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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

until it is bound as shown in Fig. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. as shown in Fig. A piece of plank 12 in. E. To throw a boomerang. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. distant. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. 2 -. 1. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. The pieces are then dressed round. It is held in this curve until dry. 2. Noble. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. as shown in Fig. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. --Contributed by J. apart. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. 1.Fig. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. Toronto. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. long will make six boomerangs. Fig. grasp it and hold the same as a club. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. wide and 2 ft. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. 2. away. Ontario. with the hollow side away from you. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. 1.

the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. one inside of the circle and the other outside. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. forcing it down closely. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. A very light. long. thick. which makes the building simpler and easier. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. but about 12 in. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. it is not essential to the support of the walls. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. however. If the snow is of the right consistency. 6 in. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. the block will drop out. high and 4 or 5 in.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. made of 6-in. or rather no bottom at all. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. dry snow will not pack easily. and it may be necessary to use a little water. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. A wall. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. minus the top. First. and with a movable bottom. blocks .

The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. It also keeps them out. Goodbrod. --Contributed by Geo. 2. C. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. 1. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. Ore. 2. is 6 or 8 in. or an old safe dial will do. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. Union. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. The piece of wood. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. There is no outward thrust. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. and the young architect can imitate them. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. 3. long and 1 in. a. Fig. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. D. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. A nail. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. wide. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. Fig. above the ground. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. which can be made of wood. 3 -. which is about 1 ft. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. 1. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. Fig. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices.

and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. S. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. --Contributed by R. as the weight always draws them back to place. the box locked . one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. says the Sphinx. Merrill. Syracuse. If ordinary butts are used.When taking hot dishes from the stove. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. one pair of special hinges. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. New York.

When the sieve is shaken. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. 1. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. 2. Place the piece in a vise. 3. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. about 1-32 of an inch. smooth surface. draw one-half of it. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Fig. If they do not. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Alberta Norrell. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. on drawing paper. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. one for each corner. It remains to bend the flaps. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. All . proceed as follows: First. To make a design similar to the one shown. as shown. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. -Contributed by L. With the metal shears. Ga. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. allowing each coat time to dry. If the measuring has been done properly. The four pieces should be worked at the same time.and the performer steps out in view. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Augusta. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal.

and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. After this has dried. C. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. in diameter. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. A resistance. Colo. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings.the edges should be left smooth. if rolled under the shoe sole. The current. The common cork. H. --Contributed by R. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. should be in the line. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . In boring through rubber corks. When the current is turned off. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. B. in passing through the lamp. To keep the metal from tarnishing. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. as shown at AA. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. 25 gauge German-silver wire. is fitted tightly in the third hole. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. from the back end. used for insulation. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. Denver. R. A piece of porcelain tube. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. Galbreath. causing it to expand. about 6 in. long. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. and in the positions shown in the sketch. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. If a touch of color is desired. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. 25 German-silver wire. of No. which is about 6 in. heats the strip of German-silver wire. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc.

with thin strips of wood. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Purchase two long book straps. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. leaving a space of 4 in.bottom ring. 2. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. 3. . Fig. as shown in Fig. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. --Contributed by David Brown. 1. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Mo. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Kansas City. between them as shown in Fig.

which is the right weight for family use. 4. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. 3.An ordinary electric bell. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. --Contributed by James M. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. as . just the right weight for a woman to use. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. one weighing 15 lb. are mounted on the outside of the box. Pa. in diameter. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. When the aeroplane tips.. 1. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. 1. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. and tack smoothly. A. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. --Contributed by Katharine D. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. having a gong 2-1/2 in. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. The string is then tied. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. Fig. Two strips of brass. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. and one weighing 25 lb. Fig. These are shown in Fig. Doylestown.. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. N. to form a handle. 2. Fig. Kane. The folds are made over the string. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Y. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. and a pocket battery. 36 in. 1. Morse. C. Syracuse. long. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year.

two 1/8 -in. AA. in diameter. Frame Made of a Rod . such as brackets. Day. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Y. 3/32 or 1/4 in. Floral Park. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. N. bent as shown in Fig. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. 2. 1. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. machine screws. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. 2. --Contributed by Louis J. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. if once used. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. and many fancy knick-knacks. The saw. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. four washers and four square nuts. long.

Scranton. Rub off the highlights.. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. Drying will cause this to change to purple. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. The buckle is to be purchased. Of the leathers. Watch Fob For coloring silver. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Silver is the most desirable but. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. therefore. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. though almost any color may be obtained. use them in place of the outside nuts. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. after breaking up. allowing each time to dry.may be made of either brass. of water in which dissolve. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. be covered the same as the back. For etching. An Austrian Top [12] . In the design shown. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. or silver. as well as brass and copper. --Contributed by W. Apply two coats. if copper or brass. the most expensive. it has the correct strength. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. Michigan. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. File these edges. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. green and browns are the most popular. as well as the depth of etching desired. A. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. using a swab and an old stiff brush. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. of course. of water. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. copper. 1 part sulphuric acid. 1 part nitric acid. Detroit. If it colors the metal red. treat it with color.

thick. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. When the shank is covered. Bore a 3/4-in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. --Contributed by J. pass one end through the 1/16-in. 1-1/4 in. 5-1/4 in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. in diameter. Parts of the Top To spin the top. Tholl. long. hole in this end for the top. hole.F. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Ypsilanti. A 1/16-in. long. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. allowing only 1-1/4 in. 3/4 in. . wide and 3/4 in. is formed on one end. A handle. The handle is a piece of pine. Michigan. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown.

having no sides.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. Mich. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. --A. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Houghton. tarts or similar pastry. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. For black leathers. The baking surface. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. . The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. --Contributed by Miss L. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. A. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Ga. Northville. Augusta. Alberta Norrell. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length.

says Studio Light. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. glass fruit jar. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. then solder cover and socket together. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. When you desire to work by white light. Centralia. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. the same as shown in the illustration.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. Mo. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. two turns will remove the jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. Stringing Wires [13] A.

4 Vertical pieces. 1-1/4 in. 16 Horizontal bars. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. as shown in the cross-section sketch. . and not tip over. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. square by 12 in. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration.for loading and development. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. square by 62 in. They are fastened. Janesville. Wis. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1-1/4 in. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 4 Braces. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. so it can be folded up.

Cincinnati. Phillipsburg. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. --Contributed by Dr. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. The front can be covered . 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. and a loop made in the end. O. New York. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. H. After rounding the ends of the studs. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. -Contributed by Charles Stem. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The whole. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. from scrap material. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. C. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. Rosenthal.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. after filling the pail with water. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction.

I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. By using the following method. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. If the gate is raised slightly. Baltimore. you are. Develop them into strong prints.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. FIG. and. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. Wehr. either for contact printing or enlargements. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. The results will be poor. thoroughly fix. the mouth of which rests against a. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. by all rules of the game. Md. if you try to tone them afterward. the color will be an undesirable. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. sickly one. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. 1 FIG. --Contributed by Gilbert A. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. The . principally mayonnaise dressing. In my own practice. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more.

2.... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. three times. without previous wetting. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by T. in size.... 2 oz.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.... 5 by 15 in.. preferably the colored kind. Cal..... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. When the desired reduction has taken place.. when it starts to bleach.. Water .. San Francisco. as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. 1 and again as in Fig...... but. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. L.. long to admit the angle support.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. Place the dry print.. to make it 5 by 5 in.... transfer it to a tray of water. etc... Gray.. With a little practice... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. The blotting paper can .. A good final washing completes the process. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper......bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. It will bleach slowly and evenly........ This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects...." Cyanide of potassium . 20 gr. where it will continue to bleach.. 16 oz.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. in this solution.. wide and 4 in. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. Iodide of potassium . They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax....

How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. and a length of 5 in.J. Oshkosh. the head of which is 2 in. Monahan. wide. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Wisconsin. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. the shaft 1 in. wide below the . and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Corners complete are shown in Fig. 20 gauge. Make a design similar to that shown. --Contributed by J. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Wilson Aldred Toronto. --Contributed by L. 3.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Canada. having a width of 2-1/4 in.

deep. then coloring. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. using a small metal saw. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. after folding along the center line. using turpentine. but use a swab on a stick. as shown in Fig. 1 Fig. Make one-half of the design. With files. 2. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. 1 part sulphuric acid. For coloring olive green. using carbon paper. Do not put the hands in the solution. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. The metal must be held firmly. With the metal shears. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. being held perpendicular to the work. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. 1 part nitric acid. Pierce a hole with a small drill. 1. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. Apply with a small brush. After the sawing. 3. After this has dried. which gives the outline of the design Fig.FIG. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. Trace the design on the metal. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. then put on a second coat. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Fig. Allow this to dry. . A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. 4. freehand. then trace the other half in the usual way. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded.

the block is split and the pasteboard removed. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. on a chopping board. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. When this is cold. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. New York. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Morse. East Hartford. Ii is an ordinary staple. Carl Cramer. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. --Contributed by H. attach brass handles. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. After the stain has dried. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. it does the work rapidly. Conn. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. --Contributed by M. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. thick. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Cal. . as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. as shown. Richmond. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. then stain it a mahogany color. Burnett. --Contributed by Katharine D. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. M. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Syracuse.

sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. 1/4 in. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Jaquythe. . square. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. two enameled. saucers or pans. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. one shaft. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. Florida. 1. or tin. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Cal. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim.. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. some pieces of brass. Richmond. about 3/16 in. as shown at A. 53 steel pens. and several 1/8-in. indicating the depth of the slots. WARNECKE Procure some brass. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. A. machine screws. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. holes. Kissimmee. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. also locate the drill holes. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. --Contributed by Mrs. H. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Atwell. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. L. brass. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. --Contributed by W. not over 1/4 in. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. in width at the shank. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. as shown in Fig. Fig. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. thick. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. 4.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron.

each about 1 in. supply pipe. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. 3. 3. machine screws. If metal dishes. long by 3/4 in. into the hole. Bend as shown in Fig. using two nuts on each screw. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. can be procured. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. with 1/8-in. hole is drilled to run off the water. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. 5. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. in diameter and 1/32 in. 7. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. hole in the center. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. about 1/32 in. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. wide and bend as shown in Fig. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. machine screws and nuts. thick. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. hole. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. 6. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. as in Fig. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. with a 3/8-in. a square shaft used. Fig. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. Fig. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. lead should be run into the segments. long and 5/16 in. 2. brass and bolted to the casing. Fig. 1. with the face of the disk. as shown in Fig. and pins inserted. thick. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered.. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. 2. These are connected to a 3/8-in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. The shaft hole may also be filed square. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. as shown. A 3/4-in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. There should be a space of 1/16 in. wide. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. If the shaft is square. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock.

arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. The lower part. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. from the top of the box. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. V. La Salle. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Now you will have the box in two pieces. high and 15 in. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Cooke. Canada. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. With a string or tape measure. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. using four to each leg. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Stain the wood before putting in the . we will call the basket. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. square and 30-1/2 in. or more in diameter. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Be sure to have the cover. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. deep over all. deep and 1-1/4 in. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. When assembling. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. --Contributed by F. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. 8-1/2 in. Ill. screws. make these seams come between the two back legs. from the bottom end of the legs. Hamilton. to make the bottom. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. --Contributed by S. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Smith. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. long. three of which are in the basket. Fasten with 3/4-in.

2 Fig. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Cover them with the cretonne. --also the lower edge when necessary. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper.lining. Packard. Mass. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. as shown in the sketch. If all the parts are well sandpapered. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. wide and four strips 10 in. you can. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. and gather it at that point. When making the display. sewing on the back side. 2. The side. The folded part in the center is pasted together. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Baltimore. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Fig. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. -Contributed by Stanley H. Boston. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. wide. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Sew on to the covered cardboards. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Md. 1. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite.

Y. --Contributed by B. Orlando Taylor. L. Crockett. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Cross Timbers. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. It is cleanly. N. Gloversville. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. 3. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. with slight modifications. and. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. It is not difficult to . --Contributed by H. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Mo. Fig. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. When through using the pad. saving all the solid part.

Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. El Paso. Lowell. After this is done. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. and scrape out the rough parts. or if desired. Lane. Mass. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. --Contributed by Edith E. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . are shown in the diagram. Texas. If a file is used. After stirring. across the face. S. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. remove the contents. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. and secure it in place with glue or paste. -Contributed by C. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Both of these methods are wasteful. Bourne. it should be new and sharp.

A Postcard Rack [25]. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. --Contributed by Geo. Canton. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. circled over the funnel and disappeared. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Greenleaf. As these were single-faced disk records. F. Ill. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel.cooking utensil. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Wheeler. Iowa. Ill. Des Moines. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Turl. He captured several pounds in a few hours. --Contributed by Marion P. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. --Contributed by Loren Ward. After several hours' drying. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. The process works well and needs no watching. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Those having houses . and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Oregon. Oak Park. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. The insects came to the light. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them.

6 in. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. but for cheapness 3/4 in. one on each side of what will be the . it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight.. Lay the floor next. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. Mass. boards are preferable. the bottom being 3/8 in. plane and pocket knife. will do as well. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. and the second one for the developing bench. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. Both sides can be put together in this way. 6 in. by 2 ft. material. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. The single boards can then be fixed. Conn. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Glenbrook. --Contributed by Wm. and as they are simple in design. Rosenberg. Worcester. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. and both exactly alike. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. the best material to use being matched boards. Dobbins. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. Only three pieces are required. --Contributed by Thomas E. thick.. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. not even with the boards themselves.

A shelf for bottles and another for plates. so that it will fit inside the sink. is cut. by screwing to the floor. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. The roof boards may next be put on. 10). 6) and another as F in the same drawing. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 11. as shown in Figs.doorway.. etc. and the top as at C in the same drawing. and act as a trap for the light. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. 3 and 4. wide. brown wrapping paper. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. and in the middle an opening. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. 2 in section. 7. 5. of the top of the door for the same reason. Fig. The developing bench is 18 in. and to the outside board of the sides. 9 by 11 in.. the closing side as at B. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. below which is fixed the sink. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. which is fixed on as shown . Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. 6. 6. 6 and 9. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. At the top of the doorway. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. hinged to it. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. It is shown in detail in Fig. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. In hinging the door. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. 8. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. so that the water will drain off into the sink. and should be zinc lined.. nailing them to each other at the ridge. 9).

Details of the Dark Rook .

stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. if desired. 19. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 16. 13. The handle should be at least 12 in. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . or stirring cocoa or chocolate. are fastened in the corners inside. For beating up an egg in a glass. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. mixing flour and water. Fig. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. Fig. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig.in Fig. or the room may be made with a flat roof. and a 3/8-in. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. 14. though this is hardly advisable. but not the red glass and frame. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. 15. Erie. as in Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. 13. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 17. Fig. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. 18. it is better than anything on the market. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. Fig. as at M. and a tank stand on it. --Contributed by W. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. or red light as at K. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. hole bored in the center for a handle. as shown in the sections. The house will be much strengthened if strips. A circular piece about 2 in. 16. four coats at first is not too many. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. as at I. after lining with brown paper. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. 20. as shown in Fig. Karl Hilbrich. 2. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. screwing them each way into the boards. preferably maple or ash. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. In use. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. 1. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. 6. which makes it possible to have white light. these being shown in Fig. Pennsylvania. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above.

The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Smith. --Contributed by Wm. long. for a handle. when put together properly is a puzzle. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. D. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. which. L. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. G. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. -Contributed by E. Ark. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Kansas City. Mitchell. New York. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Schweiger. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. about 3/8 in. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed.copper should be. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Eureka Springs. --Contributed by L. as shown in the sketch. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. To operate. Yonkers. Mo.

. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. 1. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. the box will require a greater height in front. holes should be drilled in the bottom. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. which binds them together. Each cork is cut as in Fig. especially for filling-in purposes. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. as shown in Fig. need them. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. After the box is trimmed. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. as well as improve its appearance. as shown in Fig. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. 2. 3. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. A number of 1/2-in. If the sill is inclined.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. for the moment. as is usually the case. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. The corks in use are shown in Fig. to make it set level. the rustic work should be varnished. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. Having completed the bare box. 3. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. in order to thoroughly preserve it. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. The design shown in Fig. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided.

The coiled rod is 3/16 in. 4. being partly eaten into. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. life in the summer time is a vexation. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. 3. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica.. and observe results. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. 1. 2. F. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. drilled at right angles. too dangerous. Each long projection represents a leg. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. can't use poison. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. Traps do no good. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. share the same fate. When the corn is gone cucumbers. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. etc. But I have solved the difficulty. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. cabbages. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. as shown in Fig. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. . They eat all they can and carry away the rest. it's easy.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. the squirrels come in droves from far and near.

of No. -. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. strips. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. . This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. long. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. Iowa. and made up and kept in large bottles. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. cut in 1/2-in. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. cut some of it off and try again. If. About 9-1/2 ft. The solution can be used over and over again. the coil does not heat sufficiently.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. by trial. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve.

Do not wash them. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Y. Kane. as shown in the sketch. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Texas. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. coffee pot. D. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Syracuse. it falls to stop G. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. . Pa. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. and a strip. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. C. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. hot-water pot. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. to cause the door to swing shut. N. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. --Contributed by Katharine D. Fig 2. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. In cleaning silver. 1) removed. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. of gasoline. Morse. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. forks. --Contributed by James M. Dallas. Stir and mix thoroughly. of whiting and 1/2 oz. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Knives. Doylestown. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. is a good size--in this compound. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. but with unsatisfactory results. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out.

Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . . To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. Fisher. of course.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. later fixed and washed as usual. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Waverly. Pa. --Contributed by Oliver S. Sprout. La. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Ill. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. New Orleans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. which is. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. using the paper dry. --Contributed by Theodore L. negatives. Harrisburg. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. but unfixed.

The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. then . Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. 1. metal. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The harmonograph. a harmonograph is a good prescription. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. In this uncertainty lies the charm. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Fig.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. To obviate this difficulty. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success.

A small weight. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. as shown in the lower part of Fig. R. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. ceiling. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. Chicago.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table.. G. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . A small table or platform. The length of the short pendulum H.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. is about right for a 10-ft. to prevent any side motion. 1. as long as the other. Holes up to 3 in. --Contributed by Wm. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. A pedestal. in the center of the circle to be cut. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. that is. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. K. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Ingham. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. Arizona. for instance. in diameter. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. 1-3/4 by 2 in. 1. Punch a hole. what is most important. one-fifth. or the lines will overlap and blur. one-fourth. A length of 7 ft. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. exactly one-third. and unless the shorter pendulum is. A weight. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. --Contributed by James T. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. of about 30 or 40 lb. is attached as shown at H. Another weight of about 10 lb. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. as shown in Fig. J. such as a shoe buttoner. etc. provides a means of support for the stylus. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. which can be regulated. makes respectively 3. Gaffney. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. with a nail set or punch.. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. Rosemont.

2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. then put 2 at the top. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. 4. a correspondent of . 2.H. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Cape May City. and 4 as in Fig. Morey. The capacity of the vise. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Fig. dividing them into quarters. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. of course. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. distributing them over the whole card. The two key cards are made alike. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. 6. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. --Contributed by J. 5. -Contributed by W.J. Chicago. 1.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal.J. then 3 as in Fig. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. and proceed as before. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Cruger. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. N. 3. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Fig. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made.

Asbestos board is to be preferred. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. 6 gauge wires shown. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. says Popular Electricity. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. from the top and bottom. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Augusta. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. long. of water. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. To assemble. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. the portion of the base under the coil. 30 gr. 1/2 oz. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. --Contributed by L. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. drill 15 holes. deep. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Alberta Norrell. of 18-per-cent No. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. 1/4 in. Ga. 22 gauge German-silver wire. After preparing the base and uprights. After securing the tint desired. If constructed of the former. of the uprights. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. wood-screws. remove the prints. Wind the successive turns of . acetic acid and 4 oz. Cut through the center. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. citrate of iron and ammonia. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. of ferricyanide of potash. respectively. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. sheet of well made asbestos paper. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in.

When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. screws. The case may be made of 1/2-in. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. Ward. 16 gauge copper wire. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. N. Small knobs may be added if desired. as they are usually thrown away when empty. then fasten the upright in place. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. but these are not necessary. etc. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. Y.. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Labels of some kind are needed. Ampere. rivets. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. --Contributed by Frederick E. which. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. 14 gauge. if one is not a smoker. square. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No.

Richmond. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. and labeled "Poison. A. lead. Larson. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. D. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. tin. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. . brass. E and F. G. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. In soldering galvanized iron.14 oz. Jaquythe. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Eureka Springs. a piece of solder. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. being careful about the heat. Wis. galvanized iron. --C. especially if a large tub is used. the pure muriatic acid should be used. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. Heat it until hot (not red hot). tinner's acid. particularly so when the iron has once been used. B." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Kenosha. This is considerable annoyance. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. and rub the point of the copper on it. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. then to the joint to be soldered. it must be ground or filed to a point.. or has become corroded. S. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. zinc. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. of glycerine to 16 oz. and one made of poplar finished black. California. Ark. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. sandpaper or steel wool. The material can be of any wood. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. of water. --Contributed by A. The parts are put together with dowel pins. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Copper. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. If the soldering copper is an old one. C. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. --Contributed by W. as shown in the sketch. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub.

and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Fig. Y. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. however. nut. brass and silver. in diameter. B. -Contributed by H. N. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. The dimensions shown in Fig. 2. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Take a 3/4-in.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. thick and 1-1/4 in. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. 1. This completes the die. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. which gives two bound volumes each year. This will leave a clear hole. Troy. The covers of the magazines are removed. C. a ring may be made from any metal. Apart from this. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The disk will come out pan shaped. 7/8 in. I bind my magazines at home evenings. The punch A. Fig. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Place the band. Hankin. such as copper. in diameter. and drill out the threads. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . wide. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Six issues make a well proportioned book. D. Brass rings can be plated when finished. with good results. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. W. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. round iron.

passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. 2. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. 1 in Fig. The string No. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. allowing a margin of 1/4 in.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. The covering can be of cloth. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. 1. C. 1. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. The sections are then prepared for sewing. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. . Start with the front of the book. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. The covering should be cut out 1 in. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. on all edges except the back. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. 1/8 in.4. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. is nailed across the top. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. allowing about 2 in. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. Five cuts. through the notch on the left side of the string No. After drawing the thread tightly. as shown in Fig. deep. If started with the January or the July issue. Coarse white thread. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. 5. and then to string No. which is fastened the same as the first. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. and place them against the strings in the frame. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. size 16 or larger. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. Place the cardboard covers on the book. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. threaded double. then back through the notch on the right side. of the ends extending on each side. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 2. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. is used for the sewing material. and a third piece. 1. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. using .

How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. For the blade an old talking-machine .Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. at opposite sides to each other. and mark around each one. Place the cover on the book in the right position. and. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Nebr. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. --Contributed by Clyde E. College View. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Divine. Tinplate. on which to hook the blade. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Cal. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Encanto. round iron. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson.

Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). thick. as it is sometimes called. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. thick. Moorhead. Make the blade 12 in. On the upper side. with 10 teeth to the inch. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. and file in the teeth. A. B. -Contributed by Willard J. C. by 1 in. bore. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. and 1/4 in. Then on the board put . and a long thread plug. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead...Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. hydraulic pipe. Summitville. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. with a steel sleeve. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. and another piece (B) 6 in. F. or double extra heavy. long. and 1/4 in. at the same end. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Miss. Ohio. Hays. fuse hole at D. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. in order to drill the holes in the ends. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. E. as shown. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. by 4-1/2 in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose.

18 gauge wire for the wiring. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. H. Boyd. A lid may be added if desired. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. and some No. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . --Contributed by Chas. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. of rubber-covered wire. about 5 ft. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. high around this apparatus. Connect up as shown. 4 jars. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. using about 8 in. of wire to each coil. as from batteries. Philadelphia. some sheet copper or brass for plates. the jars need not be very large.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch.

2 and 3. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. C. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. wide and 2 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No.. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. 1. A variation of 1/16 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. 2. thick. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 11 in. & S. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. 30 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. . The connection between point No. 4. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. and plane it on all edges. 3 and No. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. For the brass trimmings use No. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. 16-1/2 in. by 2 in. and for the rear runners: A. long. Z. 2. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. apart. 3 in. C. however. 4 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. 3. First sandpaper all the wood. At the front 24 or 26 in. two pieces 34 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. The top disk in jar No.. is used to reduce friction. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. Equip block X with screw eyes. and four pieces 14 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. long by 22 in. two pieces 14 in. Use no screws on the running surface. 15-1/2 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. are important. direct to wire across jars. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars.. or source of current. Fig. long. 27 B. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. wide and 3/4 in. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. long.the way. above the ground. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. making them clear those in the front runner. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. The sled completed should be 15 ft.. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. B. steel rod makes a good steering rod. 7 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. 2 is lower down than in No. 5 on switch. 2 in.. on No. Construct the auto front (Fig. wide. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. In proportioning them the points A. 2. wide by 3/4 in. beginning at the rear. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. with the cushion about 15 in. square by 14 ft. On the door of the auto front put the . by 5 in. thick.. gives full current and full speed. then apply a coat of thin enamel. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. two for each jar. Use no nails. To wire the apparatus. 1 on switch. 34 in. as they are not substantial enough.. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. by 1 in. and bolt through. An iron washer. by 1-1/4 in. 4) of 3/4-in. A 3/4-in. See Fig. 1 and so on for No. long. two pieces 30 in. No. as they "snatch" the ice. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. sheet brass 1 in. by 1-1/4 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. by 2 in. Put arm of switch on point No. The current then will flow through the motor. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. 1 is connected to point No. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. The stock required for them is oak. B. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. oak boards. B and C. by 5 in. by 6 in.

cheap material. may be stowed within. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. by 1/2 in. fasten a cord through the loop. to improve the appearance. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. overshoes. If desired. If the expense is greater than one can afford. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. to the wheel. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. lunch. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. by 30 in. etc. such as used on automobiles. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. The best way is to get some strong. or with these for $25. cutting it out of sheet brass. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. Then get some upholstery buttons. a brake may be added to the sled. a number of boys may share in the ownership. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. brass plated. which is somewhat moist. long. Fasten a horn. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . such as burlap. parcels. If desired. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair.

The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. . --Contributed by Stewart H. Ill. Lexington.tree and bring. Leland.

from F to G. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. London. a compass. E. 4). so that the center of the blade. 1. The first tooth may now be cut. Fig. made from 1/16-in. the cut will be central on the line. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. by drawing diameters. will be over the line FG. sheet metal. This guide should have a beveled edge. with twenty-four teeth. though more difficult. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . 3. Fig. A small clearance space. Fig. when flat against it. some files. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. the same diameter as the wheel. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. CD. First take the case of a small gearwheel. thick. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. Draw a circle on paper. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. which. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. The straight-edge. With no other tools than a hacksaw. say 1 in. The Model Engineer. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. 2. outside diameter and 1/16 in. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. FC. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. mild steel or iron. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made.

