details of Tailstock pipe.

Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. To avoid touching it. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. (A. clean the articles thoroughly. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. 2). Connect up an electric bell. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. to roughen the surface slightly.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. water. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Fig. before dipping them in the potash solution. Finally. Then make the solution . add potassium cyanide again. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. silver or other metal. to remove all traces of grease. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. --Contributed by R. Jackson. hang the articles on the wires. Do not touch the work with the hands again. so that they will not touch. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Minneapolis. S. of water. save when a weight is on the trap. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. leaving a clear solution. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. and the alarm is complete. Minn.

and then treated as copper. a circuit is completed. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. long. about 25 ft. with the pivot 2 in. pewter. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. In rigging it to a sliding door. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. On brass. Fig. from the lower end. of water. If more solution is required. make a key and keyhole. 10 in. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. with water. Make a somewhat larger block (E. Fig. nickel and such metals. When all this is set up. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. Can be made of a 2-in. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. If accumulators are used. zinc. German silver. 1). 1. The wooden catch. such metals as iron. which . The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. which is advised. shaking. This solution. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. but opens the door. A (Fig. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. long. and 4 volts for very small ones. Screw the two blocks together. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. Where Bunsen cells are used. which is held by catch B. 18 wire. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. --Model Engineer. copper. lead. Before silver plating. of clothesline rope and some No. with water. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. With an electric pressure of 3. To provide the keyhole. thick by 3 in. I. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. Fig. piece of broomstick. as at F. Repeat six times. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. 1). the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. The wooden block C. Fig. and the larger part (F. use 2 volts for large articles. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. 3) strikes the bent wire L. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. A 1/4 in. 1 in. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. light strokes. Then. an old electric bell or buzzer. Having finished washing the precipitate. 3) directly over the hole. a hand scratch brush is good. when the point of the key touches the tin. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. as shown in Fig. square. silver can be plated direct. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. B should be of the same wood. Take quick. 1 not only unlocks. will serve for the key. saw a piece of wood. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. hole in its center. must be about 1 in. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. if one does not possess a buffing machine. 3.5 to 4 volts. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. also.up to 2 qt.

Klipstein. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. The interior must be a dead black. some black cloth. heighten the illusion. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. He removes the bowl from the black box. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. top. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. is the cut through which the rope runs. and a slit.. the box should be painted black both inside and out. The magician stands in front of this. cut in one side. H. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. Next. Fig. between the parlor and the room back of it. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. with the lights turned low. which unlocks the door. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. Fig. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. One end is removed. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. One thing changes to another and back again. Next. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. shows catch B. H. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. and hands its contents round to the audience. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. Heavy metal objects. Receiving the bowl again. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. --Contributed by E. On either side of the box. half way from open end to closed end. no painting inside is required. although a little more trouble. one-third of the length from the remaining end. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. The box must be altered first. and plenty of candles. and finally lined inside with black cloth. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). the illumination in front must be arranged. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. Fig. so much the better. enlarged. the requisites are a large soap box. To prepare such a magic cave. floor. surrounding a perfectly black space. 3.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. 1. 1. 116 Prospect St. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. with a switch as in Fig. he points with one finger to the box. and black art reigns supreme. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. he tosses it into the cave. should be cut a hole. to throw the light toward the audience. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. sides and end. New Jersey. East Orange. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. B. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. 0. In front of you. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. . but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. H. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. 2. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. a few simple tools. spoons and jackknives. 2. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. or cave. some black paint. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. Thus. Fig. such as forks. in his shirt sleeves. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. Objects appear and disappear.

The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. which can be made to dance either by strings. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. had a big stage. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. The audience room should have only low lights. if. the room where the cave is should be dark. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. The exhibitor should be . There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. But illusions suggest themselves. which are let down through the slit in the top. of course. you must have an assistant. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. his confederate behind inserts his hand. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. Consequently. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. in which are oranges and apples. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. of course. is on a table) so much the better. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear.Finally. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. and pours them from the bag into a dish. into the eyes of him who looks. was identical with this. The illusion. and several black drop curtains. only he. one on each side of the box. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. and if portieres are impossible. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. as presented by Hermann. a screen must be used. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm.

Then. c2. respectively. and a common screw. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery.. with three brass strips. A represents a pine board 4 in. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. held down by another disk F (Fig.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. Fig. and c1 – electricity. if you turn handle K to the right. so arranged that. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. 1. making contact with them. b3. square. A. and c2 to the zinc. by means of two wood screws. b3. terminal c3 will show +. making contact with them as shown at y. Finally. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). 2. f2. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. b1. at L. respectively. c1. b2. their one end just slips under the strips b1. is shown in the diagram. 2). if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. by 4 in. On the disk G are two brass strips. FIG. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. when handle K is turned to one side. e1 and e2. and c4 + electricity. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. as shown in Fig.a boy who can talk. b2. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. About the center piece H moves a disk. 2. c4. or b2. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. d. c3. vice versa. respectively. or binding posts. terminal c3 will show . held down on disk F by two other terminals. 1. held down on it by two terminals.

from five batteries. . when on No. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. 5.. E. jump spark coil. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. --Contributed by Eugene F. when on No. Jr. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). and C and C1 are binding posts. -Contributed by A. thus making the message audible in the receiver. from three batteries.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. you have the current of one battery. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. from four batteries. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . Newark. Ohio. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 1. Joerin. When switch B is closed and A is on No. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. and when on No. when A is on No. B is a onepoint switch. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. 4. Tuttle. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. 3.

as shown in the sketch. E. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. La. A.. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. Handy Electric Alarm . rule. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. B. is the device of H. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. The device thus arranged. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. A. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. traveled by the thread. Wis. Thus. over the bent portion of the rule. When you do not have a graduate at hand. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. which may be a button or other small object. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. and supporting the small weight. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. per second. per second for each second. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. New Orleans. so one can see the time. P. and placed on the windowsill of the car. of Burlington. mark. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. A. mark. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. Redmond.

S. Crafton. B. Pa. soldered to the alarm winder. wrapping the wire around the can several times. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Instead. for a wetting is the inevitable result. but may be closed at F any time desired. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. --Contributed by Gordon T. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. Then if a mishap comes. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. which illuminates the face of the clock. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. Lane. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. --C. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. . When the alarm goes off. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. C. and with the same result. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone.which has a piece of metal.

which in turn support the mold while it is being made. as shown in Fig. but it is a mistake to try to do this. If there is no foundry Fig. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. AA. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. It is possible to make molds without a bench. BE. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. when it is being prepared. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. and duplicates of all these. whence it is soon tracked into the house. small machinery parts. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. which may. C. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. engines. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. binding posts. New York City. battery zincs. as the sand is sure to get on the floor.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. 1. A. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. --Contributed by A. as shown. Two cleats. Macey. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. cannons. 1 . The first thing to make is a molding bench.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . models and miniature objects. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. and many other interesting and useful articles. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. L. bearings. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. With the easily made devices about to be described. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. ornaments of various kinds.

F. as shown. is nailed to each end of the cope.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. and this. is filled with coal dust. makes a very good sieve. J. high. CC. a little larger than the outside of the flask. is made of wood. and saw it in half longitudinally." or upper half. by 6 in. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. which should be nailed in. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. The rammer.How to Make a Mold [96] . as shown. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. which can be made of a knitted stocking. E. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. by 8 in. DD. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. The cloth bag. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. 2 . For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. previous to sawing. 2." or lower part. say 12 in. The flask. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. A slight shake of the bag Fig. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. and the lower pieces. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. 1. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. is shown more clearly in Fig. A wedge-shaped piece. is about the right mesh. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. which can be either aluminum. CC. H. Fig. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. Fig. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. and the "drag. If desired the sieve may be homemade. but this operation will be described more fully later on. D. and a sieve. An old teaspoon. G. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. If the box is not very strong. A A. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. The dowels. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. white metal. will be required. try using sand from other sources. II . are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. the "cope. It is made of wood and is in two halves. 1.near at hand. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose.

or "cope. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. and by grasping with both hands. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. as it is much easier to learn by observation. and then more sand is added until Fig. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. where they can watch the molders at work. and scatter about 1/16 in. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. as shown at D. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. turn the drag other side up. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. Place another cover board on top. or "drag. as described. and thus judge for himself. in order to remove the lumps. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. After ramming. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. the surface of the sand at . It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. In finishing the ramming. as shown. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. and if water is added. The sand is then ready for molding. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. It is then rammed again as before. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask." in position. as shown at E. as shown at C.

as shown at G. and then pour. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. thus holding the crucible securely. thus making a dirty casting. wide and about 1/4 in. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. as shown at F. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. After drawing the pattern. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. after being poured. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. Fig.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. . as shown at J. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. This is done with a spoon. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. is next cut. it shows that the sand is too wet. as shown at H. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. III. in diameter. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. deep. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. as shown in the sketch. place the cope back on the drag. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. made out of steel rod. as shown at H." or pouring-hole. Place a brick or other flat. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. in order to prevent overheating. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. The "sprue. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod.E should be covered with coal-dust. to give the air a chance to escape. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted.

A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. Although the effect in the illustration . --Contributed by Harold S. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. or from any adjacent pair of cells. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. In my own case I used four batteries. babbitt. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. If a good furnace is available. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. white metal and other scrap available. Minneapolis. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. and. Morton. used only for zinc.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. battery zincs. Referring to the figure. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. although somewhat expensive. but any reasonable number may be used. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. is very desirable. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. may be used in either direction. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. 15% lead. and the casting is then ready for finishing. the following device will be found most convenient. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize.

wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. Then replace the table. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. By replacing the oars with paddles. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. Then walk down among the audience. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. Chicago. connected by cords to the rudder. If desired. Put a sharp needle point. backward. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. Make one of these pieces for each arm. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. may be made of hardwood. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. Fig. 2. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . as shown at A. B. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. which will be sufficient to hold it. shaft made. --Contributed by Draughtsman. The bearings. The brass rings also appear distorted. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. A. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. 3/4 in. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. outward. To make it take a sheet-iron band. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. B. as shown in the illustration.

The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. being simply finely divided ice. 1. should be made of wood. E. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. spoiling its appearance. If babbitt is used. The hubs. as shown in Fig. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. 1. In the same way. W. when it will again return to its original state. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. 2 and 3. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. D. but when in motion. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. A. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. If galvanized iron is used. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. and a weight. 2. It may seem strange that ice . C. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. or under pressure. as shown in Fig. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. A block of ice. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. Snow. 3. Fig. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. The covers. or the paint will come off.melted babbitt. 1.

but. in. sometimes only one or two feet a day. --Contributed by Gordon T.. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. Crafton. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. B. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. by 5 in. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. by 1/2 in. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself.should flow like water. Pressing either push button. square. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. which resembles ice in this respect. but by placing it between books. it will gradually change from the original shape A. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. Pa. thus giving a high resistance contact. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . The rate of flow is often very slow. and assume the shape shown at B. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. brass. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. as shown on page 65. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. Lane. by 1/4. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. by 2 in. no matter how slow the motion may be. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. or supporting it in some similar way. whenever there is any connection made at all. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. P. as per sketch. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown.

about the size used for automobiles. E. weight. vertical lever. the induction coil. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. K . but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. Indianapolis. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. cord. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. The parts are: A. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. The success depends upon a slow current. alarm clock. furnace. G. B. --Contributed by A. Wilkinsburg. draft chain. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. A is the circuit breaker. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. wooden supports.000 ft. as shown. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. I. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. F. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. as shown. H. D. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. and C. In the wiring diagram. horizontal lever. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit.thumb screws. J. the battery. pulleys. Ward. B. and five dry batteries. C. G. draft. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. Pa.

3. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. where house plants are kept in the home. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . 2 are dressed to the right angle. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. Kalamazoo. such as used for a storm window. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. will fit nicely in them. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. Artistic Window Boxes The top. Mich. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. which will provide a fine place for the plants. The frame (Fig. as well as the bottom. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. material framed together as shown in Fig.

--Contributed by Wm. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. This is more economical than dry cells. 1 each complete with base. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it.. Thus. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. i. and the instrument will then be complete. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. and a suitable source of power. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. The 1/2-cp. for some time very satisfactorily.. S. e. However. by connecting them in series. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. as if drawn upon for its total output. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. Push the needle into the cork.. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. W. one can regulate the batteries as required. and will give the . If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. after a rest. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. However. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. can be connected up in series. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. A certain number of these. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. in diameter. and cost 27 cents FIG. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. multiples of series of three. is something that will interest the average American boy.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. in this connection. which sells for 25 cents. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. where they are glad to have them taken away. this must be done with very great caution. 1 cp. N. Canada. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. in any system of lamps. so as to increase the current. but maintain the voltage constant. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. Halifax. since a battery is the most popular source of power. as indicated by Fig. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. a cork and a needle. Grant. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. 1. It must be remembered.

3. If wound for 10 volts. lamp. Thus. 1-cp. 2 shows the scheme. 18 B & S. In conclusion. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. we simply turn on the water. especially those of low internal resistance. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. although the first cost is greater. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. double insulated wire wherever needed. Thus. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. if wound for 6 volts. to secure light by this method. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. and diffused light in a room. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. Chicago. and for Christmas trees. FIG. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. which is the same as that of one battery. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. lamps. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage.proper voltage. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. 11 series. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. Fig. as in Fig. where the water pressure is the greatest. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. making. according to the water pressure obtainable. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. So. by the proper combination of these. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. or 22 lights. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. However.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and then lead No. lamps. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp.. for display of show cases. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. generates the power for the lights. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. . This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. each. and running the series in parallel. These will give 3 cp. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series.

CC. or a tempting bone. To reverse the motor. and the sides. bars of pole-changing switch. simply change the switch. center points of switch. BB. are cut just alike. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. A. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. outside points of switch. After I connected up my induction coil. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. AA. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. brushes of motor. . and C. switch. as shown in the sketch. Santa Clara. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. a bait of meat.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. Plymouth. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. Parker. Ind. we were not bothered with them. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. thus reversing the machine. B. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. --Contributed by F. B. field of motor. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. A indicates the ground. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Emig. the letters indicate as follows: FF. DD. or from one pattern. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Cal. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. --Contributed by Leonard E.

Fry. Hutchinson. A. as it is the key to the lock. Cal. If it is not. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. merely push the button E. which is in the door. thus locking the door. attached to the end of the armature B. a hammer.. The experiment works best .Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. The button can be hidden. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. Melchior. one cell being sufficient. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. or would remain locked. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Minn. a piece of string. To unlock the door. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. When the circuit is broken a weight. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. 903 Vine St. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. -Contributed by Claude B. W. San Jose. and a table or bench.

attached at the other end. -. the key turns. --Contributed by Geo. . 2. releasing the weight. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Crawford Curry. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. A. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. in the ceiling and has a window weight. On another block of wood fasten two wires. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Porto Rico. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. C. Culebra..Contributed by F. 18 Gorham St. 4). 3. Madison. where it will remain suspended as shown. Brockville. Tie the ends of the string together. 3. Schmidt. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. I. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. as shown in Fig. P. forming a loop. the current flows with the small arrows. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Wis. which pulls the draft open. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. run through a pulley. Canada. D. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Ontario. 1).An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. W. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. the stick falls away.

D. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. S. 6 in. square and 1 in. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. and the other to the battery. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. thick. and break the corners off to make them round. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. running one direct to the receiver. First. R. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn.. and then to the receiver. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. Farley.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and . or from a bed of flowers. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. which fasten to the horn. Connect two wires to the transmitter. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. N. J. J. or tree. Jr. made with his own hands. thence to a switch. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. --Contributed by Wm. The cut shows the arrangement. get two pieces of plate glass. including the mouthpiece. Use a barrel to work on. Camden.

2. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. and label. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. When dry. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. of water. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. L. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. A. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding.. with 1/4-in. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. with pitch. the coarse grinding must be continued. also rotate the glass. Fasten. 2. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. Then warm and press again with the speculum. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. wet till soft like paint. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. then take 2 lb.. set the speculum against the wall. 1. In a dark room. and the under glass or tool convex. When polishing the speculum. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. as in Fig. so the light . When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. in length. or it will not polish evenly. melt 1 lb. When done the glass should be semitransparent. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. wide around the convex glass or tool. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. wetting it to the consistency of cream. using straight strokes 2 in. Use a binger to spread it on with. Have ready six large dishes. unless a longer focal length is wanted. Fig. and spread on the glass. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. Fig. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. spaces. it should be tested with the knife-edge test.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. and is ready for polishing. twice the focal length away. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. then 8 minutes. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. while walking around the barrel. a round 4-in. or less. by the side of the lamp. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. and a large lamp. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. flour emery and mix in 12 qt.

with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. deep. When dry. also how the rays R from a star ... stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Place the speculum.100 gr. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. With pitch.. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Fig.. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. with distilled water. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. The knife should not be more than 6 in. cement a strip of board 8 in..Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass.……………………………. 2. Solution D: Sugar loaf . 2. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. 39 gr. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency.. If not.………………………………. as in K. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). Alcohol (Pure) …………….. 100 gr. or hills. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. that was set aside. The polishing and testing done. fill the dish with distilled water. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. the speculum is ready to be silvered. Fig. longer strokes. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Nitric acid . if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole.……………. must be procured. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. 4 oz. if a hill in the center.. Now add enough of the solution A. 4 oz. touched with rouge. Then add solution B. face down. the speculum will show some dark rings. When the focus is found. long to the back of the speculum.. Silver nitrate ……………………………. Then add 1 oz. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. from the lamp. 840 gr. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. Fig. then ammonia until bath is clear. Place the speculum S. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water …………………………….. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. and pour the rest into the empty dish. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. 25 gr. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.

with an outlay of only a few dollars. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. stop down well after focusing. which proves to be easy of execution. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. Make the tube I of sheet iron. and proceed as for any picture. telescope can be made at home. using strawboard and black paper. deg. My telescope is 64 in. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Thus an excellent 6-in. two glass prisms. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. long and cost me just $15. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration.John E. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. slightly wider than the lens mount. Place over lens. . cover with paper and cloth. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber.. is a satisfactory angle. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Mellish. Then I made the one described. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. About 20. The flatter they are the less they will distort.

complete the arrangement. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. The rays of the clear. then add a little sulphate of potash.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. unobstructed light strike the mirror. 2. Ill. through the lens of the camera and on the board. Do not stir it. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. -Contributed by A. A. Zimmerman. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. push the button D. as shown in Fig. and reflect through the negative. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. Fig. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. D. Boody. 1. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. B. but will not preserve its hardening. says the Master Painter. To unlock. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. or powdered alum. . Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. instead of the contrary. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. The paper is exposed. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. add the plaster gradually to the water. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster.

This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. 2. 1). throw . so that it can rotate about these points. as in Fig. use a string.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. 3. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. 2. Fasten on the switch lever. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Fig. also provide them with a handle. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. but will remain suspended without any visible support. as at A and B. To reverse. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. as shown in the sketch. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Then blow through the spool. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig.

Levy. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. A is the electricbell magnet. Tex. Push one end of the tire into the hole. binding posts. San Antonio. and rub dry with linen cloth. Neb. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. --Contributed by R.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. --Contributed by Geo. In the sketch. wash in running water. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. carbon sockets. and E E. San Marcos. carbons. Go McVicker. D. C C. L. . B. -Contributed by Morris L. the armature. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Take out. although this is not necessary. as shown in the sketch. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Thomas. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. rinse in alcohol. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Tex. North Bend. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar.

All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Joseph B. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. long or more. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. 36 magnet wire. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Brooklyn. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Bell.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 16 magnet wire. 14 or No. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. By means of two or more layers of No. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. wound evenly about this core.

