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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

A piece of plank 12 in. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. E. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. until it is bound as shown in Fig. 1. Toronto. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. 1. --Contributed by J. 2. The pieces are then dressed round. Ontario. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. To throw a boomerang.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. grasp it and hold the same as a club. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps.Fig. It is held in this curve until dry. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. apart. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. away. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. 2 -. 2. long will make six boomerangs. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. as shown in Fig. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. as shown in Fig. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. distant. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. with the hollow side away from you. Fig. 1. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. wide and 2 ft. Noble. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention.

The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. it is not essential to the support of the walls. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. blocks . The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. If the snow is of the right consistency. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. thick. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. minus the top. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. the block will drop out. one inside of the circle and the other outside. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. 6 in. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. First. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. and it may be necessary to use a little water. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. and with a movable bottom. A wall. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. high and 4 or 5 in. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. or rather no bottom at all. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. long. which makes the building simpler and easier. dry snow will not pack easily. forcing it down closely. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. made of 6-in. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. however. but about 12 in. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. A very light. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome.

1. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. --Contributed by Geo. 2. wide. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. Union. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. which is about 1 ft. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. A little experience will enable one to do this work well.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. A nail. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. long and 1 in. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. Goodbrod. or an old safe dial will do. Ore. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. It also keeps them out. a. is 6 or 8 in. and the young architect can imitate them. 2. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. above the ground. 1. Fig. The piece of wood. 3 -. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. D. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. C. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. There is no outward thrust. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. Fig. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. which can be made of wood. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. 3. Fig. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding.

The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. Syracuse. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. New York. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. as the weight always draws them back to place. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. --Contributed by R. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. If ordinary butts are used.When taking hot dishes from the stove. Merrill. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. says the Sphinx. one pair of special hinges. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. S. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. the box locked . one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. and the other back of the stove and out of the way.

smooth surface. as shown in Fig. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. With the metal shears. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. 3. 1. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. If the measuring has been done properly. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. 2. Alberta Norrell. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes.and the performer steps out in view. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. allowing each coat time to dry. proceed as follows: First. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. When the sieve is shaken. Fig. Ga. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. To make a design similar to the one shown. on drawing paper. one for each corner. It remains to bend the flaps. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. All . Place the piece in a vise. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. -Contributed by L. as shown. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. as shown in Fig. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. Augusta. draw one-half of it. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. If they do not. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. about 1-32 of an inch. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner.

The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. In boring through rubber corks. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. R. 25 German-silver wire.the edges should be left smooth. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. if rolled under the shoe sole. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. If a touch of color is desired. The current. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. from the back end. is fitted tightly in the third hole. 25 gauge German-silver wire. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. in diameter. as shown at AA. heats the strip of German-silver wire. --Contributed by R. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . and in the positions shown in the sketch. long. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. After this has dried. H. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. which is about 6 in. A piece of porcelain tube. causing it to expand. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. used for insulation. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. should be in the line. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. To keep the metal from tarnishing. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. Galbreath. of No. B. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. C. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. When the current is turned off. Denver. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. Colo. The common cork. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. in passing through the lamp. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. A resistance. about 6 in. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft.

3. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. . The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. 1. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Kansas City. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Mo. with thin strips of wood. between them as shown in Fig. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. --Contributed by David Brown. Fig. 2.bottom ring. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. leaving a space of 4 in. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. as shown in Fig. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Purchase two long book straps.

one weighing 15 lb. having a gong 2-1/2 in. Fig. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. --Contributed by James M. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. as . Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Kane. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. 36 in.. and tack smoothly. Pa. and a pocket battery. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. 3. and one weighing 25 lb. to form a handle. Doylestown. 1. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. Fig. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Y. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. N. Syracuse. Morse. The string is then tied. are mounted on the outside of the box. which is the right weight for family use. in diameter. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. 1. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. These are shown in Fig. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. just the right weight for a woman to use. The folds are made over the string. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. --Contributed by Katharine D. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. 4. A. Place three paving bricks inside of the box.. 2. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Fig.An ordinary electric bell. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. C. When the aeroplane tips. 1. long. Two strips of brass. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package.

3/32 or 1/4 in. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. two 1/8 -in. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. N. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. Floral Park. --Contributed by Louis J. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. 2. and many fancy knick-knacks. bent as shown in Fig. if once used.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. in diameter. four washers and four square nuts. such as brackets. The saw. long. 1. AA. Y. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. machine screws. Frame Made of a Rod . the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. Day. 2.

of course. Silver is the most desirable but. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. A. Scranton. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. as well as the depth of etching desired. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. as well as brass and copper. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Detroit. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. The buckle is to be purchased. the most expensive. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. copper.. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. rounding and smoothing with emery paper.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. green and browns are the most popular. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. 1 part sulphuric acid. 1 part nitric acid. If it colors the metal red. it has the correct strength. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. therefore. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. of water.may be made of either brass. after breaking up. Rub off the highlights. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. if copper or brass. though almost any color may be obtained. Of the leathers. Apply two coats. Drying will cause this to change to purple. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. File these edges. --Contributed by W. allowing each time to dry. using a swab and an old stiff brush. of water in which dissolve. In the design shown. Michigan. Watch Fob For coloring silver. use them in place of the outside nuts. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. be covered the same as the back. For etching. or silver. An Austrian Top [12] . Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. treat it with color. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. With carbon paper trace these on the metal.

hole. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. wide and 3/4 in. A 1/16-in. Ypsilanti. in diameter. 1-1/4 in. hole in this end for the top. thick. set the top in the 3/4 -in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. is formed on one end. allowing only 1-1/4 in. pass one end through the 1/16-in. When the shank is covered. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. Tholl. 3/4 in. --Contributed by J. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. The handle is a piece of pine. . hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. long.F. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Bore a 3/4-in. A handle. Parts of the Top To spin the top. long. 5-1/4 in. Michigan.

tarts or similar pastry. . Northville. --Contributed by Miss L. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Augusta.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. Mich. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. A. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. --A. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. The baking surface. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Ga. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Houghton. having no sides. Alberta Norrell. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. For black leathers. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length.

two turns will remove the jar. When you desire to work by white light. glass fruit jar. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . then solder cover and socket together. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Stringing Wires [13] A. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Mo. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. says Studio Light. the same as shown in the illustration. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. Centralia. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch.

square by 62 in. 4 Braces. as shown in the cross-section sketch. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 4 Vertical pieces. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. They are fastened. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1-1/4 in. so it can be folded up. and not tip over. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. Janesville. 16 Horizontal bars. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. . and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits.for loading and development. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. square by 12 in. 1-1/4 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. Wis.

The front can be covered . --Contributed by Dr. The whole. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. and a loop made in the end. After rounding the ends of the studs. Rosenthal. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. H. after filling the pail with water. -Contributed by Charles Stem. Phillipsburg. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. O. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. New York. C. Cincinnati. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. If the loop is tied at the proper place. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. from scrap material. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall.

the mouth of which rests against a. you are. The results will be poor. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. either for contact printing or enlargements. Md. FIG. by all rules of the game. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. Develop them into strong prints. and. By using the following method. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. The . But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. Wehr. 1 FIG.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. the color will be an undesirable. principally mayonnaise dressing. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. thoroughly fix. --Contributed by Gilbert A. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. if you try to tone them afterward. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. Baltimore. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. In my own practice. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. If the gate is raised slightly. sickly one. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed.

. 1 and again as in Fig..... Iodide of potassium .. transfer it to a tray of water..... but... without previous wetting.. 5 by 15 in... where it will continue to bleach.. San Francisco. long to admit the angle support.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table... three times. A good final washing completes the process. etc.... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. Water .. It will bleach slowly and evenly. in this solution.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes... in size. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.... wide and 4 in. L.. With a little practice. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. 16 oz.... when it starts to bleach.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. 20 gr.... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain... to make it 5 by 5 in.. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. --Contributed by T.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper......." Cyanide of potassium . preferably the colored kind... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away..... Gray. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. 2.. The blotting paper can . Cal. When the desired reduction has taken place. 2 oz.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. Place the dry print...

3. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. 20 gauge. wide. and a length of 5 in. wide below the . The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Monahan. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands.J. Wisconsin. Make a design similar to that shown. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Wilson Aldred Toronto. --Contributed by L.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. --Contributed by J. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Oshkosh. the head of which is 2 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. the shaft 1 in. Canada.

after folding along the center line. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. Fig. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. Apply with a small brush. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. 2. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. . The metal must be held firmly. deep. Pierce a hole with a small drill.FIG. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. but use a swab on a stick. 3. Allow this to dry. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. With the metal shears. then put on a second coat. then coloring. For coloring olive green. using carbon paper. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. 1 Fig. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. 1 part nitric acid. Do not put the hands in the solution. 1 part sulphuric acid. then trace the other half in the usual way. as shown in Fig. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. Make one-half of the design. 1. which gives the outline of the design Fig. 4. freehand. After this has dried. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. using a small metal saw. being held perpendicular to the work. Trace the design on the metal. With files. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. After the sawing. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. using turpentine.

driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Carl Cramer. When this is cold. Richmond. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. attach brass handles. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. M. . it does the work rapidly. on a chopping board. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Syracuse. New York. Ii is an ordinary staple. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. --Contributed by Katharine D. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. then stain it a mahogany color. Burnett. as shown. Conn. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. --Contributed by H. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. After the stain has dried. thick. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. East Hartford. --Contributed by M. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Morse. Cal. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand.

4. .. WARNECKE Procure some brass. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Fig. about 3/16 in. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. --Contributed by Mrs. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. brass. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. L. not over 1/4 in. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. in width at the shank. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. one shaft. also locate the drill holes. as shown in Fig. thick and 4 in. --Contributed by W. Cal. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. saucers or pans. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. indicating the depth of the slots. Florida. two enameled. square. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. some pieces of brass. thick. Atwell. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. as shown at A. Kissimmee. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. or tin. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. 1. 1/4 in. and several 1/8-in. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. Richmond.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Jaquythe. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. H. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. A. holes. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. machine screws. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. 53 steel pens.

Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. supply pipe. hole is drilled to run off the water. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. A 3/4-in. as shown. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Bend as shown in Fig.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. brass and bolted to the casing. If metal dishes. thick. machine screws and nuts. wide. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. about 1/32 in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. into the hole. These are connected to a 3/8-in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. Fig. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. wide and bend as shown in Fig. a square shaft used. 1. and pins inserted. 7. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. as shown in Fig. 2. machine screws. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. using two nuts on each screw. Fig. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. hole. long and 5/16 in. If the shaft is square. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. as in Fig. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. 3. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. in diameter and 1/32 in. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. long by 3/4 in.. each about 1 in. lead should be run into the segments. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. 3. There should be a space of 1/16 in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. Fig. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. with a 3/8-in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. with 1/8-in. 6. hole in the center. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. thick. can be procured. 2. 5. with the face of the disk. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw.

and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Be sure to have the cover. Smith. from the bottom end of the legs. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Stain the wood before putting in the . Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. V. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. high and 15 in. we will call the basket. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Now you will have the box in two pieces. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Fasten with 3/4-in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Ill. 8-1/2 in. Hamilton. from the top of the box. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Cooke. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. deep over all. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. --Contributed by F. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. square and 30-1/2 in. With a string or tape measure. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. using four to each leg. The lower part. --Contributed by S. screws. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. or more in diameter. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. La Salle. When assembling. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Canada. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. deep and 1-1/4 in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. to make the bottom. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. three of which are in the basket. long. make these seams come between the two back legs.

the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. If all the parts are well sandpapered. --also the lower edge when necessary. 1. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Md. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. 2. Mass. Baltimore. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. When making the display. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Boston. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Packard. wide. The side. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. -Contributed by Stanley H. sewing on the back side.lining. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. as shown in the sketch. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. The folded part in the center is pasted together.2 Fig. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. and gather it at that point. Cover them with the cretonne. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. wide and four strips 10 in. Fig. you can. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things.

Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Fig. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. It is not difficult to . N. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. It is cleanly. Gloversville. and. saving all the solid part. Cross Timbers. Mo. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Crockett. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. L. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Orlando Taylor. --Contributed by B. Y. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. 3. with slight modifications. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. --Contributed by H. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. When through using the pad. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely.

Mass. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. and scrape out the rough parts. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. If a file is used. Both of these methods are wasteful. -Contributed by C. Lane. Texas. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. El Paso. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. After this is done. --Contributed by Edith E. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. or if desired. remove the contents. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Bourne. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. S. across the face. After stirring. are shown in the diagram. it should be new and sharp. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Lowell.

He captured several pounds in a few hours. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. Iowa. --Contributed by Marion P. Ill. The insects came to the light. After several hours' drying. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. A Postcard Rack [25]. Turl. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Des Moines. As these were single-faced disk records. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. --Contributed by Geo. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Canton. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Wheeler.cooking utensil. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Oak Park. F. Greenleaf. Those having houses . Oregon. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Ill. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. The process works well and needs no watching.

not even with the boards themselves. plane and pocket knife. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Worcester. Conn. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. the bottom being 3/8 in. --Contributed by Thomas E. Only three pieces are required. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. material. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. Lay the floor next. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. thick. Dobbins. The single boards can then be fixed. and the second one for the developing bench. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. --Contributed by Wm. Rosenberg. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. but for cheapness 3/4 in. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight.. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. the best material to use being matched boards. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. and as they are simple in design. Glenbrook. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. one on each side of what will be the . and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. by 2 ft. will do as well. and both exactly alike. Both sides can be put together in this way. 6 in. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. 6 in. boards are preferable. Mass. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk..

nailing them to each other at the ridge. 6. and should be zinc lined. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. so that it will fit inside the sink. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 8. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. 6. the closing side as at B. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 9).. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. 7. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. by screwing to the floor. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. brown wrapping paper. In hinging the door. of the top of the door for the same reason. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. Fig. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 3 and 4. 2 in section. and the top as at C in the same drawing. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 5. which is fixed on as shown . one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. below which is fixed the sink. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in.doorway.. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. is cut. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. 10). hinged to it. and in the middle an opening. wide. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. At the top of the doorway. 11. etc. and to the outside board of the sides. as shown in Figs. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door.. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. and act as a trap for the light. The roof boards may next be put on. 9 by 11 in. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. 6 and 9. The developing bench is 18 in. It is shown in detail in Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig.

Details of the Dark Rook .

16. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. 15.in Fig. A circular piece about 2 in. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. 2. and a 3/8-in. 19. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. if desired. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. as shown in the sections. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. 17. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. For beating up an egg in a glass. 13. preferably maple or ash. 20. Karl Hilbrich. and a tank stand on it. Pennsylvania. Fig. Fig. --Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. 13. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. but not the red glass and frame. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. four coats at first is not too many. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. The handle should be at least 12 in. mixing flour and water. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. In use. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. these being shown in Fig. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Fig. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. after lining with brown paper. 1. Erie. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. or red light as at K. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. it is better than anything on the market. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. 16. The house will be much strengthened if strips. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. as in Fig. 6. or the room may be made with a flat roof. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . as at M. 18. though this is hardly advisable. screwing them each way into the boards. are fastened in the corners inside. as at I. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. which makes it possible to have white light. 14. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. Fig.

A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. G. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. --Contributed by L. Mitchell. -Contributed by E. Ark. L. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Smith. New York. Schweiger. To operate. Eureka Springs. about 3/8 in. which. for a handle. Mo. Kansas City. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. D. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. when put together properly is a puzzle. long. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . --Contributed by Wm. Yonkers. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. as shown in the sketch.copper should be.

as is usually the case. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. need them. which binds them together. A number of 1/2-in. 1. If the sill is inclined. Each cork is cut as in Fig. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. for the moment. 3. . After the box is trimmed. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. in order to thoroughly preserve it.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. as shown in Fig. holes should be drilled in the bottom. the rustic work should be varnished. the box will require a greater height in front. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. 3. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. as well as improve its appearance. to make it set level. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. Having completed the bare box. The design shown in Fig. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. as shown in Fig. especially for filling-in purposes. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. The corks in use are shown in Fig. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. 2.

The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. life in the summer time is a vexation. F. and observe results. When the corn is gone cucumbers. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. being partly eaten into. it's easy. share the same fate. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. 3. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. too dangerous. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. etc. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. Traps do no good. Each long projection represents a leg. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica.. drilled at right angles. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. But I have solved the difficulty.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. cabbages. can't use poison. 2. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. 4. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. as shown in Fig. 1. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. .

my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. Iowa. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. If. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. . to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. strips. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. of No. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. long.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. by trial. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. -. cut some of it off and try again.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. and made up and kept in large bottles. the coil does not heat sufficiently. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. cut in 1/2-in. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The solution can be used over and over again. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. About 9-1/2 ft. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil.

and a strip. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. forks. Dallas. it falls to stop G. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. coffee pot. In cleaning silver. Stir and mix thoroughly. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. Morse. Syracuse. --Contributed by James M. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Texas. N. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. --Contributed by Katharine D. but with unsatisfactory results.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. to cause the door to swing shut. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Knives. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Y. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. 1) removed. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. of oleic acid with 1 gal. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Do not wash them. Doylestown. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Fig 2. Pa. is a good size--in this compound. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. C. as shown in the sketch. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. of whiting and 1/2 oz. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. of gasoline. hot-water pot. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. D. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. . Kane.

To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. later fixed and washed as usual. La. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. negatives. which is. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. but unfixed. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. New Orleans. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . using the paper dry. Harrisburg. Sprout. Pa. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. --Contributed by Theodore L. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. --Contributed by Oliver S. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Ill. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. Waverly. . The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. Fisher. of course.

graceful sweep of the long pendulum. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. The harmonograph. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. metal. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. In this uncertainty lies the charm. then . If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. Fig. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. 1. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. To obviate this difficulty.

This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. is about right for a 10-ft. --Contributed by James T. etc. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. ceiling.. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. such as a shoe buttoner. that is. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Arizona. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. for instance. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. A length of 7 ft. in diameter. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. as shown in the lower part of Fig. as shown in Fig. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. R. and unless the shorter pendulum is. exactly one-third. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. Punch a hole.. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. one-fourth. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. A small table or platform. Holes up to 3 in. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. to prevent any side motion. Ingham. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. 1. Another weight of about 10 lb. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. with a nail set or punch. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. provides a means of support for the stylus. Chicago. A weight. --Contributed by Wm. 1-3/4 by 2 in. Gaffney. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. of about 30 or 40 lb. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. in the center of the circle to be cut. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. G. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. one-fifth. K. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. as long as the other. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. A small weight. makes respectively 3. A pedestal. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. The length of the short pendulum H. what is most important. J. which can be regulated. 1. or the lines will overlap and blur. is attached as shown at H. Rosemont.

of course. Cruger. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. and proceed as before.J. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The capacity of the vise. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. 2. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. 6. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement.H. 4. --Contributed by J. 3. Cape May City.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Fig. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. dividing them into quarters. a correspondent of . N. 1. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. then 3 as in Fig. then put 2 at the top. and 4 as in Fig. The two key cards are made alike. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. -Contributed by W. Fig. distributing them over the whole card. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block.J. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Morey. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 5. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. Chicago.

sheet of well made asbestos paper. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. --Contributed by L. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. 1/2 oz. Wind the successive turns of . The two cut surfaces can be placed together. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. Asbestos board is to be preferred. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. of ferricyanide of potash. of the uprights. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. deep. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. Cut through the center. To assemble. says Popular Electricity. of water. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. 1/4 in. 6 gauge wires shown. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. long. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. Alberta Norrell. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. drill 15 holes. 22 gauge German-silver wire. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. respectively. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. citrate of iron and ammonia. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. Ga. After securing the tint desired. If constructed of the former. 30 gr. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. After preparing the base and uprights. of 18-per-cent No. acetic acid and 4 oz. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. remove the prints. Augusta. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. the portion of the base under the coil. from the top and bottom. wood-screws.

Y. --Contributed by Frederick E. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. rivets. Ampere. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Ward. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. if one is not a smoker. etc. then fasten the upright in place. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. 14 gauge. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Small knobs may be added if desired. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. screws. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Labels of some kind are needed. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. N. as they are usually thrown away when empty. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. 16 gauge copper wire.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers.. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. square. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . which. but these are not necessary.

Jaquythe. --C. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. --Contributed by A. and one made of poplar finished black. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish.14 oz. Kenosha. G. B. If the soldering copper is an old one. C. the pure muriatic acid should be used. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. The material can be of any wood. particularly so when the iron has once been used. especially if a large tub is used. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. and labeled "Poison. brass. S.. as shown in the sketch. being careful about the heat. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. California. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. --Contributed by W. or has become corroded. and rub the point of the copper on it. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. galvanized iron. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. Copper. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. of water. Richmond. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. Eureka Springs. zinc. E and F. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Wis. lead. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. tin. Larson. tinner's acid. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. D. sandpaper or steel wool. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. a piece of solder. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. . A. then to the joint to be soldered. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. it must be ground or filed to a point. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. of glycerine to 16 oz. The parts are put together with dowel pins. Ark. In soldering galvanized iron. This is considerable annoyance. Heat it until hot (not red hot).

D. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. wide. B. Place the band. 1. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Brass rings can be plated when finished. such as copper. nut. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Fig. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. The disk will come out pan shaped. thick and 1-1/4 in. Six issues make a well proportioned book. The dimensions shown in Fig. however. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. Take a 3/4-in. Fig. Apart from this. Y. which gives two bound volumes each year. N. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. This will leave a clear hole. C. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. 2. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. a ring may be made from any metal. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. round iron. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . in diameter. brass and silver. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. in diameter. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. The covers of the magazines are removed. and drill out the threads. Troy. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Hankin. I bind my magazines at home evenings. W. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. with good results. This completes the die. The punch A. -Contributed by H. 7/8 in.

. through the notch on the left side of the string No. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. 1. 1/8 in. 1. The sections are then prepared for sewing. Five cuts. If started with the January or the July issue. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. on all edges except the back. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. After drawing the thread tightly. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. of the ends extending on each side. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. as shown in Fig.4. 5. size 16 or larger. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. The string No. Coarse white thread. The covering should be cut out 1 in. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. and a third piece. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. deep. using . is used for the sewing material. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. then back through the notch on the right side. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. which is fastened the same as the first. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. C. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. 1. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. 2. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. Start with the front of the book. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. allowing about 2 in. 2. and then to string No. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. Place the cardboard covers on the book. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. threaded double. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. 1 in Fig. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. is nailed across the top. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. The covering can be of cloth. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. and place them against the strings in the frame.

Tinplate. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. and. --Contributed by Clyde E. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Encanto. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Cal. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. at opposite sides to each other. on which to hook the blade. Nebr. and mark around each one. Divine. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. College View. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. For the blade an old talking-machine .Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Place the cover on the book in the right position. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. round iron. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in.

Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. with a steel sleeve. and another piece (B) 6 in. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. thick. in order to drill the holes in the ends. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). bore. -Contributed by Willard J. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Make the blade 12 in.. Then on the board put . and file in the teeth. fuse hole at D. long. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. as shown. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. or double extra heavy. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. Ohio. C. Summitville. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. hydraulic pipe. and 1/4 in. F.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Hays. and a long thread plug. Moorhead. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. thick. Miss. A. as it is sometimes called. with 10 teeth to the inch. E. by 4-1/2 in. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. B. at the same end.. and 1/4 in. On the upper side. by 1 in.

Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. the jars need not be very large. using about 8 in. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. If you are going to use a current of low tension. H. of rubber-covered wire. --Contributed by Chas.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Connect up as shown. as from batteries. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. high around this apparatus. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. 4 jars. A lid may be added if desired. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Boyd. of wire to each coil. and some No. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. some sheet copper or brass for plates. about 5 ft. Philadelphia.

then apply a coat of thin enamel. 1 on switch. two pieces 30 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. wide. long. 7 in. by 2 in. thick. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. 16-1/2 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. two for each jar. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. apart. long. The illustration shows how to shape it. The stock required for them is oak. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. by 5 in. direct to wire across jars. & S. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. by 1-1/4 in. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. 2. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft.. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. 3.. and plane it on all edges. by 1-1/4 in. See Fig. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. wide and 2 in. B and C. 2. C. above the ground. For the brass trimmings use No. B. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. Their size also depends on the voltage. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. and four pieces 14 in. To wire the apparatus. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. In proportioning them the points A. steel rod makes a good steering rod. on No. square by 14 ft. 1 is connected to point No. 3 and No. 27 B. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. sheet brass 1 in. B. For the front runners these measurements are: A. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. Construct the auto front (Fig. long. 2 in. by 1 in. 1. are important. 5 on switch. oak boards. gives full current and full speed.. The top disk in jar No. by 2 in. 2. and for the rear runners: A. Fig. A variation of 1/16 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 2 and 3. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. Z. however. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. . 4) of 3/4-in. 4. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. Use no screws on the running surface. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. Equip block X with screw eyes. and bolt through. 3 in.. 11 in. Put arm of switch on point No... by 6 in. 2 is lower down than in No. The current then will flow through the motor. by 5 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. wide by 3/4 in. beginning at the rear. or source of current. An iron washer. with the cushion about 15 in. two pieces 14 in. No. At the front 24 or 26 in. as they "snatch" the ice.the way. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. A 3/4-in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. is used to reduce friction. 30 in. 4 in. 1 and so on for No. Use no nails.. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. 34 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. 15-1/2 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. First sandpaper all the wood. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. On the door of the auto front put the . C. two pieces 34 in. long. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. The sled completed should be 15 ft. wide and 3/4 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. long by 22 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. as they are not substantial enough. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. making them clear those in the front runner. thick. The connection between point No.

If desired. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. or with these for $25. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. cutting it out of sheet brass. a brake may be added to the sled. such as used on automobiles. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. may be stowed within. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. which is somewhat moist. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . long. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. etc. to improve the appearance. by 30 in. overshoes. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. Then get some upholstery buttons. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. Fasten a horn. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. by 1/2 in. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. brass plated. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. to the wheel. parcels. cheap material. The best way is to get some strong. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. such as burlap. lunch. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. a number of boys may share in the ownership.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. If desired. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. fasten a cord through the loop.

Leland. .tree and bring. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. --Contributed by Stewart H. Lexington. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Ill.

the same diameter as the wheel. A small clearance space. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. 1. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. CD. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. This guide should have a beveled edge. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. London. FC. when flat against it.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. Draw a circle on paper. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. outside diameter and 1/16 in. some files. with twenty-four teeth. 3. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. will be over the line FG. sheet metal. say 1 in. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. 4). E. made from 1/16-in. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. Fig. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. thick. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. The first tooth may now be cut. which. by drawing diameters. mild steel or iron. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . the cut will be central on the line. With no other tools than a hacksaw. a compass. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. 2. First take the case of a small gearwheel. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. The straight-edge. so that the center of the blade. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. from F to G. Fig. though more difficult. The Model Engineer. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. Fig. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle.

blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. No shock will be perceptible. as shown in Fig. Make a hole in the other. If there is no faucet in the house. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. B. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. 1. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. Focus the camera in the usual manner. . ground it with a large piece of zinc. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. Then take one outlet wire. either the pencils for arc lamps. A bright. some wire and some carbons. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. hold in one hand. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide.Four Photos on One Plate of them. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. B. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. R. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. as shown in Fig. electric lamp. as shown in Fig. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. each in the center. 1. transmitter. 2. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. and the other outlet wire. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. or several pieces bound tightly together.