If there is no faucet in the house. Focus the camera in the usual manner. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. Make a hole in the other. electric lamp. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. A bright. ground it with a large piece of zinc. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. as shown in Fig. and the other outlet wire. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. or several pieces bound tightly together. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. R. transmitter. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. as shown in Fig. 2. B. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. B. No shock will be perceptible. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. either the pencils for arc lamps. 1. hold in one hand. each in the center. some wire and some carbons. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground.Four Photos on One Plate of them. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. . or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. as shown in Fig. 1. Then take one outlet wire.

the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. 36 wire around it. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. But in this experiment. They have screw ends. Ohio. and again wind the wire around it.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. B. Then set the whole core away to dry. --Contributed by Geo. of course. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. If desired. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Wrenn. J. One like a loaf of bread. and about that size. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Several battery cells. at each end for terminals. serves admirably. as shown. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. leaving about 10 in. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Pa. For a base use a pine board 10 in. and will then burn the string C. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. under the gable. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Ashland. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. are also needed. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. as indicated by E E. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Dry batteries are most convenient. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. by 12 in. Slattery. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. or more of the latter has been used. Emsworth. one at the receiver can hear what is said. A is a wooden block. D D are binding posts for electric wires. by 1 in.

Jr. 2. D. in series with bindingpost. At one side secure two receptacles. until the hand points to zero on the scale. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. Place 16-cp. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Fig. These should have hollow ends. in parallel. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. The apparatus is now ready for operation. and switch. Ohio. and the lamps. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. F. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. the terminal of the coil. run a No. as shown. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. The oven is now ready to be connected. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. and one single post switch. Newark. D.. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. for the . First make a support. as shown. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. C. C. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. B B. The coil will commence to become warm. Connect these three to switch. 1. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. 12 or No. B B.wire. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. E. Turn on switch. Fig. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. connecting lamp receptacles. while C is open. 14 wire. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. From the other set of binding-posts.

where A is the homemade ammeter. 4. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. Mine is wound with two layers of No.or 4-way valve or cock.E. long. 4 amperes. drill through the entire case and valve. D. thick. E. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig.. After drilling. but if for a 4way. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. The pointer or hand. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 3. Fig. B. 6. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. 5. The core. although copper or steel will do. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. The box is 5-1/2 in. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. drill in only to the opening already through. etc. If for 3-way. At a point a little above the center. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. --Contributed by J. from the lower end. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. deep. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. a battery. a variable resistance. 14. This is slipped on the pivot. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. 1/4 in. remove the valve. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. 1. is made of wire. 1/2 in. long and make a loop.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. Fig. Fig. a standard ammeter. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. 2. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. This may be made of wood. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. D. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. 36 magnet wire instead of No. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. It is 1 in. Fig. To make one. A wooden box. 10 turns to each layer. and D. 14 wire. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. 4 in. Montreal. wide and 1/8 in. is made of iron. to prevent it turning on the axle. until the scale is full. C. drill a hole as shown at H. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. 5. wind with plenty of No. is then made and provided with a glass front. Dussault. as shown in the cut. although brass is better. long. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. 1. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. high. inside measurements. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. 3 amperes. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. 7. wide and 1-3/4 in.

and a metal rod.performing electrical experiments. which is used for reducing the current. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. in thickness . First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. in diameter. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. This stopper should be pierced. provided with a rubber stopper. and the other connects with the water rheostat. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. A. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. and the arc light. B. making two holes about 1/4 in. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. One wire runs to the switch. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. By connecting the motor. as shown. high. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. D. To start the light. F. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. E.

the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. 2. To insert the lead plate. Fig. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. as shown in B. Having finished the interrupter. 2. Fig. Having fixed the lead plate in position. 1. --Contributed by Harold L. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Jones. If all adjustments are correct. Fig. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. 1. A piece of wood. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. as shown in C. long. 1. Fig. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Turn on the current and press the button. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. N. B. As there shown. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Carthage. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. where he is placed in an upright open . A. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Y. If the interrupter does not work at first. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter.

A white shroud is thrown over his body. inside dimensions. to aid the illusion. by 7-1/2 in. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. dressed in brilliant. which can be run by three dry cells. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. high.coffin. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. The skeleton is made of papier maché. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. light-colored garments. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. is constructed as shown in the drawings. and must be thoroughly cleansed. should be colored a dull black. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. within the limits of an ordinary room. and wave his arms up and down. especially L. The glass should be the clearest possible. All . Its edges should nowhere be visible. The model. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. If it is desired to place the box lower down. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. the illusion will be spoiled. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. with the exception of the glass. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. by 7 in. If everything is not black. loosejointed effect. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view.. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. giving a limp. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. from which the gong has been removed. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. L and M. should be miniature electric lamps. and can be bought at Japanese stores. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. The lights. A. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. figures and lights. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. until it is dark there. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. They need to give a fairly strong light. could expect from a skeleton. as the entire interior. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. especially the joints and background near A. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry.

a double-pointed rheostat could be used. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. --Contributed by Geo. W. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. San Jose.that is necessary is a two-point switch. Two finishing nails were driven in. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. placed about a foot apart. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. fat spark. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. after which it assumes its normal color. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. Cal. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. square block. If a gradual transformation is desired. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Fry. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. as shown in the sketch.

to make it airtight. with two tubes. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. soldered in the top. This is a wide-mouth bottle. the remaining space will be filled with air. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. In Fig. as shown. A (see sketch). 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. F. In Fig. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. If a lighted match . The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. One of these plates is connected to metal top. or a solution of sal soda. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. -Contributed by Dudley H.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. Cohen. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. 1. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. into the receiver G. and should be separated about 1/8 in. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. by small pieces of wood. The plates are separated 6 in. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. New York. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. B and C. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. hydrogen gas is generated.

Fig. A. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. long. then a suitable burner is necessary. B. C C. N. 1/2 in. should be only 5/16 of an inch. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. 36 insulated wire. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. The distance between the nipple. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. as is shown in the illustration. either by passing a current of electricity around it. A nipple. by means of the clips. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. If desired. from the bottom. A. Fig. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. A piece of 1/8-in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. and the ends of the tube. in diameter and 6 in. One row is drilled to come directly on top. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. A. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. is made by drilling a 1/8in. 1-5/16 in. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. N. long. copper pipe. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. copper pipe. P. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. London. which is plugged up at both ends. which forms the vaporizing coil. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. A 1/64-in. is then coiled around the brass tube. 1. of No. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. 2 shows the end view. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. A. or by direct contact with another magnet. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. says the Model Engineer. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft.

A disk of thin sheet-iron. about 8 or 10 in. trim both ends and the front edge. but if the paper knife cannot be used. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. this makes a much nicer book. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. duck or linen. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. fold and cut it 1 in. larger all around than the book. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . 2). After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth.lamp cord. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. longer and 1/4 in. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Turn the book over and paste the other side. Take two strips of stout cloth. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. boards and all. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. 3. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. smoothly. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. 1. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. taking care not to bend the iron. Fig. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. should be cut to the diameter of the can. leaving the folded edge uncut. Fig. Cut four pieces of cardboard. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. at the front and back for fly leaves. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. with a fine saw. 1/4 in. cut to the size of the pages. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. Fig. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards.

D. but its diameter is a little smaller. H. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. and a little can. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. or rather the top now. Bedford City. A gas cock. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Parker. Noble. deep. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. is soldered onto tank A. which will just slip inside the little can. in diameter and 30 in. B. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. A. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. is made the same depth as B. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. C. 18 in.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. --Contributed by Joseph N. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. In the bottom. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. is turned on it. as shown. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Va. E. is fitted in it and soldered. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by James E. of tank A is cut a hole. pasting them down (Fig. Toronto. without a head. Another can. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. the joint will be gas tight. is perforated with a number of holes. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. This will cause some air to be enclosed. 4). It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. . Another tank. Ont.

The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. with an electric-bell magnet. 1. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. Bott. E. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. exactly 12 in. should be 3/8 in. A. shows how the connections are to be made. The small guards. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. making the width. D. square by 42 in.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. long. Fig. B. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. The wiring diagram. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. fastened in the bottom. D. and about 26 in. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. which moves to either right or left. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. are shown in detail at H and J. If the pushbutton A is closed. N. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. basswood or white pine. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized.. when finished. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. and the four diagonal struts. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. which may be either spruce. as shown at C. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. by 1/2 in. should be cut a little too long. B. should be 1/4 in. The diagonal struts. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. 2. C. H is a square knot. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. tacks. The longitudinal corner spines. The armature. S. J. Fig. to prevent splitting. thus adjusting the . long. A A. -Contributed by H. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. If the back armature. Beverly. B. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. and sewed double to give extra strength. The bridle knots.

and. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter.lengths of F and G. that refuse to slide easily. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Stoddard. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. for producing electricity direct from heat. D. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. as shown. however. and if a strong wind is blowing. Chicago. to prevent slipping. --Contributed by Edw. Clay Center. the batteries do not run down for a long time. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Harbert. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. If the kite is used in a light wind. Kan. shift toward F. with gratifying results. E. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Closing either key will operate both sounders. A bowline knot should be tied at J. can be made of a wooden . --Contributed by A.

14 or No. or parallel with the compass needle. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. placed on top. with a pocket compass. and the current may then be detected by means. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . A. spark. which conducts the current into the cannon. in position. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. Chicago. Then. E. A. E. Fasten a piece of wood. C. 16 single-covered wire. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. The wood screw. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. to the cannon. C. with a number of nails. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. A and B. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. D.. and also holds the pieces of wood.frame. C. When the cannon is loaded. F. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. --Contributed by A. B. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. by means of machine screws or. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. A. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw.

is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. within the reach of the magnet. when in position at A'. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. H. A hole for a 1/2 in. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. in this position the door is locked. --Contributed by Henry Peck. 1. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. A. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Mich. A and S. In Fig. Big Rapids. To lock the door. To unlock the door. to receive the screw in the center.the current is shut off. with the long arm at L'. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. square and 3/8 in. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. Fig. Connect as shown in the illustration. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. now at A' and S'. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Keil. Fig. screw is bored in the block. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. but no weights or strings. B. Ohio. 1. requiring a strong magnet. L. --Contributed by Joseph B. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. A and S. Marion. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. 1. . Bend the strips BB (Fig. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. To reverse. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. press the button. where there is a staple. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. Chicago.

The standard and base. hole. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. and if desired the handles may . makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. Mass. J. and C is a dumbbell. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. if enameled white on the concave side. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. about 18 in. are enameled a jet black. or for microscopic work. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. pipe with 1-2-in.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. When the holes are finished and your lines set. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. put in the handle. Thread the other end of the pipe. and may be made at very slight expense. --Contributed by C. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. When ready for use. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. gas-pipe. long. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. Rand. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. West Somerville. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge.

Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. across. Mass. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. D. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. --Contributed by C. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . with a cover. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. 8 in. North Easton. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. as shown at A in the sketch. across. E. long and 8 in. Fig. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. which shall project at least 2 in. A.be covered with leather. Warren. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug.. 1. inside the pail. B. high by 1 ft. M. Fig. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Make a cylindrical core of wood. 1. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time.

it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. as dictated by fancy and expense. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. 15%. Line the pail.-G. The 2 in. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. W. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. which is the hottest part. strip of sheet iron. in diameter. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. about 1 in. the firing should be gradual. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. and graphite.mixture of clay. After removing all the paper. if you have the materials. but will be cheaper in operation. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this.. and on it set the paper wrapped core. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. as is shown in the sketch. This done. in diameter. and with especial caution the first time. diameter. long over the lid hole as a chimney. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. and varnish. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. 1). When lighted. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. hard porcelain. 3) with false top and bottom. such . but it will burn a great deal of gas. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. wider than the kiln. 2. 1390°-1410°. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. and 3/8 in. say 1/4 in. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. of fine wire. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. hotel china. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. 2 in. 60%. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. cutting the hole a little smaller. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. C. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. Wind about 1/8 in. 25%. passing wire nails through and clinching them. pack this space-top. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. Fig. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. After finishing the core. 1). or make one yourself. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. Whatever burner is used. and your kiln is ready for business. thick.. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. 1330°. It is placed inside the kiln. projecting from each end (Fig. If the cover of the pail has no rim. E. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. full length of iron core. sand.. and cut it 3-1/2 in. layer of the clay mixture. if there is to be any glazing done. Fit all the parts together snugly. carefully centering it. Cover with paper and shellac as before. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. thick. Set aside for a few days until well dried. let this dry thoroughly. C. pipe. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. bottom and sides. the point of the blue flame. make two wood ends. pipe 2-ft. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. to hold the clay mixture. L. and 3/4 in. C. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. long.

square them up and place in a vise. about 1/16 in. Washington. 2). diameter. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Of course. red and black. D. C. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. . the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. C. as in Fig. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. leaving long terminals. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. taking care to have the first card red. around the coil.53 in. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. 2. length of . Chicago. and so on. You can display either color called for.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. with a plane. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. as in Fig. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards.. The funnel. 2. --Contributed by J. overlaps and rests on the body. bind tightly with black silk. every alternate card being the same color. and plane off about 1/16 in. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. as shown in the sketch herewith. 8 in. and divide it into two piles. and discharges into the tube. 1. C. R. Take the red cards. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. all cards facing the same way. A. B. procure a new deck. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. square them up. Then. T. the next black. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. Then take the black cards. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall.

E. stove bolts. the first thing to decide on is the size.. 1 gill of fine white sand. the same ends will come together again. Long Branch. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. C. angle iron for the frame. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. 1. The bottom glass should be a good fit. N. Drill all the horizontal pieces. E. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. When the glass is put in the frame a space. All the horizontal pieces. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. A. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. 1 gill of litharge. The cement. To find the fall of snow. D. of the frame. through the holes already drilled. B. so that when they are assembled. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. stove bolts. Fig. as the difficulties increase with the size. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. Let . Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in.J. B. thus making all the holes coincide. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. B. and then the frame is ready to assemble. F. and this is inexpensive to build. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. about 20 in. The upright pieces.C. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. A. to form a dovetail joint as shown. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. It should be placed in an exposed location. should be countersunk as shown in the detail.

to the door knob. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. if desired. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. B. Aquarium Finished If desired. D. having a swinging connection at C. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. and. Fig. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet .Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. Fasten the lever. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. on the door by means of a metal plate. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. a centerpiece (A. A.

another. and Fig. and another. 3 shows one of the paddles. Fig. 6 in. PAUL S. long. thus doing away with the spring. showing the paddle-wheel in position. 1 is the motor with one side removed. N. Two short boards 1 in. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. long. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. E.. several lengths of scantling 3 in. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. Cut two pieces 30 in. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Fig. Cut two of them 4 ft. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. B. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. A small piece of spring brass. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. Buffalo. Fig. soldered to the end of the cylinder. Fig. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. 2 is an end view. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. as at E. 1 . with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. which is 15 in. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. hoping it may solve the same question for them. for the top. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. C. from the outside top of the frame. I referred this question to my husband. with a water pressure of 70 lb. AA. 2 at GG. Y. Fig.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. screwed to the door frame. Do not fasten these boards now. long. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. 1. approximately 1 ft. To make the frame. --Contributed by Orton E. to form the main supports of the frame. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. according to the slant given C. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Fig. but mark their position on the frame. 1. They are shown in Fig. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. 2 ft. D. F. to form the slanting part. 26 in. another. White. wide by 1 in. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. long. wide . In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. will open the door about 1/2 in. to keep the frame from spreading.

Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. hole through their sides centrally. 2) and another 1 in. iron 3 by 4 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). 24 in. hole to form the bearings. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. long to the wheel about 8 in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. iron. Fig. then drill a 3/16-in. 1. by 1-1/2 in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. holes. These are the paddles. take down the crosspieces. Make this hole conical. 4. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. and drill a 1/8-in. hole through its center. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. GG. thick (HH. 2) with a 5/8-in. Drill 1/8-in. Next secure a 5/8-in. (I.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. steel shaft 12 in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. long and filling it with babbitt metal. hole from the tops to the 1-in. and a 1/4 -in. tapering from 3/16 in. Fig. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. that is. Fig. pipe.burlap will do -. When it has cooled. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. 2) form a substantial base. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. hole through the exact center of the wheel. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. from one end by means of a key. with the wheel and shaft in place. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. and drill a 1-in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Now block the wheel. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. Fasten them in their proper position. in diameter. to a full 1/2 in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Take the side pieces. Tack one side on. thick. after which drill a 5/8 in. remove the cardboard. hole through them.

It is obvious that.a water-tight joint. but now I put them in the machine. and as near to it as possible. but as it would have cost several times as much. drill press. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Darken the rest of the window. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. If the bearings are now oiled. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. start the motor. ice-cream freezer. Correct exposure depends.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Focus the camera carefully. shutting out all light from above and the sides. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. sewing machine. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. place the outlet over a drain. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. light and the plate. as this makes long exposure necessary. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Raise the window shade half way. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. remove any white curtains there may be. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. or what is called a process plate. as shown in the sketch at B. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. says the Photographic Times. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Do not stop down the lens. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. any window will do. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. of course. and the subject may move. If sheet-iron is used. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. . The best plate to use is a very slow one. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. on the lens. and leave them for an hour or so. it would be more durable. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Drill a hole through the zinc.

is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. a core. which is made of iron and cork. 2. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. D. an empty pill bottle may be used. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. until the core slowly rises. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. The current required is very small. the core is drawn down out of sight. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. 2. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. full of water. by twisting. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. as shown in Fig. as a slight current will answer. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. On completing . or can be taken from an old magnet. The core C. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. a glass tube. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. B. without detail in the face. The glass tube may be a test tube. or an empty developer tube. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. and a base. C. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. With a piece of black paper. and without fog. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. with binding posts as shown. hard rubber. or wood. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. A.

Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. The colors appear different to different people. finest graphite. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. according to his control of the current. water and 3 oz. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. and are changed by reversing the rotation.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. 1 lb. 1 pt. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. and make a pinhole in the center. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. is Benham's color top. 1. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. and one not easy to explain. white lead. whale oil.

and asks an observer to withdraw a card. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out.B. fan-like. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done.. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. when the action ceases. especially if the deck is a new one. C. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. In prize games. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. B. Chicago. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. In making hydrogen. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. or three spot. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. thus partly filling bottles A and C. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card.L. before cutting. nearly every time. deuce. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. As this device is easily upset. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. A. -Contributed by D. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end.

using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Jr. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 12 in. that will fit loosely in the tube A. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. in length and 3 in. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. 2. Detail of Phonograph Horn . long.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. 4. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. 10 in. Fig. 9 in. long and 3 in. Huron. as shown in Fig. Fig. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Form a cone of heavy paper. J. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together.. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Dak.. W. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Make a 10-sided stick. (Fig. 1. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. . 3). in diameter. --Contributed by F. S. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. --Contributed by C. S. Bently. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Detroit.

Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. push back the bolt. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. Fig. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. long.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. --Contributed by Reader. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. it is equally easy to block that trick. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Fortunately. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . 6. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. Denver. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. will cause an increased movement of C. but bends toward D. Remove the form. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. A. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. Cut out paper sections (Fig. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. E. A second piece of silk thread. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. with a pin driven in each end. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. about the size of a leadpencil. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. and walk in. A piece of tin. making it three-ply thick. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. bend it at right angles throughout its length. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. on one side and the top. C. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. allowing 1 in. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it.

Jr. S. Fremont Hilscher. A. put together as shown in the sketch.strip. is connected each point to a battery. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. R. By this arrangement one. will last for several years. The upper switch. W. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. and rest on a brick placed under each end. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Minn. B. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . The 2 by 4-in. posts.. S S. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. Paul. S. Two wood-base switches. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. while the lower switch. long. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. long. are made 2 by 4 in. 4 ft.. --Contributed by J. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. West St. B. as shown. The reverse switch. or left to right. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. are 7 ft. The feet.

Fig. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. the other parts being used for the bearing B. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. either an old sewing-machine wheel. The hose E connects to the boiler. and a cylindrical . which will be described later. The base is made of wood. and in Fig. The piston is made of a stove bolt. and has two wood blocks. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. 3/8 in.every house. is an old bicycle pump. the size of the hole in the bearing B. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. FF. 2. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. 2 and 3. pulley wheel. E. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. H and K. and valve crank S. which is made of tin. The steam chest D. with two washers. and the crank bearing C. In Fig. or anything available. 1. thick. Fig. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. cut in half. The valve motion is shown in Figs. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft.

Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. at that. as it is merely a trick of photography. Cal. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Schuh and A. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. 1. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Geo. The boiler. Fig. Fry. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. is cut out of tin. and saturated with thick oil. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. W. This engine was built by W. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. G. Eustice. G. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. and a very amusing trick. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. This is wound with soft string. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. 3. using the positive wire as a pen. First. 4. of Cuba. or galvanized iron. and the desired result is obtained. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. C. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. The valve crank S. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. . San Jose.piece of hard wood. to receive the connecting rod H. Wis. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. can be an old oil can. Fig. J. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. powder can.

first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. and Fig. and place a bell on the four ends. B. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. Fig. C. When turning. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. and pass ropes around . On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. B. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Fig. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Cut half circles out of each stave. 1 by covering up Figs. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. as shown at AA. to cross in the center. The smaller wheel. They may be of any size. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. Fig. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. diameter. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. as shown. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. 1 will be seen to rotate.

A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. St. which accounts for the sound. as shown in the illustration. produces a higher magnifying power). From a piece of thin . and enlarge the bore a little at one end. A (a short spool. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. To make this lensless microscope. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. such as clothes lines. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm.. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. which allows the use of small sized ropes. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. Louis. long. --Contributed by H. This in turn will act on the transmitter.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. procure a wooden spool. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. Mo. from the transmitter. W.G. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. but not on all.M. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two.

As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. can be made of brass and the armature.. Viewed through this microscope. fastened to a wooden base. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. place a small object on the transparent disk. H. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. C. is fastened at each end by pins. D. 3. the diameter will appear twice as large. otherwise the image will be blurred. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. the object should be of a transparent nature. cut out a small disk. 2. 1. e. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. The pivot. B. B. is made of iron. and so on.) But an object 3/4-in. and at the center. E. Fig. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. A. if the distance is reduced to one-half. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. D. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. if the distance is reduced to one-third. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. (The area would appear 64 times as large. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters.. i. The lever. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. . It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. held at arm's length. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. darting across the field in every direction. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. which costs little or nothing to make. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. C. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. by means of brads.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. bent as shown. as in all microscopes of any power. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. which are pieces of hard wood. and look through the hole D. The spring. An innocent-looking drop of water. the diameter will appear three times as large. To use this microscope. or 64 times. in which hay has been soaking for several days.

D. K. . wide. AA. wide and about 20 in. Fig. HH. wood: C. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. B. wide. A switch. 2. 1. K. connection of D to nail. The binding posts. brass or iron soldered to nail. Each side. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. which are made to receive a pivot. KEY-A.SOUNDER-A. Fig. Cut the top. wood: F. D. C. The back. wide. nail soldered on A. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. 16 in. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. D. fastened near the end. FF. brass: B. The base of the key. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. C. thick. wood. binding posts: H spring The stop. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. similar to the one used in the sounder. long and 14-1/2 in. The door. soft iron. coils wound with No. 16 in. is cut from a board about 36 in. long. A. B. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. in length and 16 in. between the armature and the magnet. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. should be about 22 in. and are connected to the contacts. or a single piece. E. brass. long by 16 in. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. DD. F. wide. wide and set in between sides AA. brass: E. can be made panel as shown. or taken from a small one-point switch. 26 wire: E.

as shown. material. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. In operation. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. 13-1/2 in. Ill. cut in them.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. Make 12 cleats. brads. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . long. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. Garfield. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. AA. 2 and made from 1/4-in. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. as shown in the sketch. E. When the electrical waves strike the needle. with 3/4-in. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in..

Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. A. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Brown. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . The cord is also fastened to a lever. N. --Contributed by John Koehler. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. J. Fairport. A (see sketch). How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Y. --Contributed by R. E. and thus decreases the resistance. and. A. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. A fairly stiff spring. will give a greater speed. when used with a motor. pulls down the armature. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. in order to increase the surface. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. B. N. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. down into the water increases the surface in contact. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. F. Ridgewood. C. Pushing the wire. filled with water. When the pipe is used. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. the magnet. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. through which a piece of wire is passed.

B. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder .for the secret contact. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Gachville. if desired. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. even those who read this description. N. Borden. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Of course. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. --Contributed by Perry A. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open.

Cut the end pieces each 36-in. wide. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. The top board is made 28-in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. from the bottom. Connect switch to post B. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. Jr. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. E. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. apart. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. Dobson. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. wide. --Contributed by H. East Orange. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. for 6-in. long and 5 in. From a piece of brass a switch. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Cal. 2. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. deep and 3/4 in. 1. --Contributed by Dr. long and full 12-in. as shown in Fig. With about 9 ft. . and on both sides of the middle shelf. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. J. records. wide. as shown in Fig. The three shelves are cut 25-in. wide. A. Two drawers are fitted in this space. Washington. N. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. Mangold. thick and 12-in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. where the other end of wire is fastened. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. for 10in. wide. D.. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in.whenever the bell rings. C. in a semicircle 2 in. H. Compton. C. records and 5-5/8 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in.

Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. as shown in Fig. A. B. as shown by the dotted lines. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Va. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. which in operation is bent. to which is fastened a cord. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Roanoke. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. E. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. When the cord is passed over pulley C. closed. 1.

deep and 1/2 in. The crankpin should fit tightly. If the wheels fit too tightly. as shown in the illustration. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. square and 7/8 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. 3). E. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Bore two 1/4 in. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. E. wide. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. Cut two grooves. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. against which the rubber tubing. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. long. deep. in diameter. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. 5) when they are placed. excepting the crank and tubing. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. 1 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. 1. D. holes (HH. but a larger one could be built in proportion. in diameter. 1 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. Do not fasten the sides too . through one of these holes. Fig. thick (A. which should be about 1/2 in. Fig. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. in diameter. Figs. B. it too loose. is compressed by wheels. thick. CC. apart. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. In these grooves place wheels. they will let the air through. one in each end. Figs. Fig. they will bind. Now put all these parts together. wide. Put the rubber tube. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. in diameter. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. 3. In the sides (Fig. to turn on pins of stout wire.

fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. long. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. as it gives steadiness to the motion. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. and are 30 in. 1.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. and mark for a hole. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. stands 20 in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. Fig. --Contributed by Dan H. To use the pump. 2. from that mark the next hole. Two feet of 1/4-in. iron. 1.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. For ease in handling the pump. tubing. a platform should be added. AA. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. Fig. The screen which is shown in Fig. is all the expense necessary. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. 1. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. 17-1/2 in. from each end. though a small iron wheel is better. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Fig. because he can . Kan. Idana. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. from each end. the other wheel has reached the bottom. A in Fig. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. AA. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. the pump will give a steady stream. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. mark for hole and 3 in. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. beyond each of these two. from the bottom and 2 in. 15 in. costing 10 cents. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. 1. B. The animal does not fear to enter the box. of material. 2. If the motion of the wheels is regular. Fig. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Cut six pieces. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. 1. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. as shown in Fig. and 3-1/2 in. The three legs marked BBB. mark again. In the two cross bars 1 in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Hubbard. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. Then turn the crank from left to right. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. from each end. Take the center of the bar. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back.