16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. then the strip of tin-foil. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. but if it is not convenient to do this work. When cut and laid in one continuous length. wide. in length. and finally the fourth strip of paper. the entire core may be purchased readymade. in diameter. which is desirable. 2 yd. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. about 6 in. diameter. In shaping the condenser. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. long and 2-5/8 in. or 8 in. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. long and 5 in. one piece of the paper is laid down. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. which is an important factor of the coil. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. The primary is made of fine annealed No. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. hole is bored in the center of one end. as shown in Fig. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. Beginning half an inch from one end. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. No. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. The following method of completing a 1-in. and the results are often unsatisfactory. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound.which would be better to buy ready-made. at a time. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. After the core wires are bundled. 4. coil illustrates the general details of the work. A 7/8-in. as the maker prefers. 1. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. The condenser is next wrapped . making two layers. a box like that shown in Fig. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. This makes a condenser which may be folded. with room also for a small condenser. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious.

To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. go. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. G. ready for assembling. the letters indicate as follows: A. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. C. 3. V-shaped copper strip. one from bell. round so that the inside . This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. switch.. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. bell. E. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. D. flange turned on one side. 4 in. and the other sheet. A. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. long to key. lines H. Fig. which allows wiring at the back. copper lever with 1-in. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. by 12 in. wide. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter.) The wiring diagram. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring.securely with bands of paper or tape. B. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. F. shows how the connections are made. B. shelf for clock. to the door. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. The alarm key will turn and drop down. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. long and 12 in. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. spark. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. which is insulated from the first. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. I. whole length. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. forms the other pole or terminal. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. open switch C. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. and one from battery. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. battery . and the apparatus may be put up where one likes.

Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. . do not shortcircuit. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. and the battery is ready for use. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. from the bottom.. and then rivet the seam. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. 2 in. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. of blue stone. That is what they are for. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. The circuit should also have a high resistance. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. If desired for use immediately. Use a glass or metal shade. of zinc sulphate. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. This is for blowing.diameter is 7 in. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. Line the furnace. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. but add 5 or 6 oz. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. London. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Short-circuit for three hours. instead of close to it. says the Model Engineer. but with the circuit. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole.

below the bottom of the zinc. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. and then. Ohio. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. square and about 9 in. Outside of the scientific side involved. oxygen to ozone. 1. or think they can do the same let them try it. affects . herein I describe a much better trick. the second finger along the side. changes white phosphorus to yellow. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. long. g. porcelain and paper. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. 2." which created much merriment. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. Enlarge the hole slightly. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. thus producing two different vibrations. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. If too low. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. grip the stick firmly in one hand. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. while for others it will not revolve at all. If any or your audience presume to dispute. for some it will turn one way. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. To operate the trick. Try it and see. but the thing would not move at all. and therein is the trick. as in the other movement. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right.. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches.9 of a volt. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. for others the opposite way. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. This type of battery will give about 0. imparting to them a violet tinge. At least it is amusing. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make.

there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. if possible. however. but this is less satisfactory.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. earth. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. chemicals. says the Photographic Times. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. To the front board is attached a box. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. a means for holding it vertical. and. and one of them is photomicrography. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. but small flowers. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . insects. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. but not essential. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. a short-focus lens. an old tripod screw. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus.

and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 12 ft. 113 7 lb. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 268 17 lb. 8 ft. balloon.--Contributed by George C. while it is not so with the quill. Divide one-quarter of the circle . or 31 ft. long and 3 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. Mass. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. wide from which to cut a pattern. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 11 ft. 7-1/2 in. or 3 ft. 1. Madison. 381 24 lb. 697 44 lb. 5 in. 7-1/2 in. 5 ft. Ft Lifting Power. in diameter. 905 57 lb. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. and a line. 65 4 lb. Cap. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. A line. in Cu. Fig. Boston. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. If the balloon is 10 ft. 6 ft. AB. 7 ft. 9 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. CD. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 179 11 lb. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 10 ft 523 33 lb. The following table will give the size. which is 15 ft.

The cloth segments are sewed together. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. keeping the marked part on the outside. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. using a fine needle and No. on the curved line from B to C. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. 2. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Procure 1 gal. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. of the very best heavy body. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. 4. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. 70 thread. Repeat this operation four times. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. of beeswax and boil well together. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. making a double seam as shown in Fig. 3. and so on. The pattern is now cut. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid.

When the clock has dried. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. In the barrel. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. ft. A. pipe. About 15 lb. ]. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. above the level of the water in barrel A. After washing a part. with the iron borings. with 3/4in. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. if it is good it will dry off. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. Water 1 oz.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. with water 2 in. should not enter into the water over 8 in. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. of sulphuric acid. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water.ft. but if any grease remains on the hand. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. leaving the hand quite clean. of gas in one hour. or dusting with a dry brush. The outlet. until no more dirt is seen. to the bag. . B. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. capacity and connect them. it is not fit to use. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. or a fan. 5 . C. a clean white rag. which may sound rather absurd. of iron borings and 125 lb. B. B. Vegetable oils should never be used. oil the spindle holes carefully. The 3/4-in. by fixing. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. 5. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action.. C. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. as shown in Fig. this should be repeated frequently. balloon are 125 lb. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. A.Green Iron ammonium citrate . of iron. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. . 150 gr. All FIG. using a fine brush. Fill the other barrel. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. A. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. 1 lb. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. of water will make 4 cu. 1 lb. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand.

of any make. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. 20 to 30 minutes. toning first if desired. says the Moving Picture World. and a vigorous negative must be used. fix in hypo. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. The negative pole. or battery. or carbon.Water 1 oz. keeping the fingers out of the solution. and keep in the dark until used. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. This aerial collector can be made in . Exposure. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. to avoid blackened skin. dry atmosphere will give best results. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Dry the plates in the dark. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. . This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. at the time of employment. Port Melbourne. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp.. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E.000 ft. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. The miniature 16 cp. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Dry in the dark. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. . A cold. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. The positive pole. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Printing is done in the sun. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. or zinc. A longer exposure will be necessary.

By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. forming a cup of the pipe. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. long. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. If the waves strike across the needle. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. lay a needle. If the wave ceases. both positive and negative. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. As the telephone offers a high resistance. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. holes . the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. and as less current will flow the short way. making a ground with one wire. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. and have the other connected with another aerial line. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. will soon become dry and useless. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. 5 in. the resistance is less. which will cause the clickings that can be heard.various ways. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. This will complete the receiving station. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. in diameter. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. a positive and a negative. The storage cell. when left exposed to the air. lead pipe. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. as described below.

A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. and the other to the negative. by soldering the joint. a round one. says the Pathfinder. This. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. one to the positive. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. D. except for about 1 in. Two binding-posts should be attached. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. B. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. does not need to be watertight. of course. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. an oblong one and a triangular one. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . When mixing the acid and water.as possible. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. or tube B. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. namely: a square hole. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. or tube C. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. on each end. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. This support or block. The other plate is connected to the zinc. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. This box can be square.

as shown in Fig. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. back and under. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. about 20 in. wide. thick cut two pieces alike. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. Chicago.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. leaving about 1/16 in. A and B. 2. in place on the wood. 3. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. 1. Only galvanized nails should be used. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. The third piece of brass. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. Ill. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. long. as it is not readily overturned. C. all around the edge. 1. were fitted by this one plug. as shown in Fig. and has plenty of good seating capacity. This punt. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. and match them together. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. C. wide. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. 2. is built 15 ft. deep and 4 ft. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. .

The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Wash. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. gas pipe. In Fig. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. A. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. is cut 1 in. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. A piece of 1/4-in. B. thick and 3-1/2 in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. square (Fig 2).Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Tacoma. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] .

It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. if possible." has no connection with the outside circuit. In designing. no special materials could be obtained. without auxiliary phase. it had to be borne in mind that. The winding of the armature. which can be developed in the usual manner. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of .The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor.--Contributed by Charles H. which the writer has made. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. may be of interest to some of our readers. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. Wagner. no more current than a 16-cp. lamp. says the Model Engineer. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. with the exception of insulated wire. or "rotor. and to consume. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. H.

this little machine is not self-starting. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. bolts put in and tightened up. 4. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. or "stator. The stator is wound full with No.the field-magnet. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. being used. thick. B. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. wrought iron. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. 5. After assembling a second time. and filled with rivets. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. about 2-1/2 lb." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. no steel being obtainable. to be filed out after they are placed together. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. Unfortunately. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. holes. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. as shown in Fig. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. were then drilled and 1/4-in. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. 2. 3. 1. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. They are not particularly accurate as it is. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. also varnished before they were put in. C. with the dotted line. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. while the beginnings . and all sparking is avoided. A. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. Holes 5-32 in. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. in diameter were drilled in the corners. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. as shown in Fig. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is.

film to film. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. The rotor is wound with No. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. 1. If too late for alcohol to be of use. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. as a means of illustrating songs. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. Newark. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. and would not easily get out of order. having no commutator or brushes. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. J. a regulating resistance is not needed. Jr. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. 2. One is by contact. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. E. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. In making slides by contact. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. and all wound in the same direction. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. McKinney. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. and as each layer of wire was wound. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. and as the motor runs at constant speed. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. exactly the same as a print is made on paper.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. and the other by reduction in the camera. N. as shown in Fig. This type of motor has drawbacks. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. as before stated. if applied immediately. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. and especially of colored ones. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. 3-Contributed by C. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. The image should . All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. No starting resistance is needed. it would be very simple to build. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion.. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. The lantern slide is a glass plate. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides.

It is best. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. 1. B. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. If the exposure has been correct. and then a plain glass. about a minute. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. 4. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. if possible. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. Being unbreakable. they are much used by travelers. as shown in Fig. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. and development should be over in three or four minutes. 3. Fig. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. Select a room with one window. Draw lines with a pencil. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. except that the binding is different. a little extra work will be necessary. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . as shown in Fig. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. 5. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. These can be purchased from any photo material store. C. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. D. to use a plain fixing bath. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. the formulas being found in each package of plates. 2. also. over the mat.appear in. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. A. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush.

Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . Vt. as shown in Fig.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. 1. 1. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. or other stout cloth. from the center of this dot draw a star. while the dot will be in front of the other. holes bored in the end pieces. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. A piece of canvas. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. 2. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. long. is to be used for the seat. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. as shown at A. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. known as rods and cones. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. wide and 50 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. If the star is in front of the left eye. in diameter and 20 in. long. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. Fig. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Corinth. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. 16 in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. Hastings. These longer pieces can be made square. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. from the ends. in diameter and 40 in. from the end piece of the chair. Fig. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. long. as shown at B.

A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. J. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. Cal. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. 2. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. .-Contributed by P. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. as shown in Fig. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. A disk 1 in. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. made from an ordinary sash cord. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. 1. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. per square inch. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A belt. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. Auburn. O'Gara. in thickness and 10 in. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. as well as to operate other household machines. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. as shown in Fig.

The part of a rotation of the bolt. leaving it shaped like a bench. wide. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. screwing it through the nut. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. long. Cut out a piece from the block combination. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. square for a support. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. then removing the object. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. divided by the number of threads to the inch. will be the thickness of the object. to the top of the bench. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Put the bolt in the hole. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and the construction is complete. Bore a 1/4-in. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. with as fine a thread as possible. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. fairly accurate. it serves a very useful purpose. thick and 2-1/2 in. says the Scientific American. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. 3/4 in. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. or inconvenient to measure. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. . A simple.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. direction. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument.

the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. beyond the end of the wood. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. which show up fine at night. Santa Maria. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Oal. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. piece of wood 12 ft. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. long is used for the center pole. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. The wheel should be open . This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Place a 3/4-in. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. bolt in each hole. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Bore a 3/4-in. globe that has been thrown away as useless. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. long. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. material 12 ft. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in.

-Contributed by A. The coil. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. square and 3 or 4 in. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. long. from the ends. A cross bar. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. at the top and 4 in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. C. long. L. which should be 1/4 in. B. A. 1/2 in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. thick. H and J. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. and on its lower end a socket. from the top end. long. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. Graham. to be operated by the magnet coil. The boards may be nailed or bolted. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. in diameter. C. made of the same material. thick. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. at the bottom. and the lower part 61/2 in. pieces used for the spokes. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. The spool . long with the upper or wider part 4 in. wide and 1/8 in. P. Fort Worth. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. A piece of brass 2 in. of the ends with boards. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. O. long. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. thick is used for the armature. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. Tex. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings.Side and Top View or have spokes. is soldered. wide and 1/8 in. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole.

2. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. or a water rheostat heretofore described. then with a firm. R. long. D and E. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. At the bottom end of the frame. The armature. making a hole just a little larger than the rod.000 for irrigation work. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. This tie can be used on grain sacks. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post.E. B. This is a very neat trick if performed right. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. and place it against a door or window casing. S. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. Randolph. Mass. When you slide the pencil along the casing. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. A. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25.is about 2-1/2 in. and directly centering the holes H and J. F. for insulating the brass ferrule. one without either rubber or metal end. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. and in numerous other like instances. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. is drilled. 1. A soft piece of iron.000. by soldering. Bradlev.J. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. . How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. do it without any apparent effort. which may be had by using German silver wire.--A. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. --Contributed by Arthur D. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. 2 the hat hanging on it. that holds the lower carbon. S. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. C.

apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. Fig. The vibrator. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. about 1/8 in. The switch. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. C. hole in the center. for the primary. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. S. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. and then 1. is connected to a flash lamp battery. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. 2. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. Experiment with Heat [134] . The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. long and 1 in. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. The core of the coil. S.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. long. in diameter. About 70 turns of No. in diameter. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. in diameter and 1/16 in. D. A. F. Fig. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. mixed with water to form a paste. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. for adjustment. The coil ends are made from cardboard. is constructed in the usual manner. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. thick.500 turns of No. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. from the core and directly opposite. for the secondary. may be made from a 3/8-in. about 3/16 in. The vibrator B. B. 1. in diameter and 2 in. wide. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. about 1 in. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. with a 3/16-in. 1. leaving the projections as shown. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in.

and then well clinched. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. 1. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. which is only 3/8-in. in an ordinary water glass. The three screws were then put in the hasp. with which to operate the dial. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. as shown. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. and the same distance inside of the new board. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. 2 to fit the two holes. The tin is 4 in. as shown in the sketch. 1. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. . therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. The lock. between the boards. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. lighted. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. long and when placed over the board. thick on the inside. brass plate. which seemed to be insufficient. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. which is cut with two holes. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. it laps down about 8 in. was to be secured by only three brass screws. The hasp. wide. The knob on the dial extends out too far. 16 in. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. Fig. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin.Place a small piece of paper. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. board. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position.

The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. high for use in window displays. but when the front part is illuminated. which completely divides the box into two parts. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. square and 8-1/2 in. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. or in the larger size mentioned. When making of wood. If the box is made large enough. square and 10-1/2 in. one in each division. the glass. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. black color. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. When the rear part is illuminated. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. and the back left dark. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. clear glass as shown. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. any article placed therein will be reflected in. not shiny.

alternately. When using as a window display. a tank 2 ft. and with the proper illumination one is changed. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. as it appears. into the other. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. .Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. as shown at A in the sketch. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. wide will be about the right size. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. long and 1 ft. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. above the top of the tank. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly.. as shown in the sketch. When there is no electric current available. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

from the ground. The 13-in. wide. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. high. If a planing mill is near. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. using a 3/4-in. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. hole. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. This hole must be continued . radius. but with a length of 12 in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. and 6 ft. Columbus. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. The pieces can then be taken out. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. is built on the front. dried and mixed with linseed oil. under sides together. A small platform. 5 ft. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. long. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. and boring two holes with a 1-in. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. each. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. 1 in. one for each side. bit. O. 6 in. with a length of 13 in. is the green vitriol. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. wide. and a door in front. and a solution of iron sulphate added. This precipitate is then washed. two pieces 1-1/8 in. thick and 3 in. as shown. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. 2 ft. square and 40 in. or ferrous sulphate. Shape the under sides first. Three windows are provided. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. square. then use a red-hot iron to finish. gauge for depth. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. bore from each end. hole bored the full length through the center. lines gauged on each side of each. however. long. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. Iron sulphate. from either end and in the crack between the pieces.

A better way. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. If the parts are to be riveted. thick and 3 in. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Electric globes--two. square and drawing a diagonal on each. For art-glass the metal panels are . Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. if shade is purchased.through the pieces forming the base. apply two coats of wax. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. three or four may be attached as shown. hole in each block. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. When the filler has hardened. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. The sketch shows one method of attaching. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. When this is dry. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Saw the two blocks apart. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain.

Construction of Shade . the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. such as copper. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.The Completed Lamp cut out. as brass. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. METAL SHADE .

It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . as in ordinary devices. the object and the background. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. the other. and Fig. one way and 1/2 in. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. as shown in the sketch. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. Figure 1 shows the side. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The arms holding the glass. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. 2 the front view of this stand. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder.

The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. about 1-1/4 in. thick 5/8-in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. as it is very poisonous. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. pointing north and south. as shown in the cut. wide and 11 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. wide and 6-5/16 in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Before mounting the ring on the base. thus forming a 1/4-in. in diameter for a base. Put the ring in place on the base. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. long. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. and swinging freely. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. outside diameter. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. uncork and recork again. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. If the light becomes dim. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. An ordinary pocket compass. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Cut another circular piece 11 in. in diameter. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. and an inside diameter of 9 in.

The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. EE. and mirrors. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. from the second to the third.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.182 . and north of the Ohio river. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. above the half can. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. into these cylinders. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. Place on top the so- . of the top. in diameter and 8 in.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. are mounted on a base. black oxide of copper.289 . but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.500 . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.865 1. B. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country.420 . AA. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.088 . black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. 1 oz.600 . Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. The results given should be multiplied by 1. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . Corresponding mirrors. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. CC.715 .

says Metal Worker. of pulverized campor. In Fig. Colo. Put the solution in a long. little crystals forming in the liquid. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. -Contributed by Robert Canfield.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. slender bottle. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. then they will not rust fast. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. 31 gr. alcohol. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. When renewing. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. University Park. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. which otherwise remains clear. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. 62 gr. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. always remove the oil with a siphon.

Lloyd Enos. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. about 1-1/4 in. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. on the under side of the cork. Solder in the side of the box . A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. --Contributed by C. If two of them are floating on the same solution. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. This is used in place of the spoon. If zinc and copper are used. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. If zinc and carbon are used. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. floating on a solution. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. will allow the magnet to point north and south. A paper-fastener box. Attach to the wires. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer.

glass tubing . A circular piece of cardboard. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. Put ends. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. The standard. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. hole. E. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. Bore holes for binding-posts. . long. and then solder on the cover. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. The bottom of the box. long. 1. wide and 6 in.in. D. or made with a little black paint. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. piece of 1/4-in. 10 wire about 10 in. C. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. B. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. A. and on the other around the glass tube. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. away.not shorter than 18 in. can be made of oak. of No. long that has about 1/4-in. Take a small piece of soft iron. 1-1/4 in. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. Use a board 1/2.in. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. G--No. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . Rhamstine. as shown in Fig. The base. Thos. of wire on each end extending from the coil. 3 in. is made from a piece of No. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. F.1-in. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. brass tubing. H. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. Wind evenly about 2 oz. D. The spring should be about 1 in. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. wide and 2-1/2 in. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. 14 wire will do. 1/2. C. A. If the hose is not a tight fit.Contributed by J. thick.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. stained and varnished. one on each side of the board. to it. C. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. To this standard solder the supporting wire. B. D. E. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft.

5. is drawn nearer to the coil. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. The iron plunger. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. 1. Y. long. of No. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. E. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. 3. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. About 1-1/2 lb. of mercury will be sufficient. Teasdale. about 1 in. long are used for the legs.--Contributed by R. Milwaukee. Wis. two pieces 2 ft. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. When the glass becomes soft. of 8-oz. Smith. in diameter. from the right hand. canvas. . 2. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. four hinges. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. 3 in. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. N. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. J. long.--Contributed by Edward M. 3-in.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. D. as shown in Fig. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested.of the coil. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. long. making a support as shown in Fig. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. long. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. long. Cuba. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges.

although nearly any size could be made in the same way. long. Toronto.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. thus leaving a. 6. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. small aperture in the long tube. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. --Contributed by David A. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. Can. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. 5. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . 3. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. Break off the piece of glass. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. Take 1/2 in. leaving 8 in. expelling all the air.. holding in the left hand. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. of vacuum at the top. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury.. 4. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Fig. Keys. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. The tube now must be filled completely. Measure 8 in. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. This tube as described will be 8 in. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. 2. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig.