A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. and about that size. and again wind the wire around it. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Dry batteries are most convenient. of course. by 12 in. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. J. D D are binding posts for electric wires. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Pa. leaving about 10 in. by 1 in. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. under the gable. Then set the whole core away to dry. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. are also needed. Wrenn. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. or more of the latter has been used. 36 wire around it. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. at each end for terminals. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . One like a loaf of bread. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. as indicated by E E. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. as shown. B. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. A is a wooden block. But in this experiment. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. serves admirably. Several battery cells. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Slattery. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. a transmitter which induces no current is used. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. and will then burn the string C. They have screw ends. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Ashland. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. Emsworth. For a base use a pine board 10 in. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. --Contributed by Geo. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. If desired. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Ohio.

lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. B B. while C is open. C. 12 or No. connecting lamp receptacles. run a No. B B. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. First make a support. Fig. Ohio. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. and the lamps. for the . 1.wire. At one side secure two receptacles. The apparatus is now ready for operation. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. The coil will commence to become warm. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. C. as shown. and one single post switch. Fig. the terminal of the coil. Place 16-cp. Connect these three to switch. D. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. and switch. in series with bindingpost. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer.. Jr. These should have hollow ends. in parallel. The oven is now ready to be connected. Turn on switch. 14 wire. 2. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. F. as shown. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. From the other set of binding-posts. until the hand points to zero on the scale. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. E. D. Newark. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board.

E. 10 turns to each layer. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. drill through the entire case and valve. At a point a little above the center. D. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. --Contributed by J. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. To make one. Dussault. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. long. 7. drill a hole as shown at H. deep. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. from the lower end. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. C. where A is the homemade ammeter. etc. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. as shown in the cut. remove the valve. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. high. 36 magnet wire instead of No. This may be made of wood. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. If for 3-way.. is made of iron. 1/2 in. Fig.E. 3 amperes. 5. is then made and provided with a glass front. a standard ammeter. 1. 4. Fig. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. This is slipped on the pivot. a variable resistance.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. A wooden box. and D. After drilling. wide and 1/8 in. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. 2. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. 4 in. 4 amperes. The core. Montreal. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. 14. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. Mine is wound with two layers of No. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. 6. to prevent it turning on the axle. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. The pointer or hand. wide and 1-3/4 in. thick. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. 1/4 in. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. drill in only to the opening already through. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. although copper or steel will do. 14 wire. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. is made of wire. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. long. although brass is better. wind with plenty of No. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. The box is 5-1/2 in. 3. Fig. D. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. B. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . until the scale is full. Fig. 1. long and make a loop.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. a battery. but if for a 4way. 5. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. inside measurements. It is 1 in.or 4-way valve or cock. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. After assembling the core as shown in Fig.

high. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. D. E. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. By connecting the motor. To start the light. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. which is used for reducing the current. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. in diameter. A. and a metal rod. and the other connects with the water rheostat. and the arc light. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases.performing electrical experiments. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. provided with a rubber stopper. This stopper should be pierced. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. in thickness . The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. F. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. B. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. One wire runs to the switch. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. making two holes about 1/4 in. as shown.

B. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Carthage. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Jones. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Fig. If the interrupter does not work at first. Fig. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. as shown in C. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Having finished the interrupter. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. long. N. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. 1. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. 2. --Contributed by Harold L. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. 1. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. as shown in B. To insert the lead plate. If all adjustments are correct. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. A. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Having fixed the lead plate in position. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. A piece of wood. As there shown. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Y. Fig. Fig. 1. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. 2. where he is placed in an upright open . Turn on the current and press the button. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings.

other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. from which the gong has been removed. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. should be colored a dull black. They need to give a fairly strong light.. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. by 7 in. and wave his arms up and down. until it is dark there. Its edges should nowhere be visible. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. with the exception of the glass. The lights. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The glass should be the clearest possible. A. If everything is not black. figures and lights. giving a limp. to aid the illusion. should be miniature electric lamps. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. inside dimensions. L and M. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. loosejointed effect.coffin. especially L. by 7-1/2 in. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. light-colored garments. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. All . Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. A white shroud is thrown over his body. If it is desired to place the box lower down. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. could expect from a skeleton. is constructed as shown in the drawings. within the limits of an ordinary room. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. especially the joints and background near A. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. which can be run by three dry cells. the illusion will be spoiled. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. as the entire interior. and can be bought at Japanese stores. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. and must be thoroughly cleansed. The skeleton is made of papier maché. The model. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. dressed in brilliant. high. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view.

placed about a foot apart. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in.that is necessary is a two-point switch. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. fat spark. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. Fry. as shown in the sketch. square block. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. Two finishing nails were driven in. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. If a gradual transformation is desired. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . --Contributed by Geo. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. after which it assumes its normal color. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. W. Cal. San Jose.

It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. In Fig. F. hydrogen gas is generated. B and C. 1. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. as shown. In Fig. New York. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. with two tubes. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. A (see sketch). connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. the remaining space will be filled with air. -Contributed by Dudley H. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. or a solution of sal soda. into the receiver G. Cohen. by small pieces of wood. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. to make it airtight. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. soldered in the top. One of these plates is connected to metal top. If a lighted match . When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. and should be separated about 1/8 in. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. The plates are separated 6 in. This is a wide-mouth bottle.

then a suitable burner is necessary. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. A. A nipple. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. A. One row is drilled to come directly on top. N. P. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. of No. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. A. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. A 1/64-in. is then coiled around the brass tube.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. If desired. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. 36 insulated wire. and the ends of the tube. 1/2 in. in diameter and 6 in. from the bottom. should be only 5/16 of an inch. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. by means of the clips. as is shown in the illustration. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. which is plugged up at both ends. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. A. 1. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. copper pipe. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. which forms the vaporizing coil. London. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. or by direct contact with another magnet. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. N. B. long. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. C C. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. 1-5/16 in. copper pipe. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. long. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. says the Model Engineer. Fig. Fig. is made by drilling a 1/8in. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . 2 shows the end view. either by passing a current of electricity around it. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. A piece of 1/8-in. The distance between the nipple. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle.

at the front and back for fly leaves. Fig. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. about 8 or 10 in. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Cut four pieces of cardboard.lamp cord. A disk of thin sheet-iron. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. smoothly. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Take two strips of stout cloth. longer and 1/4 in. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. fold and cut it 1 in. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. 3. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. boards and all. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. 1. taking care not to bend the iron. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. 2). this makes a much nicer book. larger all around than the book. duck or linen. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. 1/4 in. with a fine saw. should be cut to the diameter of the can. cut to the size of the pages. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. but if the paper knife cannot be used. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. trim both ends and the front edge. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. leaving the folded edge uncut. Fig. Fig. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it.

but its diameter is a little smaller. is fitted in it and soldered. without a head. which will just slip inside the little can. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. 4). as shown. deep. Noble. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. in diameter and 30 in. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. is turned on it. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. A. Another tank. H.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. D. Va. 18 in. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. E. pasting them down (Fig. or rather the top now. and a little can. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. as shown in the sketch. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. C. the joint will be gas tight. Bedford City. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Ont. is made the same depth as B. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. This will cause some air to be enclosed. --Contributed by Joseph N. In the bottom. B. of tank A is cut a hole. is soldered onto tank A. is perforated with a number of holes. A gas cock. Another can. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Parker. Toronto. . --Contributed by James E. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top.

-Contributed by H. B. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. and sewed double to give extra strength.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. and about 26 in. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. S. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. A. shows how the connections are to be made. The diagonal struts. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. which may be either spruce. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. and the four diagonal struts. long. The bridle knots. Fig. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. Bott. B. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. should be 1/4 in. 2. basswood or white pine. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. C. fastened in the bottom. A A. making the width. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. H is a square knot. thus adjusting the .. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. The longitudinal corner spines. tacks. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. with an electric-bell magnet. long. If the back armature. 1. to prevent splitting. E. square by 42 in. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. N. should be cut a little too long. when finished. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. The armature. D. Fig. are shown in detail at H and J. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. should be 3/8 in. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. which moves to either right or left. by 1/2 in. Beverly. as shown at C. If the pushbutton A is closed. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. exactly 12 in. B. D. The wiring diagram. The small guards. J.

thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. A bowline knot should be tied at J. D. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. can be made of a wooden . Stoddard. shift toward F. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. for producing electricity direct from heat. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Harbert. however. Kan. Clay Center. as shown. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. and if a strong wind is blowing. and. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. that refuse to slide easily. E. Closing either key will operate both sounders. the batteries do not run down for a long time. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Chicago. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. If the kite is used in a light wind. --Contributed by A.lengths of F and G. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. to prevent slipping. --Contributed by Edw. with gratifying results. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle.

with a number of nails. A. --Contributed by A. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. C. placed on top. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. or parallel with the compass needle. Fasten a piece of wood.. in position. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. D. and the current may then be detected by means.frame. which conducts the current into the cannon. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . C. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. and also holds the pieces of wood. to the cannon. with a pocket compass. A. B. Then. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. 14 or No. E. E. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. Chicago. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. C. The wood screw. spark. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. When the cannon is loaded. A and B. by means of machine screws or. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. 16 single-covered wire. A. F.

2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts.the current is shut off. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. screw is bored in the block. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. with the long arm at L'. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Fig. 1. 1. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. square and 3/8 in. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. in this position the door is locked. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. now at A' and S'. L. Marion. --Contributed by Henry Peck. To reverse. H. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Big Rapids. B. A. 1. Chicago. when in position at A'. --Contributed by Joseph B. Connect as shown in the illustration. Keil. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. where there is a staple. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. A and S. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. press the button. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. . which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. to receive the screw in the center. Ohio. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. A and S. Bend the strips BB (Fig. within the reach of the magnet. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Mich. but no weights or strings. requiring a strong magnet. In Fig. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. To unlock the door. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Fig. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. A hole for a 1/2 in. To lock the door. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown.

A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. and if desired the handles may . Rand. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. or for microscopic work. gas-pipe. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. are enameled a jet black. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and may be made at very slight expense. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. The standard and base. if enameled white on the concave side. hole. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. When ready for use. Mass. pipe with 1-2-in. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. J. about 18 in. West Somerville. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. long. and C is a dumbbell. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. put in the handle. When the holes are finished and your lines set. --Contributed by C. Thread the other end of the pipe. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black.

while a new one will cost about 80 cents.be covered with leather. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. with a cover. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. North Easton. Fig. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. Mass. M. B. across. A.. D. This peculiar property is also found in ice. which shall project at least 2 in. across. as shown at A in the sketch. high by 1 ft. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. inside the pail. 1. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. --Contributed by C. 1. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. E. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Fig. Make a cylindrical core of wood. 8 in. Warren. long and 8 in. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings.

In like manner make the cover of the kiln. the firing should be gradual. and 3/4 in. and your kiln is ready for business. and on it set the paper wrapped core. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. passing wire nails through and clinching them. C. as dictated by fancy and expense. about 1 in. hotel china.mixture of clay. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. and varnish. This done. thick. C. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. The 2 in. of fine wire. which is the hottest part. and with especial caution the first time. sand. say 1/4 in. 1390°-1410°. 25%. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. 15%. and graphite. Whatever burner is used. as is shown in the sketch. the point of the blue flame. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. cutting the hole a little smaller. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. After removing all the paper. if you have the materials. Fig. and cut it 3-1/2 in. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. pack this space-top. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. pipe. and 3/8 in. or make one yourself. Fit all the parts together snugly. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. carefully centering it. Wind about 1/8 in. 2 in. 1). should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. full length of iron core. L. If the cover of the pail has no rim. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. strip of sheet iron. When lighted.-G. W. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. long over the lid hole as a chimney. thick. 60%. such .. let this dry thoroughly. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. to hold the clay mixture. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. bottom and sides. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. pipe 2-ft. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. if there is to be any glazing done. 3) with false top and bottom.. make two wood ends. long. wider than the kiln. Line the pail. projecting from each end (Fig. 2. in diameter. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. After finishing the core. but will be cheaper in operation. C. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. Cover with paper and shellac as before. It is placed inside the kiln. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in.. 1). If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. layer of the clay mixture. but it will burn a great deal of gas. in diameter. diameter. hard porcelain. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. Set aside for a few days until well dried. 1330°. E.

length of . overlaps and rests on the body. the next black. C. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. D. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Take the red cards. A. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. square them up and place in a vise. You can display either color called for. with a plane. every alternate card being the same color. 8 in. T. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. The funnel. Chicago. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner.53 in. Washington. B. Then. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. about 1/16 in. and divide it into two piles. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. all cards facing the same way. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. leaving long terminals.. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. Next restore all the cards to one pack. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. around the coil. C. bind tightly with black silk. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. as in Fig. and plane off about 1/16 in. Then take the black cards. red and black. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. procure a new deck.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. . and discharges into the tube. as shown in the sketch herewith. 2. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. R. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. and so on. 2). as in Fig. 1. diameter. square them up. Of course. taking care to have the first card red. 2. --Contributed by J. C. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron.

When the glass is put in the frame a space. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. The cement. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. stove bolts. through the holes already drilled. E. stove bolts. of the frame. about 20 in. The bottom glass should be a good fit. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. Let . A. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. 1 gill of litharge. To find the fall of snow. Fig. angle iron for the frame. A. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces.C. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. Drill all the horizontal pieces. It should be placed in an exposed location. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. as the difficulties increase with the size. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. thus making all the holes coincide. The upright pieces. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. D. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. and then the frame is ready to assemble. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. so that when they are assembled. F.J. B. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. 1. the same ends will come together again. E. B. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces.. Long Branch. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. 1 gill of fine white sand. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. B. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. N. to form a dovetail joint as shown. the first thing to decide on is the size. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. and this is inexpensive to build. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. All the horizontal pieces. C.

having a swinging connection at C. if desired. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . to the door knob. a centerpiece (A. Aquarium Finished If desired. and. Fasten the lever. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. A. B. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. on the door by means of a metal plate. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. D. Fig. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement.

with a water pressure of 70 lb. thus doing away with the spring. Cut two pieces 30 in. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. long. 6 in. wide . Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. 1 . WINTER In these days of modern improvements. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. C. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. Fig. showing the paddle-wheel in position. another. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. N. and another. E. approximately 1 ft. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. They are shown in Fig. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Fig. Cut two of them 4 ft. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. 1. but mark their position on the frame. to form the main supports of the frame. 1. to form the slanting part. long. 2 is an end view. and Fig. AA. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. PAUL S. Do not fasten these boards now. Buffalo. soldered to the end of the cylinder. 1 is the motor with one side removed. for the top. White. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Y. another. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. which is 15 in. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. Fig. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. according to the slant given C. long. B. To make the frame. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. to keep the frame from spreading. I referred this question to my husband. D.. Fig. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. 2 at GG.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. 3 shows one of the paddles. Fig. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. from the outside top of the frame. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. A small piece of spring brass. screwed to the door frame. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. as at E. 2 ft. Two short boards 1 in. wide by 1 in. long. will open the door about 1/2 in. 26 in. --Contributed by Orton E. several lengths of scantling 3 in. F. Fig.

Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. from one end by means of a key. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. long to the wheel about 8 in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. Now block the wheel. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. then drill a 3/16-in. tapering from 3/16 in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. When it has cooled. Fig. holes. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Take the side pieces. 4. pipe. Drill 1/8-in. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. 1. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. These are the paddles.burlap will do -. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. iron. Fig. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. thick (HH. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. 24 in. with the wheel and shaft in place. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. and a 1/4 -in. as shown in Fig. and drill a 1/8-in. Fasten them in their proper position. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Next secure a 5/8-in. 2) and another 1 in. Make this hole conical. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. 2) with a 5/8-in. remove the cardboard.along the edges under the zinc to form . hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. (I. iron 3 by 4 in. in diameter. 2) form a substantial base. hole through its center. steel shaft 12 in. by 1-1/2 in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. take down the crosspieces. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. thick. and drill a 1-in. that is. Fig. after which drill a 5/8 in. to a full 1/2 in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. hole through them. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. hole to form the bearings. hole through their sides centrally. Tack one side on. GG. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in.

in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. as shown in the sketch at B. remove any white curtains there may be. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. or what is called a process plate. start the motor. place the outlet over a drain. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Correct exposure depends. but as it would have cost several times as much. as this makes long exposure necessary. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. and the subject may move. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. If sheet-iron is used. Darken the rest of the window. of course. it would be more durable. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. and leave them for an hour or so. If the bearings are now oiled. It is obvious that. . We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. any window will do. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. Focus the camera carefully. The best plate to use is a very slow one. shutting out all light from above and the sides. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. drill press. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. ice-cream freezer. sewing machine. but now I put them in the machine. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Drill a hole through the zinc. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. light and the plate. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. on the lens. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. and as near to it as possible. says the Photographic Times. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. Raise the window shade half way.a water-tight joint. Do not stop down the lens. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible.

2. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. or wood. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. A. without detail in the face. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. 2. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. and without fog. with binding posts as shown. the core is drawn down out of sight. The current required is very small. D. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. or can be taken from an old magnet. hard rubber. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. until the core slowly rises. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. full of water. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. The core C. as shown in Fig. C. an empty pill bottle may be used. The glass tube may be a test tube. as a slight current will answer. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. and a base. by twisting. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. or an empty developer tube. a core. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. B.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. With a piece of black paper. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. a glass tube. On completing . which is made of iron and cork.

Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. This is a mysterious looking instrument. water and 3 oz. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. white lead. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. 1 pt. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. and one not easy to explain. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. finest graphite. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. is Benham's color top. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. and are changed by reversing the rotation. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. and make a pinhole in the center. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. The colors appear different to different people. 1 lb. whale oil. 1. according to his control of the current. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires.Interior View the circuit the core will descend.

the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. before cutting. B. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. deuce. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. As this device is easily upset. when the action ceases. A.B. or three spot.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. nearly every time. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. especially if the deck is a new one. In prize games. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. In making hydrogen. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. Chicago. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. C. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. thus partly filling bottles A and C. fan-like. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch.. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. -Contributed by D. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done.L. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results.

connecting the bottom by cross pieces. 1. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. 9 in. Jr. S. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. as shown in Fig. S. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. --Contributed by C. Detroit. 12 in. long and 3 in. Fig. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Detail of Phonograph Horn . making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. (Fig. Huron. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. in length and 3 in. Dak. J. long. W. 2. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. . 2 is also an enlarged sketch.. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. --Contributed by F. Make a 10-sided stick. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Fig. in diameter. Bently.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. that will fit loosely in the tube A.. Form a cone of heavy paper. 10 in. 3). 4. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue.

Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. long. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. on one side and the top. about the size of a leadpencil. A. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. making it three-ply thick. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. Denver. --Contributed by Reader. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. A piece of tin. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. allowing 1 in. Remove the form. Fig. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. push back the bolt. Fortunately. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. with a pin driven in each end. Cut out paper sections (Fig. but bends toward D. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. A second piece of silk thread. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. E. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. 6.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. it is equally easy to block that trick. and walk in. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. bend it at right angles throughout its length. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. will cause an increased movement of C. C.

long. The upper switch. B. By this arrangement one. A. and rest on a brick placed under each end. B. long. will last for several years. West St. are 7 ft. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. Jr. The feet. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. --Contributed by J. as shown. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . 4 ft. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. Paul. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. S S. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. W. or left to right. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. is connected each point to a battery. S. Two wood-base switches. Fremont Hilscher. posts. put together as shown in the sketch. The 2 by 4-in... Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. while the lower switch. are made 2 by 4 in. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. The reverse switch.strip. R. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Minn. S.

with two washers. the other parts being used for the bearing B. the size of the hole in the bearing B. The valve motion is shown in Figs. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. The steam chest D. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. cut in half. Fig. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. E. which is made of tin. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. H and K. either an old sewing-machine wheel. and has two wood blocks. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. and in Fig. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. 3/8 in. In Fig. is an old bicycle pump. 1. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. 2 and 3. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. The piston is made of a stove bolt. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. thick.every house. Fig. and valve crank S. or anything available. pulley wheel. and a cylindrical . which will be described later. The base is made of wood. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. 2. FF. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The hose E connects to the boiler. and the crank bearing C.

of Cuba. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Schuh and A. Eustice. at that. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. as shown in Fig. G. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. C. to receive the connecting rod H. The boiler. and saturated with thick oil. is cut out of tin. --Contributed by Geo. . using the positive wire as a pen. as it is merely a trick of photography. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. and a very amusing trick. San Jose. and the desired result is obtained. Wis. First. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. W. Fry. G. or galvanized iron. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. can be an old oil can. This engine was built by W. Fig. The valve crank S. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. 4. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Fig. 3. powder can. Cal. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. J. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. 1. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. This is wound with soft string.piece of hard wood. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper.

If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. 1 by covering up Figs. Cut half circles out of each stave. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. and pass ropes around . Fig. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Fig. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. C. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. B. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. and place a bell on the four ends. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. The smaller wheel. When turning. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. They may be of any size. to cross in the center. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. B. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. and Fig. Fig. diameter. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. as shown. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 1 will be seen to rotate. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. as shown at AA.

produces a higher magnifying power). thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. St.G.. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. and enlarge the bore a little at one end.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. W. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. long. --Contributed by H. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. A (a short spool. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. which accounts for the sound. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. procure a wooden spool. but not on all. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. which allows the use of small sized ropes. from the transmitter. From a piece of thin . as shown in the illustration.M. such as clothes lines. Louis. Mo. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. This in turn will act on the transmitter. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. To make this lensless microscope. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in.

can be made of brass and the armature. if the distance is reduced to one-third. which costs little or nothing to make. is made of iron. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. B. (The area would appear 64 times as large. the diameter will appear three times as large. C. in which hay has been soaking for several days. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms.) But an object 3/4-in. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. cut out a small disk. or 64 times. and so on. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. The lever.. the diameter will appear twice as large. otherwise the image will be blurred. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. The pivot. held at arm's length. 1. if the distance is reduced to one-half. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. by means of brads. The spring. as in all microscopes of any power. Fig. A. darting across the field in every direction. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. the object should be of a transparent nature. 3. E. D. An innocent-looking drop of water. and look through the hole D. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. is fastened at each end by pins. and at the center. . and has the general appearance shown in Fig. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. bent as shown. is made from an old electric-bell magnet.. Viewed through this microscope. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. place a small object on the transparent disk. B. i. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. which are pieces of hard wood. 2. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. e. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. D. H. To use this microscope. C. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. fastened to a wooden base.

by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. thick. The binding posts. fastened near the end. wide and set in between sides AA. long and 14-1/2 in. HH. D. K. which are made to receive a pivot. wood: C. K. long. E. F. or a single piece. between the armature and the magnet. D. in length and 16 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. 16 in. D. KEY-A. Each side. or taken from a small one-point switch. brass or iron soldered to nail. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. 16 in. The door. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. Cut the top. . 26 wire: E. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. C. FF. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. wood. should be about 22 in. similar to the one used in the sounder. wood: F. long by 16 in. C. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. nail soldered on A. soft iron. AA. wide. coils wound with No. DD. connection of D to nail. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. wide and about 20 in. 1. brass: E. Fig. A. can be made panel as shown. The back. is cut from a board about 36 in. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. A switch. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. B. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob.SOUNDER-A. wide. 2. brass. wide. and are connected to the contacts. wide. brass: B. B. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. binding posts: H spring The stop. The base of the key. Fig.

Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. material. brads. 13-1/2 in. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. Make 12 cleats. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. When the electrical waves strike the needle.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. with 3/4-in. 2 and made from 1/4-in. In operation. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. as shown in the sketch. as shown. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Garfield. AA. Ill.. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. long. E. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. cut in them.

A (see sketch). Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. C. and thus decreases the resistance. through which a piece of wire is passed. in order to increase the surface.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. Brown. --Contributed by John Koehler. will give a greater speed. and. A fairly stiff spring. J. Fairport. the magnet. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . when used with a motor. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. When the pipe is used. Y. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. A. Pushing the wire. filled with water. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. E. --Contributed by R. pulls down the armature. B. N. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. N. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Ridgewood. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. A. The cord is also fastened to a lever. F.

or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Of course. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Gachville. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. --Contributed by Perry A. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. N. even those who read this description. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Borden. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. B.for the secret contact. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. if desired. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. thus discharging the contents of the hopper.

is cut with a knob soldered on at the end.whenever the bell rings. in a semicircle 2 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. 1. From a piece of brass a switch. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. E. C. H. for 6-in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. A. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. . deep and 3/4 in. records and 5-5/8 in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. long and 5 in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. records. Nails for stops are placed at DD. Compton. Mangold. --Contributed by Dr. Cal. thick and 12-in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in.. C. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. wide. N. for 10in. D. wide. Dobson. East Orange. apart. as shown in Fig. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. With about 9 ft. Washington. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. wide. where the other end of wire is fastened. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. long and full 12-in. --Contributed by H. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. Jr. 2. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. wide. as shown in Fig. J. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. from the bottom. Connect switch to post B. Two drawers are fitted in this space. wide. The top board is made 28-in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in.

Va. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . as shown in Fig.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. A. E. When the cord is passed over pulley C. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. as shown by the dotted lines. to which is fastened a cord. 1. B. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. closed. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. Roanoke. which in operation is bent. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel.

so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. 1 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Fig. CC. against which the rubber tubing. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Figs. 3). in diameter. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. in diameter. Put the rubber tube. is compressed by wheels. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. 1. 3. wide. holes (HH. they will let the air through. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. which should be about 1/2 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. but a larger one could be built in proportion. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. If the wheels fit too tightly. in diameter. D. 1 in. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Do not fasten the sides too . as shown in the illustration. one in each end. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. thick. 4 shows the wheel-holder. 5) when they are placed. In the sides (Fig. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. Bore two 1/4 in. In these grooves place wheels. E. to turn on pins of stout wire. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. Now put all these parts together. in diameter. E. excepting the crank and tubing. Fig. deep. through one of these holes. The crankpin should fit tightly. deep and 1/2 in. square and 7/8 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. long. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. thick (A. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. wide. Figs. Cut two grooves. Fig. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. it too loose. apart.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. they will bind. B.