The truncated. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. 2). at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. or. If it is wet. --Contributed by H. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. Place the carbon in the jar. acid 1 part). Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. 1) must be prepared. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. The mercury will adhere.see through it: when he enters. and the solution (Fig. To cause a flow of electricity. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. some of it should be poured out. dropping. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. It is useful for running induction coils. until it is within 3 in. C. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. of the top. If the battery has been used before. silvery appearance. there is too much liquid in the jar. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. of water dissolve 4 oz. and touches the bait the lid is released and. Philadelphia. 14 copper wire. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. . sulphuric acid. Meyer. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. giving it a bright. potassium bichromate. rub the zinc well. If the solution touches the zinc. or small electric motors. When the bichromate has all dissolved. but if one casts his own zinc. The battery is now ready for use. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. 4 oz. however. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. add slowly. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. The battery is now complete. shuts him in. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. When through using the battery. long having two thumb screws. stirring constantly.

Madison. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal.Fig. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W.. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. the battery circuit. Wis. the jump-spark coil . one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. however. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. which opens the door. i. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. with slight changes. If. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. The price of the coil depends upon its size. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. After putting in the coal. pressing the pedal closes the door. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. while the coal door is being opened.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. e.

In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. being a 1-in. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. This will make an excellent receiver. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. the full length of the coil. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. 6. diameter. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. W W. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. as shown in Fig. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. made of No. coil. which is made of light copper wire. while a 12-in. This coil. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. in a straight line from top to bottom. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. Change the coil described. 5. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. W W. Fig.7. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. 7. and closer for longer distances. apart. 7). coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. in a partial vacuum. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece.described elsewhere in this book. Now for the receiving apparatus. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. 7. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. 6. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. . as shown in Fig. After winding.

and hence the aerial line. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. .The aerial line. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. being at right angles. A large cone pulley would then be required. but it could be run by foot power if desired. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. to the direction of the current. 90°. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. For an illustration. may be easily made at very little expense. No. Run a wire from the other binding post. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe.6 stranded. above the ground. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. only. using an electric motor and countershaft. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. after all. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. 1). suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. I run my lathe by power. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. where A is the headstock. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. 90°. which will be described later. but simply illustrates the above to show that. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. in the air. as it matches the color well. A. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. at any point to any metal which is grounded. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. The writer does not claim to be the originator. are analogous to the flow of induction. being vertical. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. B the bed and C the tailstock. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. 1 to 4. These circles. Figs.

deep. Fig. B. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . thick. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. and runs in babbitt bearings. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. pitch and 1/8 in. on the under side of the bed. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. 6 Headstock Details D. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. To make these bearings. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. which pass through a piece of wood. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. If the bearing has been properly made. 5. 6. Fig. but not hot enough to burn it. one of which is shown in Fig. 4. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. The headstock. A. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. steel tubing about 1/8 in. The bearing is then ready to be poured. 2 and 3. tapered wooden pin. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. which are let into holes FIG. 5. The bolts B (Fig. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. and it is well to have the shaft hot. just touching the shaft. too. 4. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. After pouring. Heat the babbitt well. and Fig. Fig. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces.

The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. The tail stock (Fig. This prevents corrosion. the alarm is easy to fix up. Newark. and a 1/2-in. Ill. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. B. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. Oak Park.J. so I had to buy one. Take up about 5 ft. FIG. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. they may be turned up after assembling.other machines. embedded in the wood. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. If not perfectly true. lock nut. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. A. If one has a wooden walk. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. N. of the walk . --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft.

water. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. S.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Do not touch the work with the hands again. add potassium cyanide again. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Jackson. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Fig. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. silver or other metal. 2). leaving a clear solution. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. before dipping them in the potash solution. hang the articles on the wires. (A. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Finally. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Minn. Minneapolis. to remove all traces of grease. Connect up an electric bell. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. to roughen the surface slightly. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. save when a weight is on the trap. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. clean the articles thoroughly. of water. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Then make the solution . --Contributed by R. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. and the alarm is complete. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. so that they will not touch. To avoid touching it.

of water. long. also. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. of clothesline rope and some No. an old electric bell or buzzer. and 4 volts for very small ones. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. hole in its center. Then. which is held by catch B. Having finished washing the precipitate. with water. Repeat six times. If more solution is required. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. Make a somewhat larger block (E. saw a piece of wood. 1. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. with the pivot 2 in. which . slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. A 1/4 in. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. but opens the door. piece of broomstick. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. and the larger part (F. Before silver plating. use 2 volts for large articles. copper. as at F. a circuit is completed. A (Fig. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. When all this is set up. must be about 1 in. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. make a key and keyhole. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. light strokes. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. German silver. when the point of the key touches the tin. Can be made of a 2-in. --Model Engineer. a hand scratch brush is good. If accumulators are used. about 25 ft. 3. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. Fig. which is advised. thick by 3 in. 1). being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. zinc. I. To provide the keyhole. from the lower end. nickel and such metals. 1 in. long. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. with water. Fig. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated.up to 2 qt. In rigging it to a sliding door. and then treated as copper. This solution. Fig. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. The wooden block C. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. pewter. square. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. B should be of the same wood. shaking. silver can be plated direct. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. Fig. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. The wooden catch. if one does not possess a buffing machine. 1). 18 wire. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. On brass. 1 not only unlocks.5 to 4 volts. 3) directly over the hole. With an electric pressure of 3. will serve for the key. Screw the two blocks together. such metals as iron. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. Where Bunsen cells are used. Take quick. 3) strikes the bent wire L. lead. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. 10 in.

with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. spoons and jackknives. The interior must be a dead black. cut in one side. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. One end is removed. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). no painting inside is required. although a little more trouble. with the lights turned low. H. the requisites are a large soap box. a few simple tools. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. or cave. sides and end. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. 1. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. 0. and finally lined inside with black cloth. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. 2. Thus. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. Next. and black art reigns supreme. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. In front of you. such as forks. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. which unlocks the door. and plenty of candles. should be cut a hole. Fig. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. 2. To prepare such a magic cave.. he points with one finger to the box. the box should be painted black both inside and out. Fig. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. 1. Heavy metal objects. top. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. some black cloth. one-third of the length from the remaining end. Next. The box must be altered first. half way from open end to closed end. Fig. On either side of the box. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. some black paint. he tosses it into the cave. shows catch B. is the cut through which the rope runs. enlarged. . The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. and hands its contents round to the audience. B. to throw the light toward the audience. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. with a switch as in Fig. East Orange. floor. Receiving the bowl again. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. surrounding a perfectly black space. One thing changes to another and back again. in his shirt sleeves. --Contributed by E. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. so much the better. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. heighten the illusion. 116 Prospect St. The magician stands in front of this. 3. New Jersey. Objects appear and disappear. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. and a slit. between the parlor and the room back of it. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. Fig. Klipstein. He removes the bowl from the black box. H. H. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. the illumination in front must be arranged.

and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. which are let down through the slit in the top. Consequently. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. if. you must have an assistant. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. as presented by Hermann. The illusion. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. The audience room should have only low lights. the room where the cave is should be dark. and pours them from the bag into a dish. had a big stage. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. is on a table) so much the better. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black.Finally. But illusions suggest themselves. his confederate behind inserts his hand. a screen must be used. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. of course. only he. The exhibitor should be . which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. and several black drop curtains. one on each side of the box. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. and if portieres are impossible. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. in which are oranges and apples. which can be made to dance either by strings. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. of course. into the eyes of him who looks. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. was identical with this.

b2. so arranged that. vice versa. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. A. e1 and e2. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. making contact with them.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. and c4 + electricity. square. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. c2. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. making contact with them as shown at y. Finally. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. f2. when handle K is turned to one side. c4. or b2. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. and c1 – electricity. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. held down on it by two terminals. held down on disk F by two other terminals.a boy who can talk.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. is shown in the diagram. 1. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. About the center piece H moves a disk. 2. 1. On the disk G are two brass strips. Fig. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. by 4 in. respectively. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. FIG. b3. respectively. if you turn handle K to the right. b2. Then. A represents a pine board 4 in. by means of two wood screws. as shown in Fig. and a common screw. held down by another disk F (Fig. terminal c3 will show . a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. with three brass strips. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). c3. b3. 2). and c2 to the zinc. d. at L. 2. b1. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. respectively. c1. terminal c3 will show +. their one end just slips under the strips b1.. or binding posts.

from five batteries. jump spark coil. . Joerin. E. 5.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. Newark. --Contributed by Eugene F. and when on No. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. B is a onepoint switch. and then hold the receiver to your ear. when on No.. when on No. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Jr. and C and C1 are binding posts. 1. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. When switch B is closed and A is on No. from three batteries. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). 4. Ohio. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. 3. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. when A is on No. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. you have the current of one battery. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . Tuttle. from four batteries. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. thus making the message audible in the receiver. -Contributed by A.

A. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. is the device of H. The device thus arranged. so one can see the time. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. A. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. When you do not have a graduate at hand. and supporting the small weight. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. Handy Electric Alarm . which may be a button or other small object. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. Wis. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A. traveled by the thread. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. Thus. New Orleans. and placed on the windowsill of the car. over the bent portion of the rule. mark. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. P. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. B.. E. per second. of Burlington. as shown in the sketch. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Redmond. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. rule. per second for each second. La. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. mark. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft.

Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. C. soldered to the alarm winder. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. --C. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. and with the same result. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. for a wetting is the inevitable result. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. Pa. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. Instead. --Contributed by Gordon T. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. S. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch.which has a piece of metal. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. wrapping the wire around the can several times. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. B. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. which illuminates the face of the clock. Lane. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. . but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. When the alarm goes off. Crafton. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. but may be closed at F any time desired. Then if a mishap comes.

and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. small machinery parts. binding posts. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. when it is being prepared. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. engines. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. AA. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. Two cleats. but it is a mistake to try to do this. whence it is soon tracked into the house. Macey. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. 1 .Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . cannons. The first thing to make is a molding bench. If there is no foundry Fig. which may. It is possible to make molds without a bench. as shown. --Contributed by A. models and miniature objects. New York City. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. BE.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. A. battery zincs. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. C. and duplicates of all these. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. as shown in Fig. L. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. With the easily made devices about to be described. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. and many other interesting and useful articles. 1. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. bearings. ornaments of various kinds. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards.

which can be either aluminum. The rammer. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. The cloth bag. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. G. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. A slight shake of the bag Fig. say 12 in. previous to sawing. CC. as shown.How to Make a Mold [96] . makes a very good sieve. as shown. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. J. try using sand from other sources. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds." or lower part. is shown more clearly in Fig. 2. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. which can be made of a knitted stocking. and this. Fig. high." or upper half. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. by 8 in. which should be nailed in. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. DD. A wedge-shaped piece. It is made of wood and is in two halves. The dowels. 2 . is filled with coal dust. and the lower pieces. 1. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. II . is nailed to each end of the cope. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. and a sieve. a little larger than the outside of the flask. D. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. If desired the sieve may be homemade. CC. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. by 6 in. and the "drag. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. The flask. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. Fig. E. and saw it in half longitudinally.near at hand. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. but this operation will be described more fully later on. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. will be required. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. An old teaspoon. is made of wood. If the box is not very strong. F. white metal. is about the right mesh. the "cope. H. A A. 1. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated.

but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. After ramming. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. as shown. It is then rammed again as before. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. In finishing the ramming. as it is much easier to learn by observation. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. and thus judge for himself. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. as shown at C. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. in order to remove the lumps. where they can watch the molders at work. as shown at D. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed." in position. as described. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. the surface of the sand at . as shown at E." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. or "drag. and then more sand is added until Fig. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. and scatter about 1/16 in. Place another cover board on top. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. and by grasping with both hands. turn the drag other side up. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. or "cope. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. The sand is then ready for molding.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. and if water is added.

E should be covered with coal-dust. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. The "sprue. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. after being poured. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. it shows that the sand is too wet.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. . in diameter. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. is next cut. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. and then pour. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. to give the air a chance to escape. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. After drawing the pattern. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. as shown at H. place the cope back on the drag. Place a brick or other flat. as shown at G. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. as shown in the sketch. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. deep. in order to prevent overheating. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. thus holding the crucible securely. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. III. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. as shown at H. as shown at J. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it." or pouring-hole. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. This is done with a spoon. Fig. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. as shown at F. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. thus making a dirty casting. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. made out of steel rod. wide and about 1/4 in. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle.

aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. If a good furnace is available. and the casting is then ready for finishing. but any reasonable number may be used. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. used only for zinc. although somewhat expensive. Morton. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. Referring to the figure. Although the effect in the illustration . A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. battery zincs. In my own case I used four batteries. the following device will be found most convenient. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. and. or from any adjacent pair of cells. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. Minneapolis. 15% lead. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. babbitt. --Contributed by Harold S. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. is very desirable. may be used in either direction. white metal and other scrap available. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling.

so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. --Contributed by Draughtsman. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. The bearings. as shown in the illustration. shaft made. To make it take a sheet-iron band. Chicago. B. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. By replacing the oars with paddles. 2. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. outward. 3/4 in. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. A. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. The brass rings also appear distorted. which will be sufficient to hold it. B.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. connected by cords to the rudder. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. as shown at A. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. Then walk down among the audience. Make one of these pieces for each arm. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. Put a sharp needle point. If desired. Fig. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. backward. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. may be made of hardwood. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. Then replace the table.

Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. spoiling its appearance. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. 2. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. as shown in Fig. W. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. If galvanized iron is used. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. when it will again return to its original state.melted babbitt. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. E. should be made of wood. It may seem strange that ice . and a weight. 2 and 3. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. or the paint will come off. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. 1. 1. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. The hubs. but when in motion. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. 3. If babbitt is used. A. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. In the same way. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. Fig. C. being simply finely divided ice. A block of ice. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. D. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. 1. Snow. or under pressure. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. The covers. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure.

In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. The current is flowing through both bells all the time.. in.should flow like water. by 5 in. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. Pa. --Contributed by Gordon T. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. or supporting it in some similar way. and assume the shape shown at B. P. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. by 2 in. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. no matter how slow the motion may be. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. as per sketch. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. B. by 1/2 in. but by placing it between books. thus giving a high resistance contact. Pressing either push button. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . it will gradually change from the original shape A. by 1/4. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. Lane. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. whenever there is any connection made at all. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. as shown on page 65. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. square. The rate of flow is often very slow. which resembles ice in this respect. Crafton. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. sometimes only one or two feet a day. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. but. brass.

To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. --Contributed by A. Pa. In the wiring diagram. furnace. G. D. wooden supports. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. horizontal lever. C. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. weight. The success depends upon a slow current. alarm clock. G. as shown. A is the circuit breaker. Indianapolis. draft.000 ft. I. B. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. about the size used for automobiles. Wilkinsburg. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. H. B. pulleys. and five dry batteries. J. Ward. the battery. The parts are: A. K . cord. and C. the induction coil. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. vertical lever. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. F. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. E. as shown. draft chain.thumb screws.

Kalamazoo. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. which will provide a fine place for the plants. such as used for a storm window. will fit nicely in them. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . Artistic Window Boxes The top. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. Mich. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. The frame (Fig. 2 are dressed to the right angle.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. 3. material framed together as shown in Fig. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. where house plants are kept in the home. as well as the bottom. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash.

Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. 1 each complete with base. since a battery is the most popular source of power. as if drawn upon for its total output. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. and the instrument will then be complete. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. so as to increase the current. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. Thus. for some time very satisfactorily. However.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. Halifax. where they are glad to have them taken away. a cork and a needle. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. S. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. this must be done with very great caution. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. can be connected up in series. i.. but maintain the voltage constant. --Contributed by Wm. multiples of series of three.. by connecting them in series. and cost 27 cents FIG. However. one can regulate the batteries as required. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. and will give the . W. in any system of lamps. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. Grant. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. which sells for 25 cents. Push the needle into the cork. N. and a suitable source of power. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. e. in this connection. in diameter. It must be remembered. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. 1. The 1/2-cp. Canada. This is more economical than dry cells. 1 cp. A certain number of these. as indicated by Fig. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. is something that will interest the average American boy. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp.. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. after a rest.

which is the same as that of one battery. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. Chicago. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. Thus. for display of show cases. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. where the water pressure is the greatest. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. These will give 3 cp. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. However. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. lamp. according to the water pressure obtainable. each. making. as in Fig. to secure light by this method. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. by the proper combination of these. or 22 lights. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. lamps. generates the power for the lights. Fig. Thus. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. 18 B & S. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and running the series in parallel. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. 3. and diffused light in a room.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. although the first cost is greater. 2 shows the scheme. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt.proper voltage. especially those of low internal resistance. lamps. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. . FIG. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. 1-cp. we simply turn on the water. and for Christmas trees. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. if wound for 6 volts. double insulated wire wherever needed. If wound for 10 volts. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp.. and then lead No. 11 series. In conclusion. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. So. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp.

switch. Ind. brushes of motor. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. AA. field of motor. and the sides. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. After I connected up my induction coil. or from one pattern. Plymouth. thus reversing the machine. B. a bait of meat. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. as shown in the sketch. Parker. DD. CC. or a tempting bone. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Santa Clara. bars of pole-changing switch. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. center points of switch. . Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. the letters indicate as follows: FF. --Contributed by Leonard E. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. --Contributed by F. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. we were not bothered with them.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. outside points of switch. simply change the switch. and C. To reverse the motor. Emig. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. B. are cut just alike. BB. A indicates the ground. Cal. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. A. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn.

a piece of string. or would remain locked. Fry. attached to the end of the armature B. Melchior. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. A. Minn. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. 903 Vine St. Cal. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. To unlock the door.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo.. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. San Jose. When the circuit is broken a weight. thus locking the door. as it is the key to the lock. -Contributed by Claude B. merely push the button E. W. The experiment works best . a hammer. which is in the door. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. one cell being sufficient. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. Hutchinson. If it is not. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. The button can be hidden. and a table or bench.

2. Wis. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Porto Rico. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. releasing the weight. D. --Contributed by Geo.Contributed by F. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. which pulls the draft open. forming a loop. 3. Schmidt. 3. W. 18 Gorham St. as shown in Fig. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Madison. 4). the current flows with the small arrows. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. 1). Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. attached at the other end. Ontario. P. C.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. -. A.. Crawford Curry. . When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. When the alarm rings in the early morning. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Canada. Brockville. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. I. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Culebra. the key turns. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. in the ceiling and has a window weight. where it will remain suspended as shown. Tie the ends of the string together. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. run through a pulley. the stick falls away.

Jr. including the mouthpiece. thick. S. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. First. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. N. J. Connect two wires to the transmitter. --Contributed by Wm. Use a barrel to work on. made with his own hands. J. square and 1 in. or tree. D. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. and then to the receiver. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. and the other to the battery. R. which fasten to the horn. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. The cut shows the arrangement. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. Camden. Farley. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. and break the corners off to make them round. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment.. and . thence to a switch. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. or from a bed of flowers. running one direct to the receiver. get two pieces of plate glass. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. 6 in. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone.

unless a longer focal length is wanted. as in Fig. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. in length. A. or it will not polish evenly. set the speculum against the wall. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. using straight strokes 2 in. by the side of the lamp. so the light . and a large lamp. the coarse grinding must be continued. When done the glass should be semitransparent. it should be tested with the knife-edge test.. with 1/4-in. Fig. or less. Then take a little of the coarsest powder.. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. and label. while walking around the barrel. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. and the under glass or tool convex. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. and spread on the glass. When polishing the speculum. spaces. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. and is ready for polishing. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. with pitch. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. then take 2 lb. wetting it to the consistency of cream. 1. Have ready six large dishes. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. Fig. a round 4-in. In a dark room. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. 2. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. When dry. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. L. also rotate the glass. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. wide around the convex glass or tool. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. Use a binger to spread it on with. of water. wet till soft like paint. Then warm and press again with the speculum. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. melt 1 lb. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. Fasten. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. 2. then 8 minutes. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. twice the focal length away.

. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.. Fig.. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. if a hill in the center.……………………………. 840 gr. 39 gr. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. Place the speculum. Solution D: Sugar loaf . the speculum is ready to be silvered. longer strokes. deep. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. Nitric acid . of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water …………………………….……………. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. Silver nitrate ……………………………. 2. cement a strip of board 8 in. When dry. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. 100 gr. that was set aside. When the focus is found. 4 oz. or hills. 2. the speculum will show some dark rings. Fig... face down.100 gr. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. With pitch.………………………………. 4 oz. as in K. 25 gr. fill the dish with distilled water. The knife should not be more than 6 in. Solution B: Distilled water …………………………….Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. The polishing and testing done. with distilled water. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. If not. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Two glass or earthenware dishes. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. then ammonia until bath is clear. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. and pour the rest into the empty dish. long to the back of the speculum. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. touched with rouge. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right.. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. Fig. also how the rays R from a star . to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. must be procured.. Then add solution B. Then add 1 oz. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. from the lamp. Place the speculum S... Now add enough of the solution A.

is a satisfactory angle. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber.. stop down well after focusing. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Make the tube I of sheet iron. two glass prisms. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. The flatter they are the less they will distort.John E. using strawboard and black paper. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. deg. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. My telescope is 64 in. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. About 20. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. . When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. telescope can be made at home. Mellish.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. with an outlay of only a few dollars. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. Then I made the one described. which proves to be easy of execution. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. cover with paper and cloth. and proceed as for any picture. long and cost me just $15. Thus an excellent 6-in. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. slightly wider than the lens mount. Place over lens. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made.

-Contributed by A. Boody. The rays of the clear. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. as shown in Fig. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. A. B. add the plaster gradually to the water. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. says the Master Painter. Do not stir it. complete the arrangement. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. . D. unobstructed light strike the mirror. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. but will not preserve its hardening. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. Fig. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. Ill. 1. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. The paper is exposed. and reflect through the negative. push the button D. then add a little sulphate of potash. or powdered alum. Zimmerman. 2. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. instead of the contrary. through the lens of the camera and on the board. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. To unlock.

If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. so that it can rotate about these points. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. but will remain suspended without any visible support. use a string. as shown in the sketch.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. as at A and B. 3. Then blow through the spool. Fig. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Fasten on the switch lever. 2. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. as in Fig. also provide them with a handle. To reverse. throw . 1). Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. 2.

In the sketch. Take out. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. as shown in the sketch. Tex. carbon sockets. although this is not necessary. L. D. wash in running water. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Thomas. North Bend. .Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. A is the electricbell magnet. San Marcos. binding posts. Go McVicker. San Antonio. and rub dry with linen cloth. Neb. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. and E E. rinse in alcohol. the armature. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Levy. B. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. carbons. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Tex. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. C C. --Contributed by R. --Contributed by Geo. -Contributed by Morris L.

All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. --Contributed by Joseph B. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . long or more. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Bell.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. By means of two or more layers of No. 16 magnet wire. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. wound evenly about this core. Brooklyn. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. 14 or No. 36 magnet wire.

which is an important factor of the coil. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. diameter. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. but if it is not convenient to do this work. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. When cut and laid in one continuous length. as the maker prefers. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. a box like that shown in Fig. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. and the results are often unsatisfactory. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. wide. at a time. the entire core may be purchased readymade. 2 yd. 1. The primary is made of fine annealed No. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. coil illustrates the general details of the work. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. In shaping the condenser. A 7/8-in. hole is bored in the center of one end. 4. No. or 8 in. with room also for a small condenser. which is desirable. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. long and 2-5/8 in. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. making two layers. This makes a condenser which may be folded. and finally the fourth strip of paper. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. The following method of completing a 1-in. in diameter. as shown in Fig. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. The condenser is next wrapped . with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. long and 5 in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. in length. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. one piece of the paper is laid down. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. about 6 in. After the core wires are bundled. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary.which would be better to buy ready-made. Beginning half an inch from one end. then the strip of tin-foil. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired.

letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. which allows wiring at the back. flange turned on one side. V-shaped copper strip. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. F. shows how the connections are made. forms the other pole or terminal. E. and the other sheet. by 12 in. shelf for clock. whole length. go. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. bell. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. D. long to key. B. 4 in. spark. copper lever with 1-in. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. Fig. open switch C. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. wide. B. one from bell. The alarm key will turn and drop down. to the door. and one from battery. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. I. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. which is insulated from the first. ready for assembling.securely with bands of paper or tape. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. battery . 3. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. switch.) The wiring diagram. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. round so that the inside . If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. lines H. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. A.. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. G. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. C. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. the letters indicate as follows: A. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. long and 12 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types.

of blue stone.diameter is 7 in. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. of zinc sulphate. 2 in. and the battery is ready for use. from the bottom. Short-circuit for three hours. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. London. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. Use a glass or metal shade. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. That is what they are for. but with the circuit. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. and then rivet the seam. The circuit should also have a high resistance. If desired for use immediately.. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. . or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. do not shortcircuit. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. instead of close to it. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. This is for blowing. says the Model Engineer. Line the furnace. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. but add 5 or 6 oz.

Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. for some it will turn one way. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. oxygen to ozone. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. 2. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Try it and see. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. changes white phosphorus to yellow. If any or your audience presume to dispute. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. g. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. the second finger along the side. as in the other movement. thus producing two different vibrations. square and about 9 in. Outside of the scientific side involved. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. long. Enlarge the hole slightly.. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. affects . You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. but the thing would not move at all. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. herein I describe a much better trick. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. while for others it will not revolve at all. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. This type of battery will give about 0. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Ohio. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. and then. At least it is amusing. 1. below the bottom of the zinc. porcelain and paper. or think they can do the same let them try it. and therein is the trick. imparting to them a violet tinge. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. If too low. To operate the trick. for others the opposite way." which created much merriment.9 of a volt. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body.

carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. but small flowers. a short-focus lens. and one of them is photomicrography. however. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. but not essential. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. but this is less satisfactory. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. To the front board is attached a box. insects.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. a means for holding it vertical. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. an old tripod screw. chemicals. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. if possible. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. and. says the Photographic Times. earth.

while it is not so with the quill. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 12 ft. 11 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 381 24 lb. 8 ft. 1. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 179 11 lb. balloon. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 5 in.--Contributed by George C. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 6 ft. which is 15 ft. The following table will give the size. If the balloon is 10 ft. Ft Lifting Power. or 31 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. Madison. CD. Divide one-quarter of the circle . Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 65 4 lb. 697 44 lb. wide from which to cut a pattern. long and 3 ft. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 9 ft. A line. Fig. Boston. Cap. or 3 ft. 905 57 lb. 7 ft. 113 7 lb.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 7-1/2 in. in diameter. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 7-1/2 in. AB. 268 17 lb. Mass. in Cu. 5 ft. and a line. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning.

making a double seam as shown in Fig. The cloth segments are sewed together. 3. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. Procure 1 gal. on the curved line from B to C. using a fine needle and No. of beeswax and boil well together. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. 2. Repeat this operation four times. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. keeping the marked part on the outside. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. and so on. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. 70 thread. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. 4. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. This test will show if the bag is airtight. cutting all four quarters at the same time. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. of the very best heavy body. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. The pattern is now cut. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. and after marked is cut the same shape and size.

with 3/4in. .. by fixing. All FIG. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. of iron borings and 125 lb. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. A. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. C. to the bag. with the iron borings. pipe. A. as shown in Fig. . B. if it is good it will dry off. but if any grease remains on the hand. A. The 3/4-in. Vegetable oils should never be used. About 15 lb. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. above the level of the water in barrel A. with water 2 in. or a fan. using a fine brush. Fill the other barrel. In the barrel. of gas in one hour. The outlet. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. 5 . The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. of iron. B. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. ]. capacity and connect them. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. this should be repeated frequently. 1 lb. 5. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. Water 1 oz. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. which may sound rather absurd.ft. 150 gr.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. of water will make 4 cu. C. B. of sulphuric acid. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. a clean white rag. it is not fit to use. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. until no more dirt is seen. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. oil the spindle holes carefully. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. 1 lb. After washing a part. or dusting with a dry brush. balloon are 125 lb. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. should not enter into the water over 8 in. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. When the clock has dried. ft.Green Iron ammonium citrate . leaving the hand quite clean.

or carbon. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. says the Moving Picture World.000 ft. toning first if desired. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. or zinc. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. . Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. at the time of employment. 20 to 30 minutes. A longer exposure will be necessary. of any make..Water 1 oz. Dry the plates in the dark. A cold. to avoid blackened skin. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. The positive pole. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Exposure. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. keeping the fingers out of the solution. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. Port Melbourne. . and keep in the dark until used. fix in hypo. The miniature 16 cp. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. This aerial collector can be made in . Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Dry in the dark. and a vigorous negative must be used. Printing is done in the sun. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. The negative pole. or battery. dry atmosphere will give best results. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry.

making a ground with one wire. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. 5 in. lay a needle. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. and as less current will flow the short way. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. If the wave ceases. This will complete the receiving station. in diameter. forming a cup of the pipe. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. holes . As the telephone offers a high resistance. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. both positive and negative. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. the resistance is less. long. The storage cell. and have the other connected with another aerial line. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. when left exposed to the air. lead pipe. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. will soon become dry and useless. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. If the waves strike across the needle. a positive and a negative.various ways. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. as described below.

except for about 1 in. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax.as possible. on each end. an oblong one and a triangular one. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. This box can be square. Two binding-posts should be attached. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. The other plate is connected to the zinc. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. of course. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. says the Pathfinder. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. by soldering the joint. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. and the other to the negative. This support or block. or tube B. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . When mixing the acid and water. a round one. namely: a square hole. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. D. B. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. or tube C. one to the positive. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. does not need to be watertight. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. This. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid.

between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. 3. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. This punt. Ill. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. deep and 4 ft. back and under. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. C. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. 1. long. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. 2. wide. about 20 in. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. and match them together. Chicago. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. The third piece of brass. as it is not readily overturned. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. wide. is built 15 ft. in place on the wood. 2. all around the edge. 1. Only galvanized nails should be used. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. thick cut two pieces alike. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. leaving about 1/16 in. as shown in Fig. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. . --Contributed by Edwin Walker.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. and has plenty of good seating capacity. A and B. C. were fitted by this one plug. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in.

In Fig. A. square (Fig 2). The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A piece of 1/4-in. Wash. Tacoma. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. thick and 3-1/2 in.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. is cut 1 in. gas pipe. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. B. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light.

The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. which can be developed in the usual manner. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . which the writer has made. says the Model Engineer. it had to be borne in mind that. if possible. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. H. no more current than a 16-cp. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor.--Contributed by Charles H. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. may be of interest to some of our readers. or "rotor. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. with the exception of insulated wire. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens." has no connection with the outside circuit. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. The winding of the armature. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. no special materials could be obtained. and to consume. Wagner. lamp. In designing. without auxiliary phase.

the field-magnet. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. this little machine is not self-starting. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. in diameter were drilled in the corners. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. Holes 5-32 in. 2. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. After assembling a second time. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. 3. 4. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. also varnished before they were put in. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. as shown in Fig. 1. to be filed out after they are placed together. A. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. wrought iron. and all sparking is avoided. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. The stator is wound full with No. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. B. C. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. and filled with rivets. being used. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. holes. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. were then drilled and 1/4-in. no steel being obtainable. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. They are not particularly accurate as it is. with the dotted line. Unfortunately. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. while the beginnings . bolts put in and tightened up. or "stator. thick. 5. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. as shown in Fig. about 2-1/2 lb. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed.

E. and all wound in the same direction. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. and would not easily get out of order. as a means of illustrating songs. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. having no commutator or brushes. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. and especially of colored ones. and as the motor runs at constant speed. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. J.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. No starting resistance is needed. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. Newark. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper.. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. The rotor is wound with No. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. 1. 2. McKinney. The image should . Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. In making slides by contact. if applied immediately. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. Jr. a regulating resistance is not needed. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. film to film. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. as before stated. This type of motor has drawbacks. If too late for alcohol to be of use. N. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. 3-Contributed by C. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. The lantern slide is a glass plate. One is by contact. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. and the other by reduction in the camera. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. it would be very simple to build. and as each layer of wire was wound. as shown in Fig. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid.

which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. also. 5. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. A. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. D. C. 3. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. about a minute. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. as shown in Fig. Draw lines with a pencil. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. and then a plain glass. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. a little extra work will be necessary. over the mat. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Select a room with one window. 2. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. It is best. and development should be over in three or four minutes. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. B. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. These can be purchased from any photo material store. 1. except that the binding is different. If the exposure has been correct. if possible. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. 4. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide.appear in. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. Being unbreakable. Fig. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. they are much used by travelers. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . as shown in Fig. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. to use a plain fixing bath. the formulas being found in each package of plates.

from the end piece of the chair. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. holes bored in the end pieces. is to be used for the seat. Hastings. as shown in Fig. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. These longer pieces can be made square. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. known as rods and cones. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. 1. long. Fig. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. as shown at B. long. while the dot will be in front of the other. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. 1. in diameter and 20 in. Corinth. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. long. Fig. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. If the star is in front of the left eye. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. Vt. in diameter and 40 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. from the ends. wide and 50 in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. 2. A piece of canvas. from the center of this dot draw a star. 16 in. as shown at A. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. or other stout cloth. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in.

and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. 2. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. Cal. O'Gara. as shown in Fig. made from an ordinary sash cord. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. . Auburn. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. in thickness and 10 in.-Contributed by P. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. 1. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. as shown in Fig. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. A belt. as well as to operate other household machines. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. J. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. A disk 1 in. per square inch. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole.

thick and 2-1/2 in.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. wide. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. leaving it shaped like a bench. divided by the number of threads to the inch. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. direction. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. will be the thickness of the object. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. screwing it through the nut. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. Bore a 1/4-in. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. long. with as fine a thread as possible. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Put the bolt in the hole. and the construction is complete. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. it serves a very useful purpose. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. . Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. A simple. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. says the Scientific American. square for a support. or inconvenient to measure. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. to the top of the bench. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. fairly accurate. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. The part of a rotation of the bolt. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. then removing the object. 3/4 in. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver.

Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. bolt in each hole. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. material 12 ft. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Place a 3/4-in. long. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. beyond the end of the wood. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. long is used for the center pole. The wheel should be open . Santa Maria. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. piece of wood 12 ft. Oal. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. which show up fine at night. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Bore a 3/4-in.

Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. P. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. long. Tex. H and J. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. wide and 1/8 in. The boards may be nailed or bolted. pieces used for the spokes. O. thick. made of the same material. from the top end. from the ends. at the top and 4 in. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. square and 3 or 4 in. The spool . and on its lower end a socket. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. which should be 1/4 in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. L. A cross bar. C. in diameter.Side and Top View or have spokes. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. of the ends with boards. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. and the lower part 61/2 in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. long. long. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. C. Fort Worth. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. 1/2 in. long. is soldered. thick. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. to be operated by the magnet coil. wide and 1/8 in. Graham. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. A piece of brass 2 in. thick is used for the armature. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. B. A. The coil. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod.-Contributed by A. at the bottom.

When you slide the pencil along the casing. The armature. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. is drilled. which may be had by using German silver wire.000 for irrigation work. At the bottom end of the frame. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. D and E. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. Bradlev. one without either rubber or metal end. that holds the lower carbon. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. F. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame.J. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. S.E. C. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. long. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. A soft piece of iron. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. .is about 2-1/2 in. and in numerous other like instances. This tie can be used on grain sacks. for insulating the brass ferrule. then with a firm. This is a very neat trick if performed right. and directly centering the holes H and J. --Contributed by Arthur D. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. B. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. 1. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. 2. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. 2 the hat hanging on it. A. and place it against a door or window casing. Randolph. Mass. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. S. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. or a water rheostat heretofore described.000. making a hole just a little larger than the rod.--A. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. by soldering. R. do it without any apparent effort. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig.

apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. Experiment with Heat [134] . The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. leaving the projections as shown. The core of the coil. long and 1 in. mixed with water to form a paste. thick. F. The coil ends are made from cardboard. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. Fig. D. wide. for the primary. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. is constructed in the usual manner. 2. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. About 70 turns of No. 1. in diameter. The vibrator. is connected to a flash lamp battery. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. in diameter.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. hole in the center. 1. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. in diameter and 2 in. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. from the core and directly opposite. with a 3/16-in. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. may be made from a 3/8-in. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. about 1 in. C. for adjustment. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. long. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. in diameter and 1/16 in. S. The vibrator B. B. A. for the secondary. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. and then 1. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick.500 turns of No. The switch. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. S. about 3/16 in. about 1/8 in. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. Fig.

and the same distance inside of the new board. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. . if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. as shown. as shown in the sketch. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. and then well clinched. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. 16 in. 1. which seemed to be insufficient. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. which is only 3/8-in. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. The lock. thick on the inside. was to be secured by only three brass screws. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. The tin is 4 in. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. 2 to fit the two holes. it laps down about 8 in. 1. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. brass plate. with which to operate the dial. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. between the boards. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. in an ordinary water glass. The hasp. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. which is cut with two holes. long and when placed over the board. wide. The knob on the dial extends out too far. board. Fig. lighted. The three screws were then put in the hasp.Place a small piece of paper. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling.

By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. but when the front part is illuminated. high for use in window displays. one in each division. the glass. not shiny. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. or in the larger size mentioned. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. When making of wood. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. clear glass as shown. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. which completely divides the box into two parts. square and 10-1/2 in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. If the box is made large enough. and the back left dark. black color. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. square and 8-1/2 in. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . When the rear part is illuminated. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. any article placed therein will be reflected in.

Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. as shown at A in the sketch. . Instead of changing the current operated by hand.. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. When there is no electric current available. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. alternately. as shown in the sketch. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. into the other. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. and with the proper illumination one is changed. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. long and 1 ft. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. wide will be about the right size. a tank 2 ft. above the top of the tank. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. as it appears. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. When using as a window display.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

Columbus. square. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. O. long. bit. The pieces can then be taken out. dried and mixed with linseed oil. wide. radius. is built on the front. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. hole. square and 40 in. This hole must be continued . wide. The 13-in. A small platform. however. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. and 6 ft. and boring two holes with a 1-in. but with a length of 12 in. This precipitate is then washed. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. 1 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. If a planing mill is near. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. long. Three windows are provided. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. and a door in front. one for each side. Iron sulphate. bore from each end. 2 ft. is the green vitriol. hole bored the full length through the center. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. under sides together. then use a red-hot iron to finish. using a 3/4-in. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. lines gauged on each side of each. high. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. gauge for depth. from the ground. and a solution of iron sulphate added. thick and 3 in. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. 5 ft. Shape the under sides first. or ferrous sulphate. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. as shown. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. 6 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. two pieces 1-1/8 in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. each. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. with a length of 13 in.

For art-glass the metal panels are . No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. if shade is purchased. thick and 3 in. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp.through the pieces forming the base. A better way. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. square and drawing a diagonal on each. If the parts are to be riveted. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. apply two coats of wax. When this is dry. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. three or four may be attached as shown. Saw the two blocks apart. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. When the filler has hardened. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. hole in each block. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Electric globes--two. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult.

METAL SHADE .The Completed Lamp cut out.Construction of Shade . and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. as brass. such as copper.

with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. as shown in the sketch. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. one way and 1/2 in. as in ordinary devices. The arms holding the glass. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. the other. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. the object and the background.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. Figure 1 shows the side. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . and Fig. 2 the front view of this stand. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera.

The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. as it is very poisonous. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. outside diameter. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. If the light becomes dim. thus forming a 1/4-in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. thick 5/8-in. and swinging freely. as shown in the sketch. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. wide and 6-5/16 in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. channel in the circumference of the ring. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. in diameter. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. An ordinary pocket compass. wide and 11 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Cut another circular piece 11 in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. in diameter for a base. about 1-1/4 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. uncork and recork again. Put the ring in place on the base. pointing north and south. as shown in the cut. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. and an inside diameter of 9 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. long. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. Before mounting the ring on the base.

high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. black oxide of copper.088 . but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. in diameter and 8 in. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. 1 oz.865 1. above the half can.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. CC. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. into these cylinders. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. The results given should be multiplied by 1. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. B. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . of the top. Place on top the so- .715 . from the second to the third. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. Corresponding mirrors. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.289 . are mounted on a base.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. and north of the Ohio river. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. AA.600 . black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.182 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg.420 . Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. EE.500 . and mirrors.

the wheel will revolve in one direction. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. which otherwise remains clear. A Floating Electromagnet [152] .lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. 62 gr. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. 31 gr. alcohol. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. says Metal Worker. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. In Fig. Put the solution in a long. University Park. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. When renewing. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. then they will not rust fast. always remove the oil with a siphon. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. slender bottle. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. little crystals forming in the liquid. of pulverized campor. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Colo. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air.

with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. Lloyd Enos. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. --Contributed by C. floating on a solution. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. about 1-1/4 in. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. A paper-fastener box. Attach to the wires. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. on the under side of the cork. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Solder in the side of the box . the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. If zinc and copper are used. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. If two of them are floating on the same solution. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. This is used in place of the spoon. If zinc and carbon are used. will allow the magnet to point north and south.

H. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. 14 wire will do. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet.in. If the hose is not a tight fit. 1-1/4 in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. A. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . To this standard solder the supporting wire. Put ends. 1. long. 1/2. F. C. A circular piece of cardboard. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. E. or made with a little black paint. thick. brass tubing. B. The standard. B. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. Use a board 1/2. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring.in. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Bore holes for binding-posts. The spring should be about 1 in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. A. D.Contributed by J. Take a small piece of soft iron. is made from a piece of No. G--No.not shorter than 18 in. C. and then solder on the cover. E. 10 wire about 10 in. to it. as shown in Fig. The bottom of the box. 3 in. Rhamstine. Wind evenly about 2 oz. piece of 1/4-in. of wire on each end extending from the coil. D. long that has about 1/4-in. and on the other around the glass tube. glass tubing . C. The base. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. can be made of oak. hole. . Secure a piece of 1/4-in. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. wide and 6 in. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. long. away. one on each side of the board. of No. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. Thos. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. stained and varnished.1-in. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. D.

of the coil. 3. Wis. Y. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. E. 5. Cuba. making a support as shown in Fig. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. 3-in. as shown in Fig. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest.--Contributed by Edward M. long are used for the legs. two pieces 2 ft. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. two pieces 2-1/2 ft.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. N. About 1-1/2 lb. about 1 in. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft.--Contributed by R. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. long. canvas. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. 2. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. of mercury will be sufficient. D. is drawn nearer to the coil. in diameter. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Teasdale. 3 in. . Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. long. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. The iron plunger. Smith. four hinges. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. J. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. Milwaukee. 1. long. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. of No. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. When the glass becomes soft. of 8-oz. from the right hand. long. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in.

When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. 6. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube.. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. --Contributed by David A. expelling all the air. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. 2. 3. thus leaving a. leaving 8 in. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Fig. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. This tube as described will be 8 in. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. long. small aperture in the long tube. Keys. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. 5.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Can. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Toronto. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. Take 1/2 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. The tube now must be filled completely. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. Break off the piece of glass.. Measure 8 in. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. holding in the left hand. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. of vacuum at the top. 4. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig.

thick. Four blocks 1/4 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. long. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . The large pulley is about 14 in. as shown in Fig.6 -. This forms a slot. A crosspiece 3/4-in. 9 in. 3 in. 6. 1. wide and 12 in. long. in diameter. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 3. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. but yellow pine is the best. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. 1 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. wide and 5 ft. 5. These are bent and nailed. thick. 7. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. wide and 3 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. long. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. FIG. thick. wood screws. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. 4. 1 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. joint be accurately put together. with each projection 3-in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. and 1/4 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. as shown in Fig. Fig. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. wide and 5 ft. 2. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. long. thick. thick. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. material 2 in. from the end of same. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 4 in. 3 in. as in Fig. wide and 5 ft.

The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. first removing the crank. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. --Contributed by C. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Kan. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. above the runner level. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Welsh. attach runners and use it on the ice. . The runners can be made from 1/4-in. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Manhattan. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Water 1 oz.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. by 1-in. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. R. says Photography. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine.

and very much cheaper. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. 3. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. of water. Leominster. 1.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. This is done with a camel's hair brush. from an ordinary clamp skate. The print is washed. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. --Contributed by Edward M. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Printing is carried rather far. --Contributed by Wallace C. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. . as shown in Fig. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. 2. Mass. Newton. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. 1 oz. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Treasdale. also. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. as shown in Fig.

This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. 1-1/2 ft. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. A. 1. hole. long. say. too. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. Church. fasten a 2-in. and 3 ft. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. The thread is broken off at the . The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. extending the width of the box. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. with about 1/8-in. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Va. Alexandria. F. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. high. from one end. wide and 4 in. 1. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. 2. and to the bottom. Fig. Take two glass tubes. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. causing the door to swing back and up. Fig. about 10 in. The swing door B. Place a 10-in.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. wide. high for rabbits. 1 ft. as shown in the sketch. and bend them as shown in the sketch. square piece. --Contributed by H. which represents the back side of the door. Then.

over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Fig. Take two pieces of pasteboard. . This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. 10 in. inside of the opening. A and B. being 1/8 in. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. and exactly 5 by 7 in. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. in size. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Out two rectangular holes. Cut an opening in the other piece. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box.. black surfaced if possible. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. automobiles. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. wide and 5 in. trolley cars. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in.proper place to make a small hole. 2. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. horses and dogs. wide. and go in the holder in the same way. Chicago. camera and wish to use some 4. shorter at each end. This opening. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. as shown in Fig. 3. 1 in. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. long. -Contributed by William M. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Crilly.by 5-in. from the edge on each side of these openings.by 7-in. high and 12 in. plates. long. C. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. Fig. Jr. in size. 1. say 8 in. but cut it 1/4 in. shorter. D. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. B. wide. says Camera Craft. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. to be used as a driving pulley. Paste a piece of strong black paper.

if it has previously been magnetized. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. into which the dog is harnessed. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. long and 6 in. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. The needle will then point north and south." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in.. making a . if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water.in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. A cell of this kind can easily be made. wide will be required. in diameter. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill.

Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. . says Electrician and Mechanic. one that will hold about 1 qt. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. of rosin and 2 oz. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. long which are copper plated. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. and a notch between the base and the pan. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. of the top. of the plate at one end. 1 lb. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. A is a block of l-in. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. F is a spool. pine. 1/4 lb. pull out the wire as needed. plaster of paris. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. in diameter and 6 in. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. leaving about 1/2-in. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb.watertight receptacle. of water. when the paraffin is melted. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. only the joints. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. filter. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Place the pan on the stove. fuel and packing purposes. zinc oxide. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. beeswax melted together. Pack the paste in. Form a 1/2-in. in which P is the pan. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. with narrow flanges. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. Do not paint any surface. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. 3/4 lb. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. fodder. under the spool in the paraffin.in. for a connection. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. short time. B is a base of 1 in. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. This makes the wire smooth. sal ammoniac. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A.

2. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. square and about 9 in. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. from vexation." which created much merriment. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. g.. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Ohio. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Try it and see. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. grip the stick firmly in one hand. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Enlarge the hole slightly. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. At least it is amusing. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. or think they can do the same. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. and one friend tells me that they were .Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. for some it will turn one way. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. let them try it. by the Hindoos in India. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and therein is the trick. while for others it will not revolve at all. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. If any of your audience presume to dispute. thus producing two different vibrations. as in the other movement. long. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and then. for others the opposite way. and he finally. but the thing would not move at all. Toledo.

The experiments were as follows: 1. secondly. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. 5. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. 7. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. p. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. rotation was obtained. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. by means of a center punch. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. and. 3. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. m. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. gave the best results. To operate. 6. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. If the pressure was upon an edge. Speeds between 700 and 1. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. no rotation resulted. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained.100 r. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. 2. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. Thus a circular or . and I think the results may be of interest. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. the rotation may be obtained. 4.

a piece of wire and a candle. forming a handle for carrying. Lloyd. . the liquid is forced away from the sphere. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. D. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use.D. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. --Contributed by G." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. G. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out.. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. at first. --Contributed by M. Ph. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back.. unwetted by the liquid. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. if the pressure is from the left. it will be clockwise. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. or greasy. A wire is tied around the can. and the height of the fall about 6 in. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward).elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Washington. Sloan. as shown. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Minn. C. and the resultant "basket splash. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. A. is driven violently away. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. Duluth. the upper portion is.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

long. in diameter." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. axle. as shown. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. with a 1/16-in. Each wheel is 1/4 in. about 2-5/8 in. flange and a 1/4-in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. thick and 1 in. as shown in Fig.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. 1. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. hole drilled in the center. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel.

--Contributed by Maurice E. The parts. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. 6. as shown in Fig. San Antonio. 3/4 in. wood. The current. is made from a piece of clock spring. Fig. These ends are fastened together. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. The first piece. 4. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. are shown in Fig. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. long. Texas. bottom side up. This will save buying a track. put together complete. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. 3. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. 3. 2. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. lamp in series with the coil. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. is made from brass. which must be 110 volt alternating current. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . and the locomotive is ready for running. of No. Fig. wide and 16 in. holes 1 in. 2. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. If the ends are to be soldered. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. as shown in Fig. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. bent as shown.brass. with cardboard 3 in.50. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. Fuller. 5. 1 from 1/4-in. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. each in its proper place. The motor is now bolted. A trolley. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. or main part of the frame.

but do not heat the center. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. and as this end . as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Fig 1. Cincinnati. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. 1. as shown in Fig. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. as shown in Fig. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. O. 3. and holes drilled in them. Fig. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. 2. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. The quarter will not go all the way down. then continue to tighten much more. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. the length of a paper clip. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened.

The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. In the sketch. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. A pair of centers are fitted. 2 and 1 respectively. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. has finished a cut for a tooth. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. or should the lathe head be raised. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. or apparent security of the knot. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. When the trick is to be performed. and adjusted . The frame is made from a 1/2 in. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. When the cutter A. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line.

) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. if four parts are to be alike. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. (1.) Make on paper the design wanted. tea cosey. lady's card case. dividing it into as many parts as desired. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . Bunker.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. note book. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. draw center lines across the required space. --Contributed by Samuel C. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. gentleman's card case or bill book. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). book mark. lady's belt bag. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. at the same time striking light. Fold over along these center lines. or one-half of the design.to run true. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. above the surface. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. --Contributed by Howard S.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Second row: -Two book marks. such as brass or marble. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. (6. about 1-1/2 in. (5. 1. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin.) Place the paper design on the leather and. Y. coin purse. Brooklyn. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Bott. (3. The frame holding the mandrel. twisted around itself and soldered. watch fob ready for fastenings. In this manner gears 3 in. 2. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. (4. trace the outline. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. and a nut pick. long. Fig. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. blotter back. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. tea cosey. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. An ordinary machine will do. swing lathe. (2. if but two parts. N. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. When connecting to batteries. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. holding it in place with the left hand. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins.

some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. Secure .

. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. Thrust a pin. where it condenses. C. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. Florida. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. and bore a hole through the center. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. and push it through a cork. A. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. If the needle is not horizontal. a distance of 900 miles. The electrodes are made .Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. from Key West.C. D. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. into which fit a small piece of tube. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. B. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches.

12 crosspieces 3/4 in. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. thick. wide and 4 ft. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. long. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. as shown in Fig. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 16 piano wire. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. slacken speed and settle. 1-1/2 in. thick. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. using a high resistance receiver. lengths and splice them. Washington. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. 2 in. long for the body of the operator. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. by 3/4 in. 1-1/4 in. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. 2. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. D. 3. as shown in Fig. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. 12 uprights 1/2 in. both laterally and longitudinally. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. Four long beams 3/4 in. apart and extend 1 ft. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. 1. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. 3/4 in. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. wide and 4 ft. 2 arm sticks 1 in. The operator can then land safely and . apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. thick. If 20-ft.in. 1/2. long. C. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. thick. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. or flying-machine. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. All wiring is done with No. Connect as shown in the illustration. 1. several strips 1/2 in. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. lumber cannot be procured. square and 8 ft long. as shown in Fig. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. wide and 3 ft. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. free from knots. long. long. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. long. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. which is tacked to the front edge. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. 1. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. thick. wide and 4 ft long. --Contributed by Edwin L. 2. wide and 20 ft. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. Powell. take the glider to the top of a hill. use 10-ft. To make a glide. and also to keep it steady in its flight. beyond the rear edges of the main frames.

Glides are always made against the wind. Of course. Great care should be . The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. and the balancing is done by moving the legs.gently on his feet. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. but this must be found by experience. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.

Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . --Contributed by L. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. as shown in Fig. 2. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. Bellingham. half man and half horse. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. which causes the dip in the line. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Olson. M. 1.exercised in making landings. When heated a little. a creature of Greek mythology. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from.

If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. outside the box. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. about the size of stove pipe wire. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. in diameter. about the size of door screen wire. 14 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. long and about 3/8 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. The light from the . in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. While at the drug store get 3 ft. this will cost about 15 cents. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. a piece of brass or steel wire. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. will complete the material list. making it 2-1/2 in. long. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. at the other. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. of small rubber tubing. square. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire.