Fig. 7. This forms a slot. as shown in Fig. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. wide and 3 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. wide and 5 ft. 1 in. joint be accurately put together. wide and 5 ft. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. as shown in Fig. 1. material 2 in. wide and 12 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. thick. thick. long. thick. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . and 1/4 in. 9 in. with each projection 3-in. FIG. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights.6 -. 3. 1 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. in diameter. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 2. The large pulley is about 14 in. long. 6. long. but yellow pine is the best. Four blocks 1/4 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. 5. as in Fig. wide and 5 ft. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. 3 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. long. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. These are bent and nailed.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. 4. thick. wood screws. thick. from the end of same. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. 3 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. 4 in.

--Contributed by C. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. above the runner level. R. . which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Manhattan. Welsh. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. says Photography. attach runners and use it on the ice. Water 1 oz. by 1-in. first removing the crank. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. leaving the greater part of the screw extending.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Kan. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr.

then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. --Contributed by Edward M. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. also. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. 1 oz. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Newton. 1. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. This is done with a camel's hair brush. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. as shown in Fig. . Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. of water. --Contributed by Wallace C. Treasdale. and very much cheaper. Mass. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. 3. Printing is carried rather far. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. The print is washed. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. from an ordinary clamp skate. as shown in Fig. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. 2. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Leominster.

1-1/2 ft. fasten a 2-in. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. too. from one end. high for rabbits. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Alexandria. 1. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. hole. 1 ft. high. and 3 ft. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. Church. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. Place a 10-in. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Then. causing the door to swing back and up. Take two glass tubes. square piece. with about 1/8-in.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. A. wide. --Contributed by H. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. as shown in the sketch. F. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. and to the bottom. Va. The swing door B. which represents the back side of the door. say. 1. 2. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. The thread is broken off at the . and bend them as shown in the sketch. long. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. Fig. Fig. about 10 in. wide and 4 in. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. extending the width of the box.

black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. -Contributed by William M. plates. long. camera and wish to use some 4. 1. This opening. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. in size. horses and dogs. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in.by 5-in. in size. but cut it 1/4 in. to be used as a driving pulley. Fig. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. 2. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. say 8 in. wide. Take two pieces of pasteboard. C. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. and go in the holder in the same way. black surfaced if possible. 1 in.proper place to make a small hole. B. Paste a piece of strong black paper. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. high and 12 in. Jr. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. . wide and 5 in. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. inside of the opening. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. D. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. Out two rectangular holes. automobiles. being 1/8 in. long. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Chicago. as shown in Fig. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. Cut an opening in the other piece. A and B.by 7-in.. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. and exactly 5 by 7 in. trolley cars. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. says Camera Craft. shorter at each end. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. 3. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Fig. wide. Crilly. shorter. 10 in.

in diameter. long and 6 in. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. The needle will then point north and south. making a . A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. if it has previously been magnetized.. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent.in. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. A cell of this kind can easily be made. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. wide will be required. into which the dog is harnessed. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about.

pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. in which P is the pan. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. fodder. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. of water. beeswax melted together. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. A is a block of l-in. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. under the spool in the paraffin. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. of the plate at one end. one that will hold about 1 qt. leaving about 1/2-in. and a notch between the base and the pan. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Place the pan on the stove. of the top. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. Form a 1/2-in. short time. F is a spool. Pack the paste in. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. zinc oxide. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. with narrow flanges. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. 1/4 lb. only the joints. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. fuel and packing purposes. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. B is a base of 1 in. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Secure three carbon rods 1/2.watertight receptacle. in diameter and 6 in. . Do not paint any surface. plaster of paris. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. 1 lb. This makes the wire smooth. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. sal ammoniac. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. says Electrician and Mechanic. for a connection.in. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. long which are copper plated. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. filter. 3/4 lb. when the paraffin is melted. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. of rosin and 2 oz. pull out the wire as needed. pine. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated.

so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. g. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. or think they can do the same. as in the other movement. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. for others the opposite way. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Try it and see. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. If any of your audience presume to dispute. and then. Ohio. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Toledo. grip the stick firmly in one hand. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and he finally. and one friend tells me that they were . but the thing would not move at all. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. thus producing two different vibrations. from vexation. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. for some it will turn one way. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. let them try it. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. At least it is amusing. square and about 9 in. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. while for others it will not revolve at all. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. long. 2." which created much merriment. by the Hindoos in India. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Enlarge the hole slightly. and therein is the trick. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Very few can make it turn both ways at will.. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body.

and I think the results may be of interest. p. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained.100 r. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. 3. The experiments were as follows: 1. the rotation may be obtained. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. Thus a circular or . one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. To operate. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. A square stick with notches on edge is best. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. 7. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. m. If the pressure was upon an edge. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. 4. 5. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. secondly. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. by means of a center punch. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. rotation was obtained. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. 6. and. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. gave the best results. Speeds between 700 and 1. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. 2. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. no rotation resulted.

Duluth. if the pressure is from the left." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Lloyd. or greasy. A. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Washington. at first. forming a handle for carrying. the upper portion is. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. A wire is tied around the can. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. --Contributed by M. Minn. unwetted by the liquid.D. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. Sloan. Ph. C. . --Contributed by G. G. as shown.. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. it will be clockwise. a piece of wire and a candle. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. D. and the resultant "basket splash. and the height of the fall about 6 in. is driven violently away. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward).elliptic motion is repeated for each notch.. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. 1. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. flange and a 1/4-in. thick and 1 in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. with a 1/16-in.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. about 2-5/8 in. Each wheel is 1/4 in. in diameter." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. as shown. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. as shown in Fig. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. long. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. axle. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. hole drilled in the center.

wood. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. which must be 110 volt alternating current. put together complete. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. 2. 3. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. 4. of No. and the locomotive is ready for running. The current. 1 from 1/4-in. is made from brass. are shown in Fig. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. The parts. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. lamp in series with the coil. 2. long. San Antonio. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. The first piece. 6. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. each in its proper place. as shown in Fig. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. --Contributed by Maurice E.brass. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame.50. holes 1 in. Fig. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. is made from a piece of clock spring. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. wide and 16 in. A trolley. Texas. The motor is now bolted. as shown in Fig. bottom side up. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. 3. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. bent as shown. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. This will save buying a track. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. Fuller. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . or main part of the frame. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. If the ends are to be soldered. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. Fig. 5. 3/4 in. with cardboard 3 in. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. These ends are fastened together.

--Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. 1. then continue to tighten much more. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. 2. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. but do not heat the center. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. and as this end . Fig. Fig 1. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. The quarter will not go all the way down. 3. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. as shown in Fig. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. the length of a paper clip. Cincinnati. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. When cold treat the other end in the same way. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. as shown in Fig. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. O. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. and holes drilled in them.

One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. or should the lathe head be raised. has finished a cut for a tooth.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. When the cutter A. or apparent security of the knot. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. and adjusted . one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. 2 and 1 respectively. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. A pair of centers are fitted. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. When the trick is to be performed. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. In the sketch.

) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. An ordinary machine will do. at the same time striking light. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. gentleman's card case or bill book. (2. note book. (6. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. book mark. trace the outline. or one-half of the design. Brooklyn. above the surface. --Contributed by Howard S. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. When connecting to batteries. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side.) Place the paper design on the leather and.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. such as brass or marble. (1. lady's card case. (4. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. Bott. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Fig. Second row: -Two book marks. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). and a nut pick. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. Y. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. long. In this manner gears 3 in. lady's belt bag. dividing it into as many parts as desired.) Make on paper the design wanted. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. holding it in place with the left hand. tea cosey. Fold over along these center lines. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. watch fob ready for fastenings. (5. The frame holding the mandrel. 2. (3. 1. swing lathe. Bunker. N. --Contributed by Samuel C. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. about 1-1/2 in. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. draw center lines across the required space. if four parts are to be alike.to run true. blotter back. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. coin purse. if but two parts. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . twisted around itself and soldered. tea cosey.

Secure . and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. Thrust a pin. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. C. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. Florida. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. B. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. from Key West. where it condenses.. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. If the needle is not horizontal. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. A. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. The electrodes are made . D. into which fit a small piece of tube. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. and bore a hole through the center.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. and push it through a cork.C. a distance of 900 miles. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. pull it through the cork to one side or the other.

long. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. long. 1. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. lumber cannot be procured. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. 1-1/2 in. thick. long for the body of the operator. If 20-ft. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. 2 arm sticks 1 in. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. both laterally and longitudinally.in. C. long. wide and 4 ft. long. as shown in Fig. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. several strips 1/2 in. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. 1/2. thick. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. The operator can then land safely and . free from knots. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. 3/4 in. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. wide and 3 ft. --Contributed by Edwin L. use 10-ft. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. take the glider to the top of a hill. 2. wide and 4 ft. Washington. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. wide and 4 ft long. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. and also to keep it steady in its flight. by 3/4 in. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. To make a glide. 1-1/4 in. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. apart and extend 1 ft. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. using a high resistance receiver. All wiring is done with No. long. wide and 20 ft. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. Connect as shown in the illustration. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. lengths and splice them. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 2 in. as shown in Fig. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. 3. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. Four long beams 3/4 in. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. thick. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. thick. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. square and 8 ft long. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. Powell. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. 2. slacken speed and settle. 1. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. 12 uprights 1/2 in. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. thick. which is tacked to the front edge. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. D. or flying-machine. as shown in Fig. 16 piano wire. 1. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. apart and connect with the 12 uprights.

the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Great care should be . The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. but this must be found by experience. Of course. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Glides are always made against the wind.gently on his feet.

Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. M. a creature of Greek mythology.exercised in making landings. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. which causes the dip in the line. half man and half horse. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Olson. 2. --Contributed by L. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. as shown in Fig. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. 1. When heated a little. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Bellingham.

the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. this will cost about 15 cents. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. will complete the material list. at the other. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. 14 in. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. of small rubber tubing. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. in diameter. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. square. making it 2-1/2 in. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. long and about 3/8 in. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. long. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. a piece of brass or steel wire.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. The light from the . Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. outside the box. about the size of door screen wire. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. about the size of stove pipe wire.

as shown in Fig. --Photo by M. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. 1. Dayton.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Hunting. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. O.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. M. as shown in the sketch. . while others will fail time after time. If done properly the card will flyaway. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. 2. This is very simple when you know how. as shown in Fig. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand.

as described. When the desired shape has been obtained. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. then put it on the hatpin head. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. hold the lump over the flame. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . as shown. This game is played by five persons. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. closing both hands quickly. as before. If a certain color is to be more prominent.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. place the other two. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm." or the Chinese students' favorite game. Cool in water and dry.

How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. distribute electric charges . A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. these sectors. or more in width. passing through neutralizing brushes. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator.

as shown in Fig. 4. long and the shank 4 in. D. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. 1. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. Two pieces of 1-in. The drive wheels. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. from about 1/4-in. EE. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. in diameter. The collectors are made. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. C C. long. Two solid glass rods. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. in diameter. in diameter and 15 in. RR. after they are mounted. The plates. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. These pins. Fig. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. free from wrinkles. wide. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. The plates are trued up. long. brass tubing and the discharging rods. turned wood pieces. 2. as shown in Fig. 1 in. in diameter. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. wide at one end. and of a uniform thickness. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. 3. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. in diameter. material 7 in. and the outer end 11/2 in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. The fork part is 6 in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. the side pieces being 24 in. in diameter. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. to which insulating handles . and this should be done before cutting the circle. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. Fig. are made from 7/8-in. are made from solid. and 4 in. GG. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. long and the standards 3 in. 1-1/2 in. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. or teeth. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. 3. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. The two pieces. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. and pins inserted and soldered. 3/4 in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. in diameter. at the other.

KK. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. Lloyd Enos. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. one having a 2-in.. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. long. D. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. in diameter. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. wide and 22 ft. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Colorado City. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. ball and the other one 3/4 in. and the work was done by themselves.are attached. --Contributed by C. 12 ft. Colo. which are bent as shown. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results.

fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. yet such a thing can be done. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. pens . The key will drop from the string. using a 1-in. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. deep. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. as at A. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. bit.is a good one. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. string together. They can be used to keep pins and needles. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. and bore a hole 1/2 in.

and the third one 1/4 in. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. about 3/4-in. or cigar ashes. Use . the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. etc. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. flat and round-nosed pliers. 6. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. slim screw. This is to make a clean. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Draw one-half the design free hand. 7. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil.. 3. 9. Proceed as follows: 1. 4. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. Having determined the size of the tray. stamp the background promiscuously. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. screw-driver and sheet copper of No.and pencils. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. very rapid progress can be made. 2. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. The second oblong was 3/4 in. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. unless it would be the metal shears. etc. two spikes. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. Raise the ends. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. 8. They are easily made. they make attractive little pieces to have about. inside the second on all. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Inside this oblong. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. extra metal on each of the four sides. then the other side. using a nail filed to chisel edge. file. When the stamping is completed. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. above the metal. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. 5. inside the first on all. 23 gauge. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. sharp division between background and design. also trace the decorative design. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked..

put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. second fingers. 8.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. third fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. The eyes. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 9. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. and fourth fingers. 7. 6. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. first fingers. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. 10. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . and the effect will be most pleasing. In the first numbering. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9.

Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. if we wish. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. Two times one are two. Put your thumbs together. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. In the second numbering. 400. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. or the product of 8 times 9. or numbers above 10. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. above 15 times 15 it is 200. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. . then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. the product of 12 times 12. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. which tens are added. At a glance you see four tens or 40. above 20 times 20. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. 12.. which would be 16. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. but being simple it saves time and trouble. thumbs. 2 times 2 equals 4. there are no fingers above. 11. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. 600. etc. first fingers. viz. or the product of 6 times 6.. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. which would be 70. and the six lower fingers as six tens. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. etc.. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. etc. renumber your fingers. or 80. as high as you want to go. Let us multiply 12 by 12. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. 25 times 25. Still. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. or 60.

At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. lastly. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. or what. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. as one might suppose. at the will of the observer. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. when he removes his spectacles. and so on. or from above or from below. first fingers 22. adding 400 instead of 100. not rotation. The inversion and reversion did not take place. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. For example. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. in the case of a nearsighted person. 3. For figures ending in 6. And the lump sum to add. 8. first finger 17. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. etc. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. the lump sum to add. 21. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. the inversion takes place against his will. Proceed as in the second lumbering.. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. forties. and. 7. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. the revolution seems to reverse. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. being 80). . such as an used for lighting gas-burners. however. thirties. any two figures between 45 and 55. beginning the thumbs with 16. It takes place also. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. the value which the upper fingers have. whether the one described in second or third numbering. 75 and 85.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. 2. about a vertical axis. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. Take For example 18 times 18. which is the half-way point between the two fives. thumbs. further. twenties. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200.

when he knows which direction is right. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. tee.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. sometimes the point towards him. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. as . The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. A flat slide valve was used. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The ports were not easy to make. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. and putting a cork on the point. Looking at it in semidarkness. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. the other appearance asserts itself. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance.

The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. If nothing better is at hand. secure a piece of No.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. While this engine does not give much power. . Kutscher. The eccentric is constructed of washers. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. it is easily built. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. pipe. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. if continued too long without proper treatment. -Contributed by W. across the head. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. inexpensive. Beating copper tends to harden it and. pipe 10 in. apart. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. bottom side up. Ill. Springfield. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. deep. in diameter. as in a vise. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. Next take a block of wood. Fasten the block solidly. such as is shown in the illustration. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. across and 1/2 in. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. about 2 in. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. The steam chest is round. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle.. saw off a section of a broom handle. The tools are simple and can be made easily. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. H. and make in one end a hollow. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft.

Vinegar. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. To produce color effects on copper. O. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. To overcome this hardness. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. the other to the left. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. Hay. as it softens the metal. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. C. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. --Contributed by W. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object.will cause the metal to break. S. and. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. Camden. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. especially when the object is near to the observer. This process is called annealing. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses.

having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. because of the rays coming from them. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. the one for the left eye being blue. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. the further from the card will the composite image appear. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. The red portions of the picture are not seen. and without any picture. because. although they pass through the screen. So with the stereograph." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. In order to make them appear before the card. the left eye sees through a blue screen. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. But they seem black.stereoscope. they must be a very trifle apart. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. . orange. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. in the proper choice of colors. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. only the orange rays may pass through. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. disappears fully. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. The further apart the pictures are. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. and lies to the right on the picture. would serve the same purpose. as for instance red and green. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. that for the right. it. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. not two mounted side by side. It is just as though they were not there. while both eyes together see a white background. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. diameter. from the stereograph. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. however. with the stereograph. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored.

Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. wireless. Place a NO. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The weight of the air in round . Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. in diameter. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. in the shape of a crank. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. A No. This should only be bored about half way through the block. long and a hole drilled in each end. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. etc. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. 1/4 in.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. thick. wide and 1 in. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. San Francisco. or the middle of the bottle. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. 12 gauge wire. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. Cal.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer.

In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. wide and 40 in. long. and a slow fall. pine 3 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. Before fastening the scale. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. wide and 4 in. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. Only redistilled mercury should be used. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. In general. high. 30 in. thick. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. a bottle 1 in. square. But if a standard barometer is not available. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. internal diameter and about 34 in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are.numbers is 15 lb. will calibrate itself. or a column of mercury (density 13. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. if you choose. . but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. high.. a glass tube 1/8 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. long. inside diameter and 2 in. high. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. The 4 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. the instrument. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. square. if accurately constructed. the contrary. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. 34 ft. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. but before attempting to put in the mercury. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury.6) 1 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. long. or.

wide and 10 in.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. the size of the outside of the bottle. 6 and 7. thick. Procure a metal can cover. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 5. 3. 1. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Number the pieces 1. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. long. which is slipped quickly over the end. and place them as shown in Fig. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. a cover from a baking powder can will do. 2. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . Mark out seven 1-in. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly.

as shown in Fig. 2's place. long and 2 ft. 3 into No. 3. To make such a tent. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 2 . This can be done on a checker board. 3. Move ll-Jump No.-Contributed by W. 6 over No. 5 over No. Move 2-Jump No. shaped like Fig. 2 over No. 6 into No. Move 12-Jump No. l over No. 6. 2's place. Move 7-Jump No. 5's place. 1 into No. 1. 5 over No. Move 6-Move No. Move 5-Jump No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 3. 7 over No. Move 9-Jump No. Move 3-Move No. N. procure unbleached tent duck.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Move 14-Jump No. using checkers for men. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 7's place. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places.J. Make 22 sections. 6 in. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 2. 5. each 10 ft. 1 to No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Move 10-Move No. 7 over No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 3 over No. L. Cape May Point. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 4-Jump No. which is the very best material for the purpose. 6. 2 over No. 1. 3 to the center. Woolson. 7. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Move 15-Move No. in diameter. 6 to No. Move 8-Jump No. 2. 5's place. Move 13-Move No.

2. in diameter. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. 2 in. made in two sections. wide at the bottom. Fig. 6-in. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. leaving the rest for an opening. high. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass.. Fig. long and 4 in. --Contributed by G. As shown in the sketch. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. fill with canvas edging. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Pa.in. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. about 9 in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. 5. Punch holes in the brass in . At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Have the tent pole 3 in. 3 in. from the top. 5) stuck in the ground. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. as in Fig. wide by 12 in. will do. to a smooth board of soft wood. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. After transferring the design to the brass. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Use blocks. In raising the tent. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper.J. Emsworth. 9 by 12 in. Tress. These are ventilators. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. wide at the bottom. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. diameter. 6. long. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. added. round galvanized iron.