Two feet of 1/4-in. 2. Idana. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. and are 30 in. beyond each of these two. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Fig. Kan. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. AA. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. 15 in. from the bottom and 2 in. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. To use the pump. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. costing 10 cents. 1. For ease in handling the pump. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. 1. --Contributed by Dan H. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. long. If the motion of the wheels is regular. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. Hubbard. stands 20 in. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Fig. from each end. from each end. The animal does not fear to enter the box. the other wheel has reached the bottom. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. B. from that mark the next hole. Cut six pieces. 1. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. A in Fig. and 3-1/2 in. of material. a platform should be added. 1. mark again. 1. AA. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. though a small iron wheel is better. and mark for a hole. from each end. The three legs marked BBB. mark for hole and 3 in. because he can . as it gives steadiness to the motion. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. Take the center of the bar. Then turn the crank from left to right. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. iron. is all the expense necessary. Fig. 17-1/2 in. In the two cross bars 1 in. Fig. tubing. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. 2. as shown in Fig. The screen which is shown in Fig. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. the pump will give a steady stream.

dropping. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. . of the top. If it is wet. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used.see through it: when he enters. 4 oz. shuts him in. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. Place the carbon in the jar. some of it should be poured out. there is too much liquid in the jar. long having two thumb screws. add slowly. The truncated. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. Philadelphia. It is useful for running induction coils. or small electric motors. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. The battery is now complete. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. but if one casts his own zinc. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. however. 14 copper wire. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. giving it a bright. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. and touches the bait the lid is released and. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. sulphuric acid. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. --Contributed by H. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. 1) must be prepared. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. potassium bichromate. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. If the solution touches the zinc. 2). The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. If the battery has been used before. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. The battery is now ready for use. rub the zinc well. To cause a flow of electricity. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. When the bichromate has all dissolved. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. The mercury will adhere. Meyer. acid 1 part). or. and the solution (Fig. until it is within 3 in. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. stirring constantly. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. silvery appearance. of water dissolve 4 oz. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. C. When through using the battery.

pressing the pedal closes the door. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. the battery circuit. however. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal.. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. The price of the coil depends upon its size.Fig. e. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. i. while the coal door is being opened. Wis. If. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. the jump-spark coil . A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. with slight changes. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. After putting in the coal. which opens the door. Madison. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.

made of No. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. apart. W W. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. 7. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil.7. 6.described elsewhere in this book. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. . incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. This coil. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. as shown in Fig. Change the coil described. 6. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. as shown in Fig. Fig. and closer for longer distances. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. coil. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. being a 1-in. diameter. in a straight line from top to bottom. in a partial vacuum. After winding. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. 5. 7). in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. 7. while a 12-in. W W. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. the full length of the coil. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. This will make an excellent receiver. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. Now for the receiving apparatus. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. which is made of light copper wire.

Figs. 90°. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). in the air. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. 1). attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. For an illustration. and hence the aerial line. may be easily made at very little expense. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. No. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. The writer does not claim to be the originator. Run a wire from the other binding post. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. using an electric motor and countershaft. which will be described later. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. after all. A. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. but it could be run by foot power if desired. are analogous to the flow of induction. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. being vertical. B the bed and C the tailstock. but simply illustrates the above to show that. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. A large cone pulley would then be required. to the direction of the current.6 stranded. where A is the headstock. These circles. being at right angles.The aerial line. I run my lathe by power. at any point to any metal which is grounded. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. above the ground. . 90°. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. only. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. as it matches the color well. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. 1 to 4.

The shaft is made of 3/4-in. which are let into holes FIG. Heat the babbitt well. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. thick. and runs in babbitt bearings. The headstock. Fig. 6. 2 and 3. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. 5. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. 6 Headstock Details D. deep. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. Fig. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. To make these bearings. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. Fig. and Fig. 5. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . too. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. but not hot enough to burn it. which pass through a piece of wood. just touching the shaft. 4. steel tubing about 1/8 in.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. tapered wooden pin. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. 4. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. pitch and 1/8 in. Fig. B. If the bearing has been properly made. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. on the under side of the bed. and it is well to have the shaft hot. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. A. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. The bearing is then ready to be poured. After pouring. one of which is shown in Fig. The bolts B (Fig. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw.

The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. the alarm is easy to fix up. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. A. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. Newark. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest.J. B.other machines. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. lock nut. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. of the walk . After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. FIG. so I had to buy one. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. Oak Park. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. they may be turned up after assembling. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. This prevents corrosion. The tail stock (Fig. If one has a wooden walk. If not perfectly true. Ill. and a 1/2-in. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. Take up about 5 ft. N. embedded in the wood.

the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. to roughen the surface slightly. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. water. Fig. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. save when a weight is on the trap. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. add potassium cyanide again. Then make the solution . and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. hang the articles on the wires. Jackson. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. To avoid touching it. Minneapolis. before dipping them in the potash solution. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Finally. of water. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Minn. clean the articles thoroughly. 2). so that they will not touch. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. S. (A. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. leaving a clear solution. Connect up an electric bell. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. to remove all traces of grease. Do not touch the work with the hands again. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. and the alarm is complete. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. --Contributed by R. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. silver or other metal. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired.

Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. square. To provide the keyhole. In rigging it to a sliding door. 1. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. about 25 ft. A 1/4 in. Can be made of a 2-in.up to 2 qt. The wooden block C. use 2 volts for large articles. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. Having finished washing the precipitate. as shown in Fig. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. Screw the two blocks together. nickel and such metals. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. of clothesline rope and some No. 18 wire. With an electric pressure of 3. I. and the larger part (F. Where Bunsen cells are used. piece of broomstick. silver can be plated direct. 1 in. 1 not only unlocks. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Fig. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. must be about 1 in. Fig. When all this is set up. 1). Take quick. 1). Repeat six times. lead. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. but opens the door. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. also. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. and then treated as copper. and 4 volts for very small ones. when the point of the key touches the tin. long. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. --Model Engineer. make a key and keyhole. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole.5 to 4 volts. pewter. B should be of the same wood. copper. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. which is held by catch B. as at F. Then. if one does not possess a buffing machine. If accumulators are used. will serve for the key. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. light strokes. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. such metals as iron. with the pivot 2 in. 10 in. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. which . This solution. German silver. A (Fig. 3) strikes the bent wire L. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. with water. thick by 3 in. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. Fig. Fig. a hand scratch brush is good. Before silver plating. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. zinc. a circuit is completed. If more solution is required. of water. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. hole in its center. which is advised. from the lower end. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. shaking. saw a piece of wood. an old electric bell or buzzer. 3. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. Make a somewhat larger block (E. with water. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. long. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. 3) directly over the hole. On brass. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. The wooden catch.

1. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. 2. The interior must be a dead black. one-third of the length from the remaining end. and black art reigns supreme. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. 2. The magician stands in front of this. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. such as forks. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. no painting inside is required. top. so much the better. 1. to throw the light toward the audience. Fig. and finally lined inside with black cloth. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. surrounding a perfectly black space. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. and plenty of candles. The box must be altered first. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. heighten the illusion. Receiving the bowl again. spoons and jackknives. Objects appear and disappear.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). the box should be painted black both inside and out. 116 Prospect St. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. some black cloth. Fig. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. with a switch as in Fig. 3. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. although a little more trouble. sides and end. East Orange. Next. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. enlarged. with the lights turned low. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. is the cut through which the rope runs. in his shirt sleeves. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. H. he points with one finger to the box. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. Next. and hands its contents round to the audience. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. 0. which unlocks the door. Fig. floor. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. between the parlor and the room back of it. or cave. Klipstein. shows catch B. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. half way from open end to closed end. some black paint. Heavy metal objects. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. cut in one side. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. H. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. On either side of the box. Fig. One thing changes to another and back again. . This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. In front of you. --Contributed by E. One end is removed. New Jersey. To prepare such a magic cave. the illumination in front must be arranged. and a slit. B. the requisites are a large soap box. Thus.. he tosses it into the cave. a few simple tools. H. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. should be cut a hole. He removes the bowl from the black box. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks.

This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. Consequently. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. into the eyes of him who looks. if. and pours them from the bag into a dish. the room where the cave is should be dark. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. of course. his confederate behind inserts his hand.Finally. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. The exhibitor should be . But illusions suggest themselves. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. only he. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. of course. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. as presented by Hermann. one on each side of the box. which are let down through the slit in the top. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. a screen must be used. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. and if portieres are impossible. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. and several black drop curtains. which can be made to dance either by strings. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. had a big stage. was identical with this. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. is on a table) so much the better. in which are oranges and apples. you must have an assistant. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The illusion. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. The audience room should have only low lights.

respectively. and c2 to the zinc. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. terminal c3 will show . Finally.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. held down on it by two terminals. Fig.a boy who can talk. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. and c4 + electricity. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. vice versa. 1. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. b3. About the center piece H moves a disk. held down by another disk F (Fig. c4. b2. their one end just slips under the strips b1. respectively. so arranged that. by 4 in. terminal c3 will show +. c1.. 1. held down on disk F by two other terminals. as shown in Fig. e1 and e2. or binding posts. or b2. is shown in the diagram. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. and c1 – electricity. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. b1. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. making contact with them. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. c3. with three brass strips. f2. Then. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . FIG. 2). making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). square. at L. On the disk G are two brass strips. b2. making contact with them as shown at y. respectively. when handle K is turned to one side. 2. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. A represents a pine board 4 in. 2. and a common screw. by means of two wood screws. if you turn handle K to the right. c2.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. A. b3. d.

More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. 3. Tuttle. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. and when on No. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. B is a onepoint switch. 4. you have the current of one battery. Newark.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. 1. from three batteries. --Contributed by Eugene F. when A is on No. and C and C1 are binding posts. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Ohio. when on No. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Jr. from four batteries. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. E. 5. from five batteries. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade).. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . -Contributed by A. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. . Joerin. when on No. jump spark coil. and then hold the receiver to your ear.

mark.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. mark. E. New Orleans. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. B. which may be a button or other small object. and supporting the small weight. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. so one can see the time. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. as shown in the sketch. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. per second for each second. per second. Handy Electric Alarm . it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. The device thus arranged. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. When you do not have a graduate at hand. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Wis. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. traveled by the thread. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. Thus. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. La.. A. P. of Burlington. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. rule. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. Redmond. is the device of H. over the bent portion of the rule. and placed on the windowsill of the car. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. A. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. A.

for a wetting is the inevitable result. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. Instead. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. S. wrapping the wire around the can several times. Then if a mishap comes. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. Lane. C. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. . I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. soldered to the alarm winder. When the alarm goes off. --C. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. and with the same result. which illuminates the face of the clock. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. B. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. --Contributed by Gordon T. but may be closed at F any time desired. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. Pa. Crafton.which has a piece of metal. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs.

Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. as shown. It is possible to make molds without a bench. ornaments of various kinds. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. A. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. New York City. cannons. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. small machinery parts. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. engines. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. when it is being prepared. battery zincs. The first thing to make is a molding bench. Macey. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. whence it is soon tracked into the house. as shown in Fig. AA. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. 1 . binding posts. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. BE. and many other interesting and useful articles. Two cleats. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. which may. bearings.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . --Contributed by A. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. If there is no foundry Fig. models and miniature objects. C. but it is a mistake to try to do this. 1. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. With the easily made devices about to be described. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. L. and duplicates of all these. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings.

A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. and the lower pieces. 2 . Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. and saw it in half longitudinally. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. and the "drag." or lower part. The cloth bag. say 12 in. If the box is not very strong. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. the "cope. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. J. a little larger than the outside of the flask. is filled with coal dust. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. high.How to Make a Mold [96] . An old teaspoon. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. 1. The dowels. previous to sawing. Fig. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. which can be either aluminum. G. II . H. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds." or upper half. will be required. Fig.near at hand. A wedge-shaped piece. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. but this operation will be described more fully later on. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. by 8 in. and this. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. CC. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. It is made of wood and is in two halves. is about the right mesh. is nailed to each end of the cope. A slight shake of the bag Fig. If desired the sieve may be homemade. makes a very good sieve. try using sand from other sources. The flask. E. which can be made of a knitted stocking. The rammer. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. white metal. D. as shown. DD. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. CC. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. 1. as shown. 2. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. which should be nailed in. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. is shown more clearly in Fig. by 6 in. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. and a sieve. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. is made of wood. A A. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. F.

everything will be ready for the operation of molding. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. and scatter about 1/16 in. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. The sand is then ready for molding. as it is much easier to learn by observation. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. and then more sand is added until Fig. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. in order to remove the lumps. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing." in position. it has a sufficient amount of moisture.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. After ramming. as shown. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. as described. or "drag. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. It is then rammed again as before. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. In finishing the ramming. and if water is added. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. Place another cover board on top. the surface of the sand at . which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. as shown at C. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. turn the drag other side up. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. as shown at E. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. and thus judge for himself. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. where they can watch the molders at work. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. or "cope. and by grasping with both hands. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. as shown at D.

Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. Place a brick or other flat. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. it shows that the sand is too wet.E should be covered with coal-dust. in order to prevent overheating. Fig. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. deep. and then pour. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. to give the air a chance to escape. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. place the cope back on the drag. The "sprue. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. thus making a dirty casting. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. This is done with a spoon. III. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. as shown at H. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. made out of steel rod. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. . Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. in diameter. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. is next cut. as shown at G. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. after being poured. as shown at F. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. as shown at J. as shown at H. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. After drawing the pattern." or pouring-hole. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. as shown in the sketch. thus holding the crucible securely. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. wide and about 1/4 in. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick.

In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. 15% lead. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. but any reasonable number may be used. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. used only for zinc. If a good furnace is available. Although the effect in the illustration . or from any adjacent pair of cells. battery zincs. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. Morton. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. and. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. white metal and other scrap available. In my own case I used four batteries. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. Referring to the figure. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. Minneapolis. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. babbitt. is very desirable. the following device will be found most convenient. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. and the casting is then ready for finishing. may be used in either direction. although somewhat expensive. --Contributed by Harold S.

as shown in the illustration. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. shaft made. as shown at A. To make it take a sheet-iron band. Fig. Then walk down among the audience. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. 3/4 in. --Contributed by Draughtsman. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. backward. Chicago. Put a sharp needle point. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. B. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. If desired. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. B. Then replace the table. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. 2. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. connected by cords to the rudder. By replacing the oars with paddles. may be made of hardwood. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. A. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. The brass rings also appear distorted. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. which will be sufficient to hold it. The bearings. outward. Make one of these pieces for each arm.

or under pressure. 1. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. C. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. D. should be made of wood. 2 and 3. E. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. as shown in Fig. Snow. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. or the paint will come off. when it will again return to its original state. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. being simply finely divided ice. 1. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. If galvanized iron is used. as shown in Fig. A. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. 1. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. spoiling its appearance. and a weight. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. W. In the same way. A block of ice. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. If babbitt is used. Fig. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. 3. It may seem strange that ice . In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. 2. but when in motion. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. The covers. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. The hubs.melted babbitt. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through.

and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. thus giving a high resistance contact. by 1/4. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. by 1/2 in. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. but by placing it between books. or supporting it in some similar way. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. but. and assume the shape shown at B. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. which resembles ice in this respect. P. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. in. by 5 in. as per sketch. Lane. Pressing either push button. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. by 2 in. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. no matter how slow the motion may be. Pa. brass. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch.. square. --Contributed by Gordon T. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. it will gradually change from the original shape A. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. The rate of flow is often very slow.should flow like water. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . Crafton. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. B. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. as shown on page 65. sometimes only one or two feet a day. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. whenever there is any connection made at all. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends.

A is the circuit breaker.thumb screws. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. wooden supports. cord. E. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. B. --Contributed by A. furnace. The success depends upon a slow current. weight. K . draft chain. J. about the size used for automobiles. and five dry batteries. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. In the wiring diagram. vertical lever. G. F. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. the induction coil. Indianapolis. as shown. C. Wilkinsburg. G. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. and C. The parts are: A. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. draft. alarm clock. pulleys. Ward. as shown. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. the battery. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. D. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. horizontal lever. B. I. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer.000 ft. Pa. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. H.

-Contributed by Gordon Davis. which will provide a fine place for the plants. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . 2 are dressed to the right angle. will fit nicely in them. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. The frame (Fig. such as used for a storm window. Mich. where house plants are kept in the home. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. 3. Kalamazoo. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. as well as the bottom. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. Artistic Window Boxes The top. material framed together as shown in Fig.

Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. It must be remembered. as if drawn upon for its total output. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. However. However. and cost 27 cents FIG. 1. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs.. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. where they are glad to have them taken away. 1 each complete with base. W. by connecting them in series. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. Canada.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. Halifax. one can regulate the batteries as required. in diameter. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp.. this must be done with very great caution. --Contributed by Wm. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. a cork and a needle. in this connection. Push the needle into the cork. is something that will interest the average American boy. i. multiples of series of three. and a suitable source of power. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. which sells for 25 cents. and the instrument will then be complete. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. e. as indicated by Fig. Thus. N. so as to increase the current. for some time very satisfactorily. This is more economical than dry cells. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series.. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. S. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. Grant. since a battery is the most popular source of power. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. but maintain the voltage constant. The 1/2-cp. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. in any system of lamps. A certain number of these. can be connected up in series. after a rest. and will give the . 1 cp.

1-cp. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. to secure light by this method. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. where the water pressure is the greatest. Chicago. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. which is the same as that of one battery. and for Christmas trees. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. or 22 lights. 3. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. lamps. . However. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. lamps. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. especially those of low internal resistance. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. generates the power for the lights. for display of show cases. each. double insulated wire wherever needed. 11 series. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. Thus. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. Fig. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. and then lead No. These will give 3 cp. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current.proper voltage. as in Fig. Thus. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. and running the series in parallel. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. according to the water pressure obtainable. If wound for 10 volts.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. we simply turn on the water. if wound for 6 volts. FIG. lamp. although the first cost is greater.. and diffused light in a room. making. by the proper combination of these. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. 2 shows the scheme. So. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. In conclusion. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. 18 B & S. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical.

BB. Parker. After I connected up my induction coil. a bait of meat. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. DD. or from one pattern. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. simply change the switch. . Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. or a tempting bone. Ind. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. the letters indicate as follows: FF. thus reversing the machine. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. bars of pole-changing switch. --Contributed by F. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Emig. Plymouth. B. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. Santa Clara. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. as shown in the sketch.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. CC. are cut just alike. AA. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. center points of switch. field of motor. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. we were not bothered with them. To reverse the motor. A indicates the ground. and the sides. and C. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. --Contributed by Leonard E. Cal. brushes of motor. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. B. A. switch. outside points of switch. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration.

The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. one cell being sufficient. as it is the key to the lock. merely push the button E. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. Cal. a piece of string. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Minn. a hammer. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. A. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. To unlock the door. Hutchinson. San Jose. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. The experiment works best . If it is not. The button can be hidden. thus locking the door. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. Fry. or would remain locked. and a table or bench. Melchior. 903 Vine St. which is in the door. W. -Contributed by Claude B.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. attached to the end of the armature B. When the circuit is broken a weight..

P. in the ceiling and has a window weight. Culebra. Tie the ends of the string together. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. 4). 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Crawford Curry.. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. When the alarm rings in the early morning. -.Contributed by F. Schmidt. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. the current flows with the small arrows. I. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. the key turns. where it will remain suspended as shown. forming a loop. 1). which pulls the draft open. --Contributed by Geo. 2. releasing the weight. run through a pulley. C. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Madison. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. attached at the other end. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. the stick falls away. 3. as shown in Fig. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Canada. 18 Gorham St. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. 3. Porto Rico. . A. Wis. D.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. Brockville. Ontario. W.

or tree. D. Use a barrel to work on. N. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and break the corners off to make them round. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. get two pieces of plate glass. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. J. The cut shows the arrangement. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. made with his own hands. R. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. Jr. Camden. 6 in. First. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. including the mouthpiece.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. running one direct to the receiver. J. or from a bed of flowers. thence to a switch. --Contributed by Wm. which fasten to the horn. thick.. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. square and 1 in. and . and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. and then to the receiver. S. Connect two wires to the transmitter. and the other to the battery. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. Farley.

Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. 2.. or it will not polish evenly. Fig. wet till soft like paint. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. a round 4-in. Have ready six large dishes. When dry. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. 1. L. set the speculum against the wall. with 1/4-in. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. melt 1 lb. then 8 minutes. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. and is ready for polishing. When polishing the speculum. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Then warm and press again with the speculum. and a large lamp. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. so the light . block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. with pitch. unless a longer focal length is wanted. Fig. and the under glass or tool convex. then take 2 lb.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. twice the focal length away. spaces. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. Use a binger to spread it on with. as in Fig. When done the glass should be semitransparent. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. of water. while walking around the barrel. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. A. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Fasten. wetting it to the consistency of cream. or less. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. In a dark room. wide around the convex glass or tool. in length. and label. also rotate the glass. 2. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. by the side of the lamp. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. and spread on the glass. the coarse grinding must be continued. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. using straight strokes 2 in..

Nitric acid .. from the lamp. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Place the speculum S. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. the speculum is ready to be silvered. 2.…………….. With pitch. 100 gr. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Two glass or earthenware dishes. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. must be procured. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. touched with rouge. The knife should not be more than 6 in... of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. and pour the rest into the empty dish. Then add solution B. or hills. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. When dry. long to the back of the speculum. Place the speculum. 2. The polishing and testing done. that was set aside. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. If not. When the focus is found. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. 25 gr.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass.……………………………. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. also how the rays R from a star . Fig. with distilled water. cement a strip of board 8 in. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Now add enough of the solution A. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. Fig.. 840 gr.………………………………. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole.. 4 oz. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. 4 oz. Silver nitrate ……………………………. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. the speculum will show some dark rings. Fig. then ammonia until bath is clear. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Then add 1 oz. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. Solution D: Sugar loaf . fill the dish with distilled water. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. longer strokes. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). face down. 39 gr. as in K. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. if a hill in the center. add the ammonia solution drop by drop..100 gr.. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. deep. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency.

slightly wider than the lens mount. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. long and cost me just $15. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. telescope can be made at home. Mellish. stop down well after focusing. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. with an outlay of only a few dollars. which proves to be easy of execution. . The flatter they are the less they will distort. Then I made the one described. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. is a satisfactory angle. and proceed as for any picture. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. My telescope is 64 in. deg.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. two glass prisms. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. Thus an excellent 6-in. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made.John E.. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Make the tube I of sheet iron. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. cover with paper and cloth. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. About 20. using strawboard and black paper. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Place over lens.

then add a little sulphate of potash. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. through the lens of the camera and on the board.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. or powdered alum. The rays of the clear. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. complete the arrangement. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. as shown in Fig. push the button D. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Do not stir it. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. but will not preserve its hardening. says the Master Painter. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. add the plaster gradually to the water. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. Zimmerman. D. . The paper is exposed. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. and reflect through the negative. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. instead of the contrary. Boody. A. To unlock. -Contributed by A. Ill. 1. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. B. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. 2. unobstructed light strike the mirror. Fig.

Then blow through the spool. as shown in the sketch.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. use a string. To reverse. Fasten on the switch lever. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. as in Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 2. 1). Connect the wires as shown in Fig. 3. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Fig. 2. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. but will remain suspended without any visible support. throw . thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. as at A and B. also provide them with a handle. so that it can rotate about these points.

wash in running water. D. --Contributed by Geo. and E E. carbons. Neb. L. Thomas. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. A is the electricbell magnet. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. although this is not necessary. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. In the sketch. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. rinse in alcohol. Push one end of the tire into the hole. Tex. San Antonio. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. Tex. the armature. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Take out. and rub dry with linen cloth. carbon sockets. . -Contributed by Morris L. San Marcos. binding posts. Levy. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. --Contributed by R. C C. B. as shown in the sketch. Go McVicker. North Bend.

It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. 14 or No. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. wound evenly about this core. long or more. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. --Contributed by Joseph B.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Bell. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. Brooklyn. 16 magnet wire. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. 36 magnet wire. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. By means of two or more layers of No. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists.

The following method of completing a 1-in. the entire core may be purchased readymade. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. a box like that shown in Fig. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. then the strip of tin-foil. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. about 6 in. wide. coil illustrates the general details of the work. hole is bored in the center of one end. The primary is made of fine annealed No. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. The condenser is next wrapped . 4. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. diameter. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. After the core wires are bundled. 1. one piece of the paper is laid down. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. in length. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. as shown in Fig. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. which is desirable. long and 2-5/8 in. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. as the maker prefers. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. but if it is not convenient to do this work. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. long and 5 in. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. at a time. When cut and laid in one continuous length. and finally the fourth strip of paper. with room also for a small condenser. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. A 7/8-in. This makes a condenser which may be folded. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. Beginning half an inch from one end. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in.which would be better to buy ready-made. No. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. In shaping the condenser. or 8 in. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. in diameter. and the results are often unsatisfactory. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. which is an important factor of the coil. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. 2 yd. making two layers.

which is insulated from the first. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. B. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. and one from battery. A. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. one from bell. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. V-shaped copper strip. by 12 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. spark. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. G. battery . The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. I. long and 12 in. flange turned on one side. 4 in. long to key. The alarm key will turn and drop down. whole length.. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. open switch C.) The wiring diagram. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. copper lever with 1-in. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. shelf for clock. D.securely with bands of paper or tape. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. and the other sheet. F. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. Fig. C. which allows wiring at the back. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. to the door. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. round so that the inside . E. wide. the letters indicate as follows: A. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. forms the other pole or terminal. lines H. shows how the connections are made. B. 3. switch. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. ready for assembling. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. bell. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. go.

Use a glass or metal shade. .. If desired for use immediately. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. The circuit should also have a high resistance. do not shortcircuit. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. from the bottom. says the Model Engineer. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade.diameter is 7 in. of zinc sulphate. and the battery is ready for use. This is for blowing. instead of close to it. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. but add 5 or 6 oz. Line the furnace. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Short-circuit for three hours. and then rivet the seam. of blue stone. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. 2 in. That is what they are for. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. London. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. but with the circuit.

Make a hole through the center or this one arm. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. but the thing would not move at all." which created much merriment. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. g. porcelain and paper.9 of a volt. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Enlarge the hole slightly. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. changes white phosphorus to yellow. herein I describe a much better trick. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. Try it and see. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. for others the opposite way. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and therein is the trick. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. for some it will turn one way. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. as in the other movement. the second finger along the side. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. below the bottom of the zinc. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. imparting to them a violet tinge. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. If any or your audience presume to dispute. Outside of the scientific side involved. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. 2. 1. oxygen to ozone. This type of battery will give about 0. If too low. while for others it will not revolve at all. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and then. At least it is amusing. long. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. To operate the trick. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath.. affects . or think they can do the same let them try it. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. square and about 9 in.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. thus producing two different vibrations. Ohio.

Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. an old tripod screw. earth. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. but small flowers. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. and one of them is photomicrography. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. and. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. if possible. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. a means for holding it vertical.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. chemicals. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. says the Photographic Times. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. however. but this is less satisfactory.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. a short-focus lens. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. but not essential. insects. To the front board is attached a box.

The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 11 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 113 7 lb. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. Ft Lifting Power. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 6 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. AB. Mass. and a line. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Boston. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Madison. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. A line. 1. 179 11 lb. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 5 ft. Cap. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 65 4 lb. 8 ft. 381 24 lb. balloon. long and 3 ft. 7-1/2 in.--Contributed by George C. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 697 44 lb. in Cu. wide from which to cut a pattern. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 7 ft. Fig. 9 ft. or 3 ft. or 31 ft. 7-1/2 in. in diameter. CD. 5 in. If the balloon is 10 ft. which is 15 ft. The following table will give the size. 12 ft. 905 57 lb. Divide one-quarter of the circle . while it is not so with the quill. 268 17 lb. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen.

This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. making a double seam as shown in Fig. Repeat this operation four times. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. using a fine needle and No. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. This test will show if the bag is airtight. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. 4. on the curved line from B to C. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. Procure 1 gal. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. The cloth segments are sewed together. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. The pattern is now cut. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. keeping the marked part on the outside. and so on. 70 thread. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. 3. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. The amounts necessary for a 10- . 2. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. of the very best heavy body. of beeswax and boil well together. cutting all four quarters at the same time. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb.