O. . Dayton. as shown in Fig. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. as shown in Fig. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. --Photo by M. 2. as shown in the sketch. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. If done properly the card will flyaway. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. 1. Hunting. This is very simple when you know how. M. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. while others will fail time after time.

Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. as described. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. as before. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. place the other two. When the desired shape has been obtained. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. closing both hands quickly. hold the lump over the flame. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. then put it on the hatpin head. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. If a certain color is to be more prominent. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. as shown. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. This game is played by five persons. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project." or the Chinese students' favorite game.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. Cool in water and dry. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl.

passing through neutralizing brushes. these sectors. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. distribute electric charges . Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. or more in width.

are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. D. Fig. 1. C C. 3/4 in. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. the side pieces being 24 in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. 3. from about 1/4-in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. are made from 7/8-in. long. The fork part is 6 in. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The two pieces. in diameter. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. turned wood pieces. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. as shown in Fig. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. and the outer end 11/2 in. 3. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. long. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. 2. long and the shank 4 in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. The drive wheels. 1 in. at the other. The plates are trued up. to which insulating handles . material 7 in. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. free from wrinkles. in diameter. are made from solid. EE. wide at one end. 4. and 4 in. Fig. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. after they are mounted. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. The collectors are made. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. and pins inserted and soldered. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. Two solid glass rods. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. in diameter. wide. GG. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. in diameter. RR. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. as shown in Fig. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. in diameter and 15 in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. in diameter. These pins. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. or teeth. in diameter. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. long and the standards 3 in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. 1-1/2 in. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. and of a uniform thickness. The plates. Two pieces of 1-in.

The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. 12 ft. Lloyd Enos.. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. --Contributed by C. and the work was done by themselves. one having a 2-in. wide and 22 ft. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . which are bent as shown. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. ball and the other one 3/4 in. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Colorado City. long. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. in diameter. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. Colo. KK. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. D.are attached. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods.

the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. string together. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. The key will drop from the string. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. yet such a thing can be done. using a 1-in. bit. pens . "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. deep. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork.is a good one. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. and bore a hole 1/2 in. as at A.

also trace the decorative design.. 7. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 5. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 4. 3. 9. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. and the third one 1/4 in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Draw one-half the design free hand. etc. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. etc. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. Inside this oblong. 8. Having determined the size of the tray. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. slim screw. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. They are easily made. two spikes. using a nail filed to chisel edge. Raise the ends. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. inside the first on all. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. 6. Use . The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. This is to make a clean. flat and round-nosed pliers. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. sharp division between background and design. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. they make attractive little pieces to have about. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. The second oblong was 3/4 in. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. unless it would be the metal shears. When the stamping is completed. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. then the other side. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. above the work and striking it with the hammer. extra metal on each of the four sides.. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent.and pencils. 23 gauge. very rapid progress can be made. or cigar ashes. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. 2. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. about 3/4-in. above the metal. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. Proceed as follows: 1. stamp the background promiscuously. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. file. inside the second on all.

first fingers. In the first numbering. The eyes. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 9. and fourth fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. and the effect will be most pleasing. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 8. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. second fingers.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 7. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. 6. 10. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. third fingers. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown.

first fingers. the product of 12 times 12. if we wish. In the second numbering. 11. 2 times 2 equals 4. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. or the product of 6 times 6. or the product of 8 times 9. At a glance you see four tens or 40.. viz. 600. as high as you want to go. Let us multiply 12 by 12. 25 times 25. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. or 80. etc. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. renumber your fingers. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. or 60. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. which would be 70. Put your thumbs together. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. there are no fingers above. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. 12. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. . We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. above 20 times 20. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. Still.. which tens are added. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. 400.. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. Two times one are two. which would be 16. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. or numbers above 10. but being simple it saves time and trouble. etc. thumbs. above 15 times 15 it is 200. etc. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. and the six lower fingers as six tens.

with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. or what. 21.. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. beginning the thumbs with 16. 3. the revolution seems to reverse. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. For example. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. forties.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. not rotation. however. thumbs. And the lump sum to add. about a vertical axis. adding 400 instead of 100. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. the inversion takes place against his will. lastly. For figures ending in 6. The inversion and reversion did not take place. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. in the case of a nearsighted person. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. whether the one described in second or third numbering. when he removes his spectacles. the value of the upper fingers being 20. being 80). In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. as one might suppose. the value which the upper fingers have. 7. etc. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. and. It takes place also. the lump sum to add. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. Proceed as in the second lumbering. first finger 17. 2. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. and so on. or from above or from below. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. further. any two figures between 45 and 55. twenties. first fingers 22. 8. thirties. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. Take For example 18 times 18. which is the half-way point between the two fives. 75 and 85. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. at the will of the observer. .

the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. Looking at it in semidarkness. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The ports were not easy to make. as . holding it firmly in a horizontal position. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. the other appearance asserts itself. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. sometimes the point towards him. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. and putting a cork on the point. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. when he knows which direction is right. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. tee. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. A flat slide valve was used. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one.

secure a piece of No. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. The steam chest is round.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. across and 1/2 in. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. and make in one end a hollow. Fasten the block solidly. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Kutscher. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. deep. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. pipe 10 in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. Springfield. such as is shown in the illustration. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. While this engine does not give much power. The tools are simple and can be made easily. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. if continued too long without proper treatment. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. . bottom side up. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. about 2 in. H. Beating copper tends to harden it and.. If nothing better is at hand. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. -Contributed by W. as in a vise. it is easily built. saw off a section of a broom handle. inexpensive. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. across the head. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. pipe. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Next take a block of wood. apart. The eccentric is constructed of washers. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. Ill. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. in diameter.

O. Camden. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. Vinegar. especially when the object is near to the observer. To overcome this hardness. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. as it softens the metal. the other to the left. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. To produce color effects on copper. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Hay. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the .will cause the metal to break. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. C. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. and. S. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. This process is called annealing. --Contributed by W. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper.

Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. the further from the card will the composite image appear. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. that for the right. The further apart the pictures are. and without any picture. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. in the proper choice of colors. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. because. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture.stereoscope. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. only the orange rays may pass through. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. The red portions of the picture are not seen. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. it. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. not two mounted side by side. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. It is just as though they were not there. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. they must be a very trifle apart. disappears fully. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. while both eyes together see a white background. would serve the same purpose. . as for instance red and green. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. But they seem black. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. So with the stereograph. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. orange. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. with the stereograph. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. from the stereograph. the left eye sees through a blue screen. diameter. In order to make them appear before the card. however. although they pass through the screen. the one for the left eye being blue. because of the rays coming from them. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. and lies to the right on the picture.

1/4 in. Cal. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. This should only be bored about half way through the block. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. in diameter. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. in the shape of a crank. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. long and a hole drilled in each end. etc. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. The weight of the air in round . The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. A No. 12 gauge wire.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. wireless. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Place a NO. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. wide and 1 in. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. thick.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. or the middle of the bottle. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. San Francisco. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer.

the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. wide and 4 in. high. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. inside diameter and 2 in. 30 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. will calibrate itself. high. long. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. the contrary. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. a bottle 1 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. a glass tube 1/8 in. In general. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. high. The 4 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. thick. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. and a slow fall.6) 1 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. square. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury.. or. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. pine 3 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. if accurately constructed. but before attempting to put in the mercury. long.numbers is 15 lb. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. or a column of mercury (density 13. internal diameter and about 34 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. 34 ft. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. square. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. if you choose. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. Only redistilled mercury should be used. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. But if a standard barometer is not available. Before fastening the scale. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. the instrument. wide and 40 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. long. .

the size of the outside of the bottle. 6 and 7. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . a cover from a baking powder can will do. thick. 1. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. wide and 10 in. and place them as shown in Fig. 2. 3. Procure a metal can cover. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. 5.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. which is slipped quickly over the end. Number the pieces 1. Mark out seven 1-in. long. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch.

5's place. long and 2 ft. Make 22 sections. in diameter. 5. 3 into No. Move 2-Jump No. procure unbleached tent duck. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 9-Jump No. 3. 1 to No. 2. 1 into No. Cape May Point. N. Move ll-Jump No. Move 13-Move No. using checkers for men. 6. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 6 into No. 6 in. 7's place. Move 10-Move No. 2 . 2 over No. Move 12-Jump No.-Contributed by W. 5 over No. shaped like Fig. 2. as shown in Fig. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. which is the very best material for the purpose. This can be done on a checker board. 1. To make such a tent. 6 to No. L. Move 4-Jump No. 3. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 1. Move 6-Move No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. l over No. 6. Move 15-Move No. 2 over No. 7 over No. Move 8-Jump No. 3 to the center. 2's place. Move 5-Jump No. Move 7-Jump No. 5's place. 7. 2's place. Woolson. Move 3-Move No. 3 over No. each 10 ft.J. 5 over No. 7 over No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Move 14-Jump No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 3. 6 over No.

Use blocks. --Contributed by G. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. diameter. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. wide at the bottom. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass.. Pa. Tress. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. from the top. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. long. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. about 9 in. in diameter. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Emsworth. 9 by 12 in. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. round galvanized iron. In raising the tent. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. After transferring the design to the brass. wide at the bottom. 5) stuck in the ground. Nail a thin sheet of brass. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. These are ventilators. high. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. added. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. to a smooth board of soft wood. will do. 5. 2 in. Fig. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. made in two sections. leaving the rest for an opening. wide by 12 in. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. 6-in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. fill with canvas edging. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. 3 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. Fig. long and 4 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 6. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. 2. Punch holes in the brass in .in. Have the tent pole 3 in. as in Fig. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in.J. As shown in the sketch. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes.

fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. but before punching the holes. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. It will not. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. Chicago. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. around the outside of the pattern. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. bend into shape. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. cut out the brass on the outside lines. apart. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. excepting the 1/4-in. When all the holes are punched. . Corr.the spaces around the outlined figures. When the edges are brought together by bending. The pattern is traced as before. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder.

A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer.. If a wheel is selected. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Stevens. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. pipe. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. or. Dunham. These pipes are . --Contributed by H. partially filled with cream. pipe is used for the hub. Que. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. E.however. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. A 6-in. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. allowing 2 ft. between which is placed the fruit jar. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. or center on which the frame swings. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Mayger. or less. --Contributed by Geo. A cast-iron ring. Badger. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Oregon. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. G. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. better still.

The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. bent to the desired circle. An extra wheel 18 in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe. pipe clamps. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange.

How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. 3. The performer. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. 1. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. which was placed in an upright position. as shown in Fig. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. while doing this. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. and the guide withdrawn. and dropped on the table. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side.

Colo. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. 1. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Louis. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Mo. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. -Contributed by C. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. St. The box can be made of selected oak or . The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. first. 2. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Denver.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. --Contributed by H. in a half circle. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. F. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. in diameter on another piece of tin. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. it requires no expensive condensing lens. White. Harkins. D. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. and second.

These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. wide. wide and 6-1/2 in. 3-1/2 in. and. 5-1/2 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. represented by the dotted line in Fig. long. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. fit into the runners. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. high and must . 1. focal length. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. Two or three holes about 1 in.mahogany. long. as shown in Fig. wide and 5 in. This will be 3/4 in. from each end of the outside of the box. An open space 4 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. If a camera lens is used. long and should be placed vertically. high and 11 in. AA. from each end. wide and 6-1/2 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. The door covering this hole in the back. but not tight. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. wide by 5 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. and 2 in. 2. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in.

A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. June and November. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. as it requires an airtight case. and extending the whole height of the lantern. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Ohio. C." etc. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. April. 1. calling that knuckle January. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. West Toledo. then the second knuckle will be March. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. and so on. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles.. provided it is airtight. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. --Contributed by Chas. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. the article may be propped up . Bradley. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. calling this February. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. This process is rather a difficult one. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia.

In each place two electrodes. 1. but waxed. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. and set aside for half a day. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. 1 and 2. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. The top of a table will do. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. . and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. Pour in a little turpentine. --Contributed by J. the lid or cover closed. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A.with small sticks. running small motors and lighting small lamps. one of lead and one of aluminum. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. giving it an occasional stir. Y. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. 2. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. N. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. in. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. and the lead 24 sq. In both Fig. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. Schenectady. or suspended by a string. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. in. Crawford. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. fruit jars are required. taking care to have all the edges closed. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. H. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush.

A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. O. He. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug.. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. you remove the glass. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. as well as others. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. This trick is very simple. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. which you warm with your hands. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. Cleveland. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. After a few seconds' time. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. he throws the other. as you have held it all the time. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. You have an understanding with some one in the company. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. at the time of request for handkerchiefs.

Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Victor. Crocker. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. in diameter in the center. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. but by being careful at shores. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Colo. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. if any snags are encountered. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. put it under the glass. on a table. J. leaving a hole about 3/4 in.-Contributed by E. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief.take the handiest one. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. . Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Be sure that this is the right one. Pull the ends quickly. near a partition or curtain. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. but in making one. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use.

and the other 12 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. for the bow. long. 1 piece. 1 mast. Fig. by 2 in. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . of 1-1/2-yd. for center deck braces. and. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. thick and 3/4 in. 50 ft. at the ends. 1/4 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 3 in. of 1-yd. by 16 ft. 11 yd. for the stern piece. 2 and braced with an iron band. 1/8 in. and fastened with screws. wide and 12 ft. 14 rib bands. 8 yd. 1. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. long. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. one 6 in. wide. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. long. as illustrated in the engraving. 2 gunwales. from the stern. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. ducking. by 2 in. wide unbleached muslin. the smaller is placed 3 ft.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. long. are as follows: 1 keelson. apart. by 8 in. drilled and fastened with screws. by 12 in. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. by 16 ft.. for cockpit frame. 3 in. 8 in. 4 outwales. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds.. 9 ft. is 14 ft. by 15 ft. 1 piece. 3 and 4. Both ends are mortised. from each end to 1 in. 1 in. wide 12-oz. by 10 ft. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. screws and cleats. 7 ft. wide and 12 ft. The keelson. 1 in. clear pine. Paint. 1 in. and is removed after the ribs are in place. selected pine. from the bow and the large one. 1 in. square by 16 ft. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. of rope. 2 in.

This block. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. from the bow. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. thick and 1/2 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. thick. 1 in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. doubled. also. They are 1 in. 1/4 in. Before making the deck. long. 9. apart. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. length of canvas is cut in the center. wide and 24 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. 6 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. wide and 14 in. These are put in 6 in. long. The 11-yd. Fig. 3-1/2 ft. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. wood screws. thick and 12 in. wide and 3 ft. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. The deck is not so hard to do. 1 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. A block of pine. corner braces. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. long is well soaked in water. wide. thick. gunwales and keelson. A piece of oak. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. The block is fastened to the keelson. Figs. is a cube having sides 6 in. 5. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. . in diameter through the block. The trimming is wood. 6 and 7. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. is cut to fit under the top boards. Braces. 4 in. A 6-in. 7 and 8. wide. Fig. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. long. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. screws. 6. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. thick 1-1/2 in. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. and fastened to them with bolts. a piece 1/4 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs.

which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. 11. --Contributed by O. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. The mast has two side and one front stay. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. Tronnes. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. long. thick by 2 in. is 6 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. wide. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. . The house will accommodate 20 families.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. 10 with a movable handle. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. long. A strip 1 in. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. at the other. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. apart in the muslin. in diameter and 10 ft. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. wide at one end and 12 in. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. E. Wilmette. are used for the boom and gaff. The sail is a triangle. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. each 1 in. Fig. Ill. The keel. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. 12. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope.

2-1/2 in.into two 14-in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. Bevel both sides of the pieces. --Contributed by O. Cut the maple. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. Wilmette. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. about 5/16 in. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. long. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. and the other 18 in. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. 2 in. 1 yd. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. thick. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. thick. wide and 2 ft. wide. thick. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. long. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. square. one 11-1/2 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. flat on one side. and 3 ft. Ill. flat-headed screws. 5. 3. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. 2. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. five 1/2-in. long and five 1/2-in. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. Tronnes. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. 4. long. as shown in Fig. with the ends and the other side rounding. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. 1. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. wide. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. Take this and fold it over . E. flat headed screws. wide and 30 in. Fig. 2-1/2 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in.

Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. The front. Fig. wide and 6-1/2 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. long. wide and 4-1/2 in. A. C. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. leaving a small opening at one corner. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. of each end unwound for connections.once. long. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. 1. thick and 3 in. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. 1-1/4 in. square. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. wide and 2-1/2 in. forming an eye for a screw. 3-1/4 in. Another piece. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. Bliss. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. 5 from 1/16-in. but can be governed by circumstances. and make a turn in each end of the wires. 6-1/2 in. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. After the glue. Louis. long. St. is set. Cut another piece of board. The sides are 3-1/4 in. long. are rounded. 3/8 in. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. D. Make a double stitch all around the edge. --Contributed by W. If carefully and neatly made. square. the mechanical parts can be put together. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. The bag is then turned inside out. this square box is well sandpapered. long. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. long. thick. When the glue is set. as well as the edges around the opening. then centered. long. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. wide and 6-3/4 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. and take care that the pieces are all square. thick. long. wide and 5 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. E. Glue a three cornered piece. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. wide and 2-3/4 in. and the four outside edges. Wind three layers of about No. A. Mo. 2 and 3. wide . to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. the top and bottom. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. Figs. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. 3 in. pieces 2-5/8 in. F. wide and 3 ft. B. soaked with water and blown up. about 3/8 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. About 1/2 in. C.

This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. F. wide and 9 in. These wires should be about 1 in. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. from the spindle. C. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. --Contributed by George Heimroth. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown.and 2-5/8 in. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. A pointer 12 in. I. and as the part Fig. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. the same size as the first. and fasten in place. L. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. so it will just clear the tin. 4 is not movable. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. the part carrying the pointer moves away. that has the end turned with a shoulder. The end of the polar axis B. The resistance is now adjusted to show . and the farther apart they will be forced. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. Another strip of tin. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. board. 1/16 in. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . The stronger the current. in diameter. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. 5. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. Chapman. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. Fig. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. 4. 5-1/2 in. long. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. When the current flows through the coil. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H.A. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. long. 4. Like poles repel each other. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass.R. wide and 2-1/2 in. Yorkshire. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. thick. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. 1/4 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. W. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. Richmond Hill. hole is fastened to the pointer. Place the tin. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle.S. from one end. bored in the back. Austwick Hall. showing a greater defection of the pointer. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. The base is a board 5 in. G. Fig. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. long. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. R.

and vice . mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. 10 min. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. thus: 9 hr. The following formula will show how this may be found. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. 30 min. 1881. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. shows mean siderial. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. say Venus at the date of observation. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. 10 min. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. A. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. at 9 hr. M. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time.

and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Conn. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. get a glazed vessel of similar construction.m. .f. New Haven. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. and then verify its correctness by measurement. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. owing to the low internal resistance. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. or. Hall. --Contributed by Robert W. if one of these cannot be had.

Then. 1. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. 3/8 in. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. long. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. Wet paper will answer. Fig. of alum and 4 oz. and heap the glowing coals on top. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. especially for cooking fish. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. thick. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. The boring bar. When the follower is screwed down. leaves or bark. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. as shown in the accompanying picture. fresh grass. cover up with the same. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . 1-3/4 in.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. put the fish among the ashes. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. inside diameter and about 5 in. arsenic to every 20 lb.

thick. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. fastened with a pin. pipe. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. and threaded on both ends. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. about 1/2 in. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. when they were turned in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. pipe. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat.

square iron. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. 4. Fig. labor and time. bent in the shape of a U. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. wide. 30 in. was then finished on an emery wheel. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. then it should be ground to a fit. thick and 3 in. Fig. Clermont. and which gave such satisfactory results. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. It . The rough frame. a jump spark would be much better. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. 5. Iowa. long. however. This plate also supports the rocker arms. 3. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. 2. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. If the valve keeps dripping. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. A 1-in. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. the float is too high.valve stems. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. but never one which required so little material. as the one illustrated herewith. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Fig.

from all over the neighborhood. The crosspiece is 2 in. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting." little and big. square and 5 ft. butting against short stakes. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. in the ground with 8 ft. and. which adds greatly to the flying sensation.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. Use a heavy washer at the head. 12 ft. 3/4 in. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. --Contributed by C. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. for the "motive power" to grasp. strong clear material only should be employed. rope is not too heavy. in diameter and 15 in. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. completes the merry-go-round. square. being held in position by spikes as shown. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. The illustration largely explains itself. strengthened by a piece 4 in. square and 2 ft. with no trees or buildings in the way. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. A malleable iron bolt. A 3/4 -in. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. If it is to be used for adults. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. and a little junk. long. long. This makes an easy adjustment. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. from the center. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. so it must be strong enough. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. The seats are regular swing boards. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. As there is no bracing. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. It looks like a toy. timber. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . so that there will be plenty of "wobble. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. Nieman. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. W. hole bored in the post. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. long is the pivot. long. no matter what your age or size may be. set 3 ft. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. extending above." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. in fact.

To wind the string upon the reel. A reel is next made. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. as shown in Fig. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. These ends are placed about 14 in. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. 2. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down.2 emery. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. 1. light and strong. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing.the fingers. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. Having placed the backbone in position. 4. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. away. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. The bow is now bent. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. The backbone is flat. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. Both have large reels full of . 1/4 by 3/32 in. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. long. and 18 in. a wreck. one for the backbone and one for the bow. if nothing better is at hand. square. and sent to earth. then it is securely fastened.

Brooklyn. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. he pays out a large amount of string. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. often several hundred yards of it. common packing thread. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. First. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Y. the first tries to spear him by swift dives.string. If the second kite is close enough. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. the balance.-Contributed by S. N. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Mass. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Bunker. C. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The handle end is held down with a staple. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Moody. Newburyport. --Contributed' by Harry S. or glass-covered string. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench.

3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. square (Fig. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . If the table is round. Cut four pieces of canton flannel.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Corinth. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. --Contributed by Earl R. each the size of half the table top. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. cutting the circular piece into quarters. make the pad as shown in the illustration. then a dust protector. then draw the string up tight. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Vt. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. length of 2-in. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. lengths (Fig. must be attached to a 3-ft. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. such as mill men use. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Hastings.

get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. which spoils the leather effect. E. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Oakland. 2-1/4 in. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side.. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. hard pencil. Wharton.-Contributed by H. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. trace the design carefully on the leather. 6-1/4 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring.9-1/4 in. Use a smooth. . This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. 16-1/4 in. and E to G. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. Calif. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. from C to D.. Moisten the . The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern.. from E to F. G to H. 17-1/2 in.

with the rounded sides of the tools. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. wide. and E-G. Trace the openings for the handles. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. place both together and with a leather punch. apart. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. if not more than 1 in. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. and corresponding lines on the other side. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. about 1/8 in. I made this motor . and lace through the holes. get something with which to make a lining. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. H-B. also lines A-G. is taken off at a time. To complete the bag. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Now cut narrow thongs. Cut it the same size as the bag. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. G-J. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather.

1. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. each being a half circle. 1. as shown in Fig. D. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. 2. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. . which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E.M. of No. in length. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. Pasadena.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. 2-1/4 in. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Shannon. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. long. 24 gauge magnet wire. iron. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. --Contributed by J. B. Calif. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft.

The gores for a 6-ft. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. pasted in alternately. from the bottom end. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. are the best kind to make. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. near the center. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. high. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. and the gores cut from these. balloon should be about 8 ft. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. 1.

attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. After washing. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. as shown in Fig. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. 5. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. lap on the edges. saturating it thoroughly. A. The steam. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. as shown in Fig. 4. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. In removing grease from wood. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. leaving the solution on over night. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. If the gores have been put together right. As the boat is driven forward by this force. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. E. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. Fig. so it will hang as shown in Fig. leaving a long wake behind. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. 1. These are to hold the wick ball. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. after which the paint will adhere permanently. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. In starting the balloon on its flight. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. The boat soon attains considerable speed. Staunton. coming through the small pipe A. somewhat larger in size. 3. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. --Contributed by R. 2. in diameter. B. using about 1/2-in. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe.widest point. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C.

the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. wide by 6 in. high and 8 in. long and each provided with a handle. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. as is shown in Fig. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. In using either of the two methods described. if you have several copies of the photograph. The blocks are about 6 in. Second. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. in bowling form. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. Third. apart on these lines. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. 1. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. long. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. There are three ways of doing this: First. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface.

N. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. being careful not to dent the metal. Rinse the plate in cold water. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Y. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Albany. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel.Fig. thick. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Fig. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Hellwig. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. 2. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. --Contributed by John A. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead.

Richmond. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Va. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. through which passes the set screw S. wide and 8 in. long for the base. S. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. A. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. In Fig. Paine. A. in diameter.upon any particular object. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. thick. are screwed to the circular piece. and Fig. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. These corner irons are also screwed to. Corner irons. which is 4 in. B. 2 the front view. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. 6 in. A circular piece of wood. is fastened to a common camera tripod. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. 5 in. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. and. --Contributed by R. with a set screw. and not produce the right sound. With this device. Break off the frame. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. wide and of any desired height. 1 Fig. CC. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D.

Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. thus producing sound waves. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Lake Preston. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. R. I made a wheel 26 in. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. S. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. La Salle. Ill. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. pine boards. This will make a very compact electric horn. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. This horn. as only the can is visible. in diameter of some 1-in. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. -1.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. . Kidder. D. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started.

The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. A. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. 2. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. The frame is made of a heavy card. O. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. B. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. the same thickness as the coins. 1. --Contributed by James R. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Kane. Fig. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Doylestown. Ghent. Purdy. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. If there is a large collection of coins. --Contributed by C. 1. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. square. thick and 12 in. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet.

and then glued together as indicated. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Toronto. The material required is a sheet of No. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. --Contributed by August T. several large nails. It will hold 4 oz. border all around. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Neyer. cut and grooved. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. of developer. Wis. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. A rivet punch is desirable.E. a hammer or mallet. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. though not absolutely necessary.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. One Cloud. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. A lead pencil. --Contributed by J. Smith. Milwaukee. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. --Contributed by R. thick. plus a 3/8-in. into which to place the screws . It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch.J. Noble. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. for after the slides have been shown a few times. they become uninteresting. If desired. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. melted and applied with a brush. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Cal. Canada.

rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. There are several ways of working up the design. never upon the metal directly. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. and file it to a chisel edge. using 1/2-in.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Take the nail. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Remove the screws. both outline and decoration. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. screws placed about 1 in. like the one shown. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . draw one part. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper.

wall. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. l-1/8 in. square and 181/2 in. two lengths. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. 3/4 in. 3. as shown in Fig. square and 11 in. . This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. being ball bearing. Provide four lengths for the legs. The pedal. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. Rivet the band to the holder. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. using a 1/2in. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. for the top. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. About 1/2 yd. up from the lower end. and two lengths. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. long. square. long. 2. each 1 in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. in the other. for the lower rails. long. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. of 11-in. Do not bend it over or flatten it. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. 1.

