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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

--Contributed by J. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis.Fig. Fig. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. 2. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. The pieces are then dressed round. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. wide and 2 ft. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. To throw a boomerang. long will make six boomerangs. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. A piece of plank 12 in. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. with the hollow side away from you. 1. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. distant. Noble. E. Ontario. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Toronto. apart. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . It is held in this curve until dry. as shown in Fig. 2. 1. 2 -. until it is bound as shown in Fig. grasp it and hold the same as a club. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. away. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. as shown in Fig. 1.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in.

the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. 6 in. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. blocks . forcing it down closely. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. A very light. made of 6-in. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. one inside of the circle and the other outside. it is not essential to the support of the walls. the block will drop out. If the snow is of the right consistency. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. A wall. however. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. and it may be necessary to use a little water. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. dry snow will not pack easily. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. First. which makes the building simpler and easier. long. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. thick. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. and with a movable bottom. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. but about 12 in. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. minus the top. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. high and 4 or 5 in. or rather no bottom at all.

long and 1 in. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. The piece of wood. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. Goodbrod. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. a. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. and the young architect can imitate them. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . 1. Fig. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. Fig. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. 2. D. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. or an old safe dial will do. wide. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. is 6 or 8 in. 1. C. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. It also keeps them out. above the ground. Union. 2. 3. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. A nail. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. which is about 1 ft. There is no outward thrust. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. which can be made of wood. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. Fig. 3 -. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. Ore.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. --Contributed by Geo.

and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. says the Sphinx. the box locked . The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. If ordinary butts are used. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. --Contributed by R. Merrill. as the weight always draws them back to place. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. New York. one pair of special hinges. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. Syracuse. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. S.When taking hot dishes from the stove.

then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. on drawing paper. -Contributed by L. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. 2. When the sieve is shaken. smooth surface. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Place the piece in a vise. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. as shown in Fig. Augusta. To make a design similar to the one shown. about 1-32 of an inch. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. as shown. 1. Fig. Alberta Norrell. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. proceed as follows: First. Ga. If the measuring has been done properly. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. All . It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. as shown in Fig. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Cover the back and all the face except the white background.and the performer steps out in view. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. 3. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. draw one-half of it. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. one for each corner. allowing each coat time to dry. If they do not. With the metal shears. It remains to bend the flaps. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No.

the edges should be left smooth. Denver. is fitted tightly in the third hole. as shown at AA. which is about 6 in. heats the strip of German-silver wire. The common cork. about 6 in. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. When the current is turned off. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. 25 German-silver wire. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. After this has dried. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. R. The current. 25 gauge German-silver wire. C. used for insulation. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. A resistance. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. If a touch of color is desired. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. in diameter. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. To keep the metal from tarnishing. In boring through rubber corks. long. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. causing it to expand. Colo. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. Galbreath. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. --Contributed by R. from the back end. should be in the line. of No. and in the positions shown in the sketch. B. A piece of porcelain tube. in passing through the lamp. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. H. if rolled under the shoe sole. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in.

as shown in Fig. with thin strips of wood.bottom ring. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Mo. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. 1. 3. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Purchase two long book straps. --Contributed by David Brown. Kansas City. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. . but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. leaving a space of 4 in. between them as shown in Fig. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Fig. 2.

Doylestown. --Contributed by Katharine D. having a gong 2-1/2 in. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. are mounted on the outside of the box. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. C. Syracuse. to form a handle. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. 1. which is the right weight for family use. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. These are shown in Fig. and a pocket battery. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. just the right weight for a woman to use.. Y.. Morse. The string is then tied. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. as . Fig. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. Two strips of brass. --Contributed by James M. The folds are made over the string. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Place three paving bricks inside of the box.An ordinary electric bell. 3. in diameter. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Kane. N. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Fig. Pa. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. 1. and one weighing 25 lb. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. 2. 36 in. long. Fig. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. and tack smoothly. 4. 1. When the aeroplane tips. A. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. one weighing 15 lb. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end.

A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. machine screws. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. --Contributed by Louis J. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. two 1/8 -in. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. if once used. bent as shown in Fig. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. Y. Frame Made of a Rod . AA. 2. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. four washers and four square nuts. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. which can be purchased at a local hardware store.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. The saw. 1. 2. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. long. such as brackets. in diameter. Day. 3/32 or 1/4 in. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. and many fancy knick-knacks. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. N. Floral Park.

use them in place of the outside nuts. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. --Contributed by W. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. though almost any color may be obtained. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. therefore. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. Rub off the highlights. File these edges. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Apply two coats. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. treat it with color. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. of course. if copper or brass. it has the correct strength. as well as brass and copper. If it colors the metal red. allowing each time to dry. The buckle is to be purchased. copper. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. of water in which dissolve. Michigan. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available.may be made of either brass. Watch Fob For coloring silver. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. of water. after breaking up. Drying will cause this to change to purple. An Austrian Top [12] . as well as the depth of etching desired. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. 1 part sulphuric acid. green and browns are the most popular. Detroit. or silver.. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. be covered the same as the back. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. A. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. Silver is the most desirable but. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. In the design shown. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. using a swab and an old stiff brush. For etching. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Scranton. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. 1 part nitric acid. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. the most expensive. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. Of the leathers.

thick. 1-1/4 in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. Parts of the Top To spin the top. Bore a 3/4-in. wide and 3/4 in. allowing only 1-1/4 in. hole in this end for the top. set the top in the 3/4 -in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. long. Ypsilanti. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. is formed on one end. A handle. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. Michigan. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. 3/4 in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. --Contributed by J. hole. Tholl.F. in diameter. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. . When the shank is covered. long. The handle is a piece of pine. A 1/16-in. 5-1/4 in. pass one end through the 1/16-in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously.

Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Augusta. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Northville. A. Ga. Alberta Norrell. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. The baking surface. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. --Contributed by Miss L. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. For black leathers. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Mich. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. . the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. having no sides. tarts or similar pastry. --A. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Houghton.

Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. then solder cover and socket together. Centralia. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. glass fruit jar. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. two turns will remove the jar. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. When you desire to work by white light. Stringing Wires [13] A. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. says Studio Light. Mo. the same as shown in the illustration. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. --Contributed by Irl Hicks.