All FIG. pipe. A. ]. C.Green Iron ammonium citrate . . After washing a part. but if any grease remains on the hand. About 15 lb. In the barrel. it is not fit to use. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. A. balloon are 125 lb. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. or a fan. as shown in Fig. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. B. until no more dirt is seen. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. C. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. of sulphuric acid. by fixing. of iron borings and 125 lb. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock.ft. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. 150 gr. above the level of the water in barrel A. if it is good it will dry off. Fill the other barrel. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. . The benzine should be clean and free from oil. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. should not enter into the water over 8 in. using a fine brush. The 3/4-in. with water 2 in. Water 1 oz.. with 3/4in. of gas in one hour. or dusting with a dry brush. which may sound rather absurd. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. of water will make 4 cu. The outlet. Vegetable oils should never be used. 1 lb. B. 5 . The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. with the iron borings. of iron. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. When the clock has dried. B.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. this should be repeated frequently. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. 1 lb. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. oil the spindle holes carefully. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. to the bag. A. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. 5. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. a clean white rag. capacity and connect them. leaving the hand quite clean. ft.

A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. This aerial collector can be made in . keeping the fingers out of the solution. toning first if desired. or carbon. Printing is done in the sun. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. and keep in the dark until used. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. The miniature 16 cp. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. 20 to 30 minutes. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. A cold. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. A longer exposure will be necessary. Exposure.000 ft. says the Moving Picture World. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz.Water 1 oz. The positive pole. at the time of employment.. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. . may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. The negative pole. Dry the plates in the dark. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. or zinc. . of any make. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Dry in the dark. fix in hypo. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. dry atmosphere will give best results. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. to avoid blackened skin. and a vigorous negative must be used. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. or battery. Port Melbourne.

lay a needle. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver.various ways. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. lead pipe. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. in diameter. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. long. as described below. This will complete the receiving station. holes . Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. making a ground with one wire. If the waves strike across the needle. will soon become dry and useless. when left exposed to the air. As the telephone offers a high resistance. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. forming a cup of the pipe. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. 5 in. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. and have the other connected with another aerial line. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. The storage cell. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. both positive and negative. a positive and a negative. If the wave ceases. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. and as less current will flow the short way. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. the resistance is less. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made.

These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. B. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. of course. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. and the other to the negative. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. When mixing the acid and water. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. This. does not need to be watertight. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. says the Pathfinder. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. namely: a square hole. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. on each end. a round one. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. The other plate is connected to the zinc. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. This box can be square. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. one to the positive. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. Two binding-posts should be attached. by soldering the joint. This support or block. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. except for about 1 in. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . or tube C. or tube B. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. an oblong one and a triangular one.as possible. D.

Ill.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. is built 15 ft. 1. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. as shown in Fig. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. all around the edge. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. C. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. This punt. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. about 20 in. wide. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. Only galvanized nails should be used. 2. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. as shown in Fig. C. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. A and B. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. 2. Chicago. thick cut two pieces alike. 1. back and under. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. were fitted by this one plug. in place on the wood. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. leaving about 1/16 in. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. and match them together. long. as it is not readily overturned. . The third piece of brass. and has plenty of good seating capacity. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. 3. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. deep and 4 ft. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. wide. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece.

In Fig. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . B. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Tacoma. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. A piece of 1/4-in. thick and 3-1/2 in. is cut 1 in.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. gas pipe. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Wash. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. square (Fig 2). The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. A. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water.

if possible. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. may be of interest to some of our readers. without auxiliary phase. it had to be borne in mind that. The winding of the armature.--Contributed by Charles H. says the Model Engineer. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. H. lamp. and to consume. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. In designing. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate." has no connection with the outside circuit. which the writer has made. or "rotor. which can be developed in the usual manner. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. Wagner. no more current than a 16-cp. with the exception of insulated wire. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. no special materials could be obtained.

also varnished before they were put in. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. The stator is wound full with No. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. bolts put in and tightened up. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. wrought iron. and filled with rivets. no steel being obtainable. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. about 2-1/2 lb. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. as shown in Fig. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. 1. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. 4. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. being used. while the beginnings . were then drilled and 1/4-in. After assembling a second time. 3. holes. Holes 5-32 in. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. in diameter were drilled in the corners. and all sparking is avoided. as shown in Fig. A. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. with the dotted line. 5. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. Unfortunately. B. to be filed out after they are placed together. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. 2. or "stator. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal.the field-magnet. C. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. this little machine is not self-starting. They are not particularly accurate as it is. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. thick. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds.

Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. as before stated. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. if applied immediately. film to film. as shown in Fig.. J. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. and would not easily get out of order. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. and all wound in the same direction. The lantern slide is a glass plate. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. In making slides by contact. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. This type of motor has drawbacks. No starting resistance is needed. and especially of colored ones. having no commutator or brushes. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. One is by contact. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. If too late for alcohol to be of use. The rotor is wound with No. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. 1. 2. Jr. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. McKinney. 3-Contributed by C. E. The image should . Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. and as the motor runs at constant speed. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. and as each layer of wire was wound. a regulating resistance is not needed. and the other by reduction in the camera. it would be very simple to build. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. N. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. as a means of illustrating songs. Newark. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it.

This will enable you to focus to the proper size. and development should be over in three or four minutes. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. 5. Select a room with one window. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. D. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. 3. except that the binding is different.appear in. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. These can be purchased from any photo material store. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. to use a plain fixing bath. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. 1. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. the formulas being found in each package of plates. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. Draw lines with a pencil. also. B. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. If the exposure has been correct. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. It is best. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. C. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. Being unbreakable. about a minute. they are much used by travelers. as shown in Fig. a little extra work will be necessary. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. if possible. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. 2. over the mat. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. as shown in Fig. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Fig. 4. A. and then a plain glass.

which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. from the end piece of the chair. If the star is in front of the left eye. as shown at B. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. long. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. long. from the ends. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. or other stout cloth. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. is to be used for the seat. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Fig. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. 1. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. wide and 50 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. Hastings. Corinth. Vt. from the center of this dot draw a star. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. as shown at A. 1. as shown in Fig. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. long. 16 in. Fig. known as rods and cones. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . in diameter and 40 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. A piece of canvas. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. 2. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. These longer pieces can be made square. holes bored in the end pieces. in diameter and 20 in.

Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. Auburn. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. per square inch. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. as shown in Fig. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. Cal. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A belt. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. as well as to operate other household machines. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. . in thickness and 10 in. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. made from an ordinary sash cord. 1. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. as shown in Fig.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing.-Contributed by P. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. 2. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. A disk 1 in. O'Gara. J. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left.

Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. will be the thickness of the object. Bore a 1/4-in. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. and the construction is complete. says the Scientific American. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. it serves a very useful purpose. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. leaving it shaped like a bench. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. square for a support. or inconvenient to measure. Cut out a piece from the block combination. with as fine a thread as possible. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. wide. Put the bolt in the hole. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. thick and 2-1/2 in. long. to the top of the bench. then removing the object. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. divided by the number of threads to the inch. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. fairly accurate. . Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. The part of a rotation of the bolt. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. screwing it through the nut. A simple. 3/4 in. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. direction. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt.

Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. long is used for the center pole. which show up fine at night. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. beyond the end of the wood. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. material 12 ft. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Bore a 3/4-in. Place a 3/4-in. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Oal. The wheel should be open . piece of wood 12 ft. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Santa Maria. bolt in each hole. long. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. globe that has been thrown away as useless.

C. wide and 1/8 in. long. A piece of brass 2 in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. Graham. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. C. A.-Contributed by A. at the bottom. Fort Worth. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. thick. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. Tex. square and 3 or 4 in. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. The coil. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. The boards may be nailed or bolted. of the ends with boards. from the ends. pieces used for the spokes. B. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. made of the same material. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. from the top end. and the lower part 61/2 in. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. H and J. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. long. 1/2 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. is soldered. L.Side and Top View or have spokes. wide and 1/8 in. O. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. at the top and 4 in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. which should be 1/4 in. long. to be operated by the magnet coil. thick. and on its lower end a socket. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. in diameter. thick is used for the armature. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. long. The spool . Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. P. A cross bar.

and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. is drilled. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. long.E. The armature. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. C. then with a firm. by soldering. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. D and E. When you slide the pencil along the casing. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. Bradlev. and directly centering the holes H and J. This tie can be used on grain sacks.J. and place it against a door or window casing. which may be had by using German silver wire. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. placing the end of the cord under the first loop.is about 2-1/2 in. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. for insulating the brass ferrule. This is a very neat trick if performed right. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. one without either rubber or metal end. --Contributed by Arthur D. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. and in numerous other like instances. do it without any apparent effort. F. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection.000 for irrigation work. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing.000. 2 the hat hanging on it. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. A soft piece of iron. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw.--A. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. S. that holds the lower carbon. A. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. or a water rheostat heretofore described. S. 1. At the bottom end of the frame. 2. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. Randolph. B. R. Mass. . as A Secure Knot shown in Fig.

The switch. Experiment with Heat [134] . may be made from a 3/8-in. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. about 1/8 in. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. is constructed in the usual manner. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The core of the coil. leaving the projections as shown. 2. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. S. B. in diameter and 1/16 in. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. The vibrator B. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. hole in the center. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. Fig. A. from the core and directly opposite. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. C. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. long and 1 in. About 70 turns of No. and then 1. is connected to a flash lamp battery. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. thick. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. wide. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The vibrator. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. with a 3/16-in. Fig. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. S. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator.500 turns of No. F. D. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. in diameter. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. long. for adjustment. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The coil ends are made from cardboard. mixed with water to form a paste. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. for the primary. about 1 in. about 3/16 in. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. for the secondary. in diameter. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. in diameter and 2 in. 1. 1.

and the same distance inside of the new board. it laps down about 8 in. 16 in. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate.Place a small piece of paper. in an ordinary water glass. long and when placed over the board. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. was to be secured by only three brass screws. The three screws were then put in the hasp. board. 2 to fit the two holes. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. as shown. which is cut with two holes. thick on the inside. with which to operate the dial. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. brass plate. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. lighted. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. which is only 3/8-in. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. The hasp. 1. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The tin is 4 in. between the boards. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. The knob on the dial extends out too far. wide. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. which seemed to be insufficient. 1. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. . as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. and then well clinched. as shown in the sketch. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. The lock. Fig. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling.

clear glass as shown. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. the glass. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. If the box is made large enough. or in the larger size mentioned. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. not shiny. square and 10-1/2 in. which completely divides the box into two parts. and the back left dark. one in each division. square and 8-1/2 in. When making of wood. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. any article placed therein will be reflected in. When the rear part is illuminated. black color. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. but when the front part is illuminated.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. high for use in window displays.

or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. as shown in the sketch. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. above the top of the tank. and with the proper illumination one is changed. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. into the other.. long and 1 ft. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. a tank 2 ft. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. When there is no electric current available. as shown at A in the sketch. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. . place the goods in one part and the price in the other. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. wide will be about the right size.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. as it appears. alternately. When using as a window display.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

using a 3/4-in. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. one for each side. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. A small platform. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. gauge for depth. 2 ft. square and 40 in. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. Iron sulphate. 6 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. lines gauged on each side of each. This hole must be continued . Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. and a solution of iron sulphate added. then use a red-hot iron to finish. wide. Three windows are provided. as shown. two pieces 1-1/8 in. is the green vitriol. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. The 13-in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. but with a length of 12 in. This precipitate is then washed. or ferrous sulphate. with a length of 13 in. If a planing mill is near. dried and mixed with linseed oil. square. each. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. The pieces can then be taken out. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. and a door in front. high. 1 in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. is built on the front.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. however. hole bored the full length through the center. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. bore from each end. long. Columbus. radius. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. long. under sides together. Shape the under sides first. bit. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. from the ground. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. hole. 5 ft. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. wide. O. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. thick and 3 in. and 6 ft.

thick and 3 in. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. If the parts are to be riveted. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. square and drawing a diagonal on each. When this is dry. hole in each block. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. A better way." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp.through the pieces forming the base. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. three or four may be attached as shown. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. When the filler has hardened. apply two coats of wax. For art-glass the metal panels are . is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Electric globes--two. if shade is purchased. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Saw the two blocks apart. Directions will be found on the filler cans.

The Completed Lamp cut out.Construction of Shade . METAL SHADE . such as copper. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. as brass. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.

Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. the object and the background. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. Figure 1 shows the side. The arms holding the glass. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. as shown in the sketch. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. as in ordinary devices. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. and Fig. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. 2 the front view of this stand. the other. one way and 1/2 in. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to .

Put the ring in place on the base. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. wide and 11 in. thus forming a 1/4-in. long.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. as it is very poisonous. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . as shown in the cut. channel in the circumference of the ring. An ordinary pocket compass. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. in diameter. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. and swinging freely. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. pointing north and south. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. as shown in the sketch. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. outside diameter. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Before mounting the ring on the base. about 1-1/4 in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Cut another circular piece 11 in. uncork and recork again. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. thick 5/8-in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. wide and 6-5/16 in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. If the light becomes dim. in diameter for a base. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle.

715 . The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. in diameter and 8 in. are mounted on a base. B.420 . from the second to the third. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.865 1. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. into these cylinders. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. and mirrors. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.600 . of the top. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .182 . A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. CC.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. AA. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.500 . to which a wire has been soldered for connections. black oxide of copper.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. EE.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.088 . The results given should be multiplied by 1. above the half can. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. 1 oz. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.289 . Corresponding mirrors. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. Place on top the so- . from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. and north of the Ohio river. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.

Put the solution in a long. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. In Fig. When renewing. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. says Metal Worker. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. always remove the oil with a siphon. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. of pulverized campor. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. which otherwise remains clear. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. University Park. 31 gr. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Colo. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. slender bottle. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. alcohol. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. 62 gr. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. then they will not rust fast. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. little crystals forming in the liquid.

Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. If zinc and carbon are used. If zinc and copper are used. Lloyd Enos. on the under side of the cork. floating on a solution. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. This is used in place of the spoon. Solder in the side of the box . will allow the magnet to point north and south. Attach to the wires. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. --Contributed by C. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. A paper-fastener box. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. about 1-1/4 in. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. If two of them are floating on the same solution. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution.

and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. A. wide and 6 in.Contributed by J. of No. brass tubing. E. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. 10 wire about 10 in. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. away. hole. The bottom of the box. or made with a little black paint. F. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube.1-in. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. D. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. one on each side of the board. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. Wind evenly about 2 oz. The base. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. B. The standard. wide and 2-1/2 in.not shorter than 18 in. Thos. The spring should be about 1 in. 1. If the hose is not a tight fit. C. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. To this standard solder the supporting wire.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch.in. piece of 1/4-in. Bore holes for binding-posts. of wire on each end extending from the coil. . Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. Use a board 1/2. B. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. 1/2. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. long. stained and varnished. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. 14 wire will do. and on the other around the glass tube. thick. Take a small piece of soft iron. A. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Rhamstine. Put ends. and then solder on the cover. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. 3 in. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. D. is made from a piece of No. long. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . H. C. D. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. as shown in Fig. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. 1-1/4 in. glass tubing . to it. A circular piece of cardboard. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. C. G--No. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. E. can be made of oak. long that has about 1/4-in.in. and connect the two wires from the coil to them.

long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. N. four hinges. 3. of 8-oz. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. Teasdale. two pieces 2-1/2 ft.--Contributed by R. of No. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. 5. long. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested.--Contributed by Edward M. Wis. Smith. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. from the right hand. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. J. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. of mercury will be sufficient. 2. is drawn nearer to the coil. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. . square of which two pieces are 6 ft. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. long. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. About 1-1/2 lb. two pieces 2 ft. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. E. as shown in Fig. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 3 in. long.of the coil. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. long are used for the legs. long. in diameter. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. Milwaukee. 1. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. long. D. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. 3-in. When the glass becomes soft. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Cuba. about 1 in. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. canvas. Y. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. making a support as shown in Fig.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. The iron plunger.

an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. 6. --Contributed by David A. leaving 8 in. small aperture in the long tube. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. Can. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. 4. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. The tube now must be filled completely. This tube as described will be 8 in. long. Fig. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread.. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. Measure 8 in. of vacuum at the top. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. 2. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. Break off the piece of glass. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. 5. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Keys. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Toronto.. thus leaving a. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. holding in the left hand. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. Take 1/2 in. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. expelling all the air. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. 3. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. although nearly any size could be made in the same way.

from the end of same. as in Fig. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. thick. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. 6. 1 in. long. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 3. thick. Four blocks 1/4 in. 3 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. wide and 5 ft. Fig. and 1/4 in. thick. 4. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. thick. A crosspiece 3/4-in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. thick. The large pulley is about 14 in. long. and the single projection 3/4 in. long. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. 7. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. wide and 5 ft. This forms a slot. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. joint be accurately put together. wood screws. as shown in Fig. wide and 12 in. wide and 5 ft. FIG. with each projection 3-in. 1.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. 3 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 5. 1 in. 4 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. wide and 3 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. 9 in. as shown in Fig. material 2 in. These are bent and nailed. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 2.6 -. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. in diameter. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. long. but yellow pine is the best.

The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Welsh. first removing the crank. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. by 1-in. Manhattan. --Contributed by C. Kan. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. R. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. attach runners and use it on the ice. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. above the runner level. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Water 1 oz. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. . says Photography.

When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. also. --Contributed by Wallace C. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. 3. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. --Contributed by Edward M. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Mass. 1. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. 2. The print is washed. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. of water. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. 1 oz. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Treasdale. . Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Printing is carried rather far. This is done with a camel's hair brush. as shown in Fig. Leominster. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. as shown in Fig. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. and very much cheaper. from an ordinary clamp skate. Newton. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws.

wide and 4 in. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. extending the width of the box. --Contributed by H. say. as shown in the sketch. wide. long. high. A. Take two glass tubes. Then. The swing door B. 1-1/2 ft. and to the bottom. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. 2. Place a 10-in. which represents the back side of the door. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. too. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. causing the door to swing back and up. with about 1/8-in. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. 1 ft. fasten a 2-in. 1. The thread is broken off at the . The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. about 10 in. square piece. high for rabbits. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Alexandria. and bend them as shown in the sketch. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. from one end. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. and 3 ft. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. 1. Fig. Va. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. Fig. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. hole. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. Church. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. F.

The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. as shown in Fig. wide and 5 in. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. 2. from the edge on each side of these openings. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. B. D. wide. shorter. . automobiles. high and 12 in. Crilly. in size. being 1/8 in. 10 in.. Cut a piece of thin black cloth.by 5-in. -Contributed by William M. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. Jr. 1. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. A and B. says Camera Craft. and go in the holder in the same way. trolley cars. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. inside of the opening. to be used as a driving pulley. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. shorter at each end. This opening. camera and wish to use some 4. Out two rectangular holes. long. horses and dogs. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Chicago. Paste a piece of strong black paper. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. 3. Fig. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. but cut it 1/4 in. plates. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. Fig. and exactly 5 by 7 in. black surfaced if possible. C. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. 1 in. wide. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. say 8 in. long. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Take two pieces of pasteboard.proper place to make a small hole.by 7-in. Cut an opening in the other piece. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. in size. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people.

The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. making a . into which the dog is harnessed. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. in diameter.. long and 6 in. The needle will then point north and south. A cell of this kind can easily be made.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. if it has previously been magnetized.in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. wide will be required.

in diameter and 6 in. leaving about 1/2-in. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Secure three carbon rods 1/2.in. sal ammoniac. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. fuel and packing purposes. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. pine. 3/4 lb. beeswax melted together. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. F is a spool. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. of the plate at one end. B is a base of 1 in. fodder. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. 1/4 lb. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. of rosin and 2 oz. Form a 1/2-in. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. Place the pan on the stove. with narrow flanges. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. pull out the wire as needed. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. 1 lb. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. only the joints. for a connection. plaster of paris. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. under the spool in the paraffin. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. Pack the paste in. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. when the paraffin is melted. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. zinc oxide. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. filter. says Electrician and Mechanic. and a notch between the base and the pan. Do not paint any surface. of the top. one that will hold about 1 qt. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. A is a block of l-in.watertight receptacle. of water. long which are copper plated. in which P is the pan. This makes the wire smooth. File the rods to remove the copper plate. . short time. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated.

Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. by the Hindoos in India. but the thing would not move at all. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and one friend tells me that they were . Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. At least it is amusing. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. let them try it. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and then. thus producing two different vibrations. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. from vexation. as in the other movement. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. g. long. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body.. 2.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and he finally. Enlarge the hole slightly. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. while for others it will not revolve at all. for some it will turn one way. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Try it and see. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. the thumb and second finger changing places: e." which created much merriment. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Toledo. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. for others the opposite way. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. square and about 9 in. or think they can do the same. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and therein is the trick. Ohio. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics.

no rotation resulted. 2. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. Thus a circular or . A square stick with notches on edge is best. 4. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. 7. by means of a center punch. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. rotation was obtained. 6. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape.100 r. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. Speeds between 700 and 1. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. secondly. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. The experiments were as follows: 1. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. If the pressure was upon an edge. To operate. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. the rotation may be obtained. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. gave the best results. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. 3. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. and. 5. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. and I think the results may be of interest. p. m. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe.

. at first. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. is driven violently away. so far as can be seen from the photographs. C. the upper portion is. as shown. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. A wire is tied around the can. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. forming a handle for carrying.D. Minn. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. or greasy. D. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. and the height of the fall about 6 in. G. A. if the pressure is from the left. . --Contributed by G. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. it will be clockwise.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Washington. --Contributed by M. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). Ph.. a piece of wire and a candle." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Duluth. and the resultant "basket splash. unwetted by the liquid. Lloyd. Sloan. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. thick and 1 in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . as shown in Fig. as shown. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. axle." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. about 2-5/8 in. Each wheel is 1/4 in. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. with a 1/16-in. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. flange and a 1/4-in. long. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. 1. in diameter. hole drilled in the center. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles.

50. with cardboard 3 in.brass. The first piece. each in its proper place. 5. These ends are fastened together. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. and the locomotive is ready for running. wood. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. as shown in Fig. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. wide and 16 in. as shown in Fig. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. This will save buying a track. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. 2. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. is made from a piece of clock spring. 3. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. 4. The motor is now bolted. bent as shown. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. 3. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. A trolley. is made from brass. Fuller. Fig. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. 1 from 1/4-in. 2. If the ends are to be soldered. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. long. holes 1 in. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . San Antonio. The parts. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. are shown in Fig. 3/4 in. bottom side up. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. or main part of the frame. 6. The current. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. lamp in series with the coil. Texas. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. Fig. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. of No. --Contributed by Maurice E. which must be 110 volt alternating current. put together complete.

How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. The quarter will not go all the way down. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. but do not heat the center.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Fig. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. 1. as shown in Fig. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. 2. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. When cold treat the other end in the same way. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Cincinnati. and holes drilled in them. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. then continue to tighten much more. Fig 1. as shown in Fig. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. O. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. the length of a paper clip. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. and as this end . 3. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a.

9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. or apparent security of the knot. A pair of centers are fitted. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. In the sketch. and adjusted . the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. has finished a cut for a tooth. When the cutter A. 2 and 1 respectively. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. When the trick is to be performed. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. or should the lathe head be raised.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie.

Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal.) Make on paper the design wanted. draw center lines across the required space. swing lathe. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. note book. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. twisted around itself and soldered. The frame holding the mandrel. book mark. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Make free-hand one quarter of the design.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. long. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Bott. 1. coin purse. if four parts are to be alike. trace the outline. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. lady's card case. tea cosey. if but two parts. at the same time striking light. (5. (3. about 1-1/2 in. above the surface. such as brass or marble. N. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. Y.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Brooklyn. (6. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. Second row: -Two book marks. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick .) Place the paper design on the leather and. watch fob ready for fastenings. dividing it into as many parts as desired. In this manner gears 3 in. An ordinary machine will do. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. or one-half of the design. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. and a nut pick.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Fold over along these center lines. --Contributed by Samuel C.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. holding it in place with the left hand. gentleman's card case or bill book. tea cosey. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks).to run true. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. 2. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. lady's belt bag. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. (4. (2. blotter back. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Fig. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. When connecting to batteries. (1. Bunker. --Contributed by Howard S.

some heavy rubber hose. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle.

or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. a distance of 900 miles. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. into which fit a small piece of tube. C.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. and push it through a cork. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. A. The electrodes are made . If the needle is not horizontal. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. where it condenses. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown.. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. B. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. D. and bore a hole through the center. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. from Key West. Florida. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. Thrust a pin. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle.C.

apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. thick. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. wide and 4 ft long. or flying-machine. slacken speed and settle. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. several strips 1/2 in. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. square and 8 ft long. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. apart and extend 1 ft. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. thick. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. long. 12 uprights 1/2 in. The operator can then land safely and . 3. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. All wiring is done with No. 1-1/4 in. thick. Four long beams 3/4 in. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. 1. lengths and splice them. as shown in Fig. C. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. Connect as shown in the illustration. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. long. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. 2. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. lumber cannot be procured. 1. wide and 3 ft. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. To make a glide. long. as shown in Fig.in. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. as shown in Fig. both laterally and longitudinally. long. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. 2. use 10-ft. 3/4 in. take the glider to the top of a hill. wide and 20 ft. 1/2. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. 1-1/2 in. which is tacked to the front edge. Powell. D. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. free from knots. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. 16 piano wire. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. wide and 3 ft. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 2 arm sticks 1 in. wide and 4 ft. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. using a high resistance receiver. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. 2 in. and also to keep it steady in its flight. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. thick.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. by 3/4 in. Washington. long for the body of the operator. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. thick. If 20-ft. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. --Contributed by Edwin L. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. wide and 4 ft. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. long. 1.

Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes.gently on his feet. Great care should be . and the balancing is done by moving the legs. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Glides are always made against the wind. Of course. but this must be found by experience. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.

Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by L. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. which causes the dip in the line. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. 2. 1. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. a creature of Greek mythology. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Bellingham. half man and half horse. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. When heated a little. Olson. M. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player.exercised in making landings. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb.

in diameter. While at the drug store get 3 ft. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. at the other. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. long. making it 2-1/2 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. about the size of door screen wire. The light from the . Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. of small rubber tubing. a piece of brass or steel wire. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. square. this will cost about 15 cents. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. outside the box. about the size of stove pipe wire. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. 14 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. long and about 3/8 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. will complete the material list.

while others will fail time after time. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. 2. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. . Hunting. This is very simple when you know how. M. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. O.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. as shown in Fig. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. --Photo by M. Dayton. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. If done properly the card will flyaway. 1.

Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. closing both hands quickly.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. as described. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. This game is played by five persons. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. When the desired shape has been obtained. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. place the other two. hold the lump over the flame. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. as before. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger." or the Chinese students' favorite game. Cool in water and dry. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. as shown. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. If a certain color is to be more prominent. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. then put it on the hatpin head. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin.

these sectors.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. or more in width. distribute electric charges . Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. passing through neutralizing brushes. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented.