New York City. F. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. Ala. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. Quackenbush. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by John Shahan. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. having quite a length of threads. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Attalla.

in depth. each 1-1/4 in. Mich. long. Two pieces of felt. college or lodge colors. long. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. Assemble as shown in the sketch.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. --Contributed by C. from the end. Ironwood. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. making a lap of about 1 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. using class. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . and 3/8 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. wide and 8-1/4 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. D. the end of the other piece is folded over. long. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. Purchase a 1/2-in. Luther. initial. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. The desired emblem. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in.. wide and 4-1/4 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. something that is carbonated. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. and two holes in the other. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. from one end. and the other 2-3/4 in. one about 1 in.

if desired by the operator. as shown at B. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. 2. A piece of lead. 1/4 in. or more in height. Fig. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. in the cover and the bottom. Punch two holes A. in diameter and 2 in.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Schatz. --Contributed by John H. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Ind. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. from the center and opposite each other. Indianapolis. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. which can be procured from a plumber. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. as shown in the sketch. and the cork will be driven out. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. about 2 in. This method allows a wide range of designs. 1. or a pasteboard box.

O. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. metal. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. 4. or marble will serve. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. When the can is rolled away from you. Columbus. it winds up the rubber band. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. are turned up as in Fig. 1. Fig. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. as shown in Fig. 5. The pieces of tin between the holes A. on both top and bottom. allowing the two ends to be free. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. and the ends of the bands looped over them. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. putting in the design. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig.Rolling Can Toy lead. . A piece of thick glass. 3. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return.

--Contributed by Henry Schaefer. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. Next place the leather on the glass. New York City. A pencil may be used the first time over. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. thick. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. mark over the design. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. 1 in. from each end. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. or more thick on each side. wide and 20 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. face up. thicker than the pinion. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. If it is desired to "line" the inside. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. 3 in. I secured a board 3/4 in. After this has been done. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. and. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. deep in its face. hole through it. The edges should be about 1/8 in. long and bored a 1/2-in. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth.

thick top board. lag screws as shown. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. and fit it in place for the side vise. 2 side rails.in the board into the bench top. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. M. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 4 guides. 3 by 3 by 36. Cut the 2-in. 2 crosspieces. Brooklyn. 1 back board. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Y. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. N. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Rice. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. pieces for the vise slides. 1 screw block. 1. 1 top board. --Contributed by A. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 2 end rails. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 1 piece. countersinking the heads of the vise end. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Make the lower frame first. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1 top board. Syracuse. 2. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. much of the hard labor will be saved. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. Now fit up the two clamps. Fig. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. New York. in diameter. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1 piece for clamp. 1 piece for clamp.

Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 set chisels. 1 countersink. 1 nail set.. The bench is now complete. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in..screws. 1 brace and set of bits. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 monkey wrench. 1 rip saw. 1 pair dividers. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. The amateur workman. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 cross cut saw. 1 pocket level. 1 compass saw. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. as well as the pattern maker. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools.. 24 in. 3 and 6 in. 1 marking gauge. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 2-ft. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. . 1 jack plane or smoother. Only the long run. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 set gimlets. 1 claw hammer. 24 in. 1 wood scraper. 2 screwdrivers. in diameter. rule. it can be easily found when wanted. If each tool is kept in a certain place. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 pair pliers.

3. Fig. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. after constant use. will sink into the handle as shown at D. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. will be easier to work. Doylestown. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. 1 oilstone. Fig. 2 and 00 sandpaper. 2. Fig. the projecting point A. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife.1 6-in. but will not make . No. try square. Fig. Pa.1. The calf skin. being softer. ---Contributed by James M. becomes like A. Kane. 1. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. 1.

Turn the leather. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. water or heat will not affect. After the outlines are traced. Having prepared the two sides. White. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. cover it completely with water enamel and. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. then prepare the leather. First draw the design on paper. which steam. secure a piece of modeling calf. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. -Contributed by Julia A. such as copper or brass. Two pieces will be required of this size. but a V-shaped nut pick. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. and the length 6-5/8 in. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. If cow hide is preferred. New York City. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand.as rigid a case as the cow skin. when dry. the same method of treatment is used. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. The form can be made of a stick of wood. will do just as well. . If calf skin is to be used. lay the design on the face.

--Contributed by W. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. --Contributed by Chas. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Herrman. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. C.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Cal. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Richmond. Portland. --Contributed by Chester L. and an adjustable friction-held loop. . This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. A. Cobb. Jaquythe. New York City. as shown in the sketch. Maine.

or anyone that can shape tin and solder.. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Cambridge. Wright. an inverted stewpan. Mass. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. --Contributed by Geo. Middletown. Roberts. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. . 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. This was very difficult. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. for instance. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. A thick piece of tin.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. was marked out as shown. --Contributed by Wm. Conn. B. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time.

but not running over. Herbert. face down. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. as shown. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. If the article is highly polished. F. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. on a clear piece of glass.. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. . If any traces of the grease are left. --Contributed by Paul Keller. and quite new. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. A beautifully bound book. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. There was no quicklime to be had. L.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. Illinois. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. which has been tried out several times with success. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. well calcined and powdered. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. so some bones were quickly calcined. and the grease will disappear. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. used as part of furniture. Chicago. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. The next morning there was no trace of oil. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. --Contributed by C. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. pulverized and applied. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. of boiling water. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Indianapolis. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. Bone. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. Ind. apply powdered calcined magnesia. When dry. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. such as chair seats. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. but only an odor which soon vanished. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. had oil from a lamp spilled over it.

Tarrytown. If properly adjusted. wide and 12 in. A. Howe. long. This coaster is simple and easy to make. says Scientific American. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. New York. deep and 5 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. soft steel with the opening 6 in. thick. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. 2 in. The pieces marked S are single. --Contributed by Geo. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. set and thumbscrews. the pieces . true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement... The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. high and are bolted to a block of wood. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. 6 in.

no doubt. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. The seat is a board. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. A sharp knife. E. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. says Camera Craft. Their size depends on the plate used. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. for sending to friends. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. If the letters are all cut the same height. to the underside of which is a block. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. albums and the like. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. they will look remarkably uniform.

The puzzle is to get . stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. So made. So arranged. photographing them down to the desired size. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. after. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. mount them on short pieces of corks. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. using care to get it in the right position. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. In cutting out an 0. and.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. pasting the prints on some thin card. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. for example. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before.

says the American Thresherman. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. Bayley. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. snow or anything to hide it. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. He smells the bait. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. squeezes along past the center of the tube. of its top. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. hung on pivots. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . Old-Time Magic .-Contributed by I. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves.J. G. N. so they will lie horizontal.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. Cape May Point. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. long that will just fit are set in. with the longest end outside. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. A hole 6 or 7 in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.

saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Pawtucket. Pocatello. --Contributed by L. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Press the hands together. Dry the stamps between two white blotters.faced up. then spread the string. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. --Contributed by Charles Graham. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Idaho. Rhode Island. --Contributed by L. N. then expose again. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Y. Brooklyn. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. E. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Parker. Szerlip.

or a complete suit of armor. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. long. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. if any. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. 3 Fig. 1 Fig. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. full size. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. 1. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. 4 on the blade. The blade should be about 27 in. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. in building up his work from the illustrations. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. and if carefully made. When the whole is quite dry. says the English Mechanic. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. 2 Fig. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Glue the other side of the blade. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. The handle is next made. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. dark red. wide and 2 in. The pieces. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. narrower. whether he requires a single sword only. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. or green oil paint. When the glue is thoroughly dry. thick. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. near the point end. wipe the blade . Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. using a straightedge and a pencil. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set.Genuine antique swords and armor.. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. they will look very much like the genuine article. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. in width. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. end of the blade. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in..

Fig. 2. 1. the other is flat or halfround. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. square and of any length desired. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. take two pieces of wood. In making this scimitar. 3. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. not for use only in cases of tableaux. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. of course. shows only two sides. 1. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. as it is . 2. In the finished piece. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. 3. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose.with light strokes up and down several times. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. allowing for a good hold with both hands. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. 1. 1. preferably of contrasting colors. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord.. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. The length of the handle. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. about 1-1/2 in. and 3 in. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. in diameter. 4. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. the other is flat or half-round. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. 1/8 in. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. long. In making. the other two are identical.. the illustration. the length of the blade 28 in. This sword is about 68 in. thick and 5 in. in the widest part at the lower end. follow the directions as for Fig. Both edges of the blade are sharp. should be about 9 in. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig.

Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. The thinness of the plank. and. Mass. long. A cold . long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. at the lower end. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. On each edge of the board. 2 in. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. N. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Y. each about 1 ft. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. square. --Contributed by John Blake. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. and if so. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. A piece of mild steel. It is made of a plank. as shown in the sketch. as can the pitch bed or block. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. in an attempt to remove it. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. however. piping and jackets by hard water. Syracuse. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Franklin. Morse. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. about 3/8 in. as there was some at hand. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Doctors probed for the button without success. Both can be made easily. or an insecure fastening. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. --Contributed by Katharine D.

With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. on the pitch. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. When the desired form has been obtained. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. When this has been done. To put it in another way. design down. Trim up the edges and file them . For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. using a small metal saw. secure a piece of brass of about No. 5 lb. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. a file to reduce the ends to shape. 18 gauge. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. 5 lb.. plaster of Paris. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. tallow. To remedy this. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal.. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees.

and hang a bird swing. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. That is lifting 33. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Before giving the description. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. and still revolve. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. space between the vessels with water. but not to stop it. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. 2). it may be well to know what horsepower means. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. using powdered pumice with lye. in one minute or 550 lb. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. 3. --Contributed by Harold H. in one second. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. lb. Fill the 3-in. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. over the smaller vessel. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest.smooth. lb. in diameter (Fig. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. This in turn divided by 33. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. 1 ft. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. 1) and the other 12 in. or 550 ft. Cutter. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. in diameter (Fig. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing.000 ft. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. 30 ft. make an unusual show window attraction. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. to keep it from floating. or fraction of a horsepower. one 18 in. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. The smaller is placed within the larger. Fig. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen.000 lb. . Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. per second. Clean the metal thoroughly. per minute. 1 ft. A. in the center.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. living together in what seems like one receptacle.

N. Mass. Szerlip.18 in. 1 Fig. Diameter Fig. or on a pedestal. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . by L. Somerville. F.3 Fig. --Contributed by J.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Y. Brooklyn. --Contributed. Diameter 12 in. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Campbell. 2 Fig. The effect is surprising.

From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. using any of the common metal polishes. and then. Rivet the cup to the base. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. is. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Polish both of these pieces.copper of No. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. unsatisfactory. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. the same as removing writing from a slate. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. to keep the metal from tarnishing. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. Do not be content merely to bend them over. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. with the pliers. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. with other defects. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. often render it useless after a few months service. after which it is ready for use. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. as a rule. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. In riveting. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. which may be of wood or tin. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. and the clay . which. This compound is impervious to water. and cut out the shape with the shears. keeping the center high. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. then by drawing a straightedge over it. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. away from the edge.

The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. long. It is made of a glass tube. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. in diameter and 5 in. DeLoof. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. 2. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by A. 1. Houghton. Northville. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. the device will work for an indefinite time. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Dunlop. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. --Contributed by John T.can be pressed back and leveled. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. A. Mich. Scotland. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. . A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Grand Rapids. Shettleston. -Contributed by Thos. Mich. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. 3/4 in. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube.

The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. stilettos and battle-axes.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. 1. in width and 2 in. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. London. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. long. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.1 FIG. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color.FIG. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. put up as ornaments. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. As the handle is to . This sword is 4 ft.

The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. 3 is shown a claymore. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. the axe is of steel. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. 4. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. in length. small rope and round-headed nails. which is about 2-1/2 ft. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. then glued on the blade as shown. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. 7. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen.represent copper. long. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. This stiletto has a wood handle. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. These must be cut from pieces of wood. A German stiletto. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. 9. When the glue is thoroughly dry. with both edges of the blade sharp. paint it a dark brown or black. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. Both handle and axe are of steel. long with a dark handle of wood. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. 11 were used. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. in length. 20 spike. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. This sword is about 4 ft. 6. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. is shown in Fig. narrower. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. one about 1/2 in. 8. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. The sword shown in Fig. with both edges sharp. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. glue and put it in place. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. In Fig. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. In Fig. The crossbar and blade are steel. very broad. in width. 5. This weapon is about 1 ft. the same as used on the end of the handle. with wire or string' bound handle. When dry. This weapon is also about 1 ft. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. string. A German poniard is shown in Fig. sometimes called cuirass breakers. Three large. In Fig. firmly glued on. When the whole is quite dry. The ball is made as described in Fig. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. This axe is made similar to the one . the upper part iron or steel. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. Cut two strips of tinfoil. wood with a keyhole saw. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. studded with brass or steel nails. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. sharp edges on both sides. The handle is of wood. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. The lower half of the handle is of wood. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord.

10. so the contents cannot be seen. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. When wrapped all the way around.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. Old-Time Magic . . --Contributed by E. Chicago. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. the ends are tied and cut off. This will make a very good flexible belt. W. high. together as shown in Fig. Davis. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. and as the tension members are all protected from wear.described in Fig. will pull where other belts slip. 2. such as braided fishline. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig.

There will be no change in color. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. some of the liquid. Calif. an acid. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. causing the flowers to grow. Oakland. in a few seconds' time. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. with the circle centrally located. These wires are put in the jar. held in the right hand. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. filled with water. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. four glass tumblers. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Before the performance. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. or using small wedges of wood. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. 1 and put together as in Fig. about one-third the way down from the top. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. N. Macdonald. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Bridgeton. To make the flowers grow in an instant. The dotted lines in Fig. --Contributed by A.J. S. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. 2. apparently.

This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. Jaquythe. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Cal. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . not only because of the fact just mentioned. --Contributed by W. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. A. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. When many slides are to be masked. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. practical and costs nothing. This outlines the desired opening. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. which are numbered for convenience in working. unless some special device is used. and kept ready for use at any time. 2 for height. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. 4 for width and No. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. and equally worthy of individual treatment. Richmond. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. If the size wanted is No. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks.

which is dangerous. or a pair of old tongs. the margin and the entire back of the metal. and the extreme length 7 in. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. a little less acid than water. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. Secure a sheet of No. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. The one shown is merely suggestive. may be changed. With a stick. not the water into the acid. is about right for the No. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. Draw a design. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. about half and half. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. When etched to the desired depth. or. the paper is folded along the center line. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. and do not inhale the fumes. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. 16 gauge. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. This done. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. too. using the carbon paper. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. The decoration. but they can be easily revived. paint the design. possibly.

Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. When the button S is pressed. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. and about 2-1/2 ft. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. it will touch post F. high. about 1 in. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. so that when it is pressed down. as shown in Fig. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. The connections are simple: I. as shown in the illustration. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. in diameter and 1/4 in. 3. the bell will ring. Nail a board. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. or more wide. J is another wire attached in the same way. 1. A. long and 1 ft. 5. C and D. 2. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. to the table. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. attached to a post at each end. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. as in Fig. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. about 2-1/2 in. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. with the wires underneath. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Fig. wide and of the same length as the table. Fig. 5. long. 3/8 in. 24 parts water. 0 indicates the batteries.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. through it. Then get two posts. about 3 ft. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. and bore two holes. Paint the table any color desired. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Fig. 4. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. thick. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. as at H. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. wide. . Cut out a piece of tin. It may be either nailed or screwed down. repeat as many times as is necessary. 2. 2. Fig. about 8 in. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. Fig.

It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The entire weapon. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. is to appear as steel. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. 2. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks.. such as . The imitation articles are made of wood.Imitation Arms and Armor . An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. After the glue is dry. The circle is marked out with a compass. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. says the English Mechanic. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long serves as the dowel. long. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. handle and all. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. the wood peg inserted in one of them. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. These rings can be carved out. A wood peg about 2 in. thick. 1. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. This weapon is about 22 in. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary.

5. also. or the amateur cannot use it well. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. 8. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. leaves. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The handle is of wood. The upper half of the handle is steel. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. covered with red velvet. The entire handle should be made of one piece. flowers. All of these axes are about the same length. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. 3. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. as described in Fig. This weapon is about 22 in. with a sharp carving tool. The lower half of the handle is wood. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. used at the end of the fifteenth century. as shown. long. is shown in Fig.ornamental scrolls. The axe is shown in steel. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. 6. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. If such a tool is not at hand. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The spikes are cut out of wood. 2. Its length is about 3 ft. studded with large brass or steel nails. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. The handle is of steel imitation. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. as before mentioned. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. the hammer and spike. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. . The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. etc.

Each person plays until three outs have been made. and so on for nine innings. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. calls for a home run. 6. 7) calls for one out. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. a three-base hit. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. . A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. then the other plays. 4). The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 3. the knife resting on its back. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 2. 1.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. 5. The knife falling on its side (Fig. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. Chicago. as in Fig. Fig. as shown in Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig.

The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. Mass. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath.-Contributed by J. of water for an hour or two. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. If it is spotted at all.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. Old-Time Magic . As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. hypo to 1 pt. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. 1. of the rope and holds it. This he does. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. It may be found that the negative is not colored. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. 3. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. 2. Campbell. one of them burning . F. Somerville. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. while the committee is tying him up. as shown in Fig. with the rope laced in the cloth.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. as shown in Fig.

The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. with which he is going to light the other candle. invisible to them (the audience).brightly. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. He then walks over to the other candle. 4 oz. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Drill Gauge screw. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. bolt. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. B. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. 3/4 in. Ky. the other without a light. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. Evans. --Contributed by L. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper.. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. thus causing it to light. New York City. of sugar.Contributed by Andrew G. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. 4 oz. of plumbago. showing that there is nothing between them. Lebanon. and. Louisville. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. shades the light for a few seconds. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Brown. etc. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. . of water and 1 oz. --Contributed by C. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. thick. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. The magician walks over to the burning candle. Ky. Thome. of turpentine.

thick. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. into a tube of several thicknesses. To make the porous cell. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. or blotting paper. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. 5 in. In making up the solution. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. H. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. long. but is not so good. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. Its current strength is about one volt. steady current. Do not add water to the acid. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. diameter. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. which will give a strong. for the material. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Pulteney. --Contributed by C. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. N. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Denniston. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. about 5 in. Y. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode.

) may be obtained. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other.station. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. one drawing them together. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. As to thickness. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. but somewhat lighter. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. the other holding them apart. Finally. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. steel. To insure this. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. while the other end is attached by two screws. long with a bearing at each end. steel. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The . any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. One hole was bored as well as possible. a positive adjustment was provided. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. steel. After much experimentation with bearings. carrying the hour circle at one end. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws.

The pole is 1 deg. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. and if it is not again directed to the same point. apart. are tightened. subtract 24. is provided with this adjustment. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye." When this is done. To locate a known star on the map. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. If the result is more than 24 hours. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. When properly set it will describe a great circle. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. excepting those on the declination axis. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. To find a star in the heavens. Instead. The aperture should be 1/4 in. turn the pointer to the star. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The pointer is directed to Alpha. in each direction from two points 180 deg. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. save the one in the pipe. Point it approximately to the north star. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. need not be changed. and 15 min. All set screws. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. All these adjustments." Only a rough setting is necessary.. Each shaft. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. Cassiopiae. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. 45 min. once carefully made. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. Declination is read directly. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. Set the declination circle to its reading. It is. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph.axis is adjusted by turning these screws..

Strosnider. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. add a little more benzole. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. cannon balls. taking care not to add too much. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. If this will be too transparent. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. 3 or 4 in. Plain City. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. a great effect will be produced. is the real cannon ball. La. The dance will begin. is folded several times. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. which is the one examined. as shown in the sketch. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. of ether. In reality the first ball. the others . If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. New Orleans. The ball is found to be the genuine article. benzole. Ohio. long. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. -Contributed by Ray E. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian.. then add 1 2-3 dr.

Somerville. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. Campbell. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Milwaukee. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . small brooches.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. San Francisco. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. 2. Fig. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. taps. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Mass. Cal. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. etc. F. Return the card to the pack. In boxes having a sliding cover. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. 1). Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Wis. --Contributed by J. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box.. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. without taking up any great amount of space. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. as shown in the illustration. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band.

slides and extra brushes. Beller. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. round pieces 2-1/4 in. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. This box has done good service. . Connecticut. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. Hartford. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. as shown in the illustration. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. prints. from the bottom of the box. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. thus giving ample store room for colors. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook.

A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. about threefourths full. West Lynn. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. Fill the upper tub. or placed against a wall. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. 1). a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. tacking the gauze well at the corners. Mass. When the ends are turned under. FIG. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. 2). as it adds both fertilizer and moisture.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. Darke. costing 5 cents. with well packed horse manure. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. . and especially are the end pieces objectionable. will answer the purpose. -Contributed by C. holes in the bottom of one. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. O. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to.

The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. if this is not available. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. Eifel. If the following directions are carried out. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. If plugs are found in any of the holes. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. oil or other fluid. Chicago. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. --Contributed by L. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. cutting the cane between the holes. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. when they are raised from the pan. and each bundle contains . they should be knocked out. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. M.

which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. In addition to the cane. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. as it must be removed again. it should be held by a plug. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. held there by inserting another plug. No plugs . The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. a square pointed wedge. as shown in Fig. then across and down. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. put about 3 or 4 in. and. 1.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. after having been pulled tight.

so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. There are several different designs of sundials. If you have a table of natural functions. trim off the surplus rosin. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. 5. 1. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. Detroit. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. Patrick. During the weaving.15+.5 in. the next smallest. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. When cool. W. 3.075 in. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. It consists of a flat circular table. as the height of the line BC for lat. as it always equals the latitude of the place. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. as for example. or the style. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. All added to the lesser or 40°.15 in. -Contributed by E. and the one we shall describe in this article. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair.075 in. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. Even with this lubrication.= 4. Michigan. but the most common. in this case) times the . a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. No weaving has been done up to this time. the height of the line BC.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. lat. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. The style or gnomon. and for lat. as shown in Fig. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. stretch the third one. we have 4. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. 41 °-30'. 42° is 4. 1. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. --Contributed by M. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. Fig. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. From table No. D. R. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. Their difference is . for 2°. 1. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. This will make three layers. it is 4. 1 lat. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude.3 in. is the horizontal dial. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. is the base (5 in. as shown in Fig. If handled with a little care.42 in. Fig. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. called the gnomon.2+. After completing the second layer. 5 in. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. 40°. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. the height of which is taken from table No. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or .2 in. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. 41°-30'. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. using the same holes as for the first layer. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. and for 1° it would be . put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. 4. 3.

85 35 .88 36° 3.82 3.37 5.07 4.29 4-30 7-30 3. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.93 6.39 .26 4.77 2. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. 1.16 1.19 1.30 1. For latitudes not given. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. and for this size dial (10 in.14 5.81 4.41 38° 3. circle Sundial.44 44° 4. and perpendicular to the base or style.66 latitude.68 5-30 6-30 5.20 60° 8. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .99 2.50 26° 2.16 40 .32 6. Draw the line AD.37 54° 6.42 1.55 4.89 50° 5.59 2. an inch or two.18 28° 2. which will represent the base in length and thickness.82 5. To layout the hour circle. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.87 1.38 .57 1.66 48° 5. Table NO.42 45 .30 2.11 3.64 4 8 3.97 5 7 4.96 32° 3. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.40 34° 3.46 . with a radius of 5 in.00 40° 4. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.83 27° 2.02 1. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. Fig. using the points A and C as centers. Chords in inches for a 10 in. if of metal.42 .55 5.85 1. long.tangent of the degree of latitude. 2.55 46° 5. 2.40 1. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. . The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.82 2. gives the 6 o'clock points. 2 for given latitudes.57 3.55 30° 2. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.91 58° 8.28 . Draw two semi-circles. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.46 3. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.66 1.94 1. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.33 42° 4.27 2.12 52° 6. and intersecting the semicircles.56 .10 6.87 4.49 30 . placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.93 2.49 3.63 56° 7. or more. Its thickness.79 4.33 . base.23 6. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.03 3. according to the size of the dial. or if of stone.76 1.06 2.

As they are the genuine reproductions.50 . Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .14 1. 3. 900 Chicago. The + means that the clock is faster. after allowing for the declination.01 1.63 1.12 5. and the .93 6. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.89 3. --Contributed by J. 2 and Dec. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. then the watch is slower. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.19 2.. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. April 16.54 60 . adding to each piece interest and value. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. E. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.71 2.46 4.77 3. June 15. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.49 3. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. and for the difference between standard and local time. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.50 55 . making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.87 6. if west. will enable one to set the dial. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. This correction can be added to the values in table No.98 4. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.72 5. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. it will be faster.08 1. Iowa.82 3.30 2.10 4. Each weapon is cut from wood. 3. Sept. London. says the English Mechanic.34 5. An ordinary compass.from Sundial lime.49 5.60 4.79 6. each article can be labelled with the name.24 5.52 Table No.means that the dial is faster than the sun.68 3. 25.add those marked + subtract those Marked . which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.46 5. Mitchell.57 1. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. Sioux City. Sun time to local mean time.53 1. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.37 2. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.06 2.21 2. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. the length of which is about 5 ft. 1. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. When putting on the tinfoil. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Partisan. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. 3. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft.. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. .

Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. This weapon is about 6 ft. used about the seventeenth century. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. long with a round wooden handle. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The extreme length is 9 ft. 5. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The spear is steel. which are a part of the axe. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. the holes being about 1/4 in. . 7. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The edges are sharp. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. long. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. long.. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on.which is square. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. in diameter. A gisarm or glaive. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. is shown in Fig. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. It is about 6 ft. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. sharp on the outer edges. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. about 4 in. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. 6 ft. long with a round staff or handle. 8. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. press it well into the carved depressions.

This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. B.-Contributed by R. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. the cross cords. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Substances such as straw. or in holes punched in a leather strap. Loudonville. H. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. are put in place. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. The twisted cross cords should . apart.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. 1. 4. used for spacing and binding the whole together. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. 5. This is important to secure neatness. Workman. are less durable and will quickly show wear. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. 2 and 3. the most durable being bamboo. Cut all the cords the same length. Ohio. They can be made of various materials. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. as shown in Fig. In Figs.

-Contributed by Geo. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. New York. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. Harrer. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. Lockport. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. of the bottom. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. wide. The first design shown is for using bamboo. M. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. Four V-shaped notches were cut. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. bamboo or rolled paper. as shown at B. in which was placed a piece of glass. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. This was turned over the top of the other can. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. for a length extending from a point 2 in. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. To remedy this. below the top to within 1/4 in. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. 3 in. La. shaped as shown at C. A slit was cut in the bottom. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth.be of such material. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. New Orleans. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels.