1/4 by 1 by 65 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1-1/4 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. square by 12 in. 16 Horizontal bars.for loading and development. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. . square by 62 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. as shown in the cross-section sketch. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. They are fastened. 4 Vertical pieces. and not tip over. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. Wis. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. 4 Braces. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 1-1/4 in. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. Janesville. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. so it can be folded up. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost.

and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. after filling the pail with water. Rosenthal. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. H. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. and a loop made in the end. If the loop is tied at the proper place. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. from scrap material. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. Cincinnati. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. After rounding the ends of the studs. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. --Contributed by Dr. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. Phillipsburg. The whole. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. -Contributed by Charles Stem. The front can be covered . How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. New York. O. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. C. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place.

FIG. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. The results will be poor. and.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. you are. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. --Contributed by Gilbert A. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. principally mayonnaise dressing. either for contact printing or enlargements. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. sickly one. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. If the gate is raised slightly. Wehr. The . The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. the mouth of which rests against a. Baltimore. Md. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. In my own practice. By using the following method. if you try to tone them afterward. 1 FIG. by all rules of the game. the color will be an undesirable. Develop them into strong prints. thoroughly fix.

. L. wide and 4 in.... long to admit the angle support... When the desired reduction has taken place.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. 2 oz. Water . San Francisco.. without previous wetting. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.. It will bleach slowly and evenly. to make it 5 by 5 in.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes..... three times.... With a little practice... but.. The blotting paper can . Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain... where it will continue to bleach..... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.. --Contributed by T. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper...... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder.. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.. 2..... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. when it starts to bleach. Iodide of potassium . Cal...bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. preferably the colored kind. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. Gray." Cyanide of potassium . in this solution....... 16 oz.. 20 gr... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. 5 by 15 in.. A good final washing completes the process.. 1 and again as in Fig... etc. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. transfer it to a tray of water.. Place the dry print. in size.... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.

wide below the . Canada. Monahan.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. 20 gauge. the shaft 1 in. --Contributed by L.J. Make a design similar to that shown. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. 3. the head of which is 2 in. and a length of 5 in. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Wisconsin. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. having a width of 2-1/4 in. --Contributed by J. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. wide. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Oshkosh.

and the saw allowed time to make its cut. 3. as shown in Fig. After this has dried. then coloring. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. then trace the other half in the usual way. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. Do not put the hands in the solution. 4. deep. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. which gives the outline of the design Fig. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Apply with a small brush. freehand. Fig. after folding along the center line. using turpentine. 1 part sulphuric acid. Allow this to dry. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. then put on a second coat. 1. 1 part nitric acid. using a small metal saw. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. After the sawing. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. . With the metal shears. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. The metal must be held firmly. being held perpendicular to the work. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. Trace the design on the metal. For coloring olive green. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron.FIG. Make one-half of the design. but use a swab on a stick. using carbon paper. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. 2. With files. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. 1 Fig. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. Pierce a hole with a small drill.

This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Carl Cramer. After the stain has dried. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Cal. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. then stain it a mahogany color. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Ii is an ordinary staple. it does the work rapidly. Syracuse. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. When this is cold. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. attach brass handles. M. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. Richmond. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. on a chopping board. thick. Burnett. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. as shown. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. East Hartford. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Morse. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Conn. --Contributed by Katharine D. . hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. --Contributed by H. New York. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. --Contributed by M. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it.

A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Atwell. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. or tin. holes. in width at the shank. A. as shown in Fig. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. one shaft. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. . Cal. L. machine screws. Fig. 4. 1/4 in. --Contributed by Mrs. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. Richmond. square. --Contributed by W. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. some pieces of brass. saucers or pans. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. also locate the drill holes. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. 53 steel pens. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Jaquythe. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. thick. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE Procure some brass. not over 1/4 in. Kissimmee. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. brass. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. 1. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Florida. thick and 4 in. about 3/16 in. H. indicating the depth of the slots.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. and several 1/8-in. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. as shown at A. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk.. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. two enameled.

The bearings are made of 1/4-in. 5. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Fig. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. If the shaft is square. about 1/32 in. brass and bolted to the casing. as shown. supply pipe. a square shaft used. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. and pins inserted. Fig. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. lead should be run into the segments. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. wide and bend as shown in Fig. thick. 2. wide. hole is drilled to run off the water. as in Fig. The shaft hole may also be filed square. 2. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Fig. 1. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. Bend as shown in Fig. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. machine screws and nuts. long by 3/4 in. can be procured. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. each about 1 in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. 6. in diameter and 1/32 in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. hole. with 1/8-in. long and 5/16 in. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. with a 3/8-in. A 3/4-in. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. 3. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. into the hole. hole in the center. These are connected to a 3/8-in. with the face of the disk. thick. If metal dishes. using two nuts on each screw. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. 3. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. There should be a space of 1/16 in. 7. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. machine screws. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in..

The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Ill. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Fasten with 3/4-in. from the bottom end of the legs. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. make these seams come between the two back legs. V. The four legs are each 3/4-in. With a string or tape measure. Hamilton. square and 30-1/2 in. Be sure to have the cover. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. three of which are in the basket. --Contributed by S. deep and 1-1/4 in. we will call the basket. or more in diameter. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. deep over all. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Canada. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. using four to each leg. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. from the top of the box. long. Cooke. high and 15 in. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Now you will have the box in two pieces. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Stain the wood before putting in the . screws. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. The lower part. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. 8-1/2 in. --Contributed by F. When assembling. Smith. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. to make the bottom. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. La Salle. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox.

2 Fig. -Contributed by Stanley H. Boston. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. When making the display. Cover them with the cretonne. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. wide. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. sewing on the back side. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. --also the lower edge when necessary. Mass. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. The side. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. you can. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Packard. The folded part in the center is pasted together. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. 1. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Baltimore. If all the parts are well sandpapered. and gather it at that point. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible.lining. Md. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Sew on to the covered cardboards. wide and four strips 10 in. Fig. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. as shown in the sketch. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. 2.

3. It is cleanly. Fig. with slight modifications. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Orlando Taylor. --Contributed by H. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. --Contributed by B. Y. Gloversville. and. When through using the pad. Crockett.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. N. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. L. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. saving all the solid part. Mo. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. It is not difficult to . Cross Timbers. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers.

Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. and scrape out the rough parts. Lowell. El Paso. remove the contents. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Texas. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. -Contributed by C. Lane. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Bourne. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. After stirring. or if desired. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. across the face. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Mass. After this is done.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Both of these methods are wasteful. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. If a file is used. and secure it in place with glue or paste. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. --Contributed by Edith E. are shown in the diagram. S. it should be new and sharp.

Turl. Canton. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. A Postcard Rack [25]. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Wheeler. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Those having houses . Oregon. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. After several hours' drying. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Ill. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. As these were single-faced disk records. --Contributed by Geo. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. Greenleaf. F. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label.cooking utensil. The insects came to the light. --Contributed by Marion P. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Ill. Iowa. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Des Moines. The process works well and needs no watching. circled over the funnel and disappeared. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Oak Park. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel.

yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. the bottom being 3/8 in. Glenbrook. Conn. --Contributed by Thomas E. Worcester. will do as well. Lay the floor next. --Contributed by Wm. and as they are simple in design. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. one on each side of what will be the . 6 in. but for cheapness 3/4 in. the best material to use being matched boards. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. thick. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in.. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. The single boards can then be fixed. material.. not even with the boards themselves. and the second one for the developing bench. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. Only three pieces are required. Dobbins. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Rosenberg. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. and both exactly alike. Mass. 6 in. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. plane and pocket knife. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. by 2 ft. boards are preferable.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Both sides can be put together in this way.

as shown in Figs. The developing bench is 18 in. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. 5. and the top as at C in the same drawing. The roof boards may next be put on. hinged to it. 9 by 11 in. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. 3 and 4. the closing side as at B. 7. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. and to the outside board of the sides. and should be zinc lined. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. wide. is cut. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 6 and 9. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. 6.. 6. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. and in the middle an opening. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. of the top of the door for the same reason. below which is fixed the sink.doorway. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig.. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. which is fixed on as shown . 10). This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. It is shown in detail in Fig.. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. by screwing to the floor. 11. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. In hinging the door. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 9). so that it will fit inside the sink. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. and act as a trap for the light. At the top of the doorway. etc. brown wrapping paper. Fig. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 2 in section. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 8. nailing them to each other at the ridge.

Details of the Dark Rook .

Fig. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. 18. and a 3/8-in. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. 14. --Contributed by W. 16. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. which makes it possible to have white light. 15. as at M. four coats at first is not too many. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. 2. Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 16. 6. or the room may be made with a flat roof. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. but not the red glass and frame. mixing flour and water. and a tank stand on it. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. Pennsylvania. or red light as at K. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . these being shown in Fig. it is better than anything on the market. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. though this is hardly advisable. as shown in the sections. Fig. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. Erie. The house will be much strengthened if strips. A circular piece about 2 in. 20. Karl Hilbrich. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. as at I. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. For beating up an egg in a glass. Fig. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. after lining with brown paper. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. screwing them each way into the boards. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. In use. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. as in Fig. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. if desired. 17. preferably maple or ash. hole bored in the center for a handle. 19. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig.in Fig. 13. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. The handle should be at least 12 in. 1. 13. as shown in Fig. are fastened in the corners inside. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer.

G. for a handle. Schweiger. --Contributed by Wm. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. as shown in the sketch. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Ark. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Smith. Kansas City. Mo. about 3/8 in. -Contributed by E. D.copper should be. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. which. Mitchell. long. To operate. --Contributed by L. Yonkers. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. Eureka Springs. New York. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. when put together properly is a puzzle. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. L. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] .

Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. the rustic work should be varnished. in order to thoroughly preserve it. need them. The design shown in Fig. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. to make it set level. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. Having completed the bare box. as shown in Fig. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. for the moment. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. the box will require a greater height in front. The corks in use are shown in Fig. as is usually the case. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. If the sill is inclined. After the box is trimmed. 3. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. 2. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. as shown in Fig. holes should be drilled in the bottom. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. 3. which binds them together. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. . as well as improve its appearance. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. 1. especially for filling-in purposes. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. A number of 1/2-in. Each cork is cut as in Fig.

being partly eaten into. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. When the corn is gone cucumbers. and observe results. share the same fate. etc. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. as shown in Fig. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. it's easy. life in the summer time is a vexation. But I have solved the difficulty. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. cabbages. . can't use poison. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. drilled at right angles. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. 1. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. 4. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. Traps do no good. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. too dangerous. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Each long projection represents a leg. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill.. 2. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. F. 3. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom.

Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. cut in 1/2-in. -. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. strips. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. . the coil does not heat sufficiently. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. long.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. of No. Iowa. and made up and kept in large bottles. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. The solution can be used over and over again. About 9-1/2 ft. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. cut some of it off and try again. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. by trial. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. If. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient.

Pa. Syracuse. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. forks. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Morse. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Doylestown. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Stir and mix thoroughly. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. C. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Fig 2. of whiting and 1/2 oz. N. of oleic acid with 1 gal. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. hot-water pot. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. --Contributed by James M. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. it falls to stop G. In cleaning silver. Kane. . Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Dallas. to cause the door to swing shut. of gasoline. but with unsatisfactory results. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. D. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Y. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. coffee pot. and a strip. is a good size--in this compound. --Contributed by Katharine D. 1) removed. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Knives. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Do not wash them. as shown in the sketch. Texas. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening.

Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Fisher. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . which is. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. of course. but unfixed. Ill. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Harrisburg. Waverly.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. La. using the paper dry. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. negatives. --Contributed by Oliver S. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Pa. Sprout. . To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. New Orleans. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. --Contributed by Theodore L. later fixed and washed as usual. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over.

Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. 1. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. metal. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. then . the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The harmonograph. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Fig. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. To obviate this difficulty.

makes respectively 3. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. Arizona. K. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. what is most important. Gaffney. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . A pedestal. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. for instance.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in.. etc. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. as long as the other. that is. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. is attached as shown at H. ceiling. 1. which can be regulated. with a nail set or punch. to prevent any side motion.. and unless the shorter pendulum is. or the lines will overlap and blur. G. in diameter. as shown in Fig. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. Punch a hole. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. one-fifth. Chicago. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. provides a means of support for the stylus. one-fourth. Rosemont. Holes up to 3 in. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Another weight of about 10 lb. --Contributed by James T. A length of 7 ft. R. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. exactly one-third. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. 1-3/4 by 2 in. Ingham. as shown in the lower part of Fig. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. J. is about right for a 10-ft. of about 30 or 40 lb. in the center of the circle to be cut. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. --Contributed by Wm. A weight. such as a shoe buttoner. A small table or platform. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. The length of the short pendulum H. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. 1. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. A small weight. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained.

2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. -Contributed by W. Morey. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Fig. --Contributed by J.J. and 4 as in Fig. 3. The two key cards are made alike.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. then 3 as in Fig.J. 5. 4. Cape May City. one for the sender and one for the receiver. dividing them into quarters.H. distributing them over the whole card. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. N. Chicago. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. a correspondent of . Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. 6. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. of course. Fig. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Cruger. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The capacity of the vise. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. and proceed as before. 1. then put 2 at the top. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. 2.

The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. from the top and bottom. sheet of well made asbestos paper. Asbestos board is to be preferred. of the uprights. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. Cut through the center. 22 gauge German-silver wire. long. 1/2 oz. of 18-per-cent No. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. If constructed of the former. drill 15 holes. Augusta. wood-screws. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Wind the successive turns of . The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. remove the prints. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. citrate of iron and ammonia. the portion of the base under the coil. 1/4 in. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. deep. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. says Popular Electricity.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. --Contributed by L. of water. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. acetic acid and 4 oz. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. 30 gr. After securing the tint desired. respectively. After preparing the base and uprights. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. Ga. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. of ferricyanide of potash. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. 6 gauge wires shown. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Alberta Norrell. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. To assemble. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice.

white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. rivets. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. 16 gauge copper wire. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. Ampere. The case may be made of 1/2-in. if one is not a smoker. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. but these are not necessary. as they are usually thrown away when empty. Small knobs may be added if desired. 14 gauge.. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. screws. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. N. --Contributed by Frederick E. Ward. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Y. etc. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. Labels of some kind are needed. cut and dressed 1/2 in. which. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. then fasten the upright in place. square.

Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant.. a piece of solder. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. of glycerine to 16 oz. then to the joint to be soldered. S. B. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. Richmond. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. In soldering galvanized iron. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. particularly so when the iron has once been used. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. tinner's acid. . Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. D. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. zinc. Heat it until hot (not red hot). as shown in the sketch. --C. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Copper. --Contributed by W. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. California. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. Jaquythe. Eureka Springs. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. galvanized iron. Larson. tin. and one made of poplar finished black. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Kenosha. If the soldering copper is an old one. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. being careful about the heat. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. it must be ground or filed to a point. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. lead. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. especially if a large tub is used. or has become corroded. A. Wis. of water. and rub the point of the copper on it.14 oz. The material can be of any wood. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. brass. G. sandpaper or steel wool. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. the pure muriatic acid should be used. The parts are put together with dowel pins. and labeled "Poison. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. This is considerable annoyance. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. E and F." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. C. Ark. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. --Contributed by A.

-Contributed by H. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Y. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. brass and silver. nut. with good results. and drill out the threads. however. The disk will come out pan shaped. in diameter. Troy. 1. Apart from this. Fig. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Brass rings can be plated when finished. W. Take a 3/4-in. such as copper.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. wide. B. round iron. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . The punch A. This completes the die. Fig. C. The dimensions shown in Fig. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. 2. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. D. This will leave a clear hole. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. 7/8 in. Six issues make a well proportioned book. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Place the band. N. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. in diameter. Hankin. thick and 1-1/4 in. The covers of the magazines are removed. a ring may be made from any metal. which gives two bound volumes each year. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. I bind my magazines at home evenings. in diameter and 1-1/4 in.

and place them against the strings in the frame. If started with the January or the July issue. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. 1 in Fig. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. then back through the notch on the right side. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. through the notch on the left side of the string No. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. threaded double. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. The covering can be of cloth. Start with the front of the book. After drawing the thread tightly. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. is nailed across the top. as shown in Fig.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. C. 5. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. allowing about 2 in. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. Coarse white thread. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. 1. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. which is fastened the same as the first. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. 2. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Five cuts. The covering should be cut out 1 in. and a third piece. Place the cardboard covers on the book. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. of the ends extending on each side.4. is used for the sewing material. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. 1/8 in. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. using . A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. size 16 or larger. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. The string No. deep. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 1. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. 2. . and then to string No. on all edges except the back. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. The sections are then prepared for sewing. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. 1. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book.

fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. and mark around each one. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Cal. round iron. Nebr. For the blade an old talking-machine . --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. --Contributed by Clyde E. at opposite sides to each other. on which to hook the blade. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Encanto. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. and. College View. Divine. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Tinplate. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin.

and file in the teeth. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose.. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Then on the board put . long. B. A.. or double extra heavy. Make the blade 12 in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. fuse hole at D. thick. On the upper side. bore. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. thick. Miss. -Contributed by Willard J. and 1/4 in. as shown. E. and another piece (B) 6 in. hydraulic pipe. and 1/4 in. by 4-1/2 in. Ohio. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Moorhead. with 10 teeth to the inch. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Hays. as it is sometimes called. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. in order to drill the holes in the ends. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. C. F. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Summitville. and a long thread plug. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. at the same end. with a steel sleeve. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. by 1 in.

high around this apparatus. and some No. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. --Contributed by Chas. Philadelphia. Boyd. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. the jars need not be very large. about 5 ft. If you are going to use a current of low tension. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. some sheet copper or brass for plates. H. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . using about 8 in. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. A lid may be added if desired. 4 jars. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. as from batteries. of rubber-covered wire. of wire to each coil. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Connect up as shown. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. The size of the jars depends on the voltage.