EE. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. and pins inserted and soldered. are made from 7/8-in. wide. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. 3. free from wrinkles. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. in diameter and 15 in. The collectors are made. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. The drive wheels. These pins. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. Fig. as shown in Fig. D. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. the side pieces being 24 in. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. Fig. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The two pieces. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. 1. turned wood pieces.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. long. after they are mounted. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. long and the standards 3 in. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The plates are trued up. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. and of a uniform thickness. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. brass tubing and the discharging rods. and the outer end 11/2 in. Two pieces of 1-in. The fork part is 6 in. from about 1/4-in. in diameter. to which insulating handles . and 4 in. material 7 in. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. at the other. The plates. are made from solid. 1 in. 3/4 in. GG. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and this should be done before cutting the circle. 1-1/2 in. 2. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. C C. 3. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. in diameter. wide at one end. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. long. or teeth. in diameter. 4. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. long and the shank 4 in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. in diameter. RR. in diameter. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. in diameter. Two solid glass rods.

A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. KK. Colorado City. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. long. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. 12 ft. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. ball and the other one 3/4 in. D. and the work was done by themselves. Colo. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. one having a 2-in.are attached. wide and 22 ft. in diameter. --Contributed by C. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. which are bent as shown. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays .. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Lloyd Enos.

Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. pens . The key will drop from the string. bit. string together. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. as at A. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. using a 1-in. deep. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. yet such a thing can be done. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. They can be used to keep pins and needles. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood.is a good one.

and pencils. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. extra metal on each of the four sides. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. 8. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. 9. 2.. stamp the background promiscuously. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. flat and round-nosed pliers.. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. Proceed as follows: 1. using a nail filed to chisel edge. The second oblong was 3/4 in. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. file. etc. also trace the decorative design. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. above the work and striking it with the hammer. unless it would be the metal shears. then the other side. above the metal. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. 7. Use . Having determined the size of the tray. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. and the third one 1/4 in. This is to make a clean. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 5. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. very rapid progress can be made. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. they make attractive little pieces to have about. slim screw. Draw one-half the design free hand. sharp division between background and design. 3. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. inside the second on all. Raise the ends. etc. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. about 3/4-in. They are easily made. 4. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. Inside this oblong. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. or cigar ashes. inside the first on all. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. 6. two spikes. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. 23 gauge. When the stamping is completed. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. draw on paper an oblong to represent it.

A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. and fourth fingers. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. first fingers. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. In the first numbering. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 8. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. second fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. The eyes. 10. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 9. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 7. and the effect will be most pleasing. third fingers. 6.

the product of 12 times 12. viz.. etc. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. etc. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. At a glance you see four tens or 40. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. 2 times 2 equals 4. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. thumbs. 12. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. In the second numbering. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. which would be 16.. but being simple it saves time and trouble. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. Still. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. which tens are added. there are no fingers above. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. or 80. Let us multiply 12 by 12. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. Put your thumbs together. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. etc. and the six lower fingers as six tens. first fingers. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. renumber your fingers. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. as high as you want to go. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. if we wish. 11. above 20 times 20. 25 times 25. . We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. above 15 times 15 it is 200. Two times one are two. 600. or numbers above 10. or 60. which would be 70. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. and 70 plus 2 equals 72.. or the product of 6 times 6. or the product of 8 times 9. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. 400.

but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. . In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. Proceed as in the second lumbering. the value of the upper fingers being 20. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. 21. and. etc. whether the one described in second or third numbering. the inversion takes place against his will. thirties. in the case of a nearsighted person. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. the revolution seems to reverse. forties. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. lastly. Take For example 18 times 18.. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. first finger 17. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. 2. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. beginning the thumbs with 16. The inversion and reversion did not take place. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. any two figures between 45 and 55. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. twenties. 3. being 80). the upper fingers representing a value of 20. first fingers 22. It takes place also. 8. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. not rotation. or what. For example. however. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. which is the half-way point between the two fives. the value which the upper fingers have. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. For figures ending in 6. when he removes his spectacles. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. adding 400 instead of 100. the lump sum to add. further. 75 and 85. about a vertical axis.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. at the will of the observer. or from above or from below. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. thumbs. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. as one might suppose. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. And the lump sum to add. 7. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. and so on.

the other appearance asserts itself. when he knows which direction is right. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. as . sometimes the point towards him. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. and putting a cork on the point. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. Looking at it in semidarkness. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. The ports were not easy to make. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. A flat slide valve was used. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. tee. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel.

on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. in diameter. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft.. The eccentric is constructed of washers. -Contributed by W. Next take a block of wood. Springfield. secure a piece of No. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. Kutscher. across and 1/2 in. pipe 10 in. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. if continued too long without proper treatment. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. such as is shown in the illustration. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. and make in one end a hollow. Fasten the block solidly. The tools are simple and can be made easily. . saw off a section of a broom handle. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. H. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. If nothing better is at hand. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. across the head. Beating copper tends to harden it and. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. pipe. as in a vise. deep. Ill. inexpensive. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. The steam chest is round.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. While this engine does not give much power. it is easily built. bottom side up. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. apart. about 2 in.

Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. This process is called annealing. Hay. To overcome this hardness. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses.will cause the metal to break. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. C. especially when the object is near to the observer. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. and. --Contributed by W. as it softens the metal. Vinegar. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. Camden. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. S. To produce color effects on copper. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. the other to the left. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. O.

one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. while both eyes together see a white background. So with the stereograph. It is just as though they were not there. disappears fully. however. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. and lies to the right on the picture. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. because of the rays coming from them. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. the further from the card will the composite image appear. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. . In order that the picture shall be "plastic. In order to make them appear before the card. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. from the stereograph. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. not two mounted side by side. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. the one for the left eye being blue. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. diameter. with the stereograph.stereoscope. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. would serve the same purpose. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. But they seem black. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. it. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. orange. The further apart the pictures are." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. The red portions of the picture are not seen. they must be a very trifle apart. as for instance red and green. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. that for the right. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. because. although they pass through the screen. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. in the proper choice of colors. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. only the orange rays may pass through. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. and without any picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. the left eye sees through a blue screen.

The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. in the shape of a crank. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. etc. or the middle of the bottle. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. This should only be bored about half way through the block. Place a NO. San Francisco. wide and 1 in. Cal. wireless. long and a hole drilled in each end. in diameter. 1/4 in. The weight of the air in round . Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. A No.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. 12 gauge wire. thick. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. Two types of make-and-break connection are used.

The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. the instrument. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. if accurately constructed. wide and 40 in. 30 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. 34 ft. will calibrate itself. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. thick. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather.6) 1 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. Only redistilled mercury should be used. high. The 4 in. square. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. a glass tube 1/8 in. but before attempting to put in the mercury. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. a bottle 1 in. if you choose. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. long. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. high. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. inside diameter and 2 in.. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. and a slow fall. or. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. high. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. long. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. internal diameter and about 34 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. are marked off and divided into sixteenths.numbers is 15 lb. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. the contrary. . Before fastening the scale. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. long. pine 3 in. But if a standard barometer is not available. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. In general. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. wide and 4 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. or a column of mercury (density 13. square.

Mark out seven 1-in. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. 1. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. thick. 5. wide and 10 in. which is slipped quickly over the end. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. Procure a metal can cover. 3. the size of the outside of the bottle. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. 2. 6 and 7. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. a cover from a baking powder can will do. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Number the pieces 1. and place them as shown in Fig. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. long.

Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. Move 5-Jump No. Move 10-Move No. 1 to No. each 10 ft. Move 13-Move No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 6. Move 14-Jump No. 6 over No. Move 7-Jump No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 3 to the center. Cape May Point. This can be done on a checker board. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. shaped like Fig.J. L. Woolson. 5. Move 2-Jump No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 1. Move 12-Jump No. 7. 5 over No. Move 4-Jump No. which is the very best material for the purpose. procure unbleached tent duck. 2's place. 1 into No.-Contributed by W. 7's place. Move 6-Move No. Move 8-Jump No. 6. using checkers for men. 3. 2. 3. 2 over No. 6 to No. 2's place. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. N. 1. 5's place. l over No. 3 into No. 7 over No. 5 over No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 2 . 6 into No. in diameter. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 3. 2 over No. long and 2 ft. 3 over No. 5's place. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. as shown in Fig.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Move 3-Move No. 6 in. Move ll-Jump No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Move 9-Jump No. To make such a tent. Make 22 sections. 7 over No. 2. Move 15-Move No.

Fig. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Pa. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. added. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. will do. 2 in. diameter. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. After transferring the design to the brass. long. 3 in. to a smooth board of soft wood. fill with canvas edging. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. 6-in. Nail a thin sheet of brass. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. wide at the bottom. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Punch holes in the brass in .J. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. 2. wide by 12 in. in diameter. leaving the rest for an opening. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. 5. --Contributed by G.in. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. about 9 in. high. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. As shown in the sketch. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. as in Fig. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. 6. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. These are ventilators. Fig. wide at the bottom. from the top. Tress. round galvanized iron. long and 4 in. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Emsworth. Have the tent pole 3 in. 9 by 12 in. In raising the tent. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Use blocks. 5) stuck in the ground. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. made in two sections. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground.. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides.

I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. Corr. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. apart. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. around the outside of the pattern. When all the holes are punched.the spaces around the outlined figures. excepting the 1/4-in. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The pattern is traced as before. cut out the brass on the outside lines. When the edges are brought together by bending. Chicago. but before punching the holes. . If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. It will not. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. bend into shape. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores.

G. pipe.however. or center on which the frame swings. --Contributed by Geo. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end.. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. allowing 2 ft. --Contributed by H. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. better still. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. A cast-iron ring. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. Mayger. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. partially filled with cream. pipe is used for the hub. E. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. If a wheel is selected. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. between which is placed the fruit jar. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. These pipes are . Badger. Que. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. Oregon. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. Stevens. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. or. or less. Dunham. A 6-in. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in.

An extra wheel 18 in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. bent to the desired circle. pipe. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. pipe clamps. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in.

The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. and the guide withdrawn. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. 1. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The performer. as shown in Fig. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. while doing this. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. 3. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. and dropped on the table. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. which was placed in an upright position. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before.

in a half circle. White. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. in diameter on another piece of tin. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. 2. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. it requires no expensive condensing lens. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. first. Denver. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. The box can be made of selected oak or . and second.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Louis. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. --Contributed by H. 1. Mo. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. D. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. St. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. F. Colo. Harkins. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. -Contributed by C.

represented by the dotted line in Fig. and. AA. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. fit into the runners. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. wide and 5 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. This will be 3/4 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. but not tight. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. wide and 6-1/2 in. 3-1/2 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. from each end of the outside of the box. long and should be placed vertically. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. long. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. as shown in Fig.mahogany. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. long. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. focal length. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. The door covering this hole in the back. 5-1/2 in. An open space 4 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. high and must . Two or three holes about 1 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. 2. from each end. high and 11 in. and 2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. 1. wide by 5 in. wide. If a camera lens is used. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in.

The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. as it requires an airtight case. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. April. and extending the whole height of the lantern. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. the article may be propped up . Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. This process is rather a difficult one. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. and so on. June and November. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. calling that knuckle January. 1.. --Contributed by Chas. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. provided it is airtight. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. calling this February. Ohio. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. West Toledo. C. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Bradley. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. then the second knuckle will be March." etc. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September.

taking care to have all the edges closed. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. . The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. or suspended by a string. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. N. 2. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. in. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. --Contributed by J. one of lead and one of aluminum. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. 1 and 2. 1. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. Schenectady. fruit jars are required. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. In both Fig. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. Pour in a little turpentine. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. H. The top of a table will do. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. running small motors and lighting small lamps.with small sticks. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. Y. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. In each place two electrodes. and the lead 24 sq. the lid or cover closed. Crawford. and set aside for half a day. giving it an occasional stir. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. in. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. but waxed. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them.

--Contributed by Cyril Tegner. as well as others. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. you remove the glass. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. he throws the other. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will .. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. He. This trick is very simple. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. Cleveland. After a few seconds' time. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. which you warm with your hands. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. You have an understanding with some one in the company. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. O. as you have held it all the time. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. at the time of request for handkerchiefs.

Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. but by being careful at shores.-Contributed by E. Colo. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief.take the handiest one. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Crocker. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. in diameter in the center. on a table. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Pull the ends quickly. near a partition or curtain. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. but in making one. J. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. if any snags are encountered. Victor. Be sure that this is the right one. . This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. put it under the glass. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward.

1 in. is 14 ft. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 3 in. of rope. drilled and fastened with screws. by 16 ft. by 16 ft. selected pine. 1 in. by 2 in. 2 in. by 8 in. 50 ft. thick and 3/4 in. from the bow and the large one. wide. 1/8 in. one 6 in. of 1-1/2-yd. from the stern. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. for the bow. long. are as follows: 1 keelson. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. screws and cleats. Both ends are mortised. for cockpit frame. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. as illustrated in the engraving. wide and 12 ft. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. Paint. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 1. 2 gunwales. 1 mast. of 1-yd.. 1 piece. 1 piece. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops .Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. ducking. and fastened with screws. apart. and. long. The keelson. 1/4 in. and the other 12 in. by 12 in. at the ends. 7 ft. 8 yd. by 15 ft. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 4 outwales. wide and 12 ft. by 2 in. 14 rib bands. long. 1 in. 3 in. 8 in. 9 ft. square by 16 ft. by 10 ft. 3 and 4. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. for center deck braces. long. and is removed after the ribs are in place. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. the smaller is placed 3 ft. Fig. 2 and braced with an iron band. from each end to 1 in.. for the stern piece. wide 12-oz. wide unbleached muslin. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 11 yd. 1 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. clear pine.

A 6-in. Fig. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. is cut to fit under the top boards. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. wide and 3 ft. thick 1-1/2 in. from the bow. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. and fastened to them with bolts. 4 in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. is a cube having sides 6 in. thick and 1/2 in. thick and 12 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. in diameter through the block. long. long. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. wide. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. also. The trimming is wood. apart. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. corner braces. wide and 24 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. 6 and 7. thick. A piece of oak. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. thick. Fig. a piece 1/4 in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. They are 1 in. length of canvas is cut in the center. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. 5. 1 in. The 11-yd. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. . wide and 14 in. A block of pine. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. 1/4 in. These are put in 6 in. 9. A seam should be made along the center piece. gunwales and keelson. Braces. 7 and 8. wood screws. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. The block is fastened to the keelson. screws.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. Before making the deck. long is well soaked in water. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 3-1/2 ft. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. wide. 6. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. long. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. 1 in. 6 in. Figs. This block. doubled. The deck is not so hard to do. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale.

A strip 1 in. 10 with a movable handle. long. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. E. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. in diameter and 10 ft. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. wide at one end and 12 in. 12. Tronnes. . The mast has two side and one front stay. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. each 1 in. Wilmette. wide. is 6 in. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. The keel. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. Fig. are used for the boom and gaff. The house will accommodate 20 families. at the other. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. thick by 2 in. long. Ill. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. 11. The sail is a triangle. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. apart in the muslin. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in.

wide. about 5/16 in. Fig. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. wide and 30 in. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. 4. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig.into two 14-in. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. E. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. and the other 18 in. 1. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. as shown in Fig. 2 in. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. Take this and fold it over . and 3 ft. flat on one side. wide. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. square. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. Tronnes. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. 1 yd. wide and 2 ft. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. long and five 1/2-in. 2-1/2 in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. with the ends and the other side rounding. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. long. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. Cut the maple. thick. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. flat-headed screws. 2. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 5.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. five 1/2-in. thick. thick. flat headed screws. --Contributed by O. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. Ill. long. 3. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. one 11-1/2 in. 2-1/2 in. Wilmette. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. long. Bevel both sides of the pieces.

Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. as well as the edges around the opening. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. Another piece. E. 3/8 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. Louis. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. about 3/8 in. but can be governed by circumstances. long. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. forming an eye for a screw. wide and 2-1/2 in. 2 and 3.once. the mechanical parts can be put together. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. St. About 1/2 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. A. wide and 3 ft. long. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. F. 3 in. C. Make a double stitch all around the edge. long. thick and 3 in. Fig. 3-1/4 in. this square box is well sandpapered. Figs. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. thick. The front. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. B. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. 5 from 1/16-in. wide and 5 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. 6-1/2 in. long. Mo. and the four outside edges. --Contributed by W. Wind three layers of about No. pieces 2-5/8 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. D. and make a turn in each end of the wires. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. Cut another piece of board. long. 1-1/4 in. wide and 6-3/4 in. then centered. C. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. square. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. and take care that the pieces are all square. leaving a small opening at one corner. Glue a three cornered piece. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. wide . After the glue. wide and 4-1/2 in. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. soaked with water and blown up. square. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. long. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. When the glue is set. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. the top and bottom. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. A. Bliss. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. The sides are 3-1/4 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. thick. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. long. If carefully and neatly made. 1. long. of each end unwound for connections. are rounded. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. is set. The bag is then turned inside out.

The base is a board 5 in.A. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . 4 is not movable. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. long. G. These wires should be about 1 in. Austwick Hall. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. Richmond Hill.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. Like poles repel each other. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. the same size as the first.and 2-5/8 in.R. I. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Fig. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. and as the part Fig. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. that has the end turned with a shoulder. the part carrying the pointer moves away. C. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. 4. A pointer 12 in. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. Chapman. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. bored in the back. thick. and the farther apart they will be forced. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. Another strip of tin. wide and 9 in. Yorkshire. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. 1/16 in. 1/4 in. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. and fasten in place. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. F. The stronger the current. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. --Contributed by George Heimroth. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place.S. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. hole is fastened to the pointer. Place the tin. W. long. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. wide and 2-1/2 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. from one end. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. 4. When the current flows through the coil. R. 5-1/2 in. in diameter. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. from the spindle. showing a greater defection of the pointer. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. so it will just clear the tin. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. The end of the polar axis B. L. board. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. 5. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. Fig. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. long. The resistance is now adjusted to show .

A. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 30 min. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. 1881. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. shows mean siderial. 10 min. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. say Venus at the date of observation. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. and vice . thus: 9 hr. M. at 9 hr. 10 min. The following formula will show how this may be found. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time.

The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. New Haven. and then verify its correctness by measurement. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon.m. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Hall. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell.f. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Conn. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. --Contributed by Robert W. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. or. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. . if one of these cannot be had. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. owing to the low internal resistance.

consisted of an old shaft with a hole . put the fish among the ashes. thick. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. When the follower is screwed down. fresh grass. of alum and 4 oz. 3/8 in. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. cover up with the same. The boring bar. Fig. long. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Then. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. 1. leaves or bark. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. especially for cooking fish. inside diameter and about 5 in. Wet paper will answer. and heap the glowing coals on top. arsenic to every 20 lb. 1-3/4 in. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. as shown in the accompanying picture. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box.

about 1/2 in. when they were turned in. pipe. fastened with a pin. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. and threaded on both ends.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. thick. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. pipe. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting.

as the one illustrated herewith. Iowa. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. It . one of which is plainly shown in the picture. labor and time. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. 4. square iron. 5. was then finished on an emery wheel. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. then it should be ground to a fit. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. This plate also supports the rocker arms. Fig. however. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. A 1-in. Fig. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. If the valve keeps dripping. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. and which gave such satisfactory results. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. 3. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in.valve stems. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. bent in the shape of a U. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. long. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. 2. The rough frame. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. wide. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. a jump spark would be much better. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. thick and 3 in. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. 30 in. but never one which required so little material. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. Fig. Clermont. the float is too high.

timber. rope is not too heavy. hole bored in the post. 12 ft. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus." little and big. This makes an easy adjustment. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. in the ground with 8 ft. in diameter and 15 in. long is the pivot. Nieman. square. A 3/4 -in. so it must be strong enough. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. from the center. long. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. 3/4 in. no matter what your age or size may be. The illustration largely explains itself. being held in position by spikes as shown. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. for the "motive power" to grasp. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. strengthened by a piece 4 in. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. butting against short stakes. If it is to be used for adults. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. and a little junk. long. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. long. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. from all over the neighborhood. The seats are regular swing boards. square and 5 ft. and. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. extending above. set 3 ft. Use a heavy washer at the head. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. completes the merry-go-round. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. W. square and 2 ft. --Contributed by C. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. with no trees or buildings in the way. strong clear material only should be employed. It looks like a toy. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. A malleable iron bolt. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. The crosspiece is 2 in. in fact. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. As there is no bracing.

therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. Both have large reels full of . A reel is next made. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. The backbone is flat. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. 1. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. if nothing better is at hand. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. one for the backbone and one for the bow. as shown in Fig. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. then it is securely fastened. light and strong. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. long. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. 2. and 18 in. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. away. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. and sent to earth. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. These ends are placed about 14 in.the fingers. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. 1/4 by 3/32 in. To wind the string upon the reel.2 emery. a wreck. square. The bow is now bent. Having placed the backbone in position. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. 4.

The handle end is held down with a staple. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Newburyport. --Contributed' by Harry S. C. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. First. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. he pays out a large amount of string. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Brooklyn. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite.-Contributed by S. often several hundred yards of it. If the second kite is close enough. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it.string. N. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. the balance. Bunker. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Y. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . or glass-covered string. common packing thread. Moody. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Mass.

Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. square (Fig. --Contributed by Earl R. then draw the string up tight. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. then a dust protector. each the size of half the table top. length of 2-in. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. If the table is round.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. such as mill men use. Hastings. lengths (Fig. Corinth. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. must be attached to a 3-ft. cutting the circular piece into quarters. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Vt. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time.

If leaves are wanted in extending the table. 17-1/2 in. .9-1/4 in. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. from E to F. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. 2-1/4 in. and E to G. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Wharton. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. E.. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. Calif. trace the design carefully on the leather. which spoils the leather effect. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. G to H. hard pencil. Moisten the . Make the other half circular disk in the same way. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless.. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. from C to D. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. 16-1/4 in. Use a smooth. Oakland.-Contributed by H. 6-1/4 in.

place both together and with a leather punch. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. if not more than 1 in. apart. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. G-J. H-B. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. wide. with the rounded sides of the tools. get something with which to make a lining. is taken off at a time. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. and lace through the holes. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. and corresponding lines on the other side. also lines A-G. Now cut narrow thongs. and E-G. about 1/8 in. Trace the openings for the handles. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. To complete the bag. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Cut it the same size as the bag. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. I made this motor .

each being a half circle. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. 1. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. Shannon. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. D. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. Calif. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. 2-1/4 in. as shown in Fig. iron. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. 1. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. 2. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. in length.M. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. B. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. . 24 gauge magnet wire. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. long. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. Pasadena.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. of No.

Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. high. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. and the gores cut from these. from the bottom end. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. pasted in alternately. balloon should be about 8 ft. near the center.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The gores for a 6-ft. are the best kind to make. 1. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far.

Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. using about 1/2-in. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. in diameter. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. The steam. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. --Contributed by R. somewhat larger in size. as shown in Fig. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. B. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. lap on the edges. If the gores have been put together right. leaving a long wake behind. coming through the small pipe A. 5. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. leaving the solution on over night. 1. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. As the boat is driven forward by this force. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. after which the paint will adhere permanently. so it will hang as shown in Fig. saturating it thoroughly. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. The boat soon attains considerable speed. These are to hold the wick ball. 2. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. 3. Staunton.widest point. A. After washing. as shown in Fig. 4. In removing grease from wood. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. E. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. In starting the balloon on its flight. Fig. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney.

in bowling form. In using either of the two methods described. Second. wide by 6 in. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . The blocks are about 6 in.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. long. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. high and 8 in. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. There are three ways of doing this: First. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. as is shown in Fig. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. if you have several copies of the photograph. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. 1. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. Third. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. apart on these lines. long and each provided with a handle. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft.

Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Y. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Fig. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Hellwig. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque.Fig. Rinse the plate in cold water. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Albany. N. thick. being careful not to dent the metal. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. 2. --Contributed by John A. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. not pointed down at the road at an angle. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching.

any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. 1 Fig. In Fig. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Break off the frame. Paine. These corner irons are also screwed to. --Contributed by R. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. 6 in. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. wide and of any desired height. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Va. S. B. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. wide and 8 in. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. 5 in. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. through which passes the set screw S. in diameter. A. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. long for the base. CC. 2 the front view. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Corner irons. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. A circular piece of wood. with a set screw. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. which is 4 in. is fastened to a common camera tripod. thick. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. and not produce the right sound. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight.upon any particular object. A. Richmond. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. are screwed to the circular piece. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. With this device. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. and. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. and Fig.

using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. S. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. in diameter of some 1-in. Ill. thus producing sound waves. La Salle. -1. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. Kidder. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. I made a wheel 26 in. This will make a very compact electric horn. . This horn. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. D. as only the can is visible. R. Lake Preston. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. pine boards.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal.

and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. --Contributed by C. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. If the collection consists of only a few coins.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. 2. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. O. Feet may be added to the base if desired. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. If there is a large collection of coins. square. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Kane. 1. the same thickness as the coins. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Doylestown. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Ghent. The frame is made of a heavy card. B. Fig. --Contributed by James R. Purdy. A. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. thick and 12 in. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. 1. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet.

melted and applied with a brush. The material required is a sheet of No. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. The more coats applied the darker the color will be.E. Toronto. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. several large nails. plus a 3/8-in. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. thick. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. If desired. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. of developer. A rivet punch is desirable.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. --Contributed by J. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. they become uninteresting. --Contributed by August T. It will hold 4 oz. A lead pencil. though not absolutely necessary. Canada. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. One Cloud. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. border all around. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. a hammer or mallet. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. --Contributed by R.J. Neyer. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. cut and grooved. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. for after the slides have been shown a few times. Smith. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Milwaukee. Cal. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. and then glued together as indicated. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. into which to place the screws . Wis. Noble. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry.

place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. screws placed about 1 in. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. draw one part. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Take the nail. Remove the screws. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. There are several ways of working up the design. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. both outline and decoration. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. like the one shown. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. using 1/2-in.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. never upon the metal directly. and file it to a chisel edge. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail.

l-1/8 in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. Do not bend it over or flatten it. using a 1/2in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. in the other. each 1 in. square and 11 in. for the lower rails. . being ball bearing. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. The pedal. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. for the top. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. About 1/2 yd. square and 181/2 in. 2. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. Rivet the band to the holder. Provide four lengths for the legs. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. 1.wall. square. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. up from the lower end. long. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. long. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. long. of 11-in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. 3/4 in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. and two lengths. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. 3. two lengths.

Ala. New York City. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. F. --Contributed by W. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Quackenbush. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. having quite a length of threads. Attalla. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. --Contributed by John Shahan. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph.

the end of the other piece is folded over. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. and 3/8 in. from one end. and two holes in the other. D. Assemble as shown in the sketch. and the other 2-3/4 in. long. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. Ironwood. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . of sal-soda in one pailful of water. wide and 8-1/4 in. each 1-1/4 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. wide and 4-1/4 in. --Contributed by C. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. college or lodge colors. using class. from the end. long. one about 1 in. making a lap of about 1 in. long. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. stitched on both edges for appearance. Mich. Purchase a 1/2-in. something that is carbonated. The desired emblem. Two pieces of felt. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. initial. in depth. Luther. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class..