The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. about 1/16 in. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. After this is finished. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Cal. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Sanford. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. Shay. This should be done gradually. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. --Contributed by Joseph H. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. Y. H. turned over but not fastened. do not throw away the gloves. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. is shown in the accompanying sketch. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. giving the appearance of hammered brass.tape from sticking to the carpet. Newburgh. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. --Contributed by Chas. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. and two along the side for attaching the staff. This plank. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. --Contributed by W. Schaffner. Ill. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. wide. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. N. the brass is loosened from the block. Maywood. Pasadena. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out.

This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Marshall. the pendulum swings . Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. -Contributed by W. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Oak Park. Unlike most clocks. bent as shown. Jaquythe. A. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Ill. in diameter. Richmond.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. --E. Cal. K.

only have the opposite side up. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. 3/4 in. In using this method. high and 1/4 in. Now place the board to be joined. says the Scientific American. bar. Chicago. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. thick. bearing on the latter. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. 6 in. wide. C. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. is an electromagnet. --Contributed by V. away. high. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. The construction is very simple. on the board B. about 12 in. Secure a board. about 6 in. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. . B. Fasten another board. in diameter. Two uprights. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. by 1-5/16 in. the center one being 2-3/4 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. are secured in the base bar. 7-1/2 in.. and the other two 2-5/8 in. to the first one with screws or glue. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Metzech. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. wide that is perfectly flat. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. high. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. such as this one. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. long and at each side of this. 5/16 in. high. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. A.

whose dimensions are given in Fig. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. 1. 3. 4. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The trigger. wide and 1 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. Vanderslice. or more. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. 1. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. by driving a pin through the wood. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. 1. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. wide and 5 in. --Contributed by Elmer A. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. square. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. long. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. plates should be made 8 in. as shown at A. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. is fastened in the hole A. 2. square inside. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Pa.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. from one end. Phoenixville. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. . Fig. Fig.

The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. -Contributed by J. which allows 1/4 in. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. by weight. if only two bands are put in the .Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Ohio. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. square. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. one-half the length of the side pieces. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. rubbing varnish and turpentine. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 2 parts of whiting. Simonis. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. as shown in the illustration. Fostoria. 5 parts of black filler. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down.A. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite.

is set at an angle of 45 deg. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. -Contributed by Abner B. preferably copper. In constructing helmets. DeLoof. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. says the English Mechanic. A mirror. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. 1. Grand Rapids. II.lower strings. place tracing paper on its surface. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. Dartmouth. A piece of metal. and the picture can be drawn as described. If a plain glass is used. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. is necessary. In use. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. G. long. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. A double convex lens. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. It must be kept moist and well . deep. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. --Contributed by Thos. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. Shaw. wide and about 1 ft. London. as shown in Fig. and it may be made as a model or full sized. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. which may be either of ground or plain glass. Mass. No. keeps the strong light out when sketching. in the opposite end of the box. 8 in. Michigan.

wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. a few clay-modeling tools. the clay model oiled. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. 1. 2. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. The clay. and continue until the clay is completely covered. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and the deft use of the fingers. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. will be necessary. joined closely together. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. After the clay model is finished. take. This being done.kneaded. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. and left over night to soak. on which to place the clay. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. Scraps of thin. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. 3. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. brown. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. with a keyhole saw. and over the crest on top. 1. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. shown in Fig. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. or some thin glue. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. as shown in Fig. All being ready. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. as in bas-relief.

1. one for each side. In Fig. When dry. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. then another coating of glue. should be modeled and made in one piece. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. The center of the ear guards are perforated. the skullcap. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. The whole helmet. Before taking it off the model. Indianapolis. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. as seen in the other part of the sketch. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. When the helmet is off the model. Indiana. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. When perfectly dry. will make it look neat. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. --Contributed by Paul Keller. owing to the clay being oiled. 9. 5. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. They are all covered with tinfoil. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. a few lines running down. the piecing could not be detected. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. with the exception of the vizor. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. The band is decorated with brass studs. 7. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. which should be no difficult matter. square in shape. This contrivance should be made of wood. a crest on top. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper.as possible. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. or. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. In Fig. and so on. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. and the ear guards in two pieces. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. as shown: in the design.

for connections. to receive screws for holding it to the base. GG. The reverse side of the base. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. and. Fig. with slits cut for the wires. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. 1. in diameter and 9 in. if the measurements are correct. of the top. 2. 3 in. 4. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. one small switch. two ordinary binding posts. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. If a neat appearance is desired. or. German-silver wire is better. Fig. each 4-1/2 in. Punch holes in one of the pie plates.same size. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. Fig. about 80 ft. 4. if this cannot be obtained. should extend about 1/4 in. 4. one glass tube. 4 lb. and two large 3in. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. Fig. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. long. Fig. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. also the switch B and the fuse block C. AA. AA. E and F. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. long. above the collar. about 1/4 in. Fig. JJ. are allowed to project about 1 in. The two holes. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. 4. This will make an open space between the plates. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. 22 gauge resistance wire. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. FF. as shown in Fig. wide and 15 in. 1. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. This will allow the plate. 1. 1. Fig. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. one fuse block. thick sheet asbestos. The holes B and C are about 3 in. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. screws. The plate. 2. when they are placed in opposite positions. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. If asbestos is used. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. Fig. 1. as shown in Fig. and C. Fig. 4. high. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. Fig. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. one oblong piece of wood. The mineral wool. AA. until it is within 1 in. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. is shown in Fig. Fig. of fire clay. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. 2. as shown in Fig. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. Fig. the fuse block. 1 in. 4. Fig. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . thick. as it stands a higher temperature. which can be bought from a local druggist. long. 12 in. is then packed down inside the collar. 4. the holes leading to the switch. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. of mineral wool. 1. 3. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. about 1 lb. A round collar of galvanized iron. of No.

The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. deep. II. --Contributed by W. Cover over about 1 in. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Richmond. As these connections cannot be soldered. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. Cal. If this is the case. using care not to get it too wet. steam will form when the current is applied. Fig. The clay. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. Can. above the rim. 4. A file can be used to remove any rough places. A. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. Catherines. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. It should not be set on end. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. Jaquythe. St. so that the circuit will not become broken. as the turns of the wires. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. It should not be left heated in this condition. If it is not thoroughly dry. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. will slip and come in contact with each other. causing a short circuit. more wire should be added. When the tile is in place. Fig. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. apart. While the clay is damp. Next. and pressed into it. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. This completes the stove. Cnonyn. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. H. allowing a space between each turn. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. KK. --Contributed by R. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Cut a 1/2-in. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. it leaves a gate for the metal. when cool. This point marks the proper length to cut it. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. when heated. then. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. 2. When this is done. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper.

The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. and the frame set near a window. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. is large enough. Then clip a little off the . constructed of 3/4-in. the pie will be damaged. says the Photographic Times. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. and the prints will dry rapidly. --Contributed by Andrew G. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. square material in any size. Ky. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. but 12 by 24 in. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Louisville. Thorne." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. as shown. the air can enter from both top and bottom. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them.

thick. Herron. open out. 1. high. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. Two supports. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. Fig. thick and 3 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. 22 gauge magnet wire. in diameter. each 1 in. for the crank. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. Le Mars. 1. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 1. 4 in. As the shaft revolves. 1. long. thick and 3 in. 3. high. -Contributed by S. thereby saving time and washing. A 1/8-in. slip on two cardboard washers. 2. which are fastened to the base. The upright B. wide and 3 in. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. allowing each end to project for connections. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. Fig. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. high. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. W. Figs. 2-1/2 in. 1 and 3. causing a break in the current. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. Iowa. long. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. in diameter and about 4 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. long. 1/2 in.Paper Funnel point. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. wide and 7 in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. The connecting rod E. Fig. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. long. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. each 1/2 in. at GG. as shown. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. The board can be raised to place . The driving arm D. 14 in. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. wide. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. 1/2 in. An offset is bent in the center.

In designing the roost. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. One or more pots may be used. --Contributed by William F. Stecher. Mass. in height. bottom side up. on a board. as shown in the sketch. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. Dorchester. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. 3 in. Place the pot. making a framework suitable for a roost. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. . Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers.

and give it time to dry. 1.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. if it is other than straight lines. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. The design must be considered first and when one is selected.. preferably. ordinary glue. odd corners. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. The materials required are rope or. etc. in diameter. adopt the method described. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg.. shelves. as shown in Fig. when combined. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. The bottom part of the sketch. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. Wind the . then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. without any corresponding benefit. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. paraffin and paint or varnish. will produce the pattern desired. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. windows. Fig. grills and gratings for doors. F. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. 1. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. F. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. that it is heated. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges.

Y. cut and glue them together. N. six designs are shown. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Lockport. 2. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry.Fig. Harrer. M. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . -Contributed by Geo. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Fig.

The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. etc. London. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support.. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. but no farther. says the English Mechanic. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. when it will be observed that any organic matter. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. This piece of horse armor. will be retained by the cotton. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. which was used in front of a horse's head. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. chips of iron rust. As the .. and the sides do not cover the jaws. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. 1.. etc.

the same as in Fig. This being done. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. then another coat of glue.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. 6 and 7. as shown in the sketch. and therefore it is not described. the rougher the better. This triangularshaped support. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. except the thumb and fingers. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. which can be made in any size. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. In Fig. All being ready. as the surface will hold the clay. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. 2. 8. This will make the model light and easy to move around. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. 2. The armor is now removed from the model. and the clay model oiled. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. but for . A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. and will require less clay. but the back is not necessary. with the exception of the thumb shield. This can be made in one piece. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. 4. An arrangement is shown in Fig. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. which is separate.

9. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. Redondo Beach. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. The two pieces of foil. Fasten a polished brass ball to. each about 1/4 in. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. wide and 1/2 in. and the instrument is ready for use. --Contributed by John G. the top of the rod. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. N. long. --Contributed by Ralph L. 2. the two pieces of foil will draw together. Goshen. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. . The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. in depth. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Buxton. fastened to the rod. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Y. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. When locating the place for the screw eyes. are glued to it. running down the plate. the foils will not move. Calif. are better shown in Fig. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. two in each jaw. but 3-1/2 in. If it does not hold a charge. 1/2 in. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. cut into the shape shown in Fig. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. La Rue.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. A piece of board. will be about right.

as indicated in the . such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. --Contributed by Mrs. Bryan. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. long. silvered. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. When a fish is hooked. from the smaller end. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. A. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. is made of a 1/4-in. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. The can may be bronzed. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. enameled or otherwise decorated. Texas. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. At a point 6 in. 2-1/2 in. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. as this will cut under the water without splashing. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. about 15 in. M. as shown in the illustration. pine board. Corsicana. hole bored through it. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole.

Basswood or butternut. 3/8 or 1/4 in. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Next prepare the metal holder. such as basswood or pine was used. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. A good size is 5 in. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Any kind of wood will do. Polish the metal.Match Holder accompanying sketch. punch the holes. as shown. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. put a coat or two of wax and polish . The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. then with a nail." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. long over all. using powdered pumice and lye. and trace upon it the design and outline. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. take a piece of thin wood. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Having completed the drawing. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. When it has dried over night. wide by 6 in. thick. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. using a piece of carbon paper. If soft wood. or even pine. 22 is plenty heavy enough. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways.

2 in. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. can be made on the same standards.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. each 1 in. is used for the base of this instrument. If one has some insight in carving. long. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. If carving is contemplated. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. are used for the cores of the magnets. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. thick. the whole being finished in linseed oil. of pure olive oil. It is useful for photographers. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. . the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Two wire nails. Instead of the usual two short ropes. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. Cal. 1/2 in. long. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. wide and 5 in. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. --Contributed by W. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Richmond. Jaquythe. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. A. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails.

behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. says the English Mechanic. 3. A piece of tin. similar to that used in electric bells. at A. A rubber band. 25 gauge. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. cut in the shape of the letter T. about No. acts as a spring to keep the key open. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. when the key is pushed down. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. All of the parts for the armor have been described.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. in the shape shown in the sketch. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. 1. the paper covering put on. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. --Contributed by W. . the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. Lynas. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. cloth or baize to represent the legs. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. as shown by the dotted lines. except that for the legs. About 1 in. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. as shown in Fig. London. leaving about 1/4 in. H. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. then covered with red. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows.

The two pieces are bolted together. Cut them to a length or 40 in. A 1/4-in. Secure two strips of wood. In one end of the piece. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. in the other end. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. and eight small holes. flat headed carriage bolt. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate.. 1 in. not too tight. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. Take the piece shown in Fig. 1 and drill a 1/4in. drill six 1/4-in.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. These can be purchased at a stationery store. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. Fig. apart. says Camera Craft. long. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. holes. at each end. completes the equipment. Silver paper will do very well. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. 2. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. Instead of using brass headed nails. about 1 in. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. make the same series of eight small holes and. can be made in a few minutes' time. for the sake of lightness. So set up. one to another . apart. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. hole in the center. 3 in. By moving the position of the bolt from. or ordinary plaster laths will do. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues.

take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. Then draw all four ends up snugly. of the ends remain unwoven. 2. doubled and run through the web of A. C over D and B. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Then take B and lay it over A. A round fob is made in a similar way. Fig. long. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. in Fig. Start with one end. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. but instead of reversing .of the larger holes in the strip. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. then B over C and the end stuck under A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. 2. the one marked A. 4. In this sketch. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. D over A and C. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. and the one beneath C. taking the same start as for the square fob. A is the first string and B is the second. lay Cover B and the one under D. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. 1. as shown in Fig. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. 2. as in portraiture and the like. and lay it over the one to the right. for instance. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in.

Rupp. as B. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. A loop. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. is to be made of leather. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. 1-1/2 in. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. over the one to its right. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. as in making the square fob. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. --Contributed by John P. always lap one string. Ohio. 3. Monroeville. 5. The round fob is shown in Fig. is left out at the center before starting on one side. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. the design of which is shown herewith. as at A in Fig. Other designs can be made in the same manner. long. especially if silk strings are used.

After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. . Houghton. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Northville. filling them with wax. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Mich. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. pressing it against the wood. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. When the supply of wax is exhausted. beeswax or paraffin. it can be easily renewed. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Any smooth piece of steel. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. such as a nut pick. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. door facing or door panel. -Contributed by A. A. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. using the reverse side. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood.

J. New York. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. and after wetting. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Y. those on matte paper will work best. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Select the print you wish to mount. Ill. place it face down in the dish. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. The tacks should be about 1 in. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. E and F. although tin ones can be used with good success. N. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. remaining above the surface of the board. . leaving about 1/4 in. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. --Contributed by O. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. says Photographic Times. if blueprints are used. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. it is best to leave a plain white margin. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Petersburg. Thompson. long. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. and about 12 in. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. apart and driven in only part way. Enough plaster should. thick. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. D. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Fold together on lines C.

etc. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. violets. as shown in the right of the sketch. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. One of the . Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. Lower into the test tube a wire. roses.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution.. filling the same about onehalf full. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. bell flowers. as shown at the left in the sketch. without mixing the solutions. will be rendered perfectly white. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda.

and at the larger end.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. A rod that will fit the brass tube. long. Millstown. in diameter and 1 in. L. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. but which will not wobble loose. The sound box. When soldering these parts together. is about 2-1/2 in. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. about 1/8s in. as shown. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The diaphragm. not too tightly. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. 1. 1-7/8 in. The tin horn can be easily made.. to keep the core from coming off in turning. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. as shown in the sketch. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. Fig. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The first point should be ground blunt. thick. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. shading. 2. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. 3. Shabino. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. should be soldered to the box. long and made of wood. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . --Contributed by L. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. or delicate tints of the egg. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. South Dakota. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. made of heavy tin. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. turned a little tapering. The location of these parts is shown in Fig.

while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. E. Gold. Ill. Colo. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. wondering what it was. mice in the bottom. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway.Contributed by E. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. put a board on top. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Victor. Jr. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Chicago. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. and weighted it with a heavy stone. says the Iowa Homestead. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. and.

N. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. . Pereira. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Can. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Buffalo. --Contributed by Lyndwode. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Ottawa. Y.

The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. --Contributed by Thos. Put a small nail 2 in. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . a piece of tin. through which several holes have been punched. cut round. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. above the end of the dasher. Mich. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Grand Rapids. and at one end of the stick fasten. longer than the length of the can. as it can be made quickly in any size. --Contributed by W. by means of a flatheaded tack. Jaquythe. as shown. Cal. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Richmond. A. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. De Loof. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. This cart has no axle. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size.

1-1/2 in. 1. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. board. long. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. wide and as long as the box. Notches 1/8 in. I reversed a door gong. wide. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. Doylestown. The candles.1. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. screwed it on the inside of a store box. wide and 1/8 in. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. cut in the center of the rounding edge. deep and 3 in. apart. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. thick. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. of course. The baseboard and top are separable. 2. as shown. 2. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. were below the level of the bullseye. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. 2 in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. A wedge-shaped piece of . Fig. La. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. New Orleans. Kane. 1 ft. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. --Contributed by James M. Pa. 2. 1/4 in.

wide into each side of the casing. After completing the handle. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. take two pieces of hard wood. the shelf could not be put on the window. 1. when placed as in Fig. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon.Book Back Holders metal. A. by cutting away the ends. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. dressing one surface of each piece. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. This device is very convenient for invalids. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. 3. For the handle. When not in use. Worcester. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. etc. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. to prevent its scratching the desk top. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. Needles. Mass. After the glue has dried. Ia. scissors. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. the reason being that if both were solid. as shown in Fig. can be picked up without any trouble. --Contributed by G. Cover the block with rubber. stone or wood. the blade is put back into the groove . will. West Union. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. Wood. it can be removed without marring the casing. The block can also be used as a paperweight. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge.. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. wide rubber bands or felt. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge.

If desired. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. as shown in Fig. 2. Hutchins. as shown in Fig. square and 4 in. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. A notch is cut in one side. . Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. thus carrying the car up the incline. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Ohio. Mass. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. -Contributed by W. Erie. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. 1. Pa. Jacobs. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Cleveland. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Malden. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. A. Each one is made of a hardwood block. --Contributed by H. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it.and sharpened to a cutting edge. long. S. 1 in. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles.

One sheet of metal. will be needed. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. If one such as is shown is to be used. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. a board on which to work it. Cape May Point. This will insure having all parts alike. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. The letters can be put on afterward. . 6 by 9-1/2 in. N.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. Prepare a design for the front.J. and an awl and hammer..

Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. The music will not sound natural. If any polishing is required.Fasten the metal to the board. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. behind or through the center of a table leg. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. a violin. flat brush. paste the paper design right on the metal. only the marginal line is to be pierced. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. or. turpentine. as shown. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. says Master Painter. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. to right angles. 2 parts white vitriol. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. 3/4 part. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. applied by means of a brush. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. On the back. that can be worked in your own parlor. 1 part. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. in the waste metal. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. which is desirable. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. but weird and distant. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards." In all appearance. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. Remove the metal. if desired. placed on a table. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. So impressive are the results. 1/4 part. varnish. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. The stick may be placed by the side of. . and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. One coat will do. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. mandolin or guitar.

after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. it might be difficult. square bar iron. says Work. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. With proper tools this is easy. London. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. are shaped as shown in Fig. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. . across the top. each 6 in. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. each 28 in. without them. long and measuring 26 in. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. is bent square so as to form two uprights. long. thick by 1/2 in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. apart. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. round-head machine screws. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. and is easy to construct. The longest piece. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. long and spread about 8 in. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. wide. 3. 2. Two pairs of feet.

lead. the latter being tapped to . 6. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. Fig. of which a cross section is shown in Fig.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. Place the corner piece of glass. The design is formed in the lead. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. The glass. cut a long piece of lead. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. A. D. 5. 4. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. as shown in Fig. in the grooves of the borders. While the piece of lead D. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. 5. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. 7. using rosin as a flux. better still. After the joints are soldered. is held by the brads. B. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. Fig. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. special flux purchased for this purpose. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. C. The brads are then removed. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. After the glass is cut. and the base border. on it as shown. or. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw.

in diameter and 1/4 in. A and B. as shown in Fig. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Secure a post. --Contributed by W. Bore a 3/4-in. 8. J. Jr. rocker bolt. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. This . Dreier. Two styles of hand holds are shown. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. one on each side and central with the hole. then drill a 3/4-in. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. and two wood blocks. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. rounded at the top as shown. and round the corners of one end for a ring. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. plates. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. plank about 12 ft. N. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. H. bolt. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. then flatten its end on the under side.the base of the clip. This ring can be made of 1-in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. bolt. Bore a 5/8-in. not less than 4 in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. The center pin is 3/4-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. thick and drill 3/4-in.. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Fasten the plates to the block B. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. in diameter and about 9 in. long. long. square and of the length given in the drawing. Camden. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. long. holes through their centers. Make three washers 3-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. wood screws in each washer.

Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. 4 pieces. straight-grained hickory. 1-1/4in. long. 9 in. square by 9-1/2 ft. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 3 in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. in diameter and 7 in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. long. by 6-1/2 ft. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. bit. apart for a distance of 3 ft. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 4 filler pieces. New Orleans. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 2 by 4 in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 1/2 in. of 1/4-in. 3/4 by 3 in. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. by 2 ft. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. Draw a line on the four 7-in. hickory. chestnut or ash. long. To substitute small. 16 screws. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. from one edge. 4 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. long. because it will not stand the weather. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. long. 1. horse and rings. shanks. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. can make a first class gymnasium. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. 4 pieces. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. and some one can swing an axe. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. 2-1/2 in. boards along the side of each from end to end. 50 ft. 7 in. The four 7-in.will make an excellent cover for a pot. 1 by 7 in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. long and 1 piece. bolts and rope. square by 5 ft. 4 in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . long. maple. If trees are convenient. screws. La. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. by 3 ft.

so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. apart. each 3 ft. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. so the 1/2-in. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. at each end. deep and remove all loose dirt. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted... in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Bore a 9/16-in. from the end. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. boards coincide. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. 2. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle.bored. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. 8 in. piece of wood. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. apart.

the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. apart. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. disappearing only to reappear again. If the tumbler is rotated.. which at once gathered. and materially heightened the illusion. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. W. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. not even the tumbler. was at its height. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. . about 100 ft. passing through a screweye at either end. but most deceptive at dusk. it follows the edge for about 1 in. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. just visible against the dark evening sky. When the interest of the crowd. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. in an endless belt. and ascends the stem. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. and then passes in a curve across the base. He stretched the thread between two buildings. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. not much to look at in daytime. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. And all he used was a black thread. the effect is very striking." which skimmed along the distant horizon. it is taken to the edge of the foot. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous.

4 wood screws. large spikes.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. To make the apparatus. preferably cedar. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. by 3 ft. 6 in. long and 1 doz. long. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 2 side braces. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. by 10 ft. so the point will be on top. square and 51/2 ft. 2 in. beginning at a point 9 in. 2 by 4 in. long. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. 4 bolts. 8 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. New Orleans. by 7 ft. long. long. wide and 1 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 4 in. 8 in. 8 bolts. The cork will come out easily. 2 by 4 in. 4 knee braces. from either side of the center. 1. Bevel the ends of . long. Chisel out two notches 4 in. long. and turned in a spiral D. by 2 ft. Fig. square and 6 ft. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 8 in. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. La. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 7 in. deep. 2 base pieces. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 3 in. A wire about No. 2 cross braces.

of 7 ft. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. which face each other. A large sized ladle. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. equipped with a strainer. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. and countersinking the heads. Two endpieces must be made. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. leaving the strainer always in position. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. Jaquythe. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft.the knee braces. as shown in the diagram. A. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. leave it undressed. The wood so treated will last for years. jellies. so the bolts in both will not meet. Cal. using four of the 7-in bolts. Richmond. If using mill-cut lumber. --Contributed by W. After the trenches are dug. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. etc. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. but even unpainted they are very durable. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. .) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. save the bars. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. screws. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. These will allow the ladle to be turned. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. except the bars. ( To be Continued.. additional long.

it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. partly a barrier for jumps. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. or various cutting compounds of oil. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. A. of sufficient 1ength.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. drill press or planer. it is necessary to place a stick. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. which seems impossible. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. Oil. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. In order to accomplish this experiment. . thus holding the pail as shown. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. milling machine. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail.

and free from knots. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. projections and splinters. stud cut rounding on one edge. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. square by 5-1/2 ft. to fasten the knee braces at the top. in the ground.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. apart. by 3 ft. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 3 in. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. 2 by 4 in. is a good length. piece of 2 by 4-in. by 3 ft. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. apart in a central position on the horse. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. long. 2 adjusting pieces. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. To construct. wood yard or from the woods. The material required is as follows: Two posts. 2 by 4 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. long. ten 1/2-in. 1 cross brace. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 4 in.. long. by 3 ft. two 1/2-in. long. 4-1/2 in. bolts. bolts. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. beginning 1-1/2 in. 7 in. Hand holds must be provided next. from each end. but 5 ft. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. 4 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. 4 knee braces. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. 4 in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth.. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. in diameter--the larger the better. long. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. long. These are well nailed in place. These are placed 18 in. The round part of this log must be planed. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. 2 bases. long. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. Procure from a saw mill. square by 5 ft. 2 by 4 in. 1 in. bolts. bolt. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. long.

Such a hand sled can be made in a . over and around. Richmond. it is caused by some obstruction. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. snow. A. then bending to the shape desired. Jaquythe. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Cal. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. water. etc. Also. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. pipe and fittings. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel.--Contributed by W. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. but nevertheless. it is caused by an overloaded shell.horse top. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. such as a dent. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. no one is responsible but himself.

W. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. at E and F. 1. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. thick. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. when complete. will give the length. These. is much better than a wood sled. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. . France. in width and 1/32 in. then run a string over each part. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. are all the tools necessary. 2.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. --Contributed by James E. Vener. --Contributed by J. Paris. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Joerin. Ontario. Mass. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Noble. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. when straightened out. Boston. 1/4 or 3/16 in. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. --Contributed by Arthur E. The end elevation. which. Toronto.

AA and BB. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. 3. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. It is best to use soft water. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. . 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The method shown in Figs. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. 4. are nailed. and the latter will take on a bright luster. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. nor that which is partly oxidized.

1). Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. . or unequal widths as in Fig. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. as shown in Fig. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. Broad lines can be made. as shown in Fig. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. class ice-yacht. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. The materials used are: backbone. 3. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. Percy Ashley in Rudder. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 8 and 9. 4.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 2. or various rulings may be made. 2.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

Both the lower . 1. but if it is made much longer. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The headstock is made of two tees. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The point should extend about 11/2 in. pins to keep them from turning. pipe. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. bent and drilled as shown. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. 1-Details of Lathe sort. long. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow.Fig. a larger size of pipe should be used. a tee and a forging. out from the collar. about 30 in. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. It can be made longer or shorter. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it.

Indiana. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. W. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. 3/4 or 1 in. UpDeGraff. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. Man. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. M. else taper turning will result. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. To do this. thick as desired. . 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Musgrove. Boissevain. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. --Contributed by W. a corresponding line made on this. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Cal. a straight line should be scratched Fig. --Contributed by M. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. 2. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. or a key can be used as well. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. 2. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Held. 2. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. Laporte. 1. but also their insulating properties. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. as shown in Fig.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. and will answer for a great variety of work. Fruitvale. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. It is about 1 in. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain.