. It will not. Corr. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The pattern is traced as before. bend into shape. excepting the 1/4-in. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. cut out the brass on the outside lines. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. but before punching the holes. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. When the edges are brought together by bending. Chicago. When all the holes are punched.the spaces around the outlined figures. apart. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. around the outside of the pattern. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores.

A cast-iron ring. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. pipe. better still. Mayger. --Contributed by Geo. Oregon. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. A 6-in. pipe is used for the hub. --Contributed by H. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke.however. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Stevens. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. Dunham. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. between which is placed the fruit jar. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. or center on which the frame swings. or. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. or less. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Que. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. partially filled with cream. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Badger.. allowing 2 ft. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. If a wheel is selected. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. These pipes are . G. E.

An extra wheel 18 in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe. bent to the desired circle. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe clamps. Four braces made from 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] .

The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. which was placed in an upright position. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. and the guide withdrawn. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. The performer. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. 3. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. as shown in Fig. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. and dropped on the table. 1. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. while doing this. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide.

The box can be made of selected oak or . 1. --Contributed by H. White. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. in diameter on another piece of tin. -Contributed by C. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. and second. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. F. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Denver. 2. Harkins. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Louis. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. St. Colo. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. in a half circle. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. first. Mo.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. D. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. it requires no expensive condensing lens.

wide and 6-1/2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. from each end. wide and 5 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. This will be 3/4 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. 5-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. high and must . Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. from each end of the outside of the box. long and should be placed vertically. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. fit into the runners. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. focal length. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. wide by 5 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. If a camera lens is used. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. Two or three holes about 1 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. high and 11 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. and 2 in. long. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. An open space 4 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. 3-1/2 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. long.mahogany. but not tight. wide. as shown in Fig. 2. and. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. AA. 1.

the article may be propped up . provided it is airtight. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. West Toledo. calling this February. and extending the whole height of the lantern. and so on. April. --Contributed by Chas.. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection." etc. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. 1. C. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. This process is rather a difficult one. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. Bradley. then the second knuckle will be March. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Ohio. as it requires an airtight case. calling that knuckle January. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. June and November. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached.

1 and 2. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. taking care to have all the edges closed. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. Schenectady. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. In each place two electrodes. The top of a table will do. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. Pour in a little turpentine. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. Crawford. and the lead 24 sq. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. Y. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. running small motors and lighting small lamps. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. N. In both Fig. or suspended by a string. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. 2. giving it an occasional stir. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt.with small sticks. fruit jars are required. the lid or cover closed. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. in. and set aside for half a day. but waxed. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. in. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. --Contributed by J. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. 1. H. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. one of lead and one of aluminum. . but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier.

are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. he throws the other. which you warm with your hands. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will .A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick.. as well as others. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. O. You have an understanding with some one in the company. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. as you have held it all the time. Cleveland. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. you remove the glass. This trick is very simple. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. After a few seconds' time. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. He. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. at the time of request for handkerchiefs.

and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. but by being careful at shores. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. but in making one. Victor.take the handiest one. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top.-Contributed by E. if any snags are encountered. put it under the glass. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Be sure that this is the right one. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. near a partition or curtain. Pull the ends quickly. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. on a table. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Crocker. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. J. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. . Colo. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. in diameter in the center.

Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. wide and 12 ft. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 1 in. 11 yd. 8 yd. 1 mast. and is removed after the ribs are in place. square by 16 ft. of 1-yd. 9 ft. 1/4 in. long. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. and the other 12 in. 1/8 in. ducking.. 1 piece. by 15 ft. is 14 ft. drilled and fastened with screws. of rope. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. long. and. 14 rib bands. 1 in. 3 in. clear pine. at the ends. screws and cleats. selected pine. 7 ft. 4 outwales. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. The keelson. 3 in. by 8 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 2 in. and fastened with screws. by 10 ft. long. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. long. wide.. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. by 16 ft. wide unbleached muslin. by 2 in. by 2 in. 2 gunwales. 1 in. wide and 12 ft. by 12 in. are as follows: 1 keelson. wide 12-oz. 1 in. as illustrated in the engraving. Both ends are mortised. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 50 ft. for cockpit frame. apart. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. for the bow. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. from each end to 1 in. one 6 in. for center deck braces. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 3 and 4. thick and 3/4 in. 2 and braced with an iron band. 1 piece. of 1-1/2-yd. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. for the stern piece. Fig. by 16 ft. from the stern. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 8 in. 1. from the bow and the large one. Paint. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops .

When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. apart. wide. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. screws. doubled. wide and 3 ft. and fastened to them with bolts. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. long is well soaked in water. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. is cut to fit under the top boards. wide and 14 in. The deck is not so hard to do. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. 6. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. thick. 3-1/2 ft. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. thick and 1/2 in. wide. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. 7 and 8. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. 1 in. They are 1 in. long. a piece 1/4 in. These are put in 6 in. A block of pine. long. 1 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. corner braces. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. The block is fastened to the keelson. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. 6 in. 4 in. Fig. A 6-in. long. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. gunwales and keelson. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. The 11-yd. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. thick 1-1/2 in. is a cube having sides 6 in. 6 and 7. A piece of oak. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. from the bow. . also. thick. in diameter through the block. 9. 5. thick and 12 in. wide and 24 in. Figs. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. Before making the deck. Fig. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. Braces. This block. length of canvas is cut in the center. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. A seam should be made along the center piece. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. The trimming is wood. 1/4 in. wood screws. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson.

at the other. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The house will accommodate 20 families. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. Fig. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. Ill. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. 10 with a movable handle. wide at one end and 12 in. long. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The mast has two side and one front stay. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The sail is a triangle. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. . Tronnes. wide. E. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. are used for the boom and gaff. in diameter and 10 ft. The keel. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. long. 12. Wilmette. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. A strip 1 in. apart in the muslin. each 1 in. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. 11. is 6 in. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. thick by 2 in.

flat headed screws. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. 3. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. one 11-1/2 in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. thick. 1 yd. as shown in Fig. and 3 ft. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. long. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. wide. flat on one side. thick. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. wide and 30 in. five 1/2-in. 4. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. Wilmette. long and five 1/2-in. long. Fig. 2-1/2 in. Take this and fold it over . long. Ill. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. 1. 5. 2 in. --Contributed by O. 2-1/2 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. flat-headed screws.into two 14-in. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. about 5/16 in. E. wide and 2 ft. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. Tronnes. and the other 18 in. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. Bevel both sides of the pieces. Cut the maple. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. square. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. wide. with the ends and the other side rounding. 2.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. thick.

--Contributed by W. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. square. long. long. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. long. Cut another piece of board. are rounded. The bag is then turned inside out. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. When the glue is set. thick and 3 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. If carefully and neatly made. about 3/8 in. 2 and 3. wide and 2-1/2 in. 3 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. wide and 3 ft. long. but can be governed by circumstances. soaked with water and blown up. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. The sides are 3-1/4 in. About 1/2 in. 1. St. long. Another piece. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. 5 from 1/16-in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. 3/8 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. wide . wide and 5 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. and take care that the pieces are all square. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. 1-1/4 in. The front. Louis.once. Glue a three cornered piece. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. thick. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. long. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. the top and bottom. the mechanical parts can be put together. pieces 2-5/8 in. Figs. this square box is well sandpapered. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. C. 6-1/2 in. Wind three layers of about No. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. thick. then centered. E. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. wide and 2-3/4 in. 3-1/4 in. is set. long. as well as the edges around the opening. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. C. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. A. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. A. B. and make a turn in each end of the wires. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. F. D. and the four outside edges. Make a double stitch all around the edge. leaving a small opening at one corner. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. wide and 6-3/4 in. Fig. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. square. forming an eye for a screw. long. of each end unwound for connections. After the glue. Mo. wide and 4-1/2 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. Bliss.

5-1/2 in. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. R. 4. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. from the spindle. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. Yorkshire. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. and fasten in place. --Contributed by George Heimroth. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. F. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. 1/16 in. Another strip of tin. A pointer 12 in.R. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. that has the end turned with a shoulder. The end of the polar axis B.A. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. The stronger the current. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. 1/4 in. long. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities.S. from one end. G. Fig. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. C. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. the part carrying the pointer moves away. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. When the current flows through the coil. showing a greater defection of the pointer. so it will just clear the tin. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. hole is fastened to the pointer. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. long. long. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. 4. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. Place the tin. board. wide and 9 in. 5. and as the part Fig. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. Fig. Chapman. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. in diameter. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. the same size as the first. Like poles repel each other. L. The resistance is now adjusted to show . and the farther apart they will be forced. I. These wires should be about 1 in. thick. Richmond Hill. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. 4 is not movable. W.and 2-5/8 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. bored in the back. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. Austwick Hall. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The base is a board 5 in. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set.

at 9 hr. shows mean siderial. and vice . The following formula will show how this may be found. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. 10 min. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 10 min. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. M. A. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. say Venus at the date of observation. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. 1881. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. 30 min. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. thus: 9 hr.

and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Conn. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection.m. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. or. --Contributed by Robert W. if one of these cannot be had. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. . Hall. New Haven. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess.f. owing to the low internal resistance. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. and then verify its correctness by measurement.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down.

the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. The boring bar. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. of alum and 4 oz. When the follower is screwed down. as shown in the accompanying picture. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. put the fish among the ashes. 3/8 in. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. 1. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. inside diameter and about 5 in. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. and heap the glowing coals on top. fresh grass. cover up with the same. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Wet paper will answer. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. Then. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. arsenic to every 20 lb. leaves or bark. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. thick. Fig. 1-3/4 in. especially for cooking fish. long.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean.

Two pieces of 3/4 -in. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. when they were turned in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. pipe. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. and threaded on both ends.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. about 1/2 in. thick. fastened with a pin. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. pipe. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in.

The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. Fig. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. Fig. long.valve stems. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. 5. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. 30 in. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. and which gave such satisfactory results. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. however. labor and time. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. a jump spark would be much better. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. square iron. then it should be ground to a fit. Fig. Clermont. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. It . The rough frame. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. as the one illustrated herewith. 3. 4. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. If the valve keeps dripping. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. wide. the float is too high. thick and 3 in. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. was then finished on an emery wheel. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. This plate also supports the rocker arms. bent in the shape of a U. 2. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. but never one which required so little material. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. Iowa. A 1-in.

the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. so it must be strong enough. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . with no trees or buildings in the way. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. butting against short stakes. from all over the neighborhood. As there is no bracing. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. The illustration largely explains itself. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. in the ground with 8 ft. strengthened by a piece 4 in. hole bored in the post. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. strong clear material only should be employed.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. long is the pivot. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. square and 5 ft." little and big. The crosspiece is 2 in. 12 ft. 3/4 in. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. long. square and 2 ft. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. from the center. square. It looks like a toy. A 3/4 -in. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. rope is not too heavy. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. in diameter and 15 in. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. and. in fact. A malleable iron bolt. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. long. being held in position by spikes as shown. timber. Use a heavy washer at the head. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. extending above. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. no matter what your age or size may be. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. for the "motive power" to grasp. Nieman. W. The seats are regular swing boards. set 3 ft. --Contributed by C. and a little junk. This makes an easy adjustment. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. If it is to be used for adults. long. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. completes the merry-go-round. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting.

These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. Having placed the backbone in position. a wreck. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. 1/4 by 3/32 in.2 emery. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. if nothing better is at hand. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. away. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. To wind the string upon the reel. 2. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. 1. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. one for the backbone and one for the bow. These ends are placed about 14 in. as shown in Fig. light and strong. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. square. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down.the fingers. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The backbone is flat. then it is securely fastened. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. The bow is now bent. long. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. and sent to earth. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. 4. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. Both have large reels full of . A reel is next made. and 18 in. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in.

or glass-covered string. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. N. often several hundred yards of it. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. the balance. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The handle end is held down with a staple. common packing thread. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. C. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Y. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Bunker. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Moody. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Newburyport. he pays out a large amount of string. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites.-Contributed by S. First.string. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Brooklyn. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. If the second kite is close enough. --Contributed' by Harry S. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Mass. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can .

3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. then draw the string up tight. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. make the pad as shown in the illustration. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . then a dust protector. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. must be attached to a 3-ft. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Corinth. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. such as mill men use. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Vt. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. If the table is round. lengths (Fig. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. length of 2-in. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Hastings. each the size of half the table top. square (Fig. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. --Contributed by Earl R. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine.

Moisten the . Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. 16-1/4 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring.9-1/4 in. . and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. E.. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. G to H. Wharton.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. 6-1/4 in. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. from C to D. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. trace the design carefully on the leather. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. 2-1/4 in. from E to F. and E to G. Oakland. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. 17-1/2 in. Calif. hard pencil.-Contributed by H. Use a smooth. which spoils the leather effect. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Make the other half circular disk in the same way.

leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. To complete the bag. Cut it the same size as the bag. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. I made this motor . Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. H-B. and corresponding lines on the other side. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. get something with which to make a lining. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. about 1/8 in. and E-G. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. also lines A-G. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. apart. if not more than 1 in. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. wide. Trace the openings for the handles. Now cut narrow thongs. and lace through the holes. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. G-J. is taken off at a time. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. with the rounded sides of the tools. place both together and with a leather punch. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory.

Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. long. 2. --Contributed by J. of No. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. D. as shown in Fig. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig.M. in length. Calif. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. each being a half circle. 2-1/4 in. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. 1. Pasadena. B. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. iron. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. . The one shown is 3-1/2 in. Shannon. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. 1. 24 gauge magnet wire.

The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. pasted in alternately. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The gores for a 6-ft. from the bottom end. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . high. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. near the center. 1. and the gores cut from these. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. are the best kind to make. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. balloon should be about 8 ft. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight.

so it will hang as shown in Fig. lap on the edges. as shown in Fig. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. 5. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. In removing grease from wood. 2. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. If the gores have been put together right. Staunton. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. leaving a long wake behind. After washing. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. 3. after which the paint will adhere permanently. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. as shown in Fig.widest point. The boat soon attains considerable speed. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. 4. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. using about 1/2-in. coming through the small pipe A. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. As the boat is driven forward by this force. 1. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. somewhat larger in size. --Contributed by R. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. These are to hold the wick ball. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. A. Fig. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The steam. B. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. saturating it thoroughly. E. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. leaving the solution on over night. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. In starting the balloon on its flight. in diameter.

leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. In using either of the two methods described.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. apart on these lines. in bowling form. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. 1. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. if you have several copies of the photograph. high and 8 in. There are three ways of doing this: First. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. wide by 6 in. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. long. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The blocks are about 6 in. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. as is shown in Fig. Third. long and each provided with a handle. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. Second. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print.

Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Rinse the plate in cold water.Fig. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Hellwig. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . thick. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. N. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. being careful not to dent the metal. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. 2. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. --Contributed by John A. Fig. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Y. Albany.

upon any particular object. wide and of any desired height. These corner irons are also screwed to. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. in diameter. with a set screw. Paine. --Contributed by R. are screwed to the circular piece. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. Va. and not produce the right sound. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. and Fig. wide and 8 in. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. A circular piece of wood. which is 4 in. Corner irons. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. is fastened to a common camera tripod. A. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. In Fig. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. CC. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. With this device. long for the base. through which passes the set screw S. 1 Fig. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. 5 in. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Break off the frame. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . and. thick. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. A. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. S. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. 2 the front view. Richmond. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. 6 in. B.

Kidder. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Ill. as only the can is visible. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. pine boards. in diameter of some 1-in. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. thus producing sound waves. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. Lake Preston. D. This horn. -1. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. S. .Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. I made a wheel 26 in. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. This will make a very compact electric horn. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. La Salle. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. R.

1. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Feet may be added to the base if desired. If there is a large collection of coins. 1. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. 2. A.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. B. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. O. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Kane. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. --Contributed by C. thick and 12 in. Ghent. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. the same thickness as the coins. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. The frame is made of a heavy card. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. square. Fig. Doylestown. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. --Contributed by James R. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Purdy. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. The drawers can be taken out and turned over.

as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Toronto. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. though not absolutely necessary. thick. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. several large nails. --Contributed by August T. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. It will hold 4 oz.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Wis. a hammer or mallet.E. One Cloud. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. plus a 3/8-in. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. melted and applied with a brush. --Contributed by R. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Noble. Neyer.J. If desired. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. Milwaukee. A rivet punch is desirable. and then glued together as indicated. cut and grooved. --Contributed by J. for after the slides have been shown a few times. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Smith. Cal. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. they become uninteresting. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. border all around. The material required is a sheet of No. into which to place the screws . The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. A lead pencil. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. of developer. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Canada.

screws placed about 1 in. never upon the metal directly. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. draw one part. and file it to a chisel edge. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . using 1/2-in. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. like the one shown. Remove the screws. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. Take the nail. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. both outline and decoration. There are several ways of working up the design. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth.

inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. of 11-in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder.wall. long. l-1/8 in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. each 1 in. Provide four lengths for the legs. 3/4 in. square and 11 in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. About 1/2 yd. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. 3. two lengths. square and 181/2 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. square. for the top. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. long. Do not bend it over or flatten it. long. Rivet the band to the holder. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. in the other. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. being ball bearing. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. as shown in Fig. and two lengths. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. up from the lower end. 2. 1. for the lower rails. . using a 1/2in. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. The pedal.

Attalla. New York City. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. --Contributed by W. Quackenbush. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. Ala. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. --Contributed by John Shahan. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. F. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. having quite a length of threads.

college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. long. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. something that is carbonated. Ironwood. from the end.. stitched on both edges for appearance. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. each 1-1/4 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. college or lodge colors. wide and 8-1/4 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. and 3/8 in. from one end. making a lap of about 1 in. Two pieces of felt. --Contributed by C. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. wide and 4-1/4 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Mich. The desired emblem. long.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. Luther. long. and the other 2-3/4 in. initial. and two holes in the other. one about 1 in. in depth. D. using class. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid.

The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. in diameter and 2 in. as shown in the sketch. Fig. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. or a pasteboard box. Schatz. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . about 2 in. if desired by the operator. This method allows a wide range of designs.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. A piece of lead. Indianapolis. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. as shown at B. --Contributed by John H. which can be procured from a plumber. and the cork will be driven out. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Punch two holes A. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. 2. Ind. or more in height. from the center and opposite each other. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. in the cover and the bottom. 1. 1/4 in.

A piece of thick glass. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. putting in the design. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. 4. and the ends of the bands looped over them. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. O. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. it winds up the rubber band. Fig. When the can is rolled away from you. 3. as shown in Fig. Columbus. The pieces of tin between the holes A. . The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. on both top and bottom.Rolling Can Toy lead. 1. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. allowing the two ends to be free. 5. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. metal. are turned up as in Fig. or marble will serve. so that it will indent without cutting the leather.

3 in. After this has been done. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. deep in its face. thick. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. I secured a board 3/4 in. New York City. hole through it. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. wide and 20 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. face up. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. or more thick on each side. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. mark over the design. and. The edges should be about 1/8 in. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. If it is desired to "line" the inside. 1 in. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. thicker than the pinion. long and bored a 1/2-in. A pencil may be used the first time over. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. Next place the leather on the glass. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. from each end. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes .

1 piece for clamp.in the board into the bench top. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. much of the hard labor will be saved. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. thick top board. 1 top board. M. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 2. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Brooklyn. 3 by 3 by 36. 1. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. lag screws as shown. pieces for the vise slides. 4 guides. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Rice. 1 back board. 1 screw block. New York. 2 by 12 by 77 in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1 piece. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Y. 2 end rails. in diameter. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. countersinking the heads of the vise end. and fit it in place for the side vise. 2 side rails. 1 piece for clamp. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. N. 1 by 12 by 77 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. Make the lower frame first. Fig. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Now fit up the two clamps. Syracuse. --Contributed by A. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Cut the 2-in. 1 top board. 2 crosspieces. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts.

. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. The amateur workman. it can be easily found when wanted. as well as the pattern maker. 1 wood scraper. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 pair pliers. The bench is now complete. 1 nail set. 24 in. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 compass saw. in diameter. rule. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 pocket level. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 claw hammer. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 monkey wrench. 1 countersink.screws. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 marking gauge. 24 in. Only the long run. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 rip saw. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 set chisels. 1 set gimlets.. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 pair dividers. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 bench plane or jointer. 2 screwdrivers. . They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 cross cut saw.. 1 2-ft. 3 and 6 in.

No. 1 oilstone. the projecting point A. becomes like A. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 2 and 00 sandpaper. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. 1. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. try square.1. will sink into the handle as shown at D. after constant use. Fig. ---Contributed by James M. The calf skin. Kane. Doylestown. Fig. will be easier to work. Fig. being softer. Pa.1 6-in. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 3. but will not make . and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 2. 1. Fig.

will do just as well. Having prepared the two sides. cover it completely with water enamel and. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. First draw the design on paper. water or heat will not affect. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. If cow hide is preferred. The form can be made of a stick of wood. lay the design on the face. Turn the leather. Two pieces will be required of this size. the same method of treatment is used. White. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape.as rigid a case as the cow skin. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. then prepare the leather. . There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. secure a piece of modeling calf. but a V-shaped nut pick. which steam. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. After the outlines are traced. when dry. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. and the length 6-5/8 in. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. such as copper or brass. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. If calf skin is to be used. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. -Contributed by Julia A. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. New York City. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background.

will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. and an adjustable friction-held loop. A. --Contributed by Chas.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. --Contributed by Chester L. . and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Cal. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Herrman. C. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. --Contributed by W. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. New York City. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. as shown in the sketch. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Maine. Portland. Richmond. Jaquythe. Cobb. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection.

--Contributed by Wm. A thick piece of tin. --Contributed by Geo. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Roberts. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. . especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. was marked out as shown. for instance. Middletown. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Cambridge. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Wright.. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. This was very difficult. Mass. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. B. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Conn. an inverted stewpan. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop.

The next morning there was no trace of oil. Illinois. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Chicago. A beautifully bound book. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. . L. When dry. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. If any traces of the grease are left.. such as chair seats. Ind. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. used as part of furniture. Indianapolis. as shown. If the article is highly polished. There was no quicklime to be had. apply powdered calcined magnesia. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. Bone. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. which has been tried out several times with success. face down. Herbert. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. but only an odor which soon vanished. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. --Contributed by Paul Keller. of boiling water. F. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. on a clear piece of glass. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. well calcined and powdered. pulverized and applied. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. --Contributed by C. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. so some bones were quickly calcined. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. and the grease will disappear. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. and quite new. but not running over.

set and thumbscrews. The pieces marked S are single.. Howe. New York. says Scientific American.. 6 in. long. This coaster is simple and easy to make. Tarrytown. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. wide and 12 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. If properly adjusted. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. deep and 5 in. A. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. 2 in. high and are bolted to a block of wood. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. --Contributed by Geo. soft steel with the opening 6 in. thick. the pieces .

with a short bolt through each pair as shown. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . If the letters are all cut the same height. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. for sending to friends. Their size depends on the plate used. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. The seat is a board. no doubt. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. A sharp knife.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. to the underside of which is a block. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. says Camera Craft. E. they will look remarkably uniform. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. albums and the like. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters.

and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. The puzzle is to get . each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. pasting the prints on some thin card. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. mount them on short pieces of corks. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. So arranged. photographing them down to the desired size. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. So made. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. using care to get it in the right position.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. In cutting out an 0. and. for example. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. after.

J. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in.-Contributed by I. squeezes along past the center of the tube. long that will just fit are set in. N. of its top. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. snow or anything to hide it. hung on pivots. Old-Time Magic . when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. Bayley. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. with the longest end outside. G.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. so they will lie horizontal. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . Cape May Point. A hole 6 or 7 in. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. He smells the bait.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. says the American Thresherman. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.

stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Pocatello. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string.faced up. --Contributed by L. N. Rhode Island. Y. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Brooklyn. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . or rub the hands a little before doing so. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. --Contributed by L. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Pawtucket. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Press the hands together. Idaho. Szerlip. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Parker. then expose again. E. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. then spread the string.

The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. in building up his work from the illustrations. using a straightedge and a pencil. says the English Mechanic. full size. narrower. When the glue is thoroughly dry. long. The blade should be about 27 in. end of the blade. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. or green oil paint. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. whether he requires a single sword only. near the point end.. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. The pieces. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. 3 Fig. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. Glue the other side of the blade. wipe the blade . put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. thick. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. wide and 2 in. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. if any. or a complete suit of armor. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. 4 on the blade. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. 2 Fig. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. When the whole is quite dry. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade.. dark red. in width. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. they will look very much like the genuine article. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. and if carefully made. 1 Fig. The handle is next made.Genuine antique swords and armor.

such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. and 3 in. In making. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. about 1-1/2 in. follow the directions as for Fig. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. In making this scimitar. the illustration. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. Both edges of the blade are sharp. 2. 3. the other is flat or half-round. as it is . 1/8 in. allowing for a good hold with both hands. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. of course. 1. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. 2. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. not for use only in cases of tableaux. 3. 4. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. long. preferably of contrasting colors. The length of the handle. in diameter. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. in the widest part at the lower end.with light strokes up and down several times. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. shows only two sides. Fig. the other two are identical. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. the other is flat or halfround. 1. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. should be about 9 in. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. 1. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord... wind it around in a continuous line closely together. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. This sword is about 68 in. 1. thick and 5 in. the length of the blade 28 in. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. square and of any length desired. take two pieces of wood. In the finished piece. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory.

Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. as there was some at hand. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. at the lower end. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. A piece of mild steel. Y. and. and if so. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Both can be made easily. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Doctors probed for the button without success. --Contributed by John Blake. Morse. as shown in the sketch. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. --Contributed by Katharine D. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. Mass. N. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. each about 1 ft. A cold . can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. in an attempt to remove it.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. long. Syracuse. about 3/8 in. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. 2 in. On each edge of the board. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. or an insecure fastening. It is made of a plank. square. as can the pitch bed or block. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Franklin. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. The thinness of the plank. piping and jackets by hard water. however. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend.

Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. tallow. Trim up the edges and file them . When this has been done. 5 lb. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. secure a piece of brass of about No. When the desired form has been obtained. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. 5 lb. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. 18 gauge. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. design down. a file to reduce the ends to shape. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. To remedy this. To put it in another way. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. on the pitch. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened.. using a small metal saw. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. plaster of Paris.. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch.

Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. to keep it from floating.000 lb. and still revolve. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. That is lifting 33. 30 ft. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. in the center. but not to stop it. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. This in turn divided by 33. Fill the 3-in. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Fig. in one second. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower.smooth. or fraction of a horsepower. 1) and the other 12 in. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. per minute. space between the vessels with water. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. or 550 ft. 1 ft. 2). Before giving the description. 3. --Contributed by Harold H.000 ft. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. make an unusual show window attraction. lb. in diameter (Fig. per second. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. over the smaller vessel. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. in one minute or 550 lb. . A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. The smaller is placed within the larger. one 18 in. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. 1 ft. it may be well to know what horsepower means. in diameter (Fig. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Cutter. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. using powdered pumice with lye. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Clean the metal thoroughly.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. and hang a bird swing. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. lb. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. A.

A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. by L. --Contributed. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Somerville. --Contributed by J. 2 Fig. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes.3 Fig. Diameter 12 in. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete .18 in. The effect is surprising.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. N. or on a pedestal. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. 1 Fig. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Brooklyn. Szerlip. Y. Diameter Fig. Campbell. F. Mass.

Do not be content merely to bend them over. which may be of wood or tin. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. then by drawing a straightedge over it. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. Rivet the cup to the base. away from the edge. keeping the center high. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. and the clay . The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon.copper of No. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. the same as removing writing from a slate. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. with the pliers. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. using any of the common metal polishes. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. which. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. after which it is ready for use. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. and then. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. as a rule. is. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. In riveting. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. This compound is impervious to water. with other defects. and cut out the shape with the shears. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. to keep the metal from tarnishing. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. often render it useless after a few months service. Polish both of these pieces. unsatisfactory.

Dunlop. --Contributed by A. 2. Houghton. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. --Contributed by John T. Scotland. 1. in diameter and 5 in. Northville. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Mich. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Grand Rapids. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. the device will work for an indefinite time. -Contributed by Thos. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. DeLoof. as shown in Fig. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. A. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. 3/4 in. . the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. Mich. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. It is made of a glass tube. Shettleston. long. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank.can be pressed back and leveled. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly.

As the handle is to . The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. in width and 2 in. London. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.1 FIG.FIG. stilettos and battle-axes. 1. This sword is 4 ft. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. long. put up as ornaments. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. long with the crossguard and blade of steel.

or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. with wire or string' bound handle. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. wood with a keyhole saw. When dry.represent copper. in width. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. paint it a dark brown or black. Both handle and axe are of steel. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. In Fig. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. In Fig. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. sometimes called cuirass breakers. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. glue and put it in place. A German stiletto. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. 3 is shown a claymore. 7. The lower half of the handle is of wood. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. The handle is of wood. with both edges sharp. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. This axe is made similar to the one . Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. then glued on the blade as shown. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. one about 1/2 in. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. with both edges of the blade sharp. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. In Fig. A German poniard is shown in Fig. 8. sharp edges on both sides. 5. 4. in length. the axe is of steel. The ball is made as described in Fig. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. This sword is about 4 ft. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. This stiletto has a wood handle. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. which is about 2-1/2 ft. When the whole is quite dry. the upper part iron or steel. firmly glued on. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. in length. This weapon is also about 1 ft. This weapon is about 1 ft. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. the same as used on the end of the handle. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. string. small rope and round-headed nails. narrower. long. Cut two strips of tinfoil. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. 6. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. 9. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. Three large. 11 were used. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. These must be cut from pieces of wood. very broad. is shown in Fig. The crossbar and blade are steel. studded with brass or steel nails. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. long with a dark handle of wood. 20 spike. The sword shown in Fig.

Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. When wrapped all the way around. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. high. the ends are tied and cut off.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. so the contents cannot be seen. This will make a very good flexible belt. 2. together as shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic . will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. Chicago. 10. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. W. Davis.described in Fig. --Contributed by E. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. . will pull where other belts slip. such as braided fishline. and as the tension members are all protected from wear.

The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . an acid. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. held in the right hand. The dotted lines in Fig. Calif. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. about one-third the way down from the top. some of the liquid. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. To make the flowers grow in an instant. N. S. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Bridgeton. with the circle centrally located. in a few seconds' time. Macdonald. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Before the performance. or using small wedges of wood. filled with water. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist.J. There will be no change in color. 2. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. causing the flowers to grow. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. 1 and put together as in Fig. These wires are put in the jar. --Contributed by A. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Oakland. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. apparently. four glass tumblers. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years.

it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. Richmond. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. and equally worthy of individual treatment. says a correspondent of Photo Era. 2 for height. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. not only because of the fact just mentioned. This outlines the desired opening. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. --Contributed by W. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. which are numbered for convenience in working. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. practical and costs nothing. Cal. and kept ready for use at any time. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. A. unless some special device is used. Jaquythe. When many slides are to be masked. If the size wanted is No. 4 for width and No.

and do not inhale the fumes. This done. possibly. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. or. Draw a design. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. paint the design. about half and half. not the water into the acid. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. With a stick. When etched to the desired depth. is about right for the No. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. which is dangerous. and the extreme length 7 in. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. the paper is folded along the center line. too. or a pair of old tongs. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. the margin and the entire back of the metal. a little less acid than water. Secure a sheet of No. 16 gauge. using the carbon paper. The one shown is merely suggestive. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. Trace the design and outline upon the metal.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. The decoration. but they can be easily revived. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. may be changed.

Buttons for the bells may be purchased. long. 0 indicates the batteries. about 8 in. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. about 1 in. attached to a post at each end. Fig. as shown in Fig. 5. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. 3/8 in. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. high. as shown in the illustration. repeat as many times as is necessary. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. the bell will ring. to the table. C and D. and bore two holes. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. Nail a board. as at H. When the button S is pressed. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Fig. 5. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. It may be either nailed or screwed down. long and 1 ft. . wide and of the same length as the table. Fig. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. J is another wire attached in the same way. Cut out a piece of tin. about 3 ft. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. it will touch post F. as in Fig. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. 24 parts water. and about 2-1/2 ft. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. or more wide. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. 3. 2. Fig. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. with the wires underneath. Then get two posts. thick. through it. about 2-1/2 in. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Paint the table any color desired. 1. The connections are simple: I. 2. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. so that when it is pressed down. in diameter and 1/4 in. wide. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. 4. A. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Fig. 2. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell.

handle and all. A wood peg about 2 in. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. The entire weapon.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den.. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. This weapon is about 22 in. thick. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. the wood peg inserted in one of them. 2. The imitation articles are made of wood.Imitation Arms and Armor . After the glue is dry. long serves as the dowel. is to appear as steel. but they are somewhat difficult to make. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. These rings can be carved out. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. says the English Mechanic. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. such as . A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. The circle is marked out with a compass. long. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike.

the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. Its length is about 3 ft. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The spikes are cut out of wood. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. also. This weapon is about 22 in. If such a tool is not at hand. flowers. as before mentioned. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. All of these axes are about the same length. studded with large brass or steel nails. The lower half of the handle is wood. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. 8. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The handle is of steel imitation. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. 3. or the amateur cannot use it well. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. The upper half of the handle is steel. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. . used at the end of the fifteenth century. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. leaves. as described in Fig. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth.ornamental scrolls. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. 2. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The entire handle should be made of one piece. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. long. as shown. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. covered with red velvet. the hammer and spike. 6. The axe is shown in steel. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The handle is of wood. etc. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. 5. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. is shown in Fig. with a sharp carving tool.

Each person plays until three outs have been made. 5. . A foul ball is indicated by Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. 6. calls for a home run. 2. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. 4). The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. as shown in Fig. Fig. as in Fig. 1. The knife falling on its side (Fig. 3. a three-base hit. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. and so on for nine innings. Chicago. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. the knife resting on its back. 7) calls for one out. then the other plays.

When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. Old-Time Magic . while the committee is tying him up. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. hypo to 1 pt. with the rope laced in the cloth. This he does. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. Mass. It may be found that the negative is not colored. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. of the rope and holds it. as shown in Fig. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. 3. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen.-Contributed by J. F. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. one of them burning . of water for an hour or two. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. If it is spotted at all. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. 2. 1. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. as shown in Fig. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Campbell. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. Somerville.

4 oz. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. thick. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. Ky. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. of turpentine. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. He then walks over to the other candle. thus causing it to light. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. Ky. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. .Contributed by Andrew G. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. New York City. etc. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing.. The magician walks over to the burning candle. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. of plumbago. the other without a light. Louisville. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. --Contributed by C. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. with which he is going to light the other candle. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Brown. shades the light for a few seconds. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. Evans. bolt. Thome. Drill Gauge screw. 4 oz. B. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. and. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. showing that there is nothing between them. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands.brightly. --Contributed by L. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. of sugar. Lebanon. of water and 1 oz. invisible to them (the audience). Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. 3/4 in.

In making up the solution. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. diameter. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. Y. about 5 in. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. 5 in. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. --Contributed by C. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. Denniston. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Its current strength is about one volt. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. into a tube of several thicknesses. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. long. Pulteney. or blotting paper. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Two liquids are necessary for the cell. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. N. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. which will give a strong. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. H. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. but is not so good. for the material. Do not add water to the acid. steady current. To make the porous cell. thick.

The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. Finally. but somewhat lighter. a positive adjustment was provided. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. while the other end is attached by two screws. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The . All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. carrying the hour circle at one end. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. long with a bearing at each end. steel. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. one drawing them together. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. steel. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. As to thickness. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. the other holding them apart. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer.) may be obtained. One hole was bored as well as possible. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. To insure this. thus saving much work in fitting up joints.station. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. After much experimentation with bearings. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. steel. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground.

Instead. The aperture should be 1/4 in. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. in each direction from two points 180 deg. All set screws. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. If the result is more than 24 hours.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. are tightened. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. Cassiopiae. The pointer is directed to Alpha. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. It is. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. All these adjustments. Set the declination circle to its reading. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end." When this is done. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . When properly set it will describe a great circle. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The pole is 1 deg." Only a rough setting is necessary. Point it approximately to the north star. once carefully made. save the one in the pipe. excepting those on the declination axis.. and 15 min." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. To find a star in the heavens. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. Each shaft. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. 45 min.. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. Declination is read directly. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. need not be changed. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. To locate a known star on the map. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. and if it is not again directed to the same point. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. apart. is provided with this adjustment. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. subtract 24. turn the pointer to the star.

He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. In reality the first ball. a great effect will be produced. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. -Contributed by Ray E. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. La. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. benzole. cannon balls. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Ohio. 3 or 4 in. the others .. is folded several times. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. If this will be too transparent. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. taking care not to add too much. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. The dance will begin. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. which is the one examined. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. The ball is found to be the genuine article. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. then add 1 2-3 dr. add a little more benzole. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. as shown in the sketch. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. New Orleans. Plain City. is the real cannon ball. Strosnider. of ether.

Fig. taps. F. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. San Francisco. 1). drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. Somerville. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. small brooches.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. without taking up any great amount of space. Return the card to the pack. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack.. --Contributed by J. Cal. Mass. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. as shown in the illustration. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Wis. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Campbell. 2. Milwaukee. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. In boxes having a sliding cover. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. etc. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara.

Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Beller. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. slides and extra brushes. thus giving ample store room for colors. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. round pieces 2-1/4 in. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. . but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. This box has done good service. Connecticut. as shown in the illustration. Hartford. from the bottom of the box. prints. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring.

O. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. 2). Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. holes in the bottom of one. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. When the ends are turned under. about threefourths full. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. -Contributed by C. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. or placed against a wall. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Mass. costing 5 cents. with well packed horse manure. West Lynn. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. . the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. will answer the purpose.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. tacking the gauze well at the corners. 1). FIG. Darke. Fill the upper tub. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end.

often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. Eifel. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. if this is not available. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. they should be knocked out. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. Chicago. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. cutting the cane between the holes. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. M. when they are raised from the pan. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. --Contributed by L. If the following directions are carried out. and each bundle contains . oil or other fluid. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. If plugs are found in any of the holes.

held there by inserting another plug. after having been pulled tight. and. No plugs . 1. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. In addition to the cane.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. put about 3 or 4 in. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. as shown in Fig. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. then across and down. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. it should be held by a plug. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. as it must be removed again. a square pointed wedge. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole.

as the height of the line BC for lat. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used.075 in. it is 4. --Contributed by M. D.5 in. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. 3. It consists of a flat circular table. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. R. called the gnomon. the height of which is taken from table No. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. 1. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. 40°. 5. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. as shown in Fig.15+. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . If you have a table of natural functions. is the base (5 in. From table No. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. 3. and the one we shall describe in this article. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. using the same holes as for the first layer. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. -Contributed by E. W. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. as it always equals the latitude of the place.15 in. stretch the third one. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. or the style. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. 5 in. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. Fig. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. 1. in this case) times the .should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. lat. for 2°. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. During the weaving. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. 1. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. Michigan. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. The chemicals will not affect the rosin.2+. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. we have 4. All added to the lesser or 40°. and for lat. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. but the most common. No weaving has been done up to this time. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. When cool. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. the height of the line BC. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. There are several different designs of sundials. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. 41°-30'. 41 °-30'. is the horizontal dial. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes.= 4.075 in. Even with this lubrication.42 in. 4.3 in. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig.2 in. 42° is 4. Fig. the next smallest. 1 lat. Detroit. as for example. After completing the second layer. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. This will make three layers. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. trim off the surplus rosin. and for 1° it would be . Patrick. Their difference is . as shown in Fig. The style or gnomon. If handled with a little care.