square by 14 ft. 15-1/2 in. by 6 in.. thick.. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. Put arm of switch on point No. or source of current. above the ground. B. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. thick. by 1 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. steel rod makes a good steering rod. C. two pieces 14 in. To wire the apparatus. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. 2 is lower down than in No. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. & S. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. long by 22 in. wide and 2 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 4. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. 27 B. The current then will flow through the motor. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. An iron washer. by 5 in. by 2 in. 3 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. 2 and 3. B and C. as they are not substantial enough. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 4 in. two pieces 30 in. direct to wire across jars. The sled completed should be 15 ft. 1 and so on for No. 2 in. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. long. apart. 11 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. by 1-1/4 in. making them clear those in the front runner. on No. 1 is connected to point No. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. wide and 3/4 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. In proportioning them the points A. long. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. oak boards. 3 and No. wide.. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. Z. At the front 24 or 26 in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. A 3/4-in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes.. 5 on switch.. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 2. long. 7 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. beginning at the rear. 4) of 3/4-in. 3. C. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 1. Use no screws on the running surface. . by 2 in. two pieces 34 in. by 1-1/4 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. Use no nails.. sheet brass 1 in. are important. as they "snatch" the ice. and plane it on all edges. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. and four pieces 14 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. The stock required for them is oak. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. The illustration shows how to shape it. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. 16-1/2 in. On the door of the auto front put the . When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. by 5 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. The connection between point No. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair.. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. with the cushion about 15 in. wide by 3/4 in. gives full current and full speed. Equip block X with screw eyes. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. For the front runners these measurements are: A. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. 1 on switch. These are to keep the cushion from falling out.the way. is used to reduce friction. A variation of 1/16 in. long. 2. 2. The top disk in jar No. 30 in. and for the rear runners: A. First sandpaper all the wood. and bolt through. 34 in. two for each jar. B. No. For the brass trimmings use No. Fig. then apply a coat of thin enamel. however. See Fig.

bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. such as used on automobiles. cutting it out of sheet brass.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. to improve the appearance. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. brass plated. by 1/2 in. cheap material. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . such as burlap. If the expense is greater than one can afford. parcels. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. or with these for $25. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. etc. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. fasten a cord through the loop. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. Fasten a horn. a number of boys may share in the ownership. may be stowed within. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. lunch. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. If desired. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. to the wheel. The best way is to get some strong. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. long. If desired. overshoes. Then get some upholstery buttons. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. which is somewhat moist. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. by 30 in. a brake may be added to the sled. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating.

Ill. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Leland. Lexington. .tree and bring. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. --Contributed by Stewart H.

very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. Fig. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. The Model Engineer. 4). but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. The first tooth may now be cut. With no other tools than a hacksaw. The straight-edge. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. London. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. the same diameter as the wheel. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. so that the center of the blade. Draw a circle on paper. will be over the line FG. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. This guide should have a beveled edge. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. mild steel or iron. thick. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. Fig. sheet metal.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. when flat against it. FC. a compass. with twenty-four teeth. 1. 3. from F to G. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. 2. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . by drawing diameters. First take the case of a small gearwheel. outside diameter and 1/16 in. say 1 in. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. made from 1/16-in. though more difficult. CD. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. which. E. A small clearance space. Fig. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. the cut will be central on the line. some files.

transmitter. 2. ground it with a large piece of zinc. B. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. either the pencils for arc lamps. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. No shock will be perceptible. Focus the camera in the usual manner. hold in one hand. each in the center. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. as shown in Fig. or several pieces bound tightly together. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and the other outlet wire. 1. . B. electric lamp. If there is no faucet in the house. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. Make a hole in the other. R. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate.Four Photos on One Plate of them. as shown in Fig. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. Then take one outlet wire. 1. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. A bright. some wire and some carbons. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners.

even though there are no batteries in the circuit. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. Several battery cells. serves admirably. Emsworth. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. One like a loaf of bread. as indicated by E E. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. as shown.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. If desired. and about that size. leaving about 10 in. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. D D are binding posts for electric wires. 36 wire around it. one at the receiver can hear what is said. under the gable. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. or more of the latter has been used. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Ohio. --Contributed by Geo. are also needed. A is a wooden block. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Ashland. Dry batteries are most convenient. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. Pa. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. B. and again wind the wire around it. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. They have screw ends. J. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Then set the whole core away to dry. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. For a base use a pine board 10 in. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. by 1 in. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. of course. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. at each end for terminals. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . Wrenn. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Slattery. But in this experiment. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. by 12 in. and will then burn the string C.

by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. B B. in series with bindingpost. The oven is now ready to be connected. Fig. D. 2. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. for the . First make a support. D. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. C. Fig. 1. while C is open. and one single post switch. Connect these three to switch. The coil will commence to become warm. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. Jr. F. Place 16-cp. the terminal of the coil. in parallel. C. as shown. 14 wire. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. connecting lamp receptacles. Turn on switch. 12 or No. The apparatus is now ready for operation.. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. These should have hollow ends. E. as shown. and switch. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. Newark. From the other set of binding-posts. B B. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. and the lamps. until the hand points to zero on the scale. Ohio. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. run a No. At one side secure two receptacles.wire.

If for 3-way. high. A wooden box. At a point a little above the center. The core. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. to prevent it turning on the axle. drill through the entire case and valve. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. is made of iron.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. wind with plenty of No. 3. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. 2. as shown in the cut.or 4-way valve or cock. although copper or steel will do. After drilling. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. is made of wire. from the lower end. 3 amperes. It is 1 in. 5. Fig. 14 wire. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. Fig. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. To make one. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. wide and 1/8 in. The box is 5-1/2 in. D. This is slipped on the pivot. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. is then made and provided with a glass front. 4. 1. 1. until the scale is full. C. 1/4 in. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. inside measurements. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. 4 amperes. drill a hole as shown at H. 4 in.. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. drill in only to the opening already through. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. although brass is better. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. Dussault. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. Montreal. 7. Mine is wound with two layers of No. long. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. a battery. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. Fig. remove the valve. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 36 magnet wire instead of No. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. 1/2 in. deep. thick. etc. and D. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. 10 turns to each layer. long. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . but if for a 4way.E. --Contributed by J. 6. where A is the homemade ammeter. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. D. B. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. long and make a loop.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. The pointer or hand. This may be made of wood. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. a variable resistance. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. a standard ammeter. 14. 5. E. wide and 1-3/4 in. Fig.

high. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. This stopper should be pierced. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. E. and the other connects with the water rheostat. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. in diameter. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. as shown. F. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. By connecting the motor. and a metal rod. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. provided with a rubber stopper. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. making two holes about 1/4 in. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. which is used for reducing the current. One wire runs to the switch. D. B.performing electrical experiments. in thickness . then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. and the arc light. A. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. To start the light.