In use. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. --Contributed by E. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. Smith.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. Ark. Cline. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The handle is of pine about 18 in. long. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. J. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . as shown. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. To obviate this. Ft.

Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. which should be backed out of contact. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. if this method is followed: First. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Colo. centering is just one operation too many. This prevents the drill from wobbling. --Contributed by Walter W. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. and when once in true up to its size. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. face off the end of the piece. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. White. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. on starting the lathe. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Denver. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. take . This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. New Orleans. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. La. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. the drill does not need the tool. After being entered.

The glass tube B. the cap is placed over the paper tube. a long piece of glass tubing. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. The handkerchief rod. a bout 1/2 in. as shown in D. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. says the Sphinx. unknown to the spectators. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. is put into the paper tube A. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. shown at C. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. It can be used in a great number of tricks. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. and can be varied to suit the performer. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. vanishing wand. and this given to someone to hold. by applying caustic soda or . After the wand is removed. shorter t h a n the wand. In doing this. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. all the better. after being shown empty. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance.

The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. 3/16. This dimension and those for the frets . and if care is taken in selecting the material. 1 Bottom. as shown by K. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. preferably hard maple. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. Glue the neck to the box. square and 1-7/8 in. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. Glue strips of soft wood. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. 1 Neck. and glue it to the neck at F. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. with the back side rounding. 1. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 1/4 in. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. With care and patience. The sides. 1 End. cut to any shape desired. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. As the cement softens. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. by 14 by 17 in. can be made by the home mechanic. long.potash around the edges of the letters. thick. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. End. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. across the front and back to strengthen them. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. The brace at D is 1 in. 2 Sides. Cut a piece of hard wood.

Norwalk. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. thick and about 1 ft. 1) on which to stretch the paper. When it is completed you will have a canoe. E. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. --Contributed by Chas. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Frary. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. Six holes. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. A board 1 in. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand.Pa. Stoddard. in diameter. but it is not. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. wide and 11-1/2 ft. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. and beveled . O. H. long is used for a keel. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. or backbone. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. -Contributed by J. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length.should be made accurately. toward each end. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. 3/16 in. Carbondale.

13 in. procure at a carriage factory. apart. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. 4. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. 1 and 2. as shown in Fig. C. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl.) in notches. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. 1. Fig. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. Fig. a. Any tough. and are not fastened. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. b. some tight strips of ash. slender switches of osier willow. Green wood is preferable. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Osiers probably make the best ribs. 2). because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. These are better. For the gunwales (a.. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. 3). 4). by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. as shown in Fig. in such cases. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Fig. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. In drying. The ribs. by means of a string or wire. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. are next put in. Fig. and so. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. . The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. but twigs of some other trees. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. 2. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. such as is used for making chairbottoms.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. Fig. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. Fig. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. as they are apt to do. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. which are easily made of long. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. in thickness and should be cut. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. buy some split cane or rattan. wide by 26 in. two strips of wood (b. Fig. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. long are required. The cross-boards (B. will answer nearly as well. twigs 5 or 6 ft. b. Fig. the loose strips of ash (b. as before described. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. such as hazel or birch. Shape these as shown by A. long. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. C. b. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. 3. Fig. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. 3/8 in. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. B. 2). or other place. 3). thick. and. or similar material. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. probably. with long stout screws. 3. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. two twigs may be used to make one rib. when made of green elm. thick. but before doing this.

This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. The paper is then trimmed. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. of very strong wrapping-paper. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. if it has been properly constructed of good material. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. When the paper is dry. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. B. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. It should be smooth on the surface. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. and steady in the water. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. You may put in . and held in place by means of small clamps. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. wide. however. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. If the paper be 1 yd. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. but neither stiff nor very thick. and light oars. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. and very tough. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. preferably iron. tacking it to the bottom-board. 5). after wetting it. Being made in long rolls. and as soon as that has soaked in. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. it can be obtained in almost any length desired.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. When thoroughly dry. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. Then take some of the split rattan and. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. but with less turpentine. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. If not. Fig. It should be drawn tight along the edges. For this purpose buy about 18 yd.

allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. Fig.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. 5). 1. to fit it easily. We procured a box and made a frame. and make a movable seat (A. Fig. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. 1 and the end in . 5. and if driven as shown in the cut. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. 2. fore and aft. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. Fig. Drive the lower nail first. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. they will support very heavy weights. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes.

Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. A good way to handle this work. this makes the tube airtight. 4. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. Close the other end with the same operation. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. This way has its drawbacks. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. and the glass. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. Pittsburg.Fig. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. Pa. 5. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. This is an easy . and the result is. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. being softer where the flame has been applied. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. 3. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass.

the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. file. Seventh. flat and round-nosed pliers. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. above the metal. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. four. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. -Contributed by A. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. second. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. Oswald. third. The candle holders may have two. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. After the bulb is formed. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. thin screw. 23 gauge. also trace the decorative design. or six arms. with a piece of carbon paper. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. metal shears. three. rivet punch. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . then reverse. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. extra metal all around. Give the metal a circular motion. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. very rapid progress can be made. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. fifth. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off.way to make a thermometer tube. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. fourth. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Sixth. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch.

After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Having pierced the bracket. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Metal polish of any kind will do. and holder.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Small copper rivets are used. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . drip cup.

is a broomstick. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. winding the ends where they came together with wire. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. and other things as they were needed. when it will be ready for use. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. and water 24 parts. A saw. if it has not absorbed too much ink. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. the stick at the bottom of the sail. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. J. Shiloh. and add the gelatine. deep. alcohol 2 parts. hammer. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. on a water bath. Twenty cents was all I spent. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. thus it was utilized. The boom. F. using a steel pen. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and brace and bit were the tools used.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Heat 6-1/2 oz. N. I steer with the front wheel. Mother let me have a sheet. sugar 1 part. The gaff. except they had wheels instead of runners. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Fifty. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. glycerine 4 parts. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. Soak 1 oz. of glycerine to about 200 deg. all the rest I found. and in a week . lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. smooth it down and then remove as before. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. and it will be ready for future use. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in.

a projecting lens . A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. G. A and B. 3. wire brads.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. This ring is made up from two rings. or a lens of 12-in. above the center. 1. at a point 1 in. H. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. high. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. E. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. focus enlarging a 3-in. wide. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. DD. and the work carefully done. and a projecting lens 2 in. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. are . 8 in. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. wide and 15 in. If a small saw is used.. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. provided the material is of metal. Fig. slide to about 6 ft. at a distance of 24 ft. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. well seasoned pine. 1/2 to 3/4 in. long. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. about 2 ft. or glue. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. and. and the lens slide. but if such a box is not found. A table. The slide support. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. as desired. The board is centered both ways. describe a 9-in. and 14 in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. thick.

St. but not long enough.-Contributed by G. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. of safe. P. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. E. The arrangement is quite safe as. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides.constructed to slip easily on the table. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. B. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. To reach the water. the strips II serving as guides. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. apply two coats of shellac varnish. the water at once extinguishes the flame. should the glass happen to upset. Minn. JJ. placed on the water. Small strips of tin. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. light burning oil. Paul. and when the right position is found for each. A sheet . The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use.

4. 1. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. If one of these clips is not at hand. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer.H. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Fig. to cover the mattresses. Crawford. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. Fig.. from a tent company. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 3 in. 3. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. form a piece of wire in the same shape. by 12 ft. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 3. --Contributed by J. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. Schenectady. N.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 2. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. I ordered a canvas bag. 12 ft. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. Y. 9 in.

first mark the binding-post A. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. insulating them from the case with cardboard. thick. Attach a piece of steel rod. C. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. 1/2 in. to keep it from unwinding. White. as shown in Fig. through which the indicator works. open on the edges. A rubber band. holes in the edge. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Do not use too strong a rubber. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. V. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. 1/2 in. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. 2. drill two 3/16 in. Teasdale. To calibrate the instrument.each edge. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. so as to form two oblong boxes. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. Warren. Fig. 3/4 in. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Fig. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. 2. Colo. 1. 3/4 in. Pa. D. 3 to swing freely on the tack. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. and insert two binding-posts. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. A Film Washing Trough [331] . --Contributed by Edward M. --Contributed by Walter W. 1. Fasten the wire with gummed label. for amperes and the other post. in the center coil. Denver. long and 3/16 in. to the coil of small wire for volts. apart. long. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. An arc is cut in the paper. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. 2. wide.

board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Cut a 1/4-in. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Dayton. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. O. Place this can on one end of the trough. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. --Contributed by M. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. as shown. with the large hole up. Wood Burning [331] . Hunting. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. M.

Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. then into this bottle place. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. mouth downward.

3/4 in. Ala. 2. N. This will make a very pretty ornament. If the small bottle used is opaque. 1. --Contributed by John Shahan. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. thick. Auburn. as shown in the sketch. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. If the cork is adjusted properly. --Contributed by Fred W. Upper Troy. wide and 4 in. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. long. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom.Y. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Whitehouse. but not very thick. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. provided the bottle is wide. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Place the small bottle in as before. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle.

How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. sugar pine on account of its softness. by the method shown in Fig. was 1/4in. was keyed to shaft C. thick. which was 6 in. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. 2. I. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. 1 in. W. The 21/2-in. 1. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. 4. The bearing blocks were 3 in. thick. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. which was nailed to the face plate. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. were constructed of 1-in. in diameter and 1 in. to the shaft. pulley. Its smaller parts. Both bearings were made in this manner. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. The shaft C. long. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. wide. 2 ft. which extended to the ground. A staple. 1. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. such as blades and pulleys. B. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. 1. Fig. Fig. K. pulley F. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. Milter. even in a light breeze. high without the upper half. On a 1000-ft. line. --Contributed by D. G. thick and 3 in. If a transmitter is used. 1. 1. as shown in Fig. The wire L was put . or ordinary telephone transmitters. Fig. Fig.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. which gave considerable power for its size. Fig. 3. iron rod.

hole was bored in which shaft G turned. with brass headed furniture tacks. a 1/2-in. across the thin edge of a board. H. Fig. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. wide and 1 in. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. 6. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. Two washers were placed on shaft C. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. top down also. Fig. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. hole was bored for it. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. 3 in. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. cut out another piece of tin (X. 2. The other lid. with all parts in place. so that the 1/4-in. 25 ft. The smaller one. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. when the windmill needed oiling. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. long. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. hole for the shaft G was in the center. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. Fig. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Fig. Fig. If you have no bell. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. pine 18 by 12 in. The power was put to various uses. G. 1. long and bend it as . The bed plate D. long. in diameter. 5. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. in the center of the board P. There a 1/4-in. and was cut the shape shown. providing one has a few old materials on hand. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. long and bend it as shown at A. 0. 1) 4 in. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. was 2 ft. 6. This board was 12 in. To lessen the friction here. washers were placed under pulley F. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. 1.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. This completes the receiver or sounder. strips. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. for instance. apart in the tower. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. through the latter. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. To make the key. square to the board P at the top of the tower. was tacked. 1. 1. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. Fig. R. long and 3 in. Fig. as. long and 1/2 in.

The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. McConnell. Thus a center drive is made. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. at the front. By adjusting the coils. Before tacking it to the board. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. leaving the other wire as it is. The rear barrels are. Now. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. like many another device boys make. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. after the manner of bicycle wheels. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Going back to Fig. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. using cleats to hold the board frame. -Contributed by John R. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. and. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. 1. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels.shown. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. fitted with paddles as at M. When tired of this instrument. 2. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. as indicated. as shown at Water. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. causing a buzzing sound. although it can be made with but two.

as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. To propel it. The speed is slow at first. There is no danger. seat yourself on the bicycle seat.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. there will not be much friction. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. 3. 1. If the journals thus made are well oiled. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. which will give any amount of pleasure. copper piping and brass tubing for base. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. feet on the pedals. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. as shown in Fig. can be built. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. or even a little houseboat. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others.

Fig. If magnifying glass cannot be had. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. A. then the glass disc and then the other ring. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Turn a small circle of wood. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Fig. B. 1. 1. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. or it may be put to other uses if desired. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. 2. Fig. 2. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. 2. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it.of pleasure for a little work. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. If it is desired to make the light very complete. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Fig. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. and so creating a false circuit. D. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Shape small blocks of boxwood. C. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Then melt out the rosin or lead. 1. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down.

after two turns have been made on the key. I. --Contributed by C. long. 4 in. 5-1/4 by 10 in. while lying in bed. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. contact post. Brinkerhoff. Utah.. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . wide and 1/16 in. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. which stops bell ringing. copper tubing. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. C. Swissvale. --Contributed by Geo. Pa. C. long. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. To get the cylinder into its carriage. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. set alarm key as shown in diagram. bell. In placing clock on shelf. by having the switch on the baseboard. E. after setting alarm. and pulled tight. Chatland. or 1/4in. T. Throw lever off from the right to center. Ogden. such as is used for cycle valves. brass strip. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . wire from light to switch. The parts indicated are as follows: A. G. wire from batteries to switch. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. 4-1/2 in. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. D. When alarm goes off.india rubber tubing. F. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. S. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. near the bed. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. H. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. thick. dry batteries. X. J. wire from bell to switch. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. key of alarm clock. To throw on light throw levers to the left. if too small. To operate this. B. switch. some glue will secure them. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. 3/8 in. bracket. brass rod. shelf.

which can be made of an old can. will do the heating. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Fig. long. S. A flannel bag. wide. 1. Having finished this. in diameter. letting it extend 3/4 in. in diameter. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. 2. for instance. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Pull out the nail and stick. gives the heater a more finished appearance. 1. Minn. Make a shoulder. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. Make the spindle as in Fig. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. as at A. 2. about 3-1/2 in. Lanesboro. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Fig. making it as true and smooth as possible. being careful not to get the sand in it. as at B. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. 3. 4 in.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. from one end. as . as in Fig. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Chapman. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. --Contributed by Chas. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. beyond the end of the spindle. as at A. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. This is to form the fuse hole. about 6 in. 1/4 in. Fig. a bed warmer. All that is required is a tin covering.

5/8 in. long. --Contributed by Arthur E. A piece of tin. long. thick. 11/2 in. wide and 3/8 in. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. 1 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. thick. 1. ash. thick. The illustration shows how this is done. long. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 6 in. A piece of oak. will be sufficient to make the trigger. 3/8 in. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. Joerin. or hickory. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. this is to keep the edges from splitting. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. good straight-grained pine will do. The material must be 1-1/2 in. wide and 6 ft.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. spring and arrows. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. deep. but if this wood cannot be procured. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. wide and 3 ft.

wide at each end. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. To shoot the crossbow.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. Fig. E. 6. or through the necessity of. better still. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. Fig. The stick for the bow. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. place the arrow in the groove. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. 7. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. 9. from the end of the stock. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. from the opposite end. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. thick. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. 3. Fig. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. Wilmette. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 4. To throw the arrow. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. which is 1/4 in. having the latter swing quite freely. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. A spring. in diameter. The bow is not fastened in the stock. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. 2. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. Ill. Such a temporary safe light may be . 8. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. and one for the trigger 12 in. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. Trownes. When the trigger is pulled. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. it lifts the spring up. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. The trigger. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or.

since the flame of the candle is above A. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. respectively. Moreover. making lighting and trimming convenient. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Remove the bottom of the box. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. The cut should be about 5 ft. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. it is the easiest camp to make. or only as a camp on a short excursion. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. is used as a door. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. By chopping the trunk almost through. Remove one end. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. and replace as shown at B. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. the bark lean-to is a . The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. says Photo Era. The hinged cover E. C. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. make the frame of the wigwam. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. from the ground. This lamp is safe.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. apart. and nail it in position as shown at A. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. from the ground.

Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. thick. long and 2 or 3 ft. makes a good pair of tongs. Tongs are very useful in camp. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. For a foot in the middle of the stick. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. deep and covered with blankets. are a convenient size for camp construction. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. In the early summer. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. a 2-in. piled 2 or 3 ft. selecting a site for a camp. wide and 6 ft. . and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. long. spruce. wide. A piece of elm or hickory. Sheets of bark. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. long and 1-1/2 in. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. will dry flat. nails are necessary to hold it in place. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. and split the tops with an ax. For a permanent camp. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. make the best kind of a camp bed. and cedar. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. 6 ft.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. 3 ft. Where bark is used. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. and when the camp is pitched.

hinges. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and affording accommodation for several persons. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. . Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.

I drove a small cork.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Fig. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. changing the water both morning and night. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. the interior can. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. --Contributed by James M. about 4 in. wide. Kane. B. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. B. to another .. deep and 4 in. A. and provide a cover or door. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. Pa. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. 1. Doylestown.

and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. E. The current is thus compelled. Fig. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. This makes . such as ether. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. 2. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. for instance. C. 3. 2. if necessary. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. 4 and 5). Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. The diagram.glass tube. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. fused into one side. for instance. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. a liquid. to pass through an increasing resistance. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. limit. which project inside and outside of the tube. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. until.

After cleaning them with the solution. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. 3. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. which may be of any thickness so that. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. to allow for finishing. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. screws. After the template is marked out. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. Then the field can be finished to these marks. which will make it uniform in size. as shown in the left-hand sketch. thicker. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. in diameter. A. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. tap. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. therefore. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. two holes. Michigan. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. Alpena. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. between centers. thick. These holes are for the bearing studs. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. If the thickness is sufficient. on a lathe. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. making it 1/16 in. and for the outside of the frame. but merely discolored. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. is composed of wrought sheet iron. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. The bearing studs are now made. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. Before removing the field from the lathe. thick. brass or iron. A 5/8in. larger than the dimensions given. drill the four rivet holes. 3-3/8 in. clamp the template. hole is . 1. as shown in Fig. Fig. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. assemble and rivet them solidly. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. by turning the lathe with the hand. set at 1/8 in. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. brass. 2. they will make a frame 3/4 in. mark off a space. When the frame is finished so far. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. 3-3/8 in. bent at right angles as shown. Fig. or even 1/16 in. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. 4-1/2 in. when several pieces are placed together. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. in diameter. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. cannot be used so often. or pattern.

or otherwise finished. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. into which a piece of 5/8-in. file them out to make the proper adjustment. When the bearings are located.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. and build up the solder well. soldered into place. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. brass rod is inserted. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. 4. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. Fig. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. The shaft of the armature. solder them to the supports. is turned up from machine steel.

sheet fiber. inside diameter. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. thick. deep and 7/16 in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. thick and 1/4 in. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. 8. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. to allow for finishing to size. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. Armature-Ring Core. 6. Make the core 3/4 in. or segments. 1-1/8 in. Procure 12 strips of mica. as shown m Fig. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 3/4 in. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. When this is accomplished. and held with a setscrew. holes through them for rivets. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. wide. The pins are made of brass. 1/8 in. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. Find the centers of each segment at one end. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. wide. then drill a 1/8-in. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. threaded. being formed for the ends. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. hole and tap it for a pin. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. After the pieces are cut out. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. 6. as shown in Fig. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. thick are cut like the pattern. The sides are also faced off and finished. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. 9. thick. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. 3. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. When annealed. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider.. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. Rivet them together. brass rod. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. 3/4 in. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. by 1-1/2 in. thick. washers. as shown in Fig. After they . 5. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. and then they are soaked in warm water. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. 7. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. 3. as shown in Fig.

sheet fiber. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. long. The source of current is connected to the terminals. The two ends are joined at B. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Run one end of the field wire. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. being required. Fig. All connections should be securely soldered. 1. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. until the 12 slots are filled. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. wide and 1 in. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. sheet fiber. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. they are glued to the core insulation. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. and wind on four layers. The field is wound with No. about 100 ft. 8 in. of the end to protrude. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. by bending the end around one of the projections. shown at A. The winding is started at A. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. When the glue is set. Fig. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. which will take 50 ft.have dried. or side. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. After one coil. shown at B. thick. 6 in. yet it shows a series of . of No. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. are soldered together. after the motor is on the stand. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. To connect the wires. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. 1. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. This winding is for a series motor. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. of the wire. In starting to wind. the two ends of the wire. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. 5.

alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. Nine wires run from the timer. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. as in the case of a spiral. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . or. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. A 1/2-in. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. and one. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. is fastened to the metallic body. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. still more simply. one from each of the eight contacts. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. which serves as the ground wire. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other.

thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire.The Wind Vane. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. It should be . These magnets are placed in a 10-in. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. of the dial. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. 6 in. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. circle. long. thus giving 16 different directions. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Covering these is a thin. 45 deg. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. board. Without this attachment.

It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. according to who is going to use it. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. however." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. will be enough for the two sides. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. high. also a piece of new carpet. Buffalo. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. though a special knife. To make it. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. and about 6 in. long to give the best results. thus making a universal joint. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Y. Cut 3-in. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Fill the box with any handy ballast. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. N. will be sufficient. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. -Contributed by James L. if not too high. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. Blackmer. and securely nail on the top of the box. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion.about 6 ft. making it heavy or light. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. 14 by 18 in. will answer the purpose just as well. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Before tacking the fourth side. called a chip carving knife. To work these outlines. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. Place the leather on some level. is most satisfactory. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. . or. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long.

being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. A good leather paste will be required. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. An ordinary sewing-machine . fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.

B. can be thrown away when no longer needed. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. as in cases of a sprained ankle. and put the solution in thin glass bottles.will do if a good stout needle is used. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. a needle and some feathers. Syracuse. N. --Contributed by Katharine D. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. and fasten the feathers inside of it. of common salt and 10 lb. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. of water. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. If a fire breaks out. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. rather than the smooth side. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. Y. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. or a hip that has been wrenched. away from it. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Morse. and tie them together securely at the bottom. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. square and tying a piece of . temporary lameness. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal.

the corners being wired. There is a 1-in. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. --Contributed by John A. Hellwig. long. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. laying poisoned meat and meal. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. The strings should be about 15 in. and tacked it to the boards. This not only keeps the rats out. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. Ashland. high. A small wooden or fiber end. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. long. . the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax.string to each corner. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. setting traps. commonly called tintype tin. Albany. made up of four layers of No. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. N. and a coil of wire. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. --Contributed by J. The end is filed to an edge. and the receiver is ready for use. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. 1/8 in. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. cut to the length of the spool. as shown. F. B. G. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. which is the essential part of the instrument. deep. Gordon Dempsey. Paterson. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in.J. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. letting it go at arm's length. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. E. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. Wis. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. wound on the head end. thus helping the rats to enter. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. The coil is 1 in. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. A. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. One end is removed entirely. Y. etc. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws.. The diaphragm C. wide and 1/16 in. The body of the receiver. N. board all around the bottom on the inside. but not sharp. is cut on the wood. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown.

and bend each strip in shape. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. To clean small articles. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. a piece of small wire. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. to . bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. better still. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. The vase is to have three supports. Take a piece of string or. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. gold. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. begin with the smallest scrolls. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. A single line will be sufficient. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. wide. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase.

stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. wide when stitching up the purse. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. thus raising it. from the lines EF on the piece. from E to F. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Trace also the line around the purse. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. through which to slip the fly AGH. Work down the outside line of the design. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Fold the leather on the line EF.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. using a duller point of the tool.. 4-1/4 in. and does not require coloring. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. 6-3/8 in. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. sharp pencil. 3-1/4 in. from C to D. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. 3-1/2 in. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. About 1 in. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern.. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned.which the supports are fastened with rivets. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. . as shown in the sketch. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. After taking off the pattern.

being cast in wooden molds. deep. 1. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. leaving the lug a. and a model for speed and power. square. then place the square piece out of which Fig. and the projections B. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. with the largest side down. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. b. This also should be slightly beveled. Then nail the wheel down firmly. and which will be very interesting. When it is finished.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. and tack the other piece slightly. It can be made without the use of a lathe. following the dotted lines. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. with pins or small nails. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and cut out a wheel. Now take another piece of wood. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. Make the lug 1/4 in. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. It is neat and efficient. with the open side down. deep. 1/2 in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 3. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. 2. 1 was cut. by 12 ft. thick. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. the "open" side. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. with a compass saw. First. all the way around. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. Fit this to the two . around the wheel. Cut off six pieces 12 in. long. and. then nail it. as shown in Fig. as well as useful.

and bore six 1/4-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. square pieces of wood. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. square pieces of wood. holes through it. hole 1/4 in. deep. one of which should have a 3/8-in. bolts. then bolt it together. and boring a 3/8-in. slightly beveled.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. place it between two of the 12-in. Now take another of the 12-in. 4. hole entirely through at the same place. and clean all the shavings out of it. Now put mold No. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and lay it away to dry. hole bored through its center. as shown by the black dots in Fig. in the center of it. Take the mold apart. 1.pieces just finished. After it is finished. as shown by the .

Using the Brace . then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. one in the lug. drill in it. one in the projections. and 3/8-in. 4.2. from the one end. and run in babbitt metal again. Then bolt the castings together. so that it will turn easily. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing.black dots in Fig. holes at d. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. b. over the defective part. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in.1. see that the bolts are all tight. and the exhaust hole in projection b. and lay it away to dry. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. fasten a 3/8-in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. Let it stand for half an hour. and connect to the boiler. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. in diameter must now be obtained. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. as shown in illustration. Pour metal into mold No. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. only the one is left-handed. true it up with a square. place it under the drill. long. where the casting did not fill out. This is mold No. 1. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. holes. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. instead of the right-handed piece. take an ordinary brace. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. After it is fitted in. Fig.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Put this together in mold No.1. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it.2. 6. and the other in the base. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. 6. and drill it entirely through. This will cast a paddle-wheel. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. long. the other right-handed. until it is full. wide and 16 in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. lay it on a level place. put the top of the brace through this hole. and drill them in the same manner. B. and pour babbitt metal into it. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. screw down. This is for a shaft. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. A piece of mild steel 5 in. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. d. This is the same as Fig. and bore three 1/4-in. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. Now cut out one of the 12-in. 5. place the entire machine in a vise. Commencing 1-1/2 in. Now take mold No. and two 1/4-in.

with a boss and a set screw. Plan of Ice Boat . turn the wheel to the shape desired. piece and at right angles to it. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. while it is running at full speed. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. At each end of the 6ft. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. long. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. one 6 ft. Then take a knife or a chisel. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. will do good service. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. and if instructions have been carefully followed.. and the other 8 ft. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. and.

in diameter in the center. leaving 1 ft. Fig. which may come in handy in heavy winds. projecting as in Fig. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. long. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. piece and at right angles to it. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. in front of the rudder block. Fig. Run the seam on a machine. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. distant. This fits in the square hole. so much the better will be your boat. Make your runners as long as possible. should be of hardwood. The spar should be 9 ft. 2 by 3 in. long. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. bolt the 8-ft.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. 8 a reef point knot. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . at the end. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. at the butt and 1 in. On this disk he placed