Fig. A piece of lead. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. from the center and opposite each other. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Punch two holes A. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. about 2 in. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. This method allows a wide range of designs.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. and the cork will be driven out. 1/4 in. or a pasteboard box. Indianapolis. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. Ind. Schatz. in the cover and the bottom. as shown in the sketch. if desired by the operator. 1. --Contributed by John H. which can be procured from a plumber. 2. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. as shown at B. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. or more in height. in diameter and 2 in.

Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. 5. putting in the design. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. or marble will serve. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. The pieces of tin between the holes A. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. . These tools can be bought for this special purpose. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. 3. When the can is rolled away from you.Rolling Can Toy lead. 1. are turned up as in Fig. on both top and bottom. O. 4. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. as shown in Fig. allowing the two ends to be free. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. metal. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. Fig. and the ends of the bands looped over them. Columbus. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. A piece of thick glass. it winds up the rubber band. --Contributed by Mack Wilson.

this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. I secured a board 3/4 in. Next place the leather on the glass. After this has been done. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . wide and 20 in. from each end. The edges should be about 1/8 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. and. A pencil may be used the first time over. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. If it is desired to "line" the inside. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. long and bored a 1/2-in. thicker than the pinion. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. hole through it. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. or more thick on each side. 3 in. thick. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. New York City. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. face up. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. 1 in. mark over the design. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. deep in its face.

1 by 12 by 77 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Rice. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 2 by 2 by 18 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 1 top board. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. --Contributed by A. Y. Syracuse. Make the lower frame first. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Brooklyn. N. Cut the 2-in. 1. 2 by 12 by 77 in. thick top board. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 1 piece for clamp. Fig. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 2 end rails. 1 by 9 by 80 in. countersinking the heads of the vise end. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. lag screws as shown. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. M. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 2 crosspieces. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 3 by 3 by 6 in. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1 screw block. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. 1 piece. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 4 guides. in diameter. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 1 piece for clamp. pieces for the vise slides. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in.in the board into the bench top. 1 top board. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 2. 3 by 3 by 36. 2 side rails. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Now fit up the two clamps. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1 back board. New York.

will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 cross cut saw. 1 pocket level. 1 2-ft. 1 claw hammer. 1 nail set. 1 pair dividers.. They can be purchased at a hardware store. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. The bench is now complete. 1 marking gauge. 1 pair pliers. 1 wood scraper. 1 set gimlets. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 rip saw. 1 jack plane or smoother. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise.screws. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need.. 1 bench plane or jointer. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 3 and 6 in. 2 screwdrivers. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 compass saw. 24 in.. 24 in. . 1 set chisels. 1 countersink. 1 monkey wrench. rule. as well as the pattern maker. Only the long run. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 brace and set of bits. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. in diameter. The amateur workman. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work.

1 oilstone. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Doylestown. becomes like A. but will not make . Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. Fig. will be easier to work. Fig.1 6-in. Fig. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C.1. will sink into the handle as shown at D. after constant use. try square. 1. ---Contributed by James M. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Fig. The calf skin. Kane. 3. 1. being softer. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. 2. No. the projecting point A. Pa. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump.

There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. which steam. cover it completely with water enamel and. After the outlines are traced. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. will do just as well. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. then prepare the leather. . Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. the same method of treatment is used. secure a piece of modeling calf. Two pieces will be required of this size. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. and the length 6-5/8 in. -Contributed by Julia A. First draw the design on paper. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. If calf skin is to be used. If cow hide is preferred. Turn the leather. The form can be made of a stick of wood. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. New York City. but a V-shaped nut pick. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Having prepared the two sides. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. such as copper or brass. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. water or heat will not affect.as rigid a case as the cow skin. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. White. lay the design on the face. when dry. This will make a perfectly impervious covering.

Jaquythe. New York City. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Portland. and an adjustable friction-held loop. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. C. --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by W. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. as shown in the sketch. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Maine.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. A. . Herrman. Cal. Richmond. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. --Contributed by Chester L. Cobb. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B.

for instance. an inverted stewpan. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Middletown. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. . the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Cambridge. This was very difficult. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. --Contributed by Geo. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Roberts. B. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Mass.. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Conn. --Contributed by Wm. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. A thick piece of tin. Wright. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. was marked out as shown.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner.

and the grease will disappear. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz.. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. F. pulverized and applied. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. of boiling water. Indianapolis. There was no quicklime to be had. When dry. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. --Contributed by C. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. but not running over. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. Herbert. Ind. used as part of furniture. but only an odor which soon vanished. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. as shown. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. and quite new. L. so some bones were quickly calcined. The next morning there was no trace of oil. such as chair seats. well calcined and powdered. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Bone. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. If the article is highly polished. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Chicago. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. A beautifully bound book. which has been tried out several times with success. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. . No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. apply powdered calcined magnesia. Illinois. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. --Contributed by Paul Keller. on a clear piece of glass. face down. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. If any traces of the grease are left.

Howe. set and thumbscrews. If properly adjusted. wide and 12 in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. says Scientific American. A. deep and 5 in. New York. 6 in. long.. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. --Contributed by Geo. high and are bolted to a block of wood. soft steel with the opening 6 in. 2 in. The pieces marked S are single. This coaster is simple and easy to make. Tarrytown. the pieces . The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. It is constructed of a good quality of pine.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle.. thick. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in.

If the letters are all cut the same height. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. albums and the like. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Their size depends on the plate used.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. they will look remarkably uniform. no doubt. A sharp knife. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. says Camera Craft. The seat is a board. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. to the underside of which is a block. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. for sending to friends. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. E. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months.

they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. photographing them down to the desired size. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. and. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. So made. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. pasting the prints on some thin card. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. mount them on short pieces of corks. The puzzle is to get . the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. after. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. So arranged. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. In cutting out an 0. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. for example. using care to get it in the right position. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable.

The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. A hole 6 or 7 in. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. squeezes along past the center of the tube.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. Bayley. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . with the longest end outside. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row.-Contributed by I. hung on pivots.J. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. of its top. N.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. Cape May Point. G. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. so they will lie horizontal. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. He smells the bait. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. snow or anything to hide it. long that will just fit are set in. Old-Time Magic . says the American Thresherman.

or rub the hands a little before doing so. --Contributed by L. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Press the hands together. N. Idaho. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Szerlip. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. then spread the string. Rhode Island. Parker. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. --Contributed by L. Y. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. E. then expose again. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string.faced up. Pocatello. Pawtucket. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Brooklyn.

Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade.. says the English Mechanic. wide and 2 in. 4 on the blade. narrower. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. 2 Fig. The pieces.Genuine antique swords and armor.. they will look very much like the genuine article. dark red. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. or green oil paint. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. long. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. in width. Glue the other side of the blade. full size. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. using a straightedge and a pencil. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. wipe the blade . end of the blade. or a complete suit of armor. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. 1 Fig. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. thick. and if carefully made. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The blade should be about 27 in. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. 1. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. When the whole is quite dry. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. if any. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. in building up his work from the illustrations. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. 3 Fig. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. whether he requires a single sword only. near the point end. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The handle is next made.

2. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. the other is flat or halfround. follow the directions as for Fig. In making. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. This sword is about 68 in. thick and 5 in. long. 1. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. 1. the other is flat or half-round. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. 1/8 in. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. the illustration. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. not for use only in cases of tableaux. allowing for a good hold with both hands. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. take two pieces of wood. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. square and of any length desired. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. 1. the other two are identical. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. of course. about 1-1/2 in. shows only two sides. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. Both edges of the blade are sharp. In the finished piece. should be about 9 in. in diameter. Fig.. and 3 in. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. preferably of contrasting colors. 1.with light strokes up and down several times. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. 3. 3. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. 4. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. as it is . The pommel is a circular piece of wood.. in the widest part at the lower end. the length of the blade 28 in. 2. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. The length of the handle. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. In making this scimitar. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood.

free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. as can the pitch bed or block. A piece of mild steel. On each edge of the board. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. each about 1 ft. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. long. The thinness of the plank. Y. about 3/8 in. square. and. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. as there was some at hand. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. A cold . --Contributed by Katharine D. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Morse. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. 2 in. Mass. as shown in the sketch. Both can be made easily. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. in an attempt to remove it. Doctors probed for the button without success. It is made of a plank. and if so. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. piping and jackets by hard water. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Franklin. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. or an insecure fastening. however. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Syracuse. at the lower end. N. --Contributed by John Blake.

Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown.. secure a piece of brass of about No.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. using a small metal saw. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. plaster of Paris. When the desired form has been obtained. To remedy this. Trim up the edges and file them . a file to reduce the ends to shape. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. on the pitch. design down.. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. When this has been done. 5 lb. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. To put it in another way. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. 5 lb. 18 gauge. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. tallow. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch.

in diameter (Fig. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. or 550 ft.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. This in turn divided by 33. Before giving the description. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Clean the metal thoroughly. 1 ft. Cutter. in diameter (Fig.000 ft. but not to stop it.smooth. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. 1) and the other 12 in. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. make an unusual show window attraction. and still revolve. A. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. per second. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Fig. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Fill the 3-in. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. That is lifting 33. 30 ft. using powdered pumice with lye. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. space between the vessels with water. The smaller is placed within the larger. in one minute or 550 lb. to keep it from floating. lb. 2). over the smaller vessel. in the center. and hang a bird swing. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. in one second. it may be well to know what horsepower means. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. per minute. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing.000 lb. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. . Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. --Contributed by Harold H. 3. one 18 in. or fraction of a horsepower. lb. 1 ft. living together in what seems like one receptacle. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen.

1 Fig. Mass.3 Fig.18 in. by L. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. 2 Fig. Diameter Fig. Brooklyn. F. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Szerlip. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Y. The effect is surprising. Campbell. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. --Contributed. Somerville. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . or on a pedestal.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. N. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Diameter 12 in. --Contributed by J.

and then. Rivet the cup to the base. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. which may be of wood or tin. with other defects. after which it is ready for use. to keep the metal from tarnishing. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine.copper of No. with the pliers. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Polish both of these pieces. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. and the clay . then by drawing a straightedge over it. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. is. often render it useless after a few months service. This compound is impervious to water. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. using any of the common metal polishes. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. which. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. and cut out the shape with the shears. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. the same as removing writing from a slate. unsatisfactory. keeping the center high. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. Do not be content merely to bend them over. In riveting. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. away from the edge. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. as a rule.

Shettleston. 1. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. 2.can be pressed back and leveled. Dunlop. 3/4 in. in diameter and 5 in. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Mich. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Mich. Houghton. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Northville. -Contributed by Thos. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The siphon is made of glass tubes. long. Grand Rapids. It is made of a glass tube. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. --Contributed by John T. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. --Contributed by A. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. as shown in Fig. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. Scotland. A. DeLoof. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. . the device will work for an indefinite time. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below.

The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. London. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil.1 FIG. stilettos and battle-axes. This sword is 4 ft.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.FIG. in width and 2 in. put up as ornaments. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. 1. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. As the handle is to . The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. long. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. long with the crossguard and blade of steel.

A Russian knout is shown in Fig. 9. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The handle is of wood. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. the axe is of steel. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. 20 spike. This weapon is also about 1 ft. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. then glued on the blade as shown. 3 is shown a claymore. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. glue and put it in place. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. with both edges of the blade sharp. long. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. studded with brass or steel nails. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. one about 1/2 in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. wood with a keyhole saw. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. the upper part iron or steel. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. 7. This weapon is about 1 ft. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. In Fig. The ball is made as described in Fig. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. This axe is made similar to the one . very broad. When the whole is quite dry. with both edges sharp. in width. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. small rope and round-headed nails. the same as used on the end of the handle. This stiletto has a wood handle. string. In Fig. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. The lower half of the handle is of wood. A German stiletto. firmly glued on. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. long with a dark handle of wood. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. Both handle and axe are of steel. narrower. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. is shown in Fig. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. Three large. A German poniard is shown in Fig. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. in length. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint.represent copper. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. 8. 11 were used. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. 4. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. This sword is about 4 ft. These must be cut from pieces of wood. with wire or string' bound handle. The sword shown in Fig. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. which is about 2-1/2 ft. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. The crossbar and blade are steel. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. 5. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. 6. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. in length. paint it a dark brown or black. In Fig. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. sometimes called cuirass breakers. sharp edges on both sides. When dry.

1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. will pull where other belts slip. Chicago. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. Old-Time Magic . When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. W. . If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. together as shown in Fig. high. 2. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. When wrapped all the way around. This will make a very good flexible belt.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. 10. so the contents cannot be seen. Davis. the ends are tied and cut off.described in Fig. --Contributed by E. such as braided fishline.

an acid. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Before the performance. To make the flowers grow in an instant.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. There will be no change in color. apparently. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. with the circle centrally located. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Oakland. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Macdonald. causing the flowers to grow. --Contributed by A. S. 1 and put together as in Fig. four glass tumblers. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. filled with water. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. in a few seconds' time. held in the right hand. or using small wedges of wood. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Calif. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. The dotted lines in Fig. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. about one-third the way down from the top. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. These wires are put in the jar. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. N.J. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. 2. Bridgeton. some of the liquid.

Cal. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. Richmond. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. This outlines the desired opening. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. says a correspondent of Photo Era. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. 2 for height. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. practical and costs nothing. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. and equally worthy of individual treatment. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . and kept ready for use at any time. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. A. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. unless some special device is used. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. If the size wanted is No. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. When many slides are to be masked. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. --Contributed by W. not only because of the fact just mentioned. Jaquythe. 4 for width and No. which are numbered for convenience in working. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints.

The one shown is merely suggestive. a little less acid than water. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. is about right for the No. using the carbon paper. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. and do not inhale the fumes. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. about half and half. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. With a stick. paint the design. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. or. This done. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. but they can be easily revived. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. and the extreme length 7 in. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . When etched to the desired depth. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. Draw a design. the margin and the entire back of the metal. possibly. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. not the water into the acid. Secure a sheet of No. The decoration. 16 gauge. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. the paper is folded along the center line. which is dangerous. too. may be changed. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. or a pair of old tongs.

Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. 5. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. Fig. long. as in Fig. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. 1. Nail a board. about 2-1/2 in. high. Fig. The connections are simple: I. as shown in the illustration. wide. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. long and 1 ft. or more wide. C and D. with the wires underneath. it will touch post F. thick. Cut out a piece of tin. Paint the table any color desired. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. 3/8 in. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Then get two posts. Fig. 4. and bore two holes. as at H. 2. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. Fig. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. J is another wire attached in the same way. 2. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. as shown in Fig. repeat as many times as is necessary. attached to a post at each end. about 8 in. 0 indicates the batteries. 5. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Fig. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. about 3 ft. the bell will ring. so that when it is pressed down. When the button S is pressed. through it. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. about 1 in. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. A. wide and of the same length as the table. It may be either nailed or screwed down. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. and about 2-1/2 ft. . is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. 24 parts water. to the table. in diameter and 1/4 in.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. 3. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 2. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate.

the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. This weapon is about 22 in. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. the wood peg inserted in one of them. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.Imitation Arms and Armor . A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. A wood peg about 2 in. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. is to appear as steel. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. long serves as the dowel. but they are somewhat difficult to make. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together.. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. These rings can be carved out. such as . 1. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. long. thick. The imitation articles are made of wood. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. handle and all. says the English Mechanic. After the glue is dry. The circle is marked out with a compass. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. The entire weapon. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 2.

etc. flowers. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The axe is shown in steel. The lower half of the handle is wood. as before mentioned. or the amateur cannot use it well. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. as described in Fig. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. used at the end of the fifteenth century. . These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 2. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The handle is of steel imitation. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. studded with large brass or steel nails. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. is shown in Fig. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. covered with red velvet. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it.ornamental scrolls. If such a tool is not at hand. 8. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. 3. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. with a sharp carving tool. This weapon is about 22 in. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. All of these axes are about the same length. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. as shown. leaves. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. the hammer and spike. 5. 6. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. The upper half of the handle is steel. long. also. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The handle is of wood. The spikes are cut out of wood. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Its length is about 3 ft. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up.

2. 6. 1. 5. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. a three-base hit. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. The knife falling on its side (Fig. as in Fig. Chicago. and so on for nine innings. 7) calls for one out. then the other plays. . calls for a home run. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. 4). Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. as shown in Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. the knife resting on its back. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 3. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig.

The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. F. as shown in Fig. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. Old-Time Magic . which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. of water for an hour or two. with the rope laced in the cloth. This he does. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. as shown in Fig. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig.-Contributed by J. hypo to 1 pt. Somerville. 3. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. It may be found that the negative is not colored. 1. If it is spotted at all. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. 2. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. Campbell. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. one of them burning . of the rope and holds it. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. Mass. while the committee is tying him up. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale.

turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. B.brightly. Evans. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. The magician walks over to the burning candle. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. and. 4 oz. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles.. He then walks over to the other candle. with which he is going to light the other candle. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. . of plumbago. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. Ky. New York City. thus causing it to light. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. 4 oz. shades the light for a few seconds. Thome. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. of sugar. of water and 1 oz. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. 3/4 in.Contributed by Andrew G. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Drill Gauge screw. showing that there is nothing between them. etc. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. of turpentine. --Contributed by C. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. Louisville. Lebanon. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. the other without a light. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. --Contributed by L. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. thick. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Ky. Brown. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. invisible to them (the audience). Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. bolt.

Denniston. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. N. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. --Contributed by C. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. 5 in. Do not add water to the acid. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. but is not so good. steady current. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. Its current strength is about one volt. diameter. or blotting paper. Y. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. about 5 in. In making up the solution. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Pulteney. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. thick. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. into a tube of several thicknesses. long. which will give a strong. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. for the material. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. H. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. To make the porous cell. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes.

station. carrying the hour circle at one end. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. One hole was bored as well as possible. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. As to thickness. a positive adjustment was provided. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. one drawing them together. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. After much experimentation with bearings. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. Finally. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. steel. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer.) may be obtained. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. long with a bearing at each end. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. steel. but somewhat lighter. steel. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. To insure this. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. while the other end is attached by two screws. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. the other holding them apart. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The . The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument.

The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. All these adjustments. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. To find a star in the heavens. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. Each shaft. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. If the result is more than 24 hours. and 15 min. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps.. are tightened. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal." When this is done. All set screws. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. Point it approximately to the north star." Only a rough setting is necessary. 45 min. Declination is read directly. once carefully made. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. To locate a known star on the map. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The pointer is directed to Alpha. turn the pointer to the star. need not be changed. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The pole is 1 deg. subtract 24. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. apart. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. Instead. and if it is not again directed to the same point. Set the declination circle to its reading. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. save the one in the pipe. The aperture should be 1/4 in. Cassiopiae. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. It is. excepting those on the declination axis. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. When properly set it will describe a great circle. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. is provided with this adjustment..

--Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. the others . Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. taking care not to add too much. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. -Contributed by Ray E. Strosnider. add a little more benzole. Plain City. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. is folded several times. as shown in the sketch. then add 1 2-3 dr. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. The dance will begin. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. benzole. In reality the first ball. New Orleans. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Ohio. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. The ball is found to be the genuine article. La. If this will be too transparent.. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. cannon balls. which is the one examined. is the real cannon ball.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. of ether. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. 3 or 4 in. a great effect will be produced. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. long.

Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Cal. small brooches. --Contributed by J. Return the card to the pack. Milwaukee. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. as shown in the illustration. Campbell. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. 2. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. F. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. 1). San Francisco. Fig. etc. Mass. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. taps.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. In boxes having a sliding cover. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Wis. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. without taking up any great amount of space.. Somerville. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized .

This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Hartford. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. prints. round pieces 2-1/4 in. as shown in the illustration. Connecticut. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. This box has done good service. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Beller. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. from the bottom of the box. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. . slides and extra brushes. thus giving ample store room for colors. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely.

West Lynn. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. -Contributed by C.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. . costing 5 cents. about threefourths full. or placed against a wall. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. Fill the upper tub. Darke. with well packed horse manure. When the ends are turned under. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. will answer the purpose. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. 2). Mass. holes in the bottom of one. tacking the gauze well at the corners. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. 1). Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. FIG. O. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another.

when they are raised from the pan. cutting the cane between the holes. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. oil or other fluid. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. Eifel.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. If plugs are found in any of the holes. Chicago. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. they should be knocked out. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. If the following directions are carried out. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. and each bundle contains . The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. M. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. --Contributed by L. if this is not available. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and.

Whenever the end of one strand is reached. No plugs . In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. as it must be removed again. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. held there by inserting another plug. then across and down. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. a square pointed wedge. 1. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. as shown in Fig. after having been pulled tight. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. In addition to the cane. put about 3 or 4 in. it should be held by a plug. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. and. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind.

If handled with a little care. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. lat. using the same holes as for the first layer. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. No weaving has been done up to this time. W. and the one we shall describe in this article. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. Detroit. for 2°. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. 1. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. stretch the third one. Michigan. This will make three layers.15+. as for example. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time.075 in. as the height of the line BC for lat. When cool. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . 1 lat. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. 42° is 4. is the horizontal dial.5 in. as shown in Fig. and for 1° it would be . The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. the height of which is taken from table No. as it always equals the latitude of the place. It consists of a flat circular table. 3. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. Fig. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. it is 4. and for lat. as shown in Fig. 5 in. the height of the line BC. -Contributed by E. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. The style or gnomon.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. called the gnomon. D. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. 3. After finishing this fourth layer of strands.2 in. --Contributed by M.3 in. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. 4. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. or the style. If you have a table of natural functions. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes.42 in. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. is the base (5 in. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used.15 in. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. 41°-30'. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. R. trim off the surplus rosin. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. 1. There are several different designs of sundials. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. 5. 41 °-30'. in this case) times the . Patrick. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. Their difference is . we have 4. 40°. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. During the weaving. Fig. All added to the lesser or 40°. From table No. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. After completing the second layer. the next smallest. but the most common. Even with this lubrication. 1. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease.= 4. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through.2+.075 in.

99 2.07 4.16 1.55 5.96 32° 3.40 34° 3.10 6.79 4.33 . The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. or if of stone.03 3.57 1.33 42° 4.55 30° 2.30 1.00 40° 4.82 3. gives the 6 o'clock points.14 5.66 48° 5. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. 2. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.81 4.55 46° 5.19 1. Chords in inches for a 10 in.37 5. circle Sundial.tangent of the degree of latitude.88 36° 3. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.76 1. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.85 1.85 35 . which will represent the base in length and thickness. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.32 6.97 5 7 4.23 6. with a radius of 5 in.28 .37 54° 6.42 .91 58° 8. Draw the line AD.46 .93 6. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.44 44° 4.66 latitude. Its thickness.63 56° 7.93 2.27 2.42 45 .83 27° 2. 2 for given latitudes. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. according to the size of the dial.29 4-30 7-30 3. 2.87 1.56 .11 3.94 1. or more. long. 1.02 1.50 26° 2.12 52° 6. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.59 2.16 40 .46 3.26 4.66 1.64 4 8 3. Table NO.18 28° 2.39 . may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.49 30 .40 1. base. .82 2.68 5-30 6-30 5. if of metal. and perpendicular to the base or style. and for this size dial (10 in.38 .57 3. For latitudes not given.41 38° 3.55 4. and intersecting the semicircles. using the points A and C as centers. Fig. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.82 5.77 2. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . Draw two semi-circles. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. To layout the hour circle.20 60° 8. an inch or two. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.49 3.89 50° 5.30 2.87 4.42 1. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.06 2.

06 2.30 2. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.63 1. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.49 5. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.52 Table No.01 1.19 2.08 1.50 .12 5. London.add those marked + subtract those Marked .68 3. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . will enable one to set the dial. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.72 5. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. after allowing for the declination. each article can be labelled with the name.77 3. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.50 55 . 3 Corrections in minutes to change. Mitchell.82 3.37 2. Sept. and for the difference between standard and local time.71 2.24 5. then the watch is slower. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.98 4. 2 and Dec. 3. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. says the English Mechanic.. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Iowa. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.60 4. An ordinary compass. The + means that the clock is faster. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.87 6.46 4.34 5. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. and the .21 2. Each weapon is cut from wood. 25.53 1.54 60 .49 3. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.57 1. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. if west. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.means that the dial is faster than the sun. June 15. As they are the genuine reproductions. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.14 1. This correction can be added to the values in table No.89 3. adding to each piece interest and value.79 6. --Contributed by J. E.93 6. Sioux City. 3. Sun time to local mean time. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. it will be faster.from Sundial lime. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.10 4.46 5. 900 Chicago. April 16.

If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. 1. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. Partisan. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon.. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. When putting on the tinfoil. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. . the length of which is about 5 ft. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. 3.

The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. is shown in Fig. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. A gisarm or glaive. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. used about the seventeenth century. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. about 4 in. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long with a round wooden handle. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. press it well into the carved depressions. 8. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The extreme length is 9 ft. 5..which is square. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. This weapon is about 6 ft. in diameter. The length of this bar is about 5 in. 7. long with a round staff or handle. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. long. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. which are a part of the axe. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. long. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. 6 ft. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. the holes being about 1/4 in. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. . The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. It is about 6 ft. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The edges are sharp. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The spear is steel. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. sharp on the outer edges. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands.

and if placed from 6 to 12 in. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig.-Contributed by R. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. apart. H. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 2 and 3. The twisted cross cords should . B. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. are less durable and will quickly show wear. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. are put in place. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. Loudonville. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. the cross cords. the most durable being bamboo. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Ohio. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. Workman. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. They can be made of various materials. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. In Figs. 4. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. This is important to secure neatness. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. Substances such as straw. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. 5. or in holes punched in a leather strap. Cut all the cords the same length. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. 1. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired.

below the top to within 1/4 in. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. shaped as shown at C. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. 3 in. A slit was cut in the bottom. for a length extending from a point 2 in. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. M. La. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. as shown at B. wide. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. of the bottom. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. bamboo or rolled paper. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. Harrer. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. This was turned over the top of the other can. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. New York. New Orleans. -Contributed by Geo. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. in which was placed a piece of glass. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. Lockport.be of such material. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . The first design shown is for using bamboo. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. Four V-shaped notches were cut. To remedy this.

tape from sticking to the carpet. wide. --Contributed by Joseph H. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. Ill. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. is shown in the accompanying sketch. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. Sanford. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. --Contributed by Chas. Pasadena. do not throw away the gloves. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. After this is finished. Shay. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. Cal. the brass is loosened from the block. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. It would be well to polish the brass at first. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. giving the appearance of hammered brass. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. Maywood. This should be done gradually. turned over but not fastened. This plank. Newburgh. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . --Contributed by W. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. H. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. about 1/16 in. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Y. and two along the side for attaching the staff. Schaffner. N. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in.