76 1.66 48° 5.93 6. and intersecting the semicircles.44 44° 4.19 1.56 .55 30° 2. and perpendicular to the base or style. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.40 1.26 4.94 1.10 6.27 2.33 . For latitudes not given.63 56° 7. Fig.59 2. 1. according to the size of the dial. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.91 58° 8.97 5 7 4.57 3. 2.82 2.77 2. .33 42° 4.02 1. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.39 .37 5.30 2.99 2. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .03 3.82 5. an inch or two.89 50° 5. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.06 2. 2.88 36° 3. Draw two semi-circles. which will represent the base in length and thickness.32 6.93 2.46 .28 . Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. 2 for given latitudes.83 27° 2. Table NO.12 52° 6.23 6. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.30 1. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. using the points A and C as centers.16 1. or if of stone.68 5-30 6-30 5. gives the 6 o'clock points.11 3.55 46° 5.40 34° 3.82 3.37 54° 6.29 4-30 7-30 3. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.00 40° 4. To layout the hour circle.66 latitude. base.07 4.96 32° 3.42 1.18 28° 2.81 4.42 45 .16 40 .79 4. Chords in inches for a 10 in.55 4.42 . long. and for this size dial (10 in. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.46 3. circle Sundial.41 38° 3. Its thickness. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.57 1.38 .64 4 8 3. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.50 26° 2.14 5.49 30 . placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.55 5.87 4. Draw the line AD.tangent of the degree of latitude.20 60° 8.66 1.85 1.87 1. with a radius of 5 in.85 35 . in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. if of metal. or more.49 3.

The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .79 6. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. and for the difference between standard and local time. London.34 5.08 1.means that the dial is faster than the sun.49 3.add those marked + subtract those Marked .93 6. 2 and Dec. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.12 5.89 3.52 Table No. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.46 5.46 4. 25.10 4.98 4.49 5. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.24 5. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.71 2. April 16.50 55 .53 1. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.77 3.. it will be faster.87 6. The + means that the clock is faster. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. Mitchell. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. Sept. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.01 1. 3.37 2. and the .57 1. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. This correction can be added to the values in table No. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.19 2.14 1. if west.68 3. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.06 2. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. 3.from Sundial lime. adding to each piece interest and value. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. then the watch is slower. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. Sioux City. Each weapon is cut from wood. June 15.54 60 .50 .21 2. will enable one to set the dial. An ordinary compass. 900 Chicago. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. As they are the genuine reproductions.30 2. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. each article can be labelled with the name. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.82 3.63 1. Sun time to local mean time. after allowing for the declination.60 4.72 5. Iowa. --Contributed by J. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. E. says the English Mechanic. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. Partisan. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. 3. . long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. 1. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. long from the point where it is attached to the handle.. When putting on the tinfoil. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. the length of which is about 5 ft. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in.

The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. about 4 in. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The extreme length is 9 ft. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. used about the seventeenth century. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. long with a round staff or handle. long with a round wooden handle. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. which are a part of the axe. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. long. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. 7. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. 8. in diameter. This weapon is about 6 ft. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. 5. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. press it well into the carved depressions. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. It is about 6 ft. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The spear is steel. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. 6 ft. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. long. . The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. the holes being about 1/4 in. A gisarm or glaive.. sharp on the outer edges. is shown in Fig.which is square. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The edges are sharp. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century.

-Contributed by R. the most durable being bamboo. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. In Figs. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. are less durable and will quickly show wear. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. H. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. They can be made of various materials. 4. the cross cords. as shown in Fig. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. 5. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. are put in place. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Ohio. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The twisted cross cords should . The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. Loudonville. used for spacing and binding the whole together. apart. B. This is important to secure neatness. 1. Workman. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. Substances such as straw. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. or in holes punched in a leather strap. 2 and 3. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. Cut all the cords the same length. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle.

bamboo or rolled paper. Harrer. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin.be of such material. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . -Contributed by Geo. New Orleans. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. New York. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Four V-shaped notches were cut. below the top to within 1/4 in. This was turned over the top of the other can. wide. of the bottom. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. La. shaped as shown at C. in which was placed a piece of glass. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. Lockport. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. M. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. for a length extending from a point 2 in. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. To remedy this. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. 3 in. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. as shown at B. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. A slit was cut in the bottom. The first design shown is for using bamboo. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S.

about 1/16 in. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. N.tape from sticking to the carpet. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. --Contributed by W. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Newburgh. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. Cal. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. giving the appearance of hammered brass. Schaffner. Y. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. This plank. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. Shay. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. H. wide. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. turned over but not fastened. This should be done gradually. do not throw away the gloves. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. the brass is loosened from the block. Pasadena. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. It would be well to polish the brass at first. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. Maywood. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. is shown in the accompanying sketch. and two along the side for attaching the staff. --Contributed by Joseph H. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. --Contributed by Chas. After this is finished. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. Sanford. Ill.

Unlike most clocks. in diameter. K.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. -Contributed by W. the pendulum swings . Ill. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. A. Oak Park. --E. Richmond. Jaquythe. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Cal. bent as shown. Marshall.

letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. B. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. long and at each side of this. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. about 12 in. to the first one with screws or glue. high. away. and the other two 2-5/8 in. by 1-5/16 in. high and 1/4 in. Fasten another board. bearing on the latter. 3/4 in. on the board B. says the Scientific American. 7-1/2 in. . Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. in diameter. wide that is perfectly flat. high. In using this method. 5/16 in. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. thick. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. about 6 in. is an electromagnet. 6 in. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. A. only have the opposite side up. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. high. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. The construction is very simple. bar. Metzech. such as this one. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. --Contributed by V.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Now place the board to be joined. Chicago. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. Two uprights. the center one being 2-3/4 in. C. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. wide. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Secure a board. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. are secured in the base bar..

The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. plates should be made 8 in. square inside. Vanderslice. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. Fig. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. 3. wide and 5 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. whose dimensions are given in Fig. square. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 1. 2. 1. 4. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. is fastened in the hole A. 1. wide and 1 in. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. --Contributed by Elmer A. Pa. Fig. by driving a pin through the wood. . Phoenixville. long. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. The trigger. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. or more. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. from one end. as shown at A.

on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. as shown in the illustration. square. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. rubbing varnish and turpentine. -Contributed by J. Ohio. if only two bands are put in the . 2 parts of whiting.A. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Fostoria.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. which allows 1/4 in. 5 parts of black filler. Simonis. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. one-half the length of the side pieces. by weight.

2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. It must be kept moist and well . which may be either of ground or plain glass. long. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. Dartmouth. DeLoof. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. G. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. Shaw. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. and the picture can be drawn as described. preferably copper. Mass. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results.lower strings. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. place tracing paper on its surface. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. as shown in Fig. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. II. A mirror. London. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. deep. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. wide and about 1 ft. If a plain glass is used. keeps the strong light out when sketching. --Contributed by Thos. 1. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. is set at an angle of 45 deg. A piece of metal. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. Grand Rapids. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. In use. and it may be made as a model or full sized. is necessary. -Contributed by Abner B. No. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. says the English Mechanic. Michigan. In constructing helmets. 8 in. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. A double convex lens. in the opposite end of the box.

as in bas-relief. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. and continue until the clay is completely covered. 3. 1. All being ready.kneaded. and over the crest on top. This being done. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. 1. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. After the clay model is finished. shown in Fig. a few clay-modeling tools. and left over night to soak. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. and the deft use of the fingers. the clay model oiled. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. with a keyhole saw. Scraps of thin. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. joined closely together. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. or some thin glue. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. The clay. brown. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. 2. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. take. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. on which to place the clay. will be necessary. as shown in Fig. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work.

This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. In Fig. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. square in shape. This contrivance should be made of wood. When the helmet is off the model. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. 7. the skullcap. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 1. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. When dry. 9. They are all covered with tinfoil. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. The whole helmet. a crest on top. which should be no difficult matter. 5. Indianapolis. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. and so on. as shown: in the design. The center of the ear guards are perforated. the piecing could not be detected. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. In Fig. a few lines running down. and the ear guards in two pieces. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. Indiana. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. --Contributed by Paul Keller. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. Before taking it off the model. as seen in the other part of the sketch. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. with the exception of the vizor. owing to the clay being oiled. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. should be modeled and made in one piece. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. will make it look neat. The band is decorated with brass studs. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. When perfectly dry. one for each side. then another coating of glue.as possible. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. or.

The reverse side of the base. which can be bought from a local druggist. of the top. 4. 4 lb. of fire clay. 1. one fuse block. The two holes. 1. Fig. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. This will allow the plate. should extend about 1/4 in. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. Fig. about 1/4 in. Fig. or. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. the holes leading to the switch. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. 4. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. 2. above the collar. If asbestos is used. two ordinary binding posts. Fig. when they are placed in opposite positions. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. 3. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. to receive screws for holding it to the base. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. screws. thick. of mineral wool. and two large 3in. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . A round collar of galvanized iron. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. is then packed down inside the collar. E and F. FF. 1. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. 22 gauge resistance wire. The plate. if this cannot be obtained. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. the fuse block. and. The mineral wool. of No. is shown in Fig. 4. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. long. if the measurements are correct. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. thick sheet asbestos. 2. JJ. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. about 1 lb. Fig. The holes B and C are about 3 in. 1 in. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. Fig. as shown in Fig. for connections. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. in diameter and 9 in. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. are allowed to project about 1 in. 1. and C.same size. one glass tube. one oblong piece of wood. 1. as shown in Fig. 4. until it is within 1 in. long. Fig. 4. each 4-1/2 in. AA. wide and 15 in. German-silver wire is better. This will make an open space between the plates. Fig. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. high. AA. as it stands a higher temperature. 4. Fig. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. long. 1. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. 3 in. 12 in. with slits cut for the wires. one small switch. 2. If a neat appearance is desired. about 80 ft. Fig. Fig. Fig. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. Fig. 4. also the switch B and the fuse block C. GG. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. as shown in Fig. AA.

deep. will slip and come in contact with each other. allowing a space between each turn. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. Fig. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. as the turns of the wires. so that the circuit will not become broken. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. and pressed into it. --Contributed by R. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. While the clay is damp. more wire should be added. Cover over about 1 in. A file can be used to remove any rough places. H. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. The clay. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. it leaves a gate for the metal. Can. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. steam will form when the current is applied. II. --Contributed by W. 2. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. St. KK. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. Jaquythe. If it is not thoroughly dry. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. Cal. This point marks the proper length to cut it. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. apart. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. This completes the stove. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. causing a short circuit. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. when heated. It should not be left heated in this condition. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. Cut a 1/2-in. Next. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. above the rim. It should not be set on end. when cool. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. When this is done. A. using care not to get it too wet. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. Cnonyn. Richmond. then. 4. Catherines. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. As these connections cannot be soldered. Fig. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. When the tile is in place. If this is the case.

as shown. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. constructed of 3/4-in. square material in any size. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. Louisville. Ky. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. --Contributed by Andrew G. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. says the Photographic Times. but 12 by 24 in. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. is large enough.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. the pie will be damaged. and the prints will dry rapidly. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Thorne. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. and the frame set near a window. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Then clip a little off the .

The upright B. 22 gauge magnet wire.Paper Funnel point. thick. each 1/2 in. 1/2 in. Herron. thick and 3 in. wide. An offset is bent in the center. thereby saving time and washing. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. 1/2 in. high. open out. high. slip on two cardboard washers. which are fastened to the base. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. in diameter and about 4 in. W. 3. -Contributed by S. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. Fig. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. 1. thick and 3 in. Figs. for the crank. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. causing a break in the current. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. wide and 3 in. 2-1/2 in. The connecting rod E. which gives the shaft a half turn. each 1 in. Le Mars. wide and 7 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. The driving arm D. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. long. As the shaft revolves. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. Fig. long. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. 1 and 3. 14 in. as shown. The board can be raised to place . Two supports. high. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. 2. 1. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 1. allowing each end to project for connections. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. A 1/8-in. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. in diameter. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. long. Iowa. at GG. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. 1. Fig. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. long. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. 4 in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No.

the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. One or more pots may be used. as shown in the sketch. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. bottom side up. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. on a board. Dorchester. --Contributed by William F. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Place the pot. In designing the roost. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. . Mass. in height. making a framework suitable for a roost. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. 3 in. Stecher.

ordinary glue. shelves. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. 1. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. and give it time to dry. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. paraffin and paint or varnish. in diameter. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. F. will produce the pattern desired. preferably.. The materials required are rope or. as shown in Fig. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required.. without any corresponding benefit. if it is other than straight lines. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. Wind the . Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. grills and gratings for doors. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. adopt the method described. that it is heated. windows. Fig. odd corners. etc. The bottom part of the sketch. F.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. 1. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. when combined.

six designs are shown. Fig. Lockport. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Harrer. -Contributed by Geo. cut and glue them together.Fig. 2. N. M. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Y.

chips of iron rust. etc.. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. will be retained by the cotton. 1. As the . Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. says the English Mechanic. which was used in front of a horse's head. etc. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. London. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. when it will be observed that any organic matter.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. but no farther. and the sides do not cover the jaws. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in.. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure.. This piece of horse armor.

as the surface will hold the clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. but for . When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. which can be made in any size. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. The armor is now removed from the model. 8. as shown in the sketch. This can be made in one piece. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. and the clay model oiled. 6 and 7. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and therefore it is not described. except the thumb and fingers. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. with the exception of the thumb shield. but the back is not necessary. This being done. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. the rougher the better. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. An arrangement is shown in Fig. 2. and will require less clay. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. the same as in Fig. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. 4. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. In Fig. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. This will make the model light and easy to move around. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. 2. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. which is separate. This triangularshaped support.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. then another coat of glue. All being ready.

will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Y. --Contributed by Ralph L. Buxton. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. long. If it does not hold a charge. the foils will not move. Goshen. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. 1/2 in. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. fastened to the rod. two in each jaw. 2. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. --Contributed by John G. The two pieces of foil. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. 9. A piece of board. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. and the instrument is ready for use. in depth. La Rue. When locating the place for the screw eyes. will be about right. Calif. the top of the rod. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. N. are glued to it. cut into the shape shown in Fig. the two pieces of foil will draw together. but 3-1/2 in. . are better shown in Fig. wide and 1/2 in. Redondo Beach. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. running down the plate. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. each about 1/4 in.

Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. The can may be bronzed. Texas. silvered. pine board. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. as this will cut under the water without splashing. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. long. enameled or otherwise decorated. is made of a 1/4-in. Bryan. about 15 in. 2-1/2 in. from the smaller end. A. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. At a point 6 in. When a fish is hooked. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. M. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. as indicated in the . thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. hole bored through it. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Corsicana. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. as shown in the illustration. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. --Contributed by Mrs.

This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. Basswood or butternut. Having completed the drawing. and trace upon it the design and outline. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. long over all. put a coat or two of wax and polish . 3/8 or 1/4 in." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Next prepare the metal holder. as shown. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. A good size is 5 in. take a piece of thin wood. Any kind of wood will do.Match Holder accompanying sketch. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. punch the holes. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. using powdered pumice and lye. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. such as basswood or pine was used. 22 is plenty heavy enough. If soft wood. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. using a piece of carbon paper. or even pine. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Polish the metal. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. wide by 6 in. When it has dried over night. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. then with a nail. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. thick. will do as well as the more expensive woods. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown.

hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. long. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. A. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. --Contributed by W. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. If carving is contemplated. 2 in. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. is used for the base of this instrument. long. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. of pure olive oil. It is useful for photographers. thick. 1/2 in. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. are used for the cores of the magnets. Jaquythe. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. . the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. wide and 5 in. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. Richmond. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. the whole being finished in linseed oil. Instead of the usual two short ropes. each 1 in. Cal. If one has some insight in carving. can be made on the same standards. Two wire nails.

as shown by the dotted lines. when the key is pushed down. 3. About 1 in. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. H. London. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. except that for the legs. similar to that used in electric bells. in the shape shown in the sketch. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. leaving about 1/4 in. then covered with red.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. A rubber band. at A. All of the parts for the armor have been described. as shown in Fig. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. 1. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. . the paper covering put on. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. cut in the shape of the letter T. A piece of tin. says the English Mechanic. acts as a spring to keep the key open. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. Lynas. cloth or baize to represent the legs. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. about No. 25 gauge. --Contributed by W. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets.

. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. The two pieces are bolted together. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. 1 in. at each end. 2. Take the piece shown in Fig. not too tight. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. one to another .Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. These can be purchased at a stationery store. can be made in a few minutes' time. Silver paper will do very well. in the other end. apart. Fig. By moving the position of the bolt from. A 1/4-in. hole in the center. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. holes. and eight small holes. or ordinary plaster laths will do. flat headed carriage bolt. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. Secure two strips of wood. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. 3 in. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. make the same series of eight small holes and. completes the equipment. apart. drill six 1/4-in. for the sake of lightness. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Instead of using brass headed nails. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. says Camera Craft. 1 and drill a 1/4in. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. long. about 1 in. In one end of the piece. So set up. Cut them to a length or 40 in.

makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. 2. A round fob is made in a similar way. the one marked A. in Fig. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. as in portraiture and the like. and lay it over the one to the right. then B over C and the end stuck under A. as shown in Fig. Start with one end. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. 2. A is the first string and B is the second. of the ends remain unwoven. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. Fig. doubled and run through the web of A. lay Cover B and the one under D. 1. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. 4. 2. In this sketch. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Then take B and lay it over A. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. Then draw all four ends up snugly. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. and the one beneath C. for instance. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. long. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. but instead of reversing . and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. taking the same start as for the square fob. C over D and B. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. D over A and C.of the larger holes in the strip.

A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Ohio. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. --Contributed by John P. 5. The round fob is shown in Fig. always lap one string. is left out at the center before starting on one side. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Monroeville. as B. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. 1-1/2 in. the design of which is shown herewith. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. long. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. Other designs can be made in the same manner. especially if silk strings are used. as in making the square fob. as at A in Fig. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. is to be made of leather. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . over the one to its right. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. A loop. Rupp. 3.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer.

Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. using the reverse side. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. pressing it against the wood. beeswax or paraffin. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. filling them with wax. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. When the supply of wax is exhausted. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. such as a nut pick. A. Houghton. Any smooth piece of steel. door facing or door panel. -Contributed by A. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Northville. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Mich. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. . A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. it can be easily renewed. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion.

The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. says Photographic Times. Petersburg. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. J. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. those on matte paper will work best. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. and about 12 in. Y. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. D. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. but any kind that will not stick may be used. apart and driven in only part way. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. remaining above the surface of the board. N. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. E and F. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. although tin ones can be used with good success.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Fold together on lines C. Enough plaster should. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. if blueprints are used. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. long. New York. Thompson. . Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. thick. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. place it face down in the dish. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. and after wetting. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. --Contributed by O. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. leaving about 1/4 in. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Ill. The tacks should be about 1 in. Select the print you wish to mount. it is best to leave a plain white margin.

Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. One of the . Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water.. as shown in the right of the sketch. filling the same about onehalf full. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. Lower into the test tube a wire. violets. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. etc. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. without mixing the solutions.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. bell flowers. roses. will be rendered perfectly white. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. as shown at the left in the sketch. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes.

The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. Fig. long and made of wood. --Contributed by L. 1. South Dakota. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. thick. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. to keep the core from coming off in turning. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. 3. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. Shabino. made of heavy tin. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. as shown. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling.. in diameter and 1 in. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. shading. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. Millstown. as shown in the sketch. The diaphragm. not too tightly. is about 2-1/2 in. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. 1-7/8 in. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . long. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. but which will not wobble loose. A rod that will fit the brass tube. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. about 1/8s in. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The tin horn can be easily made. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. L. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. When soldering these parts together. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. and at the larger end. The sound box. The first point should be ground blunt. should be soldered to the box. 2. or delicate tints of the egg. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. turned a little tapering.

Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. says the Iowa Homestead.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. mice in the bottom. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. put a board on top. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Jr. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Ill. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Gold. Chicago. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. E. wondering what it was. and.Contributed by E. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Colo. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Victor.

Pereira. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Y. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. N. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Buffalo. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. . Can.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Ottawa. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter.

longer than the length of the can.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Grand Rapids. as shown. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. A. a piece of tin. Cal. by means of a flatheaded tack. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . --Contributed by Thos. --Contributed by W. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. as it can be made quickly in any size. through which several holes have been punched. Jaquythe. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. above the end of the dasher. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. Richmond. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. This cart has no axle. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Mich. Put a small nail 2 in. and at one end of the stick fasten. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. cut round. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. De Loof. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size.

and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. 1 ft. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. long. Kane. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. I reversed a door gong. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. as shown. 2. A wedge-shaped piece of . although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. Doylestown. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. New Orleans. Notches 1/8 in. of course. 2. The candles. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. 2. Pa.1. 1-1/2 in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. were below the level of the bullseye. wide. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. --Contributed by James M. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 2 in. wide and 3 ft. 1/4 in. apart. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. screwed it on the inside of a store box. 1. Fig. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. board. cut in the center of the rounding edge. deep and 3 in. The baseboard and top are separable. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. wide and 1/8 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. La. thick. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. wide and as long as the box.

Needles. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. The block can also be used as a paperweight. as shown in Fig. When not in use.. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. the blade is put back into the groove . the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. it can be removed without marring the casing. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. After the glue has dried. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. scissors. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf.Book Back Holders metal. For the handle. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. After completing the handle. when placed as in Fig. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Cover the block with rubber. the shelf could not be put on the window. take two pieces of hard wood. stone or wood. West Union. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. --Contributed by G. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. This device is very convenient for invalids. will. Ia. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. dressing one surface of each piece. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. wide into each side of the casing. etc. wide rubber bands or felt. 1. A. by cutting away the ends. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Mass. the reason being that if both were solid. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. Wood. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. Worcester. can be picked up without any trouble. 3.

Mass. A. 1. Malden. Pa. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. S. as shown in Fig. thus carrying the car up the incline. If desired. --Contributed by Maud McKee. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Jacobs.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. . as shown in Fig. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. 2. Hutchins. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Ohio. is shown in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by H. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. square and 4 in. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. -Contributed by W. A notch is cut in one side. Cleveland. Erie. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. long. 1 in.

It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing.. One sheet of metal. N.J. 6 by 9-1/2 in. If one such as is shown is to be used. The letters can be put on afterward. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. and an awl and hammer. Cape May Point. will be needed. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. This will insure having all parts alike. . Prepare a design for the front. a board on which to work it.

The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. mandolin or guitar. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. in the waste metal. says Master Painter. if desired. 1/4 part. which is desirable. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. The stick may be placed by the side of. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. that can be worked in your own parlor. as shown. a violin. applied by means of a brush. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. and add sugar of lead as a dryer." In all appearance. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. placed on a table. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. On the back. flat brush. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. Remove the metal. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. behind or through the center of a table leg. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. to right angles. varnish. The music will not sound natural. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. So impressive are the results. but weird and distant. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. 3/4 part. . paste the paper design right on the metal. If any polishing is required. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. One coat will do. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. only the marginal line is to be pierced. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over.Fasten the metal to the board. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. turpentine. 2 parts white vitriol. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. or. 1 part.

One thing is always at hand and that is wood. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. round-head machine screws. it might be difficult. square bar iron. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The longest piece. is bent square so as to form two uprights. long. long and spread about 8 in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. and is easy to construct. says Work. 3. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. are shaped as shown in Fig. wide. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. . The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. each 6 in. 2. across the top. thick by 1/2 in. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. With proper tools this is easy. long and measuring 26 in. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. apart. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. without them. Two pairs of feet. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. London. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. each 28 in.

then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. The design is formed in the lead. C. or. 5. special flux purchased for this purpose. cut a long piece of lead. and the base border. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. as shown in Fig. Fig. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. on it as shown. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. better still. 7. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. in the grooves of the borders. is held by the brads. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. B. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. After the glass is cut. A. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. After the joints are soldered. 6. While the piece of lead D. Place the corner piece of glass. using rosin as a flux. D. Fig. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. 5. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. The brads are then removed. lead. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. 4. the latter being tapped to . The glass.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips.

hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. N. rounded at the top as shown. thick and drill 3/4-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Dreier. This . A and B. Camden. Make three washers 3-in.the base of the clip. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. then flatten its end on the under side. rocker bolt. Two styles of hand holds are shown. J. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. --Contributed by W. Bore a 5/8-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. one on each side and central with the hole. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. holes through their centers. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. bolt. and round the corners of one end for a ring. plates. Jr. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. bolt. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. in diameter and about 9 in. long. as shown in Fig. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. Bore a 3/4-in. plank about 12 ft. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. and two wood blocks. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. then drill a 3/4-in. not less than 4 in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. long. This ring can be made of 1-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Fasten the plates to the block B. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. 8. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Secure a post. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. wood screws in each washer.. long. in diameter and 1/4 in. H. The center pin is 3/4-in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin.

as shown in the top view of the post Fig. can make a first class gymnasium. To substitute small. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. of 1/4-in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. by 2 ft. square by 5 ft. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. screws. 2-1/2 in. long. straight-grained hickory. in diameter and 7 in. 4 in. 16 screws. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. from one edge. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 1-1/4in. 4 in. chestnut or ash. and some one can swing an axe. La. by 6-1/2 ft. 9 in. 2 by 4 in. long. 3/4 by 3 in. horse and rings. 4 pieces. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were .will make an excellent cover for a pot. 1. long and 1 piece. 7 in. bit. long. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The four 7-in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. Draw a line on the four 7-in. shanks. long. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 4 pieces. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. long. maple. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. New Orleans. because it will not stand the weather. by 3 ft. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. boards along the side of each from end to end. hickory. 50 ft. 4 filler pieces. If trees are convenient. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 1 by 7 in. 3 in. 1/2 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. bolts and rope. square by 9-1/2 ft. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work.

It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. apart. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. Bore a 9/16-in. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. piece of wood. at each end.bored. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. from the end. deep and remove all loose dirt. apart. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire... The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. 2. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. 8 in. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. so the 1/2-in. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. each 3 ft. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. boards coincide.

apart. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. it is taken to the edge of the foot. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. just visible against the dark evening sky. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. and ascends the stem. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. but most deceptive at dusk. not much to look at in daytime. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. and then passes in a curve across the base. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. not even the tumbler. was at its height. disappearing only to reappear again. If the tumbler is rotated." which skimmed along the distant horizon. . As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. which at once gathered. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. in an endless belt. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. passing through a screweye at either end. it follows the edge for about 1 in. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. When the interest of the crowd. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. and materially heightened the illusion. He stretched the thread between two buildings. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. the effect will be as shown in the illustration.. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. W. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. about 100 ft. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. the effect is very striking. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. And all he used was a black thread. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem.

A wire about No. New Orleans. 4 wood screws. 7 in. 8 in. large spikes. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. preferably cedar. and turned in a spiral D. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 2 side braces. long. long and 1 doz. 2 cross braces. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. Fig. by 10 ft. To make the apparatus. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. long. long. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 4 knee braces. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. wide and 1 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. by 3 ft. long. 8 in. long. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 2 in. long. La. 2 by 4 in. 4 in. 4 bolts. The cork will come out easily. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 6 in. Bevel the ends of . from either side of the center. square and 6 ft. so the point will be on top. 2 by 4 in. beginning at a point 9 in. 2 base pieces. 8 in. square and 51/2 ft. deep. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. by 7 ft. 2 by 3 in. 1. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. 8 bolts. by 2 ft. long. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars.

screws. but even unpainted they are very durable. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. leaving the strainer always in position.the knee braces. Cal.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. . with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. The wood so treated will last for years. using four of the 7-in bolts. Richmond. After the trenches are dug. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. A large sized ladle. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. which face each other. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. A. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. jellies. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Two endpieces must be made. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. and countersinking the heads. ( To be Continued.. If using mill-cut lumber. equipped with a strainer. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. etc. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. save the bars. so the bolts in both will not meet. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. of 7 ft. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. leave it undressed. --Contributed by W. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. except the bars. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. These will allow the ladle to be turned. Jaquythe. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. additional long. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. as shown in the diagram.

A. drill press or planer. which seems impossible. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. of sufficient 1ength. thus holding the pail as shown. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. or various cutting compounds of oil. partly a barrier for jumps. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. . partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. it is necessary to place a stick. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. milling machine. Oil. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. In order to accomplish this experiment. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good.

square by 5-1/2 ft. stud cut rounding on one edge. To construct. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. in diameter--the larger the better. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in.. The round part of this log must be planed. bolts. 2 bases. long. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 2 by 4 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. 4-1/2 in. 4 in. bolts. long. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. by 3 ft. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. bolts. apart in a central position on the horse. in the ground. These are well nailed in place.. beginning 1-1/2 in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 4 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 1 in. long. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. by 3 ft. 1 cross brace. 7 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. long. 2 adjusting pieces. long. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. from each end. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. but 5 ft. 2 by 4 in. projections and splinters. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. by 3 ft. long. The material required is as follows: Two posts. and free from knots. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. apart. ten 1/2-in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 3 in. Hand holds must be provided next. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. long. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the .The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. is a good length. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. These are placed 18 in. wood yard or from the woods. 4 knee braces. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. square by 5 ft. two 1/2-in. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. bolt. Procure from a saw mill. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. long. to fasten the knee braces at the top.

Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. no one is responsible but himself. Richmond. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. it is caused by some obstruction. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Jaquythe. then bending to the shape desired. but nevertheless. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet.--Contributed by W. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Such a hand sled can be made in a . The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Cal. water. snow. pipe and fittings. etc. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. A. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Also. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. such as a dent. over and around. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon.horse top. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. it is caused by an overloaded shell. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way.

--Contributed by J. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. The end elevation. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Vener. which. when straightened out. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Toronto. 2. will give the length. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. 1. in width and 1/32 in. when complete. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. . are all the tools necessary. Noble. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Joerin.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. --Contributed by Arthur E. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. is much better than a wood sled. at E and F. --Contributed by James E. then run a string over each part. These. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Boston. France. Paris. Mass. thick. Ontario. W.

3. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. 4. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. nor that which is partly oxidized. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The method shown in Figs. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. . The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. are nailed. It is best to use soft water. AA and BB. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs.

having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. class ice-yacht. 2. The materials used are: backbone. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 8 and 9. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. Percy Ashley in Rudder. Broad lines can be made. 1). The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 2. or unequal widths as in Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. or various rulings may be made. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. as shown in Fig. 4. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. . two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 3. as shown in Fig. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

but if it is made much longer. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. bent and drilled as shown. a larger size of pipe should be used. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The headstock is made of two tees. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch.Fig. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. pipe. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The point should extend about 11/2 in. Both the lower . pins to keep them from turning. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. long. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. It can be made longer or shorter. about 30 in. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. 1-Details of Lathe sort. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. out from the collar. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. a tee and a forging. 1. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it.

1. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Laporte. else taper turning will result. --Contributed by M. and will answer for a great variety of work. or a key can be used as well. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. --Contributed by W. Cal. 2. but also their insulating properties. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. Held. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. 2. Man. UpDeGraff. Boissevain. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. as shown in Fig. 3/4 or 1 in. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. a corresponding line made on this. a straight line should be scratched Fig. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. --Contributed by W. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. 2. W. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. It is about 1 in. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. To do this. . M. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. as shown in Fig. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. thick as desired. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. Indiana. Musgrove. Fruitvale.

The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. as shown. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. To obviate this. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. --Contributed by E. Smith. J. Ft. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. long. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . Ark. The handle is of pine about 18 in. In use. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Cline.

La. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. and when once in true up to its size. After being entered.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. the drill does not need the tool. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Walter W. which should be backed out of contact. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. centering is just one operation too many. White. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. if this method is followed: First. on starting the lathe. Colo. Denver. face off the end of the piece. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. New Orleans. This prevents the drill from wobbling. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. take .

is put into the paper tube A. as shown in D. a long piece of glass tubing. and can be varied to suit the performer. shown at C. unknown to the spectators. shorter t h a n the wand. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. says the Sphinx. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. The glass tube B. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. the cap is placed over the paper tube. It can be used in a great number of tricks. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. a bout 1/2 in. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. by applying caustic soda or . vanishing wand. all the better. After the wand is removed. In doing this. The handkerchief rod. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. and this given to someone to hold. after being shown empty.

3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. thick. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. 2 Sides. with the back side rounding. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. 1 Neck.potash around the edges of the letters. The sides. and glue it to the neck at F. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. Cut a piece of hard wood. This dimension and those for the frets . The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. long. preferably hard maple. 1/4 in. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. Glue the neck to the box. 1 End. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. 1 Bottom. across the front and back to strengthen them. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. square and 1-7/8 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. by 14 by 17 in. 1. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. End. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. can be made by the home mechanic. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. As the cement softens. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. The brace at D is 1 in. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. With care and patience. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. Glue strips of soft wood. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. cut to any shape desired. as shown by K. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. 3/16.

long is used for a keel. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. E. or backbone. When it is completed you will have a canoe. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. -Contributed by J. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Carbondale. Stoddard. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels.Pa. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Norwalk. 3/16 in. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. in diameter. thick and about 1 ft. O. Frary. 1) on which to stretch the paper. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. A board 1 in. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. --Contributed by Chas. Six holes. H. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. toward each end.should be made accurately. wide and 11-1/2 ft. but it is not. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. and beveled .

For the ribs near the middle of the boat. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. apart. 4. as before described. slender switches of osier willow. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. and. 3/8 in. 2). stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. b. and so. Green wood is preferable. b. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. Fig. Fig. These are better. Fig. b. procure at a carriage factory. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. such as hazel or birch. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Fig. a. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. and notched at the end to receive them (B. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales.) in notches. wide by 26 in. with long stout screws. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. 2. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. In drying. as they are apt to do. twigs 5 or 6 ft. two strips of wood (b. as shown in Fig. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. 13 in. C. 1. Fig. B. Any tough. Fig. and are not fastened. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. which are easily made of long. 1 and 2. 3. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Fig. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. 3. by means of a string or wire. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. probably. or similar material. will answer nearly as well. as shown in Fig. or other place. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. 3). in thickness and should be cut. For the gunwales (a. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Osiers probably make the best ribs. but twigs of some other trees. are next put in. buy some split cane or rattan. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. such as is used for making chairbottoms. long. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. 4). Shape these as shown by A. two twigs may be used to make one rib. in such cases. the loose strips of ash (b. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. long are required. Fig. some tight strips of ash. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. . when made of green elm. The cross-boards (B. 3). while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. Fig.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. but before doing this. C. thick. The ribs. thick. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. 2)..

This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. of very strong wrapping-paper. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. It should be smooth on the surface. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. and steady in the water. Fig. tacking it to the bottom-board. and as soon as that has soaked in. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. and very tough. 5). after wetting it. You may put in . The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. The paper is then trimmed. wide. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. Being made in long rolls. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. and held in place by means of small clamps. if it has been properly constructed of good material. If the paper be 1 yd. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Then take some of the split rattan and. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. but with less turpentine. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. If not. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. however. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. It should be drawn tight along the edges. B.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. but neither stiff nor very thick. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. apply a second coat of the same varnish. When the paper is dry. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. and light oars. preferably iron. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. When thoroughly dry.

and if driven as shown in the cut. 1. to fit it easily. Fig. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. they will support very heavy weights. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. 5).Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. 5. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. Drive the lower nail first. fore and aft. We procured a box and made a frame. 2. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. and make a movable seat (A. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. 1 and the end in . A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. Fig. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. Fig.

and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat.Fig. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. and the result is. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. 3. This way has its drawbacks. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. Close the other end with the same operation. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. this makes the tube airtight. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. and the glass. 4. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. A good way to handle this work. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. 5. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. Pittsburg. Pa. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. This is an easy . Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. being softer where the flame has been applied.

four. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. above the metal. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Seventh. file. extra metal all around. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. -Contributed by A. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. three. rivet punch. fifth. After the bulb is formed. or six arms. Work from the center along concentric rings outward.way to make a thermometer tube. second. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. very rapid progress can be made. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. with a piece of carbon paper. The candle holders may have two. metal shears. flat and round-nosed pliers. then reverse. fourth. 23 gauge. Give the metal a circular motion. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. also trace the decorative design. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. thin screw. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. Sixth. third. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. Oswald.

The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. and holder. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Metal polish of any kind will do. Small copper rivets are used. Having pierced the bracket. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. drip cup.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done.

deep. and add the gelatine. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. is a broomstick. N. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Soak 1 oz. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. and it will be ready for future use. except they had wheels instead of runners. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. J. The boom. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. alcohol 2 parts. of glycerine to about 200 deg. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. Mother let me have a sheet. hammer. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. when it will be ready for use. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and water 24 parts. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. winding the ends where they came together with wire. thus it was utilized. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. Shiloh. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. and brace and bit were the tools used. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. on a water bath. A saw. using a steel pen. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. smooth it down and then remove as before. sugar 1 part. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. I steer with the front wheel. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. The gaff. Fifty. and in a week . F. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. the stick at the bottom of the sail. and other things as they were needed. glycerine 4 parts. Twenty cents was all I spent. all the rest I found. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough.

a projecting lens . A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. G. well seasoned pine. and a projecting lens 2 in. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. or a lens of 12-in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. describe a 9-in. E. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. long. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. DD. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. Fig. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. or glue. A and B. high. 3. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. provided the material is of metal. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. 1. as desired. at a distance of 24 ft. 1/2 to 3/4 in. slide to about 6 ft. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. If a small saw is used. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. H. and the work carefully done.. wide and 15 in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. above the center. A table. thick. The board is centered both ways. are . white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. The slide support. wide. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. but if such a box is not found. at a point 1 in. about 2 ft. and the lens slide. wire brads. and 14 in. and. focus enlarging a 3-in. This ring is made up from two rings. 8 in.

Paul. JJ. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. Small strips of tin. St. the strips II serving as guides. of safe. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. should the glass happen to upset. the water at once extinguishes the flame. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. apply two coats of shellac varnish. P. To reach the water. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. B. E. but not long enough. Minn.constructed to slip easily on the table. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil.-Contributed by G. light burning oil. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. and when the right position is found for each. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. A sheet . placed on the water. The arrangement is quite safe as. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick.

I ordered a canvas bag. 4. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. Crawford. Fig. to cover the mattresses. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. Schenectady.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 2. 9 in. 3. Y. 3 in. 1. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. If one of these clips is not at hand. --Contributed by J. 12 ft. 3. then the corners on one end are doubled over. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. by 12 ft. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. N. form a piece of wire in the same shape.H. Fig.. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. from a tent company.

C. insulating them from the case with cardboard. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. 3 to swing freely on the tack. first mark the binding-post A. wide. Fig. 2. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. for amperes and the other post. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. holes in the edge. D. Fasten the wire with gummed label. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. 2. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edward M. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. --Contributed by Walter W. 1/2 in. A rubber band. long and 3/16 in. long. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Pa. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. Teasdale. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. in the center coil. apart. to keep it from unwinding. 1. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. To calibrate the instrument. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig.each edge. 3/4 in. drill two 3/16 in. and insert two binding-posts. Warren. Do not use too strong a rubber. V. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. open on the edges. thick. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. A Film Washing Trough [331] . An arc is cut in the paper. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Attach a piece of steel rod. 1. to the coil of small wire for volts. 2. 1/2 in. Fig. Colo. so as to form two oblong boxes. Denver. through which the indicator works. White.

apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Place this can on one end of the trough. --Contributed by M. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Hunting. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Wood Burning [331] . A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Cut a 1/4-in. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Dayton. M. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. O. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. with the large hole up. as shown.

a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . then into this bottle place.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. mouth downward. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids.