1. 1. Fig. long. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. To insert the lead plate. A piece of wood. If the interrupter does not work at first. 2. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. B. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. A. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Fig. as shown in C. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. As there shown. Fig. If all adjustments are correct. 2. Turn on the current and press the button. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. Fig. --Contributed by Harold L.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. as shown in B. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. 1. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Having finished the interrupter. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Y. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Carthage. Jones. N. where he is placed in an upright open .

the illusion will be spoiled. The skeleton is made of papier maché. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. should be miniature electric lamps. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass.coffin. until it is dark there. as the entire interior. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. is constructed as shown in the drawings. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. with the exception of the glass. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. especially L. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. which can be run by three dry cells. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. high. light-colored garments. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains.. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. could expect from a skeleton. Its edges should nowhere be visible. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. to aid the illusion. and can be bought at Japanese stores. If it is desired to place the box lower down. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. figures and lights. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The model. giving a limp. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. All . the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. should be colored a dull black. dressed in brilliant. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. by 7 in. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. and must be thoroughly cleansed. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. and wave his arms up and down. especially the joints and background near A. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. within the limits of an ordinary room. by 7-1/2 in. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. They need to give a fairly strong light. A. L and M. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The glass should be the clearest possible. If everything is not black. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. A white shroud is thrown over his body. loosejointed effect. The lights. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. inside dimensions. from which the gong has been removed.

square block. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white.that is necessary is a two-point switch. San Jose. --Contributed by Geo. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. as shown in the sketch. If a gradual transformation is desired. W. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. Fry. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . Cal. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. placed about a foot apart. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. after which it assumes its normal color. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. Two finishing nails were driven in. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. fat spark. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green.

and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. A (see sketch). This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. The plates are separated 6 in. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. as shown. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. In Fig. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. hydrogen gas is generated. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. Cohen. -Contributed by Dudley H. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. F. This is a wide-mouth bottle. New York. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. 1. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. with two tubes. soldered in the top. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. or a solution of sal soda. In Fig. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. B and C. If a lighted match . The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. and should be separated about 1/8 in. into the receiver G. to make it airtight. the remaining space will be filled with air. by small pieces of wood. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. One of these plates is connected to metal top. 1 is seen the sending apparatus.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface.

It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. Fig. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. says the Model Engineer. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. copper pipe. as is shown in the illustration. should be only 5/16 of an inch. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. B. which is plugged up at both ends. 1-5/16 in. A 1/64-in. 36 insulated wire. 1. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. is made by drilling a 1/8in. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. A piece of 1/8-in. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . of No. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. which forms the vaporizing coil. If desired. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. A. A. One row is drilled to come directly on top. N. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. from the bottom. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. long. then a suitable burner is necessary. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. by means of the clips. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. London. A. is then coiled around the brass tube. either by passing a current of electricity around it. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. or by direct contact with another magnet. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. A. The distance between the nipple.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. copper pipe. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. N. A nipple. long. P. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. in diameter and 6 in. 2 shows the end view. C C. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. Fig. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. and the ends of the tube. 1/2 in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core.

long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. fold and cut it 1 in. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C.lamp cord. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. should be cut to the diameter of the can. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. Fig. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. this makes a much nicer book. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. Fig. taking care not to bend the iron. 1/4 in. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . with a fine saw. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. cut to the size of the pages. trim both ends and the front edge. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Fig. smoothly. Take two strips of stout cloth. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. larger all around than the book. longer and 1/4 in. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. 3. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. but if the paper knife cannot be used. at the front and back for fly leaves. boards and all. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). smoothing and creasing as shown at A. duck or linen. leaving the folded edge uncut. Turn the book over and paste the other side. A disk of thin sheet-iron. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. 2). 1. about 8 or 10 in. Cut four pieces of cardboard.

from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. which will just slip inside the little can. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Another tank. but its diameter is a little smaller. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Ont.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. is turned on it. Parker. or rather the top now. . H. the joint will be gas tight. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. of tank A is cut a hole. B. pasting them down (Fig. E. This will cause some air to be enclosed. A. is perforated with a number of holes. D. In the bottom. Noble. Another can. deep. Va. without a head. --Contributed by Joseph N. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. A gas cock. is made the same depth as B. in diameter and 30 in. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. 18 in. Bedford City. and a little can. 4). A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. as shown in the sketch. as shown. is soldered onto tank A. is fitted in it and soldered. Toronto. --Contributed by James E. C. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge.

B. The armature. to prevent splitting. The wiring diagram. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. B. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. C. D. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. fastened in the bottom. D. should be 3/8 in. Fig. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. The diagonal struts. should be cut a little too long. Fig. with an electric-bell magnet. E. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. The small guards. square by 42 in. making the width. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. and about 26 in. shows how the connections are to be made. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. tacks. A A. J. The bridle knots. thus adjusting the . the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. S. N. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. B. 2. A. exactly 12 in. If the back armature. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. which moves to either right or left. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. basswood or white pine. H is a square knot. by 1/2 in. which may be either spruce. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. Beverly. as shown at C. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. Bott. should be 1/4 in. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. long. -Contributed by H. and the four diagonal struts. The longitudinal corner spines. 1. when finished. If the pushbutton A is closed. long.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. and sewed double to give extra strength. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. are shown in detail at H and J..

for producing electricity direct from heat. E. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Harbert. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Closing either key will operate both sounders. Clay Center. --Contributed by A.lengths of F and G. Stoddard. D. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. can be made of a wooden . Kan. and. If the kite is used in a light wind. --Contributed by Edw. that refuse to slide easily. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. however. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. with gratifying results. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. to prevent slipping. shift toward F. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. A bowline knot should be tied at J. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. as shown. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. and if a strong wind is blowing. Chicago.