Jaquythe. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. -Contributed by W. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Richmond. K. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. A. Ill. in diameter. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. the pendulum swings . Unlike most clocks. Cal. Marshall. bent as shown.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. --E. Oak Park.

which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. by 1-5/16 in. 3/4 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. bearing on the latter. 5/16 in. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Fasten another board. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. 7-1/2 in. Chicago. is an electromagnet. on the board B. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. high. long and at each side of this. about 12 in. The construction is very simple. --Contributed by V. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. only have the opposite side up. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. . high. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. 6 in. in diameter. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. and the other two 2-5/8 in. wide. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. C. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. such as this one. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. high and 1/4 in. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. away. about 6 in. bar. In using this method. wide that is perfectly flat. A. are secured in the base bar. Two uprights.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Now place the board to be joined. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. to the first one with screws or glue. Metzech. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. Secure a board. B. the center one being 2-3/4 in. thick. says the Scientific American.. high. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed.

the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. Phoenixville. Fig. from one end. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. wide and 1 in. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. as shown at A. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. square inside.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. 1. plates should be made 8 in. 1. is fastened in the hole A. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. --Contributed by Elmer A. or more. 2. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. . 3. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. Fig. 4. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. Pa. Vanderslice. whose dimensions are given in Fig. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. square. by driving a pin through the wood. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. long. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. wide and 5 in. 1. The trigger. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C.

5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. Simonis.A. -Contributed by J. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. if only two bands are put in the . square. Ohio.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. by weight. rubbing varnish and turpentine. Fostoria. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 2 parts of whiting. which allows 1/4 in. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. one-half the length of the side pieces. 5 parts of black filler. as shown in the illustration.

London. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training.lower strings. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. Shaw. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. keeps the strong light out when sketching. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. Mass. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. deep. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. G. preferably copper. long. Grand Rapids. Michigan. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. 1. place tracing paper on its surface. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. wide and about 1 ft. is set at an angle of 45 deg. In use. which may be either of ground or plain glass. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. A piece of metal. A mirror. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. In constructing helmets. -Contributed by Abner B. A double convex lens. in the opposite end of the box. as shown in Fig. DeLoof. is necessary. and it may be made as a model or full sized. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. It must be kept moist and well . II. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. 8 in. No. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. If a plain glass is used. Dartmouth. --Contributed by Thos. and the picture can be drawn as described. says the English Mechanic.

and continue until the clay is completely covered. and over the crest on top. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. as in bas-relief. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. All being ready. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. The clay. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. After the clay model is finished. a few clay-modeling tools. Scraps of thin. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. will be necessary. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. shown in Fig. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. on which to place the clay. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. with a keyhole saw. joined closely together. or some thin glue. and left over night to soak. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. as shown in Fig. take. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. This being done. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. 2. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. 3. 1. brown. cut out the shape from a piece of wood.kneaded. and the deft use of the fingers. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. 1. the clay model oiled.

peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. or. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. Before taking it off the model. which should be no difficult matter. square in shape. a few lines running down. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. They are all covered with tinfoil. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. and so on. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. 1. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. Indiana. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. This contrivance should be made of wood. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. the piecing could not be detected. a crest on top. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. as seen in the other part of the sketch. and the ear guards in two pieces. Indianapolis. will make it look neat. the skullcap. The band is decorated with brass studs. with the exception of the vizor. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. then another coating of glue. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. When the helmet is off the model. one for each side. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. When perfectly dry. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. In Fig. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. The whole helmet. 5. as shown: in the design.as possible. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. When dry. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. 9. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. should be modeled and made in one piece. In Fig. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. --Contributed by Paul Keller. The center of the ear guards are perforated. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. owing to the clay being oiled. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 7.

1. as shown in Fig. AA. The holes B and C are about 3 in. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 2. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. German-silver wire is better. each 4-1/2 in. and. until it is within 1 in. Fig. 1. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. Fig. as shown in Fig. one small switch. 22 gauge resistance wire. AA. 1. which can be bought from a local druggist. The plate. 4. of the top. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. 4. of fire clay. to receive screws for holding it to the base. 4 lb. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. also the switch B and the fuse block C. the holes leading to the switch. for connections. is then packed down inside the collar. Fig. one oblong piece of wood. Fig. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. or. are allowed to project about 1 in. E and F. high. AA. Fig. This will allow the plate. 3 in. A round collar of galvanized iron.same size. about 1 lb. Fig. one fuse block. Fig. 4. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. 2. 2. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. 1. thick. FF. Fig. thick sheet asbestos. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. The reverse side of the base. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. Fig. and C. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. long. with slits cut for the wires. 4. 1. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. should extend about 1/4 in. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. If asbestos is used. as shown in Fig. If a neat appearance is desired. This will make an open space between the plates. 4. if the measurements are correct. screws. the fuse block. GG. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. is shown in Fig. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. The mineral wool. Fig. Fig. one glass tube. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . 12 in. The two holes. two ordinary binding posts. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. long. of No. about 1/4 in. of mineral wool. long. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. and two large 3in. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. if this cannot be obtained. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. JJ. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. Fig. 3. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. about 80 ft. 1 in. Fig. as it stands a higher temperature. above the collar. 1. wide and 15 in. when they are placed in opposite positions. in diameter and 9 in. 4. 4.

the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. Cnonyn. --Contributed by R. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. then. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. Fig. --Contributed by W. Catherines. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. as the turns of the wires. when cool. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. If this is the case. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. While the clay is damp. St. It should not be left heated in this condition. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. II. If it is not thoroughly dry. steam will form when the current is applied. Cut a 1/2-in. A file can be used to remove any rough places. causing a short circuit. Jaquythe. will slip and come in contact with each other. A. Next. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. 2. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. so that the circuit will not become broken. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. apart. H. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. This completes the stove.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. allowing a space between each turn. more wire should be added. it leaves a gate for the metal. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. This point marks the proper length to cut it. The clay. Richmond. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. As these connections cannot be soldered. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. KK. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. Fig. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. 4. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. above the rim. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. deep. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. When this is done. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. When the tile is in place. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. using care not to get it too wet. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . when heated. It should not be set on end. and pressed into it. Cal. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Cover over about 1 in. Can. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on.

Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. is large enough. says the Photographic Times. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Ky. Then clip a little off the .Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Louisville. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. but 12 by 24 in. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. as shown. Thorne. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. --Contributed by Andrew G. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. the pie will be damaged. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. the air can enter from both top and bottom. square material in any size. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. and the prints will dry rapidly. constructed of 3/4-in. and the frame set near a window.

which gives the shaft a half turn. The driving arm D. 1/2 in. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. Two supports. As the shaft revolves. long. long. Fig. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. Fig. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. A 1/8-in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. 2. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. 3. Herron. The connections are made as shown in Fig. wide. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. high. The upright B. Iowa. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. causing a break in the current. long. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. 4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. high. in diameter. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. 2-1/2 in. at GG. The board can be raised to place . open out. long. thick and 3 in. for the crank. allowing each end to project for connections. -Contributed by S. each 1 in. thereby saving time and washing. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. W. Fig. Le Mars. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. as shown. The connecting rod E. An offset is bent in the center. wide and 7 in. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. slip on two cardboard washers. wide and 3 in. 22 gauge magnet wire. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. 1 and 3. 1. which are fastened to the base. 1. Figs. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. 1/2 in. 1. 1. thick. thick and 3 in.Paper Funnel point. high. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. each 1/2 in. 14 in.

bottom side up. in height. Mass. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. In designing the roost. as shown in the sketch.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Dorchester. Stecher. 3 in. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. on a board. . wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. making a framework suitable for a roost. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. One or more pots may be used. --Contributed by William F. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Place the pot. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot.

windows. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. Fig. preferably. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. F. The materials required are rope or. 1. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. etc. paraffin and paint or varnish. 1. The bottom part of the sketch. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. ordinary glue. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. if it is other than straight lines. odd corners. as shown in Fig. when combined.. without any corresponding benefit. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. that it is heated. F. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. adopt the method described. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. in diameter.. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. and give it time to dry. shelves. Wind the . will produce the pattern desired. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. grills and gratings for doors.

six designs are shown. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Harrer. -Contributed by Geo.Fig. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. M. Lockport. cut and glue them together. Fig. Y. N. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . 2.

Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure..Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. As the . which was used in front of a horse's head.. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. says the English Mechanic. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. will be retained by the cotton. London. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches.. etc. etc. 1. chips of iron rust. and the sides do not cover the jaws. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. but no farther. when it will be observed that any organic matter. This piece of horse armor.

and therefore it is not described. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. This triangularshaped support. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. 2. An arrangement is shown in Fig. as the surface will hold the clay. the same as in Fig. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. This being done. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. All being ready. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. 2. This will make the model light and easy to move around. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. then another coat of glue. 6 and 7. and will require less clay. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. but the back is not necessary. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. the rougher the better. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. which can be made in any size. with the exception of the thumb shield. and the clay model oiled. as shown in the sketch.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. 8. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. This can be made in one piece. In Fig. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. 4. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. except the thumb and fingers. but for . If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. which is separate. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. The armor is now removed from the model. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs.

1/2 in. . Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. 9. A piece of board. Y. --Contributed by John G. each about 1/4 in. Redondo Beach. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. the top of the rod. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. two in each jaw. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. 2. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. Calif. the two pieces of foil will draw together. Goshen. N. in depth. are better shown in Fig. but 3-1/2 in. The two pieces of foil. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. the foils will not move. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. cut into the shape shown in Fig. If it does not hold a charge. wide and 1/2 in. and the instrument is ready for use. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. are glued to it. When locating the place for the screw eyes. --Contributed by Ralph L. long.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Buxton. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. La Rue. fastened to the rod. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. will be about right. Fasten a polished brass ball to. running down the plate.

At a point 6 in. When a fish is hooked. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. A. hole bored through it. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. silvered. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. is made of a 1/4-in. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. from the smaller end. about 15 in. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. --Contributed by Mrs. as indicated in the . long. Texas. Bryan. as shown in the illustration. M. enameled or otherwise decorated. as this will cut under the water without splashing. Corsicana. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. The can may be bronzed. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. 2-1/2 in. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. pine board.

The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. and trace upon it the design and outline. 22 is plenty heavy enough. thick. then with a nail. take a piece of thin wood. A good size is 5 in. put a coat or two of wax and polish . If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. will do as well as the more expensive woods. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Having completed the drawing. If soft wood. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. or even pine. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. long over all. Any kind of wood will do. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. as shown. punch the holes. wide by 6 in. Basswood or butternut. such as basswood or pine was used. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. 3/8 or 1/4 in. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. using a piece of carbon paper. using powdered pumice and lye. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Next prepare the metal holder. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. When it has dried over night. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. Polish the metal.Match Holder accompanying sketch. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back.

each 1 in. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. wide and 5 in. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. long. . If one has some insight in carving. --Contributed by W.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. It is useful for photographers. the whole being finished in linseed oil. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. can be made on the same standards. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. If carving is contemplated. are used for the cores of the magnets. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Richmond. Instead of the usual two short ropes. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. 1/2 in. is used for the base of this instrument. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. of pure olive oil. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. long. 2 in. A. Cal. thick. Two wire nails. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Jaquythe.

These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. says the English Mechanic. as shown by the dotted lines. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. acts as a spring to keep the key open. in the shape shown in the sketch. London. --Contributed by W. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. as shown in Fig. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. H. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. 1. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. cut in the shape of the letter T. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. when the key is pushed down. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. about No. 3. except that for the legs. A piece of tin. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. All of the parts for the armor have been described. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. About 1 in. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. then covered with red. at A. cloth or baize to represent the legs. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. . behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. 25 gauge. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. A rubber band. the paper covering put on. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. Lynas. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. leaving about 1/4 in. similar to that used in electric bells. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel.

1 and drill a 1/4in. for the sake of lightness. apart. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. about 1 in. Instead of using brass headed nails. drill six 1/4-in.. So set up. A 1/4-in. completes the equipment. long. 1 in. 2. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. and eight small holes. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. at each end. in the other end. In one end of the piece. flat headed carriage bolt. By moving the position of the bolt from. not too tight. or ordinary plaster laths will do. These can be purchased at a stationery store. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. Silver paper will do very well. Secure two strips of wood. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. make the same series of eight small holes and. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. 3 in. Fig. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. one to another . holes. The two pieces are bolted together. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. can be made in a few minutes' time. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. Take the piece shown in Fig.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. apart. says Camera Craft. Cut them to a length or 40 in. hole in the center.

lay Cover B and the one under D. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. as in portraiture and the like. 4. Fig. then B over C and the end stuck under A. long. C over D and B. and the one beneath C. of the ends remain unwoven. 2. but instead of reversing . The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. 2. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. Start with one end. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. In this sketch. Then take B and lay it over A. Then draw all four ends up snugly. the one marked A. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. A round fob is made in a similar way. D over A and C. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. in Fig. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. for instance. and lay it over the one to the right. A is the first string and B is the second. as shown in Fig.of the larger holes in the strip. 2. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. taking the same start as for the square fob. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. 1. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. doubled and run through the web of A. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in.

A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Ohio. is left out at the center before starting on one side. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. as at A in Fig. A loop. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. over the one to its right. --Contributed by John P. as B. long. as in making the square fob. Rupp. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. The round fob is shown in Fig. 5. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Monroeville. is to be made of leather. always lap one string. especially if silk strings are used. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Other designs can be made in the same manner. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. the design of which is shown herewith. 1-1/2 in. 3.

A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. . The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. pressing it against the wood. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. When the supply of wax is exhausted. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. it can be easily renewed. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Northville. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Mich.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. -Contributed by A. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. beeswax or paraffin. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. door facing or door panel. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. A. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. filling them with wax. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. Houghton. such as a nut pick. Any smooth piece of steel. using the reverse side.

The tacks should be about 1 in. New York. J. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. D. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Thompson. and about 12 in. if blueprints are used. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. thick. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Ill. N. place it face down in the dish. apart and driven in only part way. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. although tin ones can be used with good success. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. those on matte paper will work best. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. E and F. Select the print you wish to mount. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Fold together on lines C. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Petersburg. Y. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. Enough plaster should. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. long. . After the plaster has thoroughly dried. says Photographic Times. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. it is best to leave a plain white margin. leaving about 1/4 in. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. remaining above the surface of the board.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. --Contributed by O. and after wetting.

When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda.. bell flowers. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. One of the . without mixing the solutions. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. filling the same about onehalf full. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. etc. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. violets. as shown at the left in the sketch. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. as shown in the right of the sketch. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. Lower into the test tube a wire. roses. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. will be rendered perfectly white.

A rod that will fit the brass tube. Phonograph and Construction of Parts .most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. 1. Shabino. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. Millstown. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. turned a little tapering. South Dakota. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. shading. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. made of heavy tin. and at the larger end. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The tin horn can be easily made. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. to keep the core from coming off in turning. Fig. about 1/8s in. When soldering these parts together. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. not too tightly. long and made of wood. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The first point should be ground blunt. The diaphragm. in diameter and 1 in. as shown in the sketch. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. 1-7/8 in. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. should be soldered to the box. --Contributed by L. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. 3. thick. as shown. or delicate tints of the egg. long. 2. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. is about 2-1/2 in. but which will not wobble loose. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The sound box. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The location of these parts is shown in Fig.. L.

open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . says the Iowa Homestead. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. Colo. Ill. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. put a board on top. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Victor. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass.Contributed by E. Gold. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. wondering what it was. E. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Jr. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. and. Chicago.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. mice in the bottom.

and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Buffalo. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. --Contributed by Lyndwode. N. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Pereira. Can. Y. . Ottawa.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien.

De Loof. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . above the end of the dasher. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Mich. cut round. This cart has no axle. Cal. a piece of tin. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. --Contributed by Thos. Put a small nail 2 in. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Grand Rapids. Jaquythe. as shown. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. through which several holes have been punched. Richmond. A. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. and at one end of the stick fasten.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. longer than the length of the can. by means of a flatheaded tack. --Contributed by W. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. as it can be made quickly in any size.

The wires are set in the 1/8-in.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. New Orleans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. wide and as long as the box. Pa. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig.1. were below the level of the bullseye. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. A wedge-shaped piece of . Fig. 1-1/2 in. long. 2. wide and 3 ft. --Contributed by James M. The candles. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. screwed it on the inside of a store box. 2. apart. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Kane. board. I reversed a door gong. 2 in. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. 1 ft. as shown. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. 1/4 in. The baseboard and top are separable. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. thick. wide. Doylestown. wide and 1/8 in. 1. of course. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. 2. La. Notches 1/8 in. deep and 3 in.

as shown in Fig. it can be removed without marring the casing. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. After the glue has dried. Ia. 1. This device is very convenient for invalids. when placed as in Fig. dressing one surface of each piece. For the handle. When not in use. Wood. A. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. to prevent its scratching the desk top. etc. The block can also be used as a paperweight. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. take two pieces of hard wood. the blade is put back into the groove . the shelf could not be put on the window. Needles. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. wide into each side of the casing. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. 3.. Mass. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. the reason being that if both were solid. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Cover the block with rubber. wide rubber bands or felt.Book Back Holders metal. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. stone or wood. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. scissors. --Contributed by G. Worcester. can be picked up without any trouble. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. After completing the handle. West Union. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. by cutting away the ends. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. will.

2. 1 in. square and 4 in. as shown in Fig. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Malden. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. as shown in Fig. Erie. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Cleveland. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Hutchins. A notch is cut in one side. . thus carrying the car up the incline. long. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Mass. Pa. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. --Contributed by H. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. If desired. A. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. -Contributed by W. Jacobs. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Ohio. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. 1. S. Each one is made of a hardwood block.

and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. One sheet of metal..J. and an awl and hammer. 6 by 9-1/2 in. The letters can be put on afterward. If one such as is shown is to be used. Prepare a design for the front. a board on which to work it.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. N. will be needed. This will insure having all parts alike. Cape May Point. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. . A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming.

it may be effected by an application of potash lye. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. if desired. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. says Master Painter. that can be worked in your own parlor." In all appearance. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. turpentine. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. The stick may be placed by the side of. as shown. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. 1 part. in the waste metal. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. On the back. a violin. If any polishing is required. 3/4 part. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. to right angles. Remove the metal. . The music will not sound natural. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. mandolin or guitar.Fasten the metal to the board. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. 2 parts white vitriol. flat brush. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. 1/4 part. applied by means of a brush. paste the paper design right on the metal. only the marginal line is to be pierced. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. but weird and distant. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. behind or through the center of a table leg. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. varnish. or. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. placed on a table. So impressive are the results. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. One coat will do. which is desirable. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic.

and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. 2. long and spread about 8 in. each 28 in. 3. each 6 in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. are shaped as shown in Fig. long and measuring 26 in. thick by 1/2 in. apart. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. square bar iron. . The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. it might be difficult.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. London. across the top. round-head machine screws. The longest piece. long. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. is bent square so as to form two uprights. With proper tools this is easy. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. wide. without them. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. says Work. Two pairs of feet. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. and is easy to construct. One thing is always at hand and that is wood.

better still. 5. The glass. 6. the latter being tapped to . Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. The design is formed in the lead. After the joints are soldered. D. as shown in Fig. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. special flux purchased for this purpose. B. using rosin as a flux. 7. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. 5. C. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. After the glass is cut. and the base border. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. or. Fig. on it as shown. cut a long piece of lead. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. in the grooves of the borders. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. Fig. is held by the brads. 4. lead. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The brads are then removed. While the piece of lead D. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. Place the corner piece of glass. A. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop.

and round the corners of one end for a ring. long. then drill a 3/4-in. J. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in.. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. holes through their centers. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Jr. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. N. rounded at the top as shown. rocker bolt. bolt. long. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in.the base of the clip. thick and drill 3/4-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Secure a post. square and of the length given in the drawing. --Contributed by W. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Two styles of hand holds are shown. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. This ring can be made of 1-in. as shown in Fig. one on each side and central with the hole. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Dreier. wood screws in each washer. Fasten the plates to the block B. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. 8. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. H. plates. Camden. and two wood blocks. then flatten its end on the under side. This . Bore a 5/8-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Make three washers 3-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Bore a 3/4-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. A and B. in diameter and about 9 in. The center pin is 3/4-in. bolt. not less than 4 in. in diameter and 1/4 in. long. plank about 12 ft. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in.

long. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 2 by 4 in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. Draw a line on the four 7-in. in diameter and 7 in. of 1/4-in. long and 1 piece. New Orleans. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. boards along the side of each from end to end. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . The four 7-in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 4 in. 1/2 in. bit. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. 4 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 50 ft. apart for a distance of 3 ft. by 2 ft. bolts and rope. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. long. 3 in. 1-1/4in. by 6-1/2 ft. 7 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. hickory. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. maple. 1 by 7 in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 16 screws. 4 pieces. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in.will make an excellent cover for a pot. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. horse and rings. by 3 ft. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. straight-grained hickory. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. screws. long. 4 pieces. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 9 in. square by 5 ft. square by 9-1/2 ft. chestnut or ash. because it will not stand the weather. To substitute small. long. and some one can swing an axe. long. 4 filler pieces. 2-1/2 in. from one edge. If trees are convenient. 3/4 by 3 in. can make a first class gymnasium. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. La. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. shanks. 1. the money outlay will be almost nothing. long. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length.

It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. 8 in. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. each 3 ft. boards coincide. so the 1/2-in. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones.. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. apart. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. from the end. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. deep and remove all loose dirt. at each end. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. piece of wood. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. apart. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats.bored. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown.. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. 2. Bore a 9/16-in.

it follows the edge for about 1 in. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom.. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil." which skimmed along the distant horizon. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. and ascends the stem. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. just visible against the dark evening sky. not much to look at in daytime. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. in an endless belt. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. When the interest of the crowd. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. which at once gathered. it is taken to the edge of the foot.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. W. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. not even the tumbler. And all he used was a black thread. but most deceptive at dusk. and then passes in a curve across the base. apart. and materially heightened the illusion. the effect is very striking. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. . disappearing only to reappear again. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. was at its height. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. He stretched the thread between two buildings. about 100 ft. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. passing through a screweye at either end. If the tumbler is rotated. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others.

so the point will be on top. long. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. long. Chisel out two notches 4 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. A wire about No. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. long. square and 6 ft. 2 cross braces. 2 side braces. beginning at a point 9 in. preferably cedar. 8 bolts. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 7 in. Fig. 2 by 3 in. long. La. 2 by 4 in. square and 51/2 ft. To make the apparatus. by 7 ft. 4 in. 8 in. long. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 2 by 4 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 2 by 4 in. from either side of the center. wide and 1 in. 8 in. large spikes. long. 6 in. and turned in a spiral D. by 3 ft. deep. The cork will come out easily. New Orleans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. by 10 ft. Bevel the ends of . 2 bars of straight grained hickory. long. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 4 bolts. 1. 4 knee braces. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 4 wood screws. by 2 ft.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 4 in. long and 1 doz. 8 in. 2 base pieces. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 2 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar.

Cal. A. which face each other. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. and countersinking the heads. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Richmond. leaving the strainer always in position. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. A large sized ladle. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. leave it undressed. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. The wood so treated will last for years. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. ( To be Continued. as shown in the diagram. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Two endpieces must be made. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. These will allow the ladle to be turned. except the bars. . save the bars.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. equipped with a strainer. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. After the trenches are dug. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather.the knee braces. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. etc. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. so the bolts in both will not meet. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer.. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. Jaquythe. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. jellies. screws. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. but even unpainted they are very durable. using four of the 7-in bolts. of 7 ft. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. additional long. If using mill-cut lumber. --Contributed by W. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place.

and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. drill press or planer. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. milling machine. In order to accomplish this experiment. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. Oil. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. partly a barrier for jumps.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. which seems impossible. or various cutting compounds of oil. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. . it is necessary to place a stick. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. of sufficient 1ength. A. thus holding the pail as shown.

2 by 4 in. long. bolts. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. 2 by 4 in. bolts.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. ten 1/2-in. Procure from a saw mill. 1 cross brace. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. projections and splinters. 1 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. is a good length. long. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. in the ground. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 2 by 4 in.. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. long. by 3 ft. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. Hand holds must be provided next. piece of 2 by 4-in. 2 adjusting pieces. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. long. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. These are well nailed in place. but 5 ft. apart. 4 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. long. square by 5-1/2 ft. The material required is as follows: Two posts. by 3 ft. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. and free from knots. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. two 1/2-in. bolts. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces.. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . from each end. 4 knee braces. long. 7 in. wood yard or from the woods. to fasten the knee braces at the top. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 3 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. square by 5 ft. bolt. long. 4 in. beginning 1-1/2 in. long. These are placed 18 in. by 3 ft. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. 4 in. The round part of this log must be planed. 4-1/2 in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. To construct. in diameter--the larger the better. 2 bases. apart in a central position on the horse. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts.

but nevertheless. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. no one is responsible but himself. then bending to the shape desired. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. it is caused by some obstruction. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating.horse top. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Cal. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. pipe and fittings. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. it is caused by an overloaded shell. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. over and around. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Also. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. etc. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. A. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Jaquythe. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Richmond. snow. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. such as a dent. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. water.--Contributed by W. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height.

Joerin. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. when straightened out. Toronto. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Ontario. when complete. Mass. then run a string over each part. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. --Contributed by J. The end elevation. in width and 1/32 in. Vener. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. . is much better than a wood sled. France. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. at E and F. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. --Contributed by James E. which. These. Boston. 1. Noble. W. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. thick. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. 1/4 or 3/16 in. 2. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. --Contributed by Arthur E. will give the length. are all the tools necessary. Paris.

3. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. and the latter will take on a bright luster. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. nor that which is partly oxidized. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. It is best to use soft water. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. . 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. AA and BB. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. are nailed. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. 4. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The method shown in Figs. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs.

the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 1). The materials used are: backbone. or various rulings may be made. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 4. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. as shown in Fig. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. Broad lines can be made. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 2. Percy Ashley in Rudder. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. 3. or unequal widths as in Fig. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. as shown in Fig. . Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. class ice-yacht. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 8 and 9. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 2. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

a tee and a forging. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. It can be made longer or shorter. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. bent and drilled as shown. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work.Fig. out from the collar. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. long. pipe. Both the lower . about 30 in. A good and substantial homemade lathe. but if it is made much longer. pins to keep them from turning. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The headstock is made of two tees. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. 1. 1-Details of Lathe sort. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. a larger size of pipe should be used. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The point should extend about 11/2 in.

M. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Man. and will answer for a great variety of work. To do this. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. thick as desired. 2. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Musgrove. as shown in Fig. 1. Fruitvale. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Indiana. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. but also their insulating properties. Boissevain. 3/4 or 1 in. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. as shown in Fig. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. --Contributed by W. Laporte. --Contributed by M. W. a corresponding line made on this. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. 2. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. UpDeGraff. . Cal. or a key can be used as well.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. else taper turning will result. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. It is about 1 in. 2. Held. --Contributed by W. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe.

Cline. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. long. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. To obviate this. Ark. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. Smith. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . In use. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. as shown. The handle is of pine about 18 in. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. J. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Ft. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. --Contributed by E. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle.

Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. After being entered. --Contributed by Walter W. on starting the lathe. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. This prevents the drill from wobbling. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. if this method is followed: First. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. New Orleans. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. centering is just one operation too many. and when once in true up to its size. which should be backed out of contact. La. White. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. take . The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. the drill does not need the tool. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Denver. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Colo. face off the end of the piece.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs.

the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. all the better. by applying caustic soda or . and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. shorter t h a n the wand. vanishing wand. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. a bout 1/2 in. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. unknown to the spectators. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. the cap is placed over the paper tube. After the wand is removed.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. The glass tube B. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. The handkerchief rod. is put into the paper tube A. after being shown empty. shown at C. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. It can be used in a great number of tricks. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. a long piece of glass tubing. and can be varied to suit the performer. In doing this. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. as shown in D. and this given to someone to hold. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. says the Sphinx.