Upper Troy. Whitehouse. If the cork is adjusted properly.Y. provided the bottle is wide. 3/4 in. long. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. as shown in the sketch. If the small bottle used is opaque. Place the small bottle in as before. --Contributed by Fred W. many puzzling effects may be obtained. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Ala. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. but not very thick. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. 2. wide and 4 in. N.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. Auburn. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. --Contributed by John Shahan. This will make a very pretty ornament. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. 1. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. thick. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A.

J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. or ordinary telephone transmitters. The shaft C. Fig. iron rod. in diameter and 1 in. 1. was keyed to shaft C. line. On a 1000-ft. If a transmitter is used. by the method shown in Fig. thick. B. Both bearings were made in this manner. long. thick. W. sugar pine on account of its softness. which extended to the ground. was 1/4in. as shown in Fig. which was 6 in. Fig. G. I. Fig. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. were constructed of 1-in. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. Its smaller parts. which was nailed to the face plate. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. 4. 2. Milter. 1. 1. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. 1 in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. even in a light breeze. Fig.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. The bearing blocks were 3 in. 1. --Contributed by D. wide. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. The 21/2-in. The wire L was put . pulley. A staple. which gave considerable power for its size. high without the upper half. Fig. K. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. 2 ft. to the shaft. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. thick and 3 in. such as blades and pulleys. pulley F. 3. 1. held the shaft from revolving in the hub.

long. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. 1. with brass headed furniture tacks. cut out another piece of tin (X. strips. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. 1. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. There a 1/4-in. The other lid. 0.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Fig. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. The power was put to various uses. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. 25 ft. The smaller one. wide and 1 in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. hole was bored for it. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. long and bend it as shown at A. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. top down also. 1. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. This board was 12 in. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. long and bend it as . Fig. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. G. 1. square to the board P at the top of the tower. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. in diameter. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. 3 in. long and 1/2 in. Fig. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. with all parts in place. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. was 2 ft. Fig. through the latter. as. so that the 1/4-in. in the center of the board P. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. R. Fig. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. To lessen the friction here. 6. long. The bed plate D. If you have no bell. for instance. a 1/2-in. across the thin edge of a board. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Two washers were placed on shaft C. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. To make the key. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. 1) 4 in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. pine 18 by 12 in. when the windmill needed oiling. apart in the tower. and was cut the shape shown. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. 5. hole for the shaft G was in the center. This fan was made of 1/4-in. was tacked. washers were placed under pulley F. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. This completes the receiver or sounder. providing one has a few old materials on hand. Fig. H. long and 3 in. Fig. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. 2. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. 6.

1. By adjusting the coils. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. McConnell. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. leaving the other wire as it is. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. as indicated. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. although it can be made with but two. using cleats to hold the board frame. 2. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. The rear barrels are. as shown at Water. like many another device boys make. and. Thus a center drive is made. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. Now. at the front. after the manner of bicycle wheels. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. consisting of four pieces of board nailed .shown. Going back to Fig. -Contributed by John R. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. When tired of this instrument. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. fitted with paddles as at M. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Before tacking it to the board. causing a buzzing sound.

To propel it. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. feet on the pedals. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. there will not be much friction. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. 1. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. There is no danger. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. can be built. which will give any amount of pleasure. 3. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. copper piping and brass tubing for base. or even a little houseboat. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. as shown in Fig. If the journals thus made are well oiled. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. The speed is slow at first. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it.

Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Fig. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. 2. If magnifying glass cannot be had. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Place one brass ring in cylinder. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. A. Shape small blocks of boxwood. or it may be put to other uses if desired. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Then melt out the rosin or lead. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. 2. then the glass disc and then the other ring. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. Fig. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Turn a small circle of wood. 1. If it is desired to make the light very complete. C. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. B. and so creating a false circuit.of pleasure for a little work. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. 2. 1. D. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . 1. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. Fig. Fig. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector.

--Contributed by Geo. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. H. bracket. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. Ogden. 3/8 in. long. while lying in bed. wire from light to switch. Throw lever off from the right to center. such as is used for cycle valves. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. after two turns have been made on the key. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . S. shelf. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. F. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. key of alarm clock. To get the cylinder into its carriage. brass strip. I. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. X. bell. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. T. To operate this. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. wire from bell to switch. D.. dry batteries. Swissvale. J. --Contributed by C. switch. In placing clock on shelf. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . Brinkerhoff. C. if too small. contact post. by having the switch on the baseboard. G. 5-1/4 by 10 in. Chatland. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. The parts indicated are as follows: A. which stops bell ringing. To throw on light throw levers to the left. copper tubing. wide and 1/16 in. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. Pa. near the bed. Utah. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal.india rubber tubing. 4 in. 4-1/2 in. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. set alarm key as shown in diagram. B. some glue will secure them. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. long. brass rod. C. and pulled tight. When alarm goes off. or 1/4in. wire from batteries to switch. thick. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. after setting alarm. E.

All that is required is a tin covering. gives the heater a more finished appearance.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. as in Fig. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. --Contributed by Chas. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. as at B. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. S. letting it extend 3/4 in. place stick and all in a pail of sand. 2. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. This is to form the fuse hole. Lanesboro. 1/4 in. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. in diameter. about 6 in. being careful not to get the sand in it. making it as true and smooth as possible. for instance. about 3-1/2 in. 1. Make the spindle as in Fig. from one end. wide. which can be made of an old can. Having finished this. as . as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Fig. a bed warmer. Fig. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. beyond the end of the spindle. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. Chapman. long. 1. Minn. will do the heating. 2. as at A. 4 in. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Make a shoulder. in diameter. Fig. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. as at A. 3. Pull out the nail and stick. A flannel bag. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. A small lamp of about 5 cp.

wide and 3/8 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. 5/8 in. deep. this is to keep the edges from splitting. but if this wood cannot be procured. --Contributed by Arthur E. 1. long. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. A piece of oak. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. will be sufficient to make the trigger. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. ash. 3/8 in. The illustration shows how this is done. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . good straight-grained pine will do. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. thick. spring and arrows. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. 1 in. 6 in. 11/2 in. or hickory. long. A piece of tin. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. thick. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. The material must be 1-1/2 in. wide and 6 ft. long. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. wide and 3 ft.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. thick. Joerin. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig.

which is 1/4 in.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. To shoot the crossbow. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. 2. 4. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. wide at each end. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. as shown in Fig. Wilmette. 7. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. in diameter. from the end of the stock. E. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. and one for the trigger 12 in. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. 6. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. A spring. --Contributed by O. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. Fig. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Ill. 8. 9. 3. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. having the latter swing quite freely. To throw the arrow. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. or through the necessity of. it lifts the spring up. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. The stick for the bow. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. thick. better still. from the opposite end. Such a temporary safe light may be . it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. Fig. Trownes. When the trigger is pulled. as shown in Fig. place the arrow in the groove. The bow is not fastened in the stock. Fig. The trigger.

The Indian camp is the easiest to make. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. make the frame of the wigwam. says Photo Era. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. it is the easiest camp to make. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. respectively. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. This lamp is safe. since the flame of the candle is above A. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. from the ground. from the ground. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. apart. is used as a door. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. and replace as shown at B. the bark lean-to is a . The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. making lighting and trimming convenient. Remove the bottom of the box. By chopping the trunk almost through.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. and nail it in position as shown at A. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Moreover. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. The cut should be about 5 ft. Remove one end. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. or only as a camp on a short excursion. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. The hinged cover E. C.

thick. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. and when the camp is pitched. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. . makes a good pair of tongs. deep and covered with blankets. nails are necessary to hold it in place. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. long and 1-1/2 in. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. For a permanent camp. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. long. long and 2 or 3 ft. wide and 6 ft. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Sheets of bark. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. Tongs are very useful in camp. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. and split the tops with an ax. Where bark is used. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. a 2-in. In the early summer. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. wide. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. piled 2 or 3 ft. A piece of elm or hickory. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. 3 ft. are a convenient size for camp construction. and cedar. selecting a site for a camp. will dry flat. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. spruce. 6 ft. make the best kind of a camp bed. For a foot in the middle of the stick.

hinges. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and affording accommodation for several persons. . A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.

deep and 4 in.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day.. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. A. Fig. and provide a cover or door. to another . wide. changing the water both morning and night. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Pa. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. B. B. Kane. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. 1. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. --Contributed by James M. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. the interior can. about 4 in. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. Doylestown. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. I drove a small cork.

The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. limit. such as ether. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. fused into one side. 2. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. for instance. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. This makes . The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. until. C. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. 3. if necessary. 2. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. a liquid. Fig. to pass through an increasing resistance. The current is thus compelled. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together.glass tube. 4 and 5). shows how the connections to the supply current are made. for instance. E. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The diagram. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. which project inside and outside of the tube.

This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. Fig. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. which will make it uniform in size. when several pieces are placed together. they will make a frame 3/4 in. on a lathe. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. A. is composed of wrought sheet iron. hole is . in diameter. drill the four rivet holes. Fig. making it 1/16 in. or pattern. as shown in the left-hand sketch. between centers. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. and for the outside of the frame. 4-1/2 in. Alpena. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. thicker. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. thick. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. Before removing the field from the lathe. 1. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. therefore. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. 2. The bearing studs are now made. cannot be used so often. bent at right angles as shown. set at 1/8 in. which may be of any thickness so that. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. When the frame is finished so far. 3-3/8 in. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. to allow for finishing. in diameter. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. thick. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. by turning the lathe with the hand. After cleaning them with the solution. mark off a space. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. brass or iron. or even 1/16 in. After the template is marked out. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. Then the field can be finished to these marks. larger than the dimensions given. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. clamp the template. tap. screws. A 5/8in. assemble and rivet them solidly.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. brass. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. but merely discolored. Michigan. These holes are for the bearing studs. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. 3. as shown in Fig. two holes. If the thickness is sufficient. 3-3/8 in.

These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. soldered into place. 4. brass rod is inserted. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The shaft of the armature. or otherwise finished. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. solder them to the supports.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. When the bearings are located. file them out to make the proper adjustment. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. and build up the solder well. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. Fig. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. into which a piece of 5/8-in. is turned up from machine steel. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field.

The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. by 1-1/2 in. 3/4 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. hole and tap it for a pin. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. 9. being formed for the ends. as shown m Fig. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. Procure 12 strips of mica. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. 6. thick and 1/4 in. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 3/4 in. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. as shown in Fig. Find the centers of each segment at one end. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. When this is accomplished. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. The sides are also faced off and finished. thick. or segments. thick. washers. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. holes through them for rivets. 1/8 in. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. deep and 7/16 in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. Rivet them together. sheet fiber. brass rod. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. After they . Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. 8. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. inside diameter. Make the core 3/4 in. 3. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. threaded. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. After the pieces are cut out. as shown in Fig. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. then drill a 1/8-in. thick are cut like the pattern. and then they are soaked in warm water.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. 3. to allow for finishing to size. and held with a setscrew. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. wide. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber.. as shown in Fig. When annealed. 6. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. thick. 1-1/8 in. 7. Armature-Ring Core. The pins are made of brass. as shown in Fig. wide. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. 5.

of the wire. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. The source of current is connected to the terminals. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. The winding is started at A. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. This winding is for a series motor. Fig. the two ends of the wire. long. 6 in. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. In starting to wind. thick. until the 12 slots are filled. about 100 ft. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. and wind on four layers. they are glued to the core insulation. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. yet it shows a series of . run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. of No. 1. All connections should be securely soldered.have dried. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. Run one end of the field wire. of the end to protrude. When the glue is set. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. To connect the wires. which will take 50 ft. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. or side. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. The field is wound with No. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. sheet fiber. After one coil. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. 1. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. 8 in. after the motor is on the stand. 5. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. being required. shown at B. by bending the end around one of the projections. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. are soldered together. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Fig. shown at A. wide and 1 in. sheet fiber. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. The two ends are joined at B. and bring the end of the wire out at B.

alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. or. one from each of the eight contacts. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. Nine wires run from the timer. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. as in the case of a spiral. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. A 1/2-in. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. which serves as the ground wire. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. and one. still more simply. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. is fastened to the metallic body. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind.

circle. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. It should be . thus giving 16 different directions. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. of the dial. long. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. board.The Wind Vane. Without this attachment. 6 in. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. Covering these is a thin. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. 45 deg. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire.

14 by 18 in. high. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. will be enough for the two sides. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. To make it. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. is most satisfactory. though a special knife. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. will answer the purpose just as well. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. Before tacking the fourth side. Cut 3-in. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. thus making a universal joint. Blackmer. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. however. or. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. and securely nail on the top of the box. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. To work these outlines. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. according to who is going to use it. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. . Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. Buffalo. Fill the box with any handy ballast. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. N. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. called a chip carving knife. Place the leather on some level. if not too high. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. will be sufficient. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. and about 6 in. long to give the best results. Y. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. making it heavy or light. -Contributed by James L. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. also a piece of new carpet.about 6 ft.

Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. An ordinary sewing-machine . Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. A good leather paste will be required.

cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation.will do if a good stout needle is used. B. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. square and tying a piece of . Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. and tie them together securely at the bottom. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. a needle and some feathers. Syracuse. If a fire breaks out. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. or a hip that has been wrenched. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. can be thrown away when no longer needed. temporary lameness. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Y. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. away from it. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. as in cases of a sprained ankle. --Contributed by Katharine D. N. rather than the smooth side. of common salt and 10 lb. Morse. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. of water. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used.

Hellwig. long. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. long. setting traps. commonly called tintype tin. Ashland. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. N. letting it go at arm's length. but not sharp.. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. Gordon Dempsey. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. Y. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. The body of the receiver. wide and 1/16 in. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. wound on the head end. One end is removed entirely. and tacked it to the boards. Albany. board all around the bottom on the inside. The strings should be about 15 in. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. which is the essential part of the instrument. 1/8 in. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. A. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast.J. F. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. made up of four layers of No. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. . and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. There is a 1-in. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. The coil is 1 in. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. E. and a coil of wire. The diaphragm C. as shown. Paterson. cut to the length of the spool. --Contributed by John A. and the receiver is ready for use. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. deep. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. is cut on the wood. The end is filed to an edge.string to each corner. B. laying poisoned meat and meal. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. Wis. N. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. etc. This not only keeps the rats out. --Contributed by J. A small wooden or fiber end. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. thus helping the rats to enter. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. the corners being wired. high. G.

better still. and bend each strip in shape. a piece of small wire. To clean small articles. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. A single line will be sufficient. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. Take a piece of string or. gold. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. to . begin with the smallest scrolls. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. wide. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. The vase is to have three supports. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together.

then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. sharp pencil. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Trace also the line around the purse. through which to slip the fly AGH.. from E to F. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. .000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. 6-3/8 in. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. After taking off the pattern. 4-1/4 in. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. using a duller point of the tool. wide when stitching up the purse. as shown in the sketch. from the lines EF on the piece. and does not require coloring.. from C to D. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. 3-1/2 in. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. thus raising it. About 1 in. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Work down the outside line of the design. 3-1/4 in. Fold the leather on the line EF.which the supports are fastened with rivets.

Make the lug 1/4 in. It can be made without the use of a lathe. as well as useful. 1 was cut. and the projections B. deep. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. with pins or small nails. then place the square piece out of which Fig. 3. by 12 ft. 2. and.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. as shown in Fig. First. Now take another piece of wood. around the wheel. and which will be very interesting. 1/2 in. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. Then nail the wheel down firmly. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. and tack the other piece slightly.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. b. 1. long. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and cut out a wheel. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. all the way around. Cut off six pieces 12 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. deep. and cut it out as shown in Fig. When it is finished. with the largest side down. It is neat and efficient. and a model for speed and power. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. being cast in wooden molds. leaving the lug a. then nail it. This also should be slightly beveled. with the open side down. following the dotted lines. with a compass saw. Fit this to the two . the "open" side. square. thick.

and boring a 3/8-in. as shown by the . and lay it away to dry. 1. place it between two of the 12-in. slightly beveled. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. in the center of it. and clean all the shavings out of it. Take the mold apart. then bolt it together. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. Now put mold No. square pieces of wood. After it is finished. Now take another of the 12-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and bore six 1/4-in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. one of which should have a 3/8-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and cut it out as shown in Fig. hole bored through its center. 4. hole entirely through at the same place. holes through it. bolts. deep. square pieces of wood. hole 1/4 in.pieces just finished.

take an ordinary brace. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. from the one end. the other right-handed. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. wide and 16 in. and the other in the base. until it is full. fasten a 3/8-in. 6. 5. holes at d. long.2. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. Fig. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and run in babbitt metal again. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. 1. screw down. Now cut out one of the 12-in. d. one in the projections. and connect to the boiler. place it under the drill. b.1. as shown in illustration. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. Put this together in mold No. and pouring metal in to fill it up. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. put the top of the brace through this hole. and drill it entirely through. and 3/8-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. so that it will turn easily. lay it on a level place. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel.2. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. This is the same as Fig.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. see that the bolts are all tight. Commencing 1-1/2 in. Now take mold No. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. drill in it. where the casting did not fill out.1. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. place the entire machine in a vise. in diameter must now be obtained. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. and pour babbitt metal into it. and drill them in the same manner. This will cast a paddle-wheel. holes. This is for a shaft. B. Then bolt the castings together. only the one is left-handed. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. and lay it away to dry. true it up with a square. Let it stand for half an hour. instead of the right-handed piece. Using the Brace . Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft.black dots in Fig. 4. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. one in the lug. 6. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. After it is fitted in. A piece of mild steel 5 in. over the defective part. long. This is mold No. and bore three 1/4-in. and two 1/4-in. Pour metal into mold No. and the exhaust hole in projection b.

fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. At each end of the 6ft.. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. and. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. and the other 8 ft. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. while it is running at full speed. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. and with three small screw holes around the edge. with a boss and a set screw. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and if instructions have been carefully followed. will do good service. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Then take a knife or a chisel. one 6 ft. Plan of Ice Boat . piece and at right angles to it. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. long.

which may come in handy in heavy winds. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . 3. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. in diameter in the center. in front of the rudder block. long and 2-1/2 in. Over the middle of the 6-ft. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. The spar should be 9 ft. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. 8 a reef point knot. The tiller.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. 1. at the butt and 1 in. at the end. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. boards to make the platform. leaving 1 ft. and about 8 in. where they often did considerable damage. plank nail 8-in. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. To the under side of the 8-ft. long. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. at the top. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. tapering to 1-1/2 in. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. in the top before the skate is put on. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. Fig. should be of hardwood. piece and at right angles to it. Make your runners as long as possible. Run the seam on a machine. Fig. in diameter at the base. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. projecting as in Fig. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. so much the better will be your boat. 1. This fits in the square hole. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. plank. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. bolt the 8-ft. as the runners were fastened. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. distant. 2 by 3 in. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. in diameter. long.

Pa. B. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. Phoenix. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. and place it behind a stove. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. allowing the springs to contact at C. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. P. small piece of wood. wide. bent into a hook at each end. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. --Contributed by John D. Its parts are as follows: A. P. Mechanicsburg. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. The . binding-posts fastening the springs S S. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. S S. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. The arrangement proved quite too effective. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. and the alarm bell will ring. Ariz. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. so that they come in contact at C. --Contributed by J. Comstock. Adams. to block B. block of wood nailed to A.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. R.

6 in. including the . The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. 2. The stump makes the best support. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. high. 1. Gild the pan all over.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. Take the glass. and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. The seat arms may be any length desired. The center pole should be 10 ft. says the American Boy. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to t