and the current may then be detected by means. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. F. A. B. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. with a number of nails. and also holds the pieces of wood. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. placed on top. C. to the cannon. or parallel with the compass needle. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. Fasten a piece of wood. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. A. Then. When the cannon is loaded.. C. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. --Contributed by A. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire.frame. A. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. 14 or No. C. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. E. Chicago. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. E. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. by means of machine screws or. D. 16 single-covered wire. in position. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. A and B. with a pocket compass. The wood screw. which conducts the current into the cannon. spark. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed.

in this position the door is locked. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. now at A' and S'. 1. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. B. Keil. Mich. Connect as shown in the illustration. requiring a strong magnet. --Contributed by Henry Peck. --Contributed by Joseph B. to receive the screw in the center. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. H. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. 1. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. To lock the door. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. A and S. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Fig. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. but no weights or strings. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. In Fig. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. A hole for a 1/2 in. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Ohio. press the button. To unlock the door. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse.the current is shut off. Chicago. square and 3/8 in. L. Marion. 1. . Big Rapids. A and S. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. screw is bored in the block. A. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. To reverse. within the reach of the magnet. when in position at A'. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Fig. where there is a staple. Bend the strips BB (Fig. with the long arm at L'.

pipe with 1-2-in. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. Thread the other end of the pipe. The standard and base. When ready for use. and if desired the handles may . makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. are enameled a jet black. --Contributed by C. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. J. and may be made at very slight expense. Mass. When the holes are finished and your lines set. Rand. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and C is a dumbbell. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. gas-pipe. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. West Somerville. long. put in the handle. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. about 18 in. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. if enameled white on the concave side. hole. or for microscopic work.

8 in. which shall project at least 2 in. high by 1 ft. Fig. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Mass. North Easton.be covered with leather. This peculiar property is also found in ice. long and 8 in. as shown at A in the sketch. M. B. across. 1. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. across. 1. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. A. Warren. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. --Contributed by C. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in.. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. E. Fig. inside the pail. Make a cylindrical core of wood. with a cover. D. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug.

strip of sheet iron. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in.. Fig. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner.-G. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. Whatever burner is used. make two wood ends. in diameter. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. 1). and your kiln is ready for business. if you have the materials. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. hard porcelain. projecting from each end (Fig. After finishing the core. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. and cut it 3-1/2 in. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. This done. about 1 in. 60%. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. say 1/4 in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. and on it set the paper wrapped core. full length of iron core. which is the hottest part. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried.. as is shown in the sketch. as dictated by fancy and expense. After removing all the paper. Fit all the parts together snugly. 1). 1330°. passing wire nails through and clinching them. L. 1390°-1410°. such . should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. and varnish. C. 15%. thick.mixture of clay. the point of the blue flame. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. and 3/4 in. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. diameter. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. and graphite. Set aside for a few days until well dried. if there is to be any glazing done. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. to hold the clay mixture. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. of fine wire. let this dry thoroughly. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. hotel china. and 3/8 in. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. in diameter. layer of the clay mixture. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. wider than the kiln. C. 2. or make one yourself. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. If the cover of the pail has no rim. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. but it will burn a great deal of gas. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. Line the pail. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. The 2 in. thick. When lighted. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. W. the firing should be gradual. 3) with false top and bottom. but will be cheaper in operation. Cover with paper and shellac as before. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. bottom and sides. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. pipe 2-ft. pipe.. It is placed inside the kiln. E. cutting the hole a little smaller. long over the lid hole as a chimney. 25%. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. 2 in. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. carefully centering it. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. C. long. sand. pack this space-top. and with especial caution the first time. Wind about 1/8 in.

The funnel. and plane off about 1/16 in. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. as in Fig. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. --Contributed by J. as shown in the sketch herewith. Then take the black cards. every alternate card being the same color. and so on. C. R. Washington. C. around the coil. 1.. overlaps and rests on the body. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. about 1/16 in. Then. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. 2). with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. Chicago. diameter. bind tightly with black silk. T. procure a new deck. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. square them up and place in a vise. Of course. 8 in.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. and discharges into the tube. Take the red cards. 2. length of . 2. with a plane. square them up. red and black. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. . as in Fig. leaving long terminals. and divide it into two piles. A. all cards facing the same way. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. B. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. D. the next black. You can display either color called for.53 in. taking care to have the first card red. C.

B. angle iron for the frame. N. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. Long Branch. F. C. stove bolts. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. so that when they are assembled. A. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. the first thing to decide on is the size. To find the fall of snow. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. about 20 in. The upright pieces. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. 1. It should be placed in an exposed location. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. All the horizontal pieces. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris.. Fig. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in.J. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. 1 gill of fine white sand. E. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. E. 1 gill of litharge. The bottom glass should be a good fit. the same ends will come together again. B. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. D. A. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. of the frame. Drill all the horizontal pieces. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. B. When the glass is put in the frame a space. as the difficulties increase with the size. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. stove bolts. Let . and then the frame is ready to assemble. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. The cement. through the holes already drilled. thus making all the holes coincide. and this is inexpensive to build. to form a dovetail joint as shown.C.

on the door by means of a metal plate. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Fasten the lever. Fig. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. D. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. if desired. A. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. and. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. to the door knob.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Aquarium Finished If desired. a centerpiece (A. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. B. having a swinging connection at C.

according to the slant given C. showing the paddle-wheel in position. soldered to the end of the cylinder. to keep the frame from spreading. To make the frame.. as at E. F. Fig. AA. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. 1 is the motor with one side removed. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. which is 15 in. and another. Buffalo. 1. hoping it may solve the same question for them. with a water pressure of 70 lb. thus doing away with the spring. several lengths of scantling 3 in. wide . to form the slanting part. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. Cut two pieces 30 in. I referred this question to my husband. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. PAUL S. A small piece of spring brass. for the top. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. --Contributed by Orton E. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. wide by 1 in. Fig. screwed to the door frame. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. 3 shows one of the paddles. 1. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. C. B. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. Fig. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. will open the door about 1/2 in. 2 ft. N. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. another. approximately 1 ft. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. from the outside top of the frame. 2 is an end view. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. Cut two of them 4 ft. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. They are shown in Fig. 2 at GG. D. 26 in. Two short boards 1 in. to form the main supports of the frame. Fig. 1 . Do not fasten these boards now. Fig. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. White. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. long. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. another. E. and Fig. long. but mark their position on the frame. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. Y. long. long. Fig. 6 in.