All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. The brace at D is 1 in. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. and if care is taken in selecting the material. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. as shown by K. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. preferably hard maple. This dimension and those for the frets . cut to any shape desired. 1 End. and glue it to the neck at F. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. square and 1-7/8 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 1/4 in. can be made by the home mechanic. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. by 14 by 17 in. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in.potash around the edges of the letters. thick. long. 1 Neck. across the front and back to strengthen them. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 1 Bottom. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. Glue the neck to the box. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. Glue strips of soft wood. Cut a piece of hard wood. With care and patience. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. The sides. As the cement softens. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 1. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 2 Sides. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 3/16. with the back side rounding. End.

thick and about 1 ft. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. E. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. H.Pa. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. or backbone. O. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Six holes. long is used for a keel. 3/16 in. --Contributed by Chas.should be made accurately. Frary. -Contributed by J. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. in diameter. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. Stoddard. A board 1 in. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Norwalk. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. but it is not. Carbondale. toward each end. and beveled . wide and 11-1/2 ft. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat.

wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. The cross-boards (B. Shape these as shown by A. long. C. long are required. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs.) in notches. 13 in. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. slender switches of osier willow. 3). b. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. and notched at the end to receive them (B. 2). 3). fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. or similar material. The ribs. Fig. when made of green elm. 2). 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. 3. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. B. Fig. 2. Fig. two strips of wood (b. probably. and. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. 3/8 in. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. For the gunwales (a. as shown in Fig. Fig. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C.. in thickness and should be cut. such as is used for making chairbottoms. Fig. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Fig. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. and so. as they are apt to do. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. two twigs may be used to make one rib. but twigs of some other trees. thick. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. 1. 3. in such cases. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. Osiers probably make the best ribs. These are better. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. or other place. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. Fig. thick. by means of a string or wire. such as hazel or birch. are next put in. twigs 5 or 6 ft. 4). but before doing this. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. with long stout screws. procure at a carriage factory. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. . wide by 26 in. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. Fig. b. as before described. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. 4. buy some split cane or rattan. b.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. and are not fastened. as shown in Fig. In drying. will answer nearly as well. which are easily made of long. Any tough. a. C. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. 1 and 2. Green wood is preferable. the loose strips of ash (b. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. some tight strips of ash. apart.

lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. but with less turpentine. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. 5). Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. but neither stiff nor very thick. apply a second coat of the same varnish. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. If the paper be 1 yd. and as soon as that has soaked in. however. and steady in the water. Then take some of the split rattan and. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. B. It should be smooth on the surface. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. It should be drawn tight along the edges. When the paper is dry. Fig. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. wide. tacking it to the bottom-board. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. if it has been properly constructed of good material. and light oars. You may put in . This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. When thoroughly dry. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. preferably iron. The paper is then trimmed. of very strong wrapping-paper. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. Being made in long rolls. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. and very tough. and held in place by means of small clamps. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. after wetting it. If not. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B.

to fit it easily. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. Fig. 1. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. they will support very heavy weights. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. Drive the lower nail first. Fig. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. We procured a box and made a frame. Fig. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. fore and aft. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. and if driven as shown in the cut.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. 2. 5. and make a movable seat (A. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. 5). The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. 1 and the end in .

This is an easy . --Contributed by Albert Niemann. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another.Fig. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. This way has its drawbacks. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. Close the other end with the same operation. and the result is. Pittsburg. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. 4. being softer where the flame has been applied. and the glass. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. this makes the tube airtight. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. A good way to handle this work. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. Pa. 3. 5. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed.

above the work and striking it with the hammer. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. four. rivet punch. Seventh. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . 23 gauge. The candle holders may have two. After the bulb is formed. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. three. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. Give the metal a circular motion. file.way to make a thermometer tube. third. then reverse. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. extra metal all around. -Contributed by A. fourth. fifth. second. above the metal. also trace the decorative design. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. or six arms. with a piece of carbon paper. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. Sixth. Oswald. thin screw. flat and round-nosed pliers. very rapid progress can be made. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. metal shears. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in.

Having pierced the bracket.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. and holder. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. drip cup. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Metal polish of any kind will do. Small copper rivets are used. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. How To Make a Hectograph [326] .

when it will be ready for use. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. alcohol 2 parts. I steer with the front wheel. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. glycerine 4 parts. thus it was utilized. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. sugar 1 part. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. using a steel pen. and brace and bit were the tools used. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. Heat 6-1/2 oz. J. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. and add the gelatine. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. A saw. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. all the rest I found.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. except they had wheels instead of runners. Mother let me have a sheet. Shiloh. Twenty cents was all I spent. and other things as they were needed. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. if it has not absorbed too much ink. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. the stick at the bottom of the sail. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. N. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. they were like an ice boat with a sail. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. The boom. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. The gaff. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. is a broomstick. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. on a water bath. and water 24 parts. smooth it down and then remove as before. deep. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. F. Soak 1 oz. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. winding the ends where they came together with wire. and it will be ready for future use. Fifty. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. and in a week . hammer. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. of glycerine to about 200 deg. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions.

a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.

are . wire brads. about 2 ft. A and B. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. This ring is made up from two rings. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. The slide support. and a projecting lens 2 in. but if such a box is not found. A table. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. 1/2 to 3/4 in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. Fig. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. If a small saw is used. and the work carefully done. and. wide.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. long. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. well seasoned pine. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. and 14 in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. thick. slide to about 6 ft. focus enlarging a 3-in. E. 1. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. H. or a lens of 12-in. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. G. above the center. and the lens slide. describe a 9-in.. at a point 1 in. as desired. at a distance of 24 ft. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. or glue. 8 in. DD. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. high. provided the material is of metal. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. 3. The board is centered both ways. wide and 15 in.

the water at once extinguishes the flame. and when the right position is found for each. JJ. Minn. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr.-Contributed by G. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. apply two coats of shellac varnish. light burning oil. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. of safe. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. should the glass happen to upset. Paul. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. placed on the water. The arrangement is quite safe as. To reach the water. B. the strips II serving as guides. A sheet . P. Small strips of tin.constructed to slip easily on the table. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. St. E. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. but not long enough.

form a piece of wire in the same shape. --Contributed by J. 2. Fig. Y. by 12 ft. Schenectady. from a tent company. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together.H. If one of these clips is not at hand. 3.. then the corners on one end are doubled over. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Crawford. 1. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. N. I ordered a canvas bag. Fig. to cover the mattresses. 3. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 3 in. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 12 ft. 9 in. 4.

1. open on the edges. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. To calibrate the instrument. 1/2 in. D. 3/4 in.each edge. as shown in Fig. Fold two strips of light cardboard. for amperes and the other post. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. so as to form two oblong boxes. 1. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Attach a piece of steel rod. Denver. first mark the binding-post A. A Film Washing Trough [331] . connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. through which the indicator works. wide. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. thick. 1/2 in. apart. Fasten the wire with gummed label. An arc is cut in the paper. 2. Warren. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. to keep it from unwinding. C. in the center coil. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. 3/4 in. Pa. long. A rubber band. White. long and 3/16 in. Do not use too strong a rubber. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. 2. --Contributed by Edward M. insulating them from the case with cardboard. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. and insert two binding-posts. Fig. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. to the coil of small wire for volts. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Colo. Teasdale. Fig. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. 3 to swing freely on the tack. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. drill two 3/16 in. holes in the edge. 2. V. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. --Contributed by Walter W.

Wood Burning [331] . Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Cut a 1/4-in. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. as shown. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. with the large hole up. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Hunting.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. --Contributed by M. M. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Dayton. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. O. Place this can on one end of the trough. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom.

Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. then into this bottle place.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. mouth downward.

1.Y. as shown in the sketch. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. If the cork is adjusted properly. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Auburn. Whitehouse. many puzzling effects may be obtained. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. thick. but not very thick. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. --Contributed by Fred W. long. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. --Contributed by John Shahan. Ala. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . provided the bottle is wide. Place the small bottle in as before.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. Upper Troy. 3/4 in. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. This will make a very pretty ornament. N. If the small bottle used is opaque. wide and 4 in. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. 2.

They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 1. pulley F. even in a light breeze. Fig. Its smaller parts. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. G. such as blades and pulleys. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. thick. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. K. which was nailed to the face plate. in diameter and 1 in. --Contributed by D. The wire L was put . 1. which gave considerable power for its size. thick and 3 in. 4. The shaft C. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. 1 in. 1. wide. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. 2. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. line. Fig. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. The bearing blocks were 3 in. sugar pine on account of its softness. 1. Both bearings were made in this manner. I. Fig. B. iron rod. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. to the shaft. which extended to the ground. On a 1000-ft. thick. or ordinary telephone transmitters. long. Fig. was 1/4in. A staple. The 21/2-in. 2 ft. by the method shown in Fig. 3. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. If a transmitter is used. which was 6 in. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. were constructed of 1-in. W. 1. as shown in Fig.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. pulley. Fig. Milter. high without the upper half. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. was keyed to shaft C. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters.

The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. wide and 1 in. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. when the windmill needed oiling. was 2 ft. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. 1. long and 3 in. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. This completes the receiver or sounder. 1) 4 in. apart in the tower. providing one has a few old materials on hand. and was cut the shape shown. in the center of the board P. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Fig. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. strips. There a 1/4-in. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. This fan was made of 1/4-in. long. 3 in. so that the 1/4-in. 0. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. through the latter. 25 ft. pine 18 by 12 in. a 1/2-in. 2. across the thin edge of a board. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. Fig.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. as. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. G. The smaller one. long and bend it as . Cut another piece of tin 3 in. 1. R. 5. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. in diameter. was tacked. hole for the shaft G was in the center. This board was 12 in. Fig. hole was bored for it. 6. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. 6. Fig. The power was put to various uses. To lessen the friction here. washers were placed under pulley F. long and bend it as shown at A. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. The other lid. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. 1. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. top down also. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. The bed plate D. cut out another piece of tin (X. with brass headed furniture tacks. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Fig. H. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. If you have no bell. long. Fig. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. To make the key. Fig. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. long and 1/2 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. Two washers were placed on shaft C. 1. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. with all parts in place. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. for instance. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig.

Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Before tacking it to the board. By adjusting the coils. like many another device boys make. -Contributed by John R. as indicated. leaving the other wire as it is. Thus a center drive is made. after the manner of bicycle wheels. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . 2. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Now. The rear barrels are. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. at the front.shown. although it can be made with but two. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Going back to Fig. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. 1. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. When tired of this instrument. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. using cleats to hold the board frame. fitted with paddles as at M. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. as shown at Water. causing a buzzing sound. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. and. McConnell. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly.

The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. 1. as shown in Fig. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. To propel it. There is no danger. 3. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. there will not be much friction. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. which will give any amount of pleasure. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. If the journals thus made are well oiled. can be built. or even a little houseboat. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. The speed is slow at first. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. feet on the pedals. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. copper piping and brass tubing for base.

Shape small blocks of boxwood. Fig. Fig. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. 2. B. If magnifying glass cannot be had. and so creating a false circuit. Then melt out the rosin or lead. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Fig. A. 1. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. C. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Turn a small circle of wood. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. D.of pleasure for a little work. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. Place one brass ring in cylinder. 1. 1. or it may be put to other uses if desired. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. If it is desired to make the light very complete. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. 2. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. 2. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. then the glass disc and then the other ring. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Fig. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig.

the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. Pa. 4 in. In placing clock on shelf. thick. --Contributed by Geo. by having the switch on the baseboard. Ogden. S. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. C. Swissvale. Chatland. To throw on light throw levers to the left. bell. while lying in bed. after two turns have been made on the key. J. after setting alarm. H. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. shelf. or 1/4in. long. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. B. contact post. T. wide and 1/16 in. set alarm key as shown in diagram. C. X. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. 3/8 in. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. 4-1/2 in. 5-1/4 by 10 in. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. near the bed. and pulled tight. brass strip. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. To get the cylinder into its carriage.. if too small. bracket. --Contributed by C. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. The parts indicated are as follows: A. dry batteries. G. I. To operate this. switch. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. Throw lever off from the right to center. brass rod. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . F. such as is used for cycle valves. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . wire from batteries to switch. Brinkerhoff. E. D. some glue will secure them. long. key of alarm clock. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. which stops bell ringing. wire from bell to switch. Utah.india rubber tubing. When alarm goes off. copper tubing. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. wire from light to switch.

There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. in diameter. which can be made of an old can. about 3-1/2 in. Fig. gives the heater a more finished appearance. letting it extend 3/4 in. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. in diameter. Minn. as at A. Chapman. 3. as at A. A flannel bag. A small lamp of about 5 cp. All that is required is a tin covering. Fig. Make a shoulder. making it as true and smooth as possible. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. as . as at B. Pull out the nail and stick. from one end. Having finished this. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. 2. Fig. will do the heating. 4 in. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. as in Fig. beyond the end of the spindle. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. long. 2.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Make the spindle as in Fig. 1/4 in. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. about 6 in. for instance. a bed warmer. S. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. place stick and all in a pail of sand. 1. This is to form the fuse hole. Lanesboro. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. being careful not to get the sand in it. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. wide. 1. --Contributed by Chas. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand.

thick. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. good straight-grained pine will do. but if this wood cannot be procured. 5/8 in. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. The illustration shows how this is done. spring and arrows.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. wide and 6 ft. long. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . 1. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. or hickory. will be sufficient to make the trigger. long. 3/8 in. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. long. 6 in. Joerin. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. The material must be 1-1/2 in. ash. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. A piece of tin. --Contributed by Arthur E. wide and 3/8 in. thick. this is to keep the edges from splitting. deep. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. A piece of oak. 11/2 in. wide and 3 ft. thick. 1 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow.

7. from the opposite end. in diameter. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. To shoot the crossbow. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. E. Fig. place the arrow in the groove. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. 8. Trownes. --Contributed by O. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. 9. The trigger. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. from the end of the stock. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. Fig. or through the necessity of. 3. 6. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. The bow is not fastened in the stock. A spring. which is 1/4 in. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. Such a temporary safe light may be . hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. 2. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. and one for the trigger 12 in. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. 4. Fig. better still. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. wide at each end. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. The stick for the bow. thick. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. it lifts the spring up. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Ill. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. When the trigger is pulled. Wilmette. having the latter swing quite freely. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. To throw the arrow. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight.

Remove the bottom of the box. apart. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. By chopping the trunk almost through. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. it is the easiest camp to make. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. making lighting and trimming convenient. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. C. and nail it in position as shown at A. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. Moreover.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. respectively. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. since the flame of the candle is above A. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. This lamp is safe. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. The hinged cover E. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. make the frame of the wigwam. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. The cut should be about 5 ft. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. from the ground. Remove one end. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. says Photo Era. from the ground. the bark lean-to is a . so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. is used as a door. and replace as shown at B. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut.

make the best kind of a camp bed. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. wide. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Where bark is used. makes a good pair of tongs. spruce. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. In the early summer. selecting a site for a camp. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. For a permanent camp. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. long. will dry flat. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. and when the camp is pitched. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. Sheets of bark. nails are necessary to hold it in place.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. are a convenient size for camp construction. and cedar. wide and 6 ft. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. deep and covered with blankets. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. and split the tops with an ax. piled 2 or 3 ft. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. For a foot in the middle of the stick. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. long and 1-1/2 in. 3 ft. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. Tongs are very useful in camp. . long and 2 or 3 ft. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. 6 ft. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. a 2-in. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. thick. A piece of elm or hickory.

and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. .Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and affording accommodation for several persons. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. hinges.

about 4 in. to another . B. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. changing the water both morning and night. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. wide. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. A. and provide a cover or door. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. Fig. the interior can. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. 1.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described.. B. Kane. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Doylestown. Pa. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. deep and 4 in. --Contributed by James M. I drove a small cork.

which project inside and outside of the tube. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. E. C. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. Fig. This makes . as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. for instance. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. to pass through an increasing resistance. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. such as ether. 4 and 5). if necessary. 3. limit. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. fused into one side. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. The current is thus compelled. The diagram. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. for instance. 2. 2. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw.glass tube. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. until. a liquid. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter.

4-1/2 in. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. drill the four rivet holes. brass or iron. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. 2. which will make it uniform in size. 1. thick. If the thickness is sufficient. thick. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. larger than the dimensions given. Alpena. but merely discolored. Fig. on a lathe. brass. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. or pattern. clamp the template. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. or even 1/16 in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. After cleaning them with the solution. 3-3/8 in. tap. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. in diameter. hole is . by turning the lathe with the hand. 3-3/8 in. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. After the template is marked out. Before removing the field from the lathe. set at 1/8 in. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. making it 1/16 in. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. when several pieces are placed together. they will make a frame 3/4 in. A 5/8in. bent at right angles as shown. to allow for finishing. These holes are for the bearing studs. which may be of any thickness so that. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. therefore. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. When the frame is finished so far. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. two holes. screws. Fig. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. in diameter. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. 3. A. Michigan. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. as shown in the left-hand sketch. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. thicker. cannot be used so often. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. assemble and rivet them solidly. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. The bearing studs are now made. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. as shown in Fig. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. between centers. Then the field can be finished to these marks. mark off a space. and for the outside of the frame.

The shaft of the armature. brass rod is inserted. Fig. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. solder them to the supports. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. file them out to make the proper adjustment. 4. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. When the bearings are located. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. soldered into place. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. into which a piece of 5/8-in. is turned up from machine steel.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. and build up the solder well. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . or otherwise finished. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft.

the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. as shown in Fig. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. wide. Make the core 3/4 in. threaded. 6. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. to allow for finishing to size. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. When annealed. being formed for the ends. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. 3/4 in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 9. or segments. as shown in Fig. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. washers. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. then drill a 1/8-in. hole and tap it for a pin. thick. 1/8 in. as shown m Fig. brass rod. wide. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. holes through them for rivets. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. and held with a setscrew. Procure 12 strips of mica. 8. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. 3/4 in. Armature-Ring Core. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. inside diameter. thick. 3. sheet fiber. 1-1/8 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig.. The pins are made of brass. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. thick. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. thick and 1/4 in. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 7. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. Rivet them together. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. 6. When this is accomplished. deep and 7/16 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. and then they are soaked in warm water. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. thick are cut like the pattern. The sides are also faced off and finished. 5. 3. After they . After the pieces are cut out. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. by 1-1/2 in. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. then clamp the whole in place with the nut.

after the motor is on the stand. shown at B. of the end to protrude. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. The source of current is connected to the terminals. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. The winding is started at A. being required. long. In starting to wind. thick. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust.have dried. When the glue is set. Run one end of the field wire. 6 in. All connections should be securely soldered. of the wire. This winding is for a series motor. shown at A. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. The field is wound with No. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. wide and 1 in. 1. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. are soldered together. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. Fig. about 100 ft. and wind on four layers. until the 12 slots are filled. sheet fiber. sheet fiber. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. of No. To connect the wires. 1. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. Fig. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. they are glued to the core insulation. the two ends of the wire. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. which will take 50 ft. and bring the end of the wire out at B. The two ends are joined at B. 5. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. After one coil. by bending the end around one of the projections. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. yet it shows a series of . run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. 8 in. or side. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass.

When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. or. is fastened to the metallic body.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. A 1/2-in. and one. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. still more simply. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. one from each of the eight contacts. Nine wires run from the timer. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. as in the case of a spiral. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. which serves as the ground wire.

The pointer end of the needle is painted black. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. 6 in. thus giving 16 different directions. board. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. circle. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button.The Wind Vane. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. long. 45 deg. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. Covering these is a thin. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. It should be . Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. of the dial. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. Without this attachment.

N. and about 6 in. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. according to who is going to use it. called a chip carving knife. long to give the best results. To make it. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. also a piece of new carpet. if not too high. is most satisfactory. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. high. though a special knife. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. Place the leather on some level. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used.about 6 ft. will answer the purpose just as well. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. Buffalo. will be enough for the two sides. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Fill the box with any handy ballast. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. To work these outlines. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. Y. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. however. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. making it heavy or light. 14 by 18 in. will be sufficient. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. Before tacking the fourth side. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. and securely nail on the top of the box. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. . The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. thus making a universal joint. Blackmer. Cut 3-in. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. or. -Contributed by James L." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find.

being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. An ordinary sewing-machine . A good leather paste will be required.

Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Morse. B. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. --Contributed by Katharine D. can be thrown away when no longer needed. a needle and some feathers. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. away from it. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. square and tying a piece of . Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. If a fire breaks out. rather than the smooth side. of water. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. and tie them together securely at the bottom. N. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. Syracuse. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. or a hip that has been wrenched. of common salt and 10 lb. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal.will do if a good stout needle is used. temporary lameness. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Y. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use.

Paterson. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. E. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. thus helping the rats to enter. laying poisoned meat and meal. made up of four layers of No. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. and the receiver is ready for use. F. B. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. A.. board all around the bottom on the inside. Albany. deep. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. as shown. long. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. N. The diaphragm C. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. wide and 1/16 in. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. letting it go at arm's length. Wis. There is a 1-in. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. wound on the head end. high. Ashland. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. --Contributed by John A. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off.string to each corner. is cut on the wood. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. commonly called tintype tin. setting traps. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. The body of the receiver. The strings should be about 15 in. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. One end is removed entirely. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. Y. Gordon Dempsey. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. N. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. Hellwig. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. The end is filed to an edge. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. cut to the length of the spool. but not sharp. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. which is the essential part of the instrument. The coil is 1 in. and tacked it to the boards. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. A small wooden or fiber end. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. --Contributed by J. etc. G. This not only keeps the rats out.J. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. the corners being wired. long. and a coil of wire. . 1/8 in.

To clean small articles. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. Take a piece of string or. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. A single line will be sufficient. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. better still. to . and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. wide. The vase is to have three supports. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. a piece of small wire. gold. begin with the smallest scrolls. and bend each strip in shape.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together.

wide when stitching up the purse. and does not require coloring. Work down the outside line of the design. After taking off the pattern. . Press or model down the leather all around the design. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. from the lines EF on the piece. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. 3-1/2 in. Fold the leather on the line EF. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. 3-1/4 in.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. thus raising it.which the supports are fastened with rivets. 6-3/8 in. from C to D. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. through which to slip the fly AGH. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. as shown in the sketch. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. from E to F. 4-1/4 in. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Trace also the line around the purse. sharp pencil. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. using a duller point of the tool. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B.. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used.. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. About 1 in. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather.

long. square. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. with pins or small nails. First. as shown in Fig. with a compass saw. Cut off six pieces 12 in. being cast in wooden molds. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. following the dotted lines. all the way around.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. then nail it. Now take another piece of wood. and the projections B. and tack the other piece slightly. deep. Then nail the wheel down firmly. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. 2. 1/2 in. and which will be very interesting. around the wheel. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. thick. It is neat and efficient. 1. Fit this to the two . The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. It can be made without the use of a lathe. by 12 ft. the "open" side. deep. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. and cut out a wheel. 3. and a model for speed and power. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. 1 was cut. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. and. as well as useful. Make the lug 1/4 in. then place the square piece out of which Fig. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. When it is finished. with the open side down. leaving the lug a. with the largest side down. b. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. This also should be slightly beveled.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood.

then bolt it together. bolts.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. in the center of it. and cut it out as shown in Fig. After it is finished. slightly beveled. and clean all the shavings out of it. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and lay it away to dry. square pieces of wood. hole 1/4 in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. deep. hole bored through its center. as shown by the . 1. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. Take the mold apart. and bore six 1/4-in. and boring a 3/8-in. Now take another of the 12-in. holes through it.pieces just finished. place it between two of the 12-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. 4. square pieces of wood. one of which should have a 3/8-in. hole entirely through at the same place. Now put mold No.

the other right-handed. in diameter must now be obtained. and bore three 1/4-in. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. drill in it. d. Using the Brace . one in the projections.2. If there should happen to be any holes or spots.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. This is mold No. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. Now cut out one of the 12-in. and connect to the boiler. holes. Commencing 1-1/2 in. place it under the drill.2. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. over the defective part. and drill it entirely through. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. where the casting did not fill out. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. 6. A piece of mild steel 5 in. place the entire machine in a vise. Put this together in mold No. instead of the right-handed piece. take an ordinary brace. 1. and 3/8-in. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. This is for a shaft. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. as shown in illustration. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. and run in babbitt metal again. This will cast a paddle-wheel. see that the bolts are all tight. put the top of the brace through this hole. Pour metal into mold No. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. as shown by the black dots in Fig. one in the lug. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. until it is full. and two 1/4-in.1. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. long.1. This is the same as Fig. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. 5. and drill them in the same manner. B. and pour babbitt metal into it. and the other in the base. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. screw down. and lay it away to dry. fasten a 3/8-in. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. only the one is left-handed. After it is fitted in. long. Fig. wide and 16 in. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. Now take mold No. true it up with a square. and the exhaust hole in projection b. so that it will turn easily. Then bolt the castings together. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. holes at d. Let it stand for half an hour. b. lay it on a level place.black dots in Fig. 4. 6. from the one end.

and the other 8 ft. one 6 ft. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. turn the wheel to the shape desired. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. At each end of the 6ft. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. and. Then take a knife or a chisel. long. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam.. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. with a boss and a set screw. piece and at right angles to it. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. and with three small screw holes around the edge. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. will do good service. Plan of Ice Boat . How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. while it is running at full speed. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in.

Fig. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. 1. and about 8 in. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. Fig. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. so much the better will be your boat. which may come in handy in heavy winds. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. leaving 1 ft. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. in diameter in the center. Run the seam on a machine. at the top. The tiller. Make your runners as long as possible. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. 3. long. Figure 2 shows the rudder post.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. long and 2-1/2 in. long. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. To the under side of the 8-ft. in the top before the skate is put on. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. where they often did considerable damage. distant. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. tapering to 1-1/2 in. should be of hardwood. 1. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. This fits in the square hole. as the runners were fastened. in diameter. plank. in diameter at the base. at the butt and 1 in. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. piece and at right angles to it. in front of the rudder block. The spar should be 9 ft. Over the middle of the 6-ft. projecting as in Fig. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. boards to make the platform. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. 8 a reef point knot. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. plank nail 8-in. at the end. 2 by 3 in. bolt the 8-ft. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in.

bent into a hook at each end. block of wood nailed to A. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. Mechanicsburg. small piece of wood. The . connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. and place it behind a stove.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. so that they come in contact at C. allowing the springs to contact at C. The arrangement proved quite too effective. Comstock. Phoenix. wide. P. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. Its parts are as follows: A. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. B. Adams. to block B. Ariz. Pa. P. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by J. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. and the alarm bell will ring. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. S S. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. R. --Contributed by John D. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft.

and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. The stump makes the best support. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. The center pole should be 10 ft. high. 6 in. The seat arms may be any length desired. says the American Boy. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. Take the glass. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. in diameter. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flan