This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. to a full 1/2 in. Fig. and drill a 1/8-in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. thick (HH. thick. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. iron. that is. 2) with a 5/8-in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Make this hole conical. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely.burlap will do -. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. and drill a 1-in. When it has cooled. in diameter. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Now block the wheel. with the wheel and shaft in place. Next secure a 5/8-in. GG. hole through them. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. hole through its center. iron 3 by 4 in. 1. steel shaft 12 in. as shown in Fig. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. holes. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. from one end by means of a key. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Fig. take down the crosspieces. 2) and another 1 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Fasten them in their proper position. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. then drill a 3/16-in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. remove the cardboard. by 1-1/2 in. 2) form a substantial base. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. These are the paddles. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. (I. hole through their sides centrally. Take the side pieces. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Tack one side on. 24 in. Drill 1/8-in. pipe. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. hole to form the bearings. after which drill a 5/8 in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. and a 1/4 -in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. long to the wheel about 8 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . tapering from 3/16 in. Fig. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. 4.

a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Raise the window shade half way. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. It is obvious that. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. light and the plate. as shown in the sketch at B. ice-cream freezer. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. of course. Darken the rest of the window. . and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. but as it would have cost several times as much. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. The best plate to use is a very slow one. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. drill press. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. it would be more durable. and leave them for an hour or so. but now I put them in the machine. If the bearings are now oiled. any window will do. start the motor. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. as this makes long exposure necessary. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Do not stop down the lens. shutting out all light from above and the sides. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills.a water-tight joint. or what is called a process plate. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Focus the camera carefully. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. remove any white curtains there may be. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. Correct exposure depends. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. and as near to it as possible. says the Photographic Times. Drill a hole through the zinc. If sheet-iron is used. and the subject may move. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. place the outlet over a drain. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. on the lens. sewing machine.

as a slight current will answer. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. and a base. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. or wood. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. the core is drawn down out of sight. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. which is made of iron and cork. 2. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. C. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. until the core slowly rises. or can be taken from an old magnet. With a piece of black paper. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. The current required is very small. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. A. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. full of water. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. The core C. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. or an empty developer tube. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. by twisting. The glass tube may be a test tube. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. without detail in the face.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. and without fog. D. an empty pill bottle may be used. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. a glass tube. with binding posts as shown. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. hard rubber. 2. On completing . any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. a core. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. B. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. as shown in Fig.

and one not easy to explain. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. 1 pt. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. water and 3 oz. 1 lb. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. finest graphite. according to his control of the current. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. and are changed by reversing the rotation. The colors appear different to different people. and make a pinhole in the center. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. 1. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. whale oil.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. is Benham's color top. white lead. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig.

especially if the deck is a new one.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. C. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. or three spot. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. before cutting. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. A. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. As this device is easily upset. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. deuce. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results.L. In prize games. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C.B. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. fan-like. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. B. thus partly filling bottles A and C. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. In making hydrogen. Chicago. -Contributed by D. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. when the action ceases. which is then replaced in any part of the pack.. nearly every time.

Detail of Phonograph Horn . long and 3 in.. 10 in. W. 12 in. Fig.. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Huron. S. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. --Contributed by C. Detroit. --Contributed by F.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. J. long. Form a cone of heavy paper. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Make a 10-sided stick. 2. in length and 3 in. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. 4. . Bently. that will fit loosely in the tube A. S. Fig. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. 3). 1. Dak. as shown in Fig. (Fig. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. in diameter. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Jr. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. 9 in. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in.

push back the bolt. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. will cause an increased movement of C. A. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. Remove the form. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Fortunately. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. it is equally easy to block that trick. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. Cut out paper sections (Fig. --Contributed by Reader. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. but bends toward D. Denver. A piece of tin. long. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. on one side and the top. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. Fig. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. allowing 1 in. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. making it three-ply thick. 6. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. with a pin driven in each end. bend it at right angles throughout its length. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. E. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. C.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. about the size of a leadpencil. A second piece of silk thread. and walk in. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B.

Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. Jr. long. as shown. The feet. Two wood-base switches. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. and rest on a brick placed under each end. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. West St. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . or left to right. are made 2 by 4 in. B. S. 4 ft. long. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. The reverse switch. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. posts. B. Paul. while the lower switch. W. will last for several years. is connected each point to a battery. A. are 7 ft. Fremont Hilscher. --Contributed by J. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. put together as shown in the sketch. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Minn. The 2 by 4-in.strip. S. The upper switch.. S S.. R. By this arrangement one. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire.

We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. which will be described later. FF. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood.every house. The base is made of wood. and in Fig. The piston is made of a stove bolt. is an old bicycle pump. 2. and valve crank S. which is made of tin. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. 2 and 3. with two washers. Fig. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. and the crank bearing C. The valve motion is shown in Figs. 1. H and K. and a cylindrical . The steam chest D. thick. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. Fig. In Fig. and has two wood blocks. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. the size of the hole in the bearing B. or anything available. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. cut in half. 3/8 in. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. either an old sewing-machine wheel. the other parts being used for the bearing B. E. pulley wheel. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The hose E connects to the boiler.

or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Cal. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. This is wound with soft string. or galvanized iron. J. and the desired result is obtained. First. --Contributed by Geo. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. Fig. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. at that. Eustice. C. The boiler. Schuh and A. 1. Fig. and saturated with thick oil. The valve crank S. This engine was built by W. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. of Cuba. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. using the positive wire as a pen. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. as it is merely a trick of photography. 3. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. San Jose. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. powder can. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. is cut out of tin. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. . and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. G.piece of hard wood. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. G. and a very amusing trick. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. can be an old oil can. 4. Wis. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Fry. W. as shown in Fig. to receive the connecting rod H.

2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. B. and pass ropes around . The smaller wheel. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. When turning. Fig. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. as shown at AA. 1 by covering up Figs. and place a bell on the four ends. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. C. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. They may be of any size. Cut half circles out of each stave. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. 1 will be seen to rotate. Fig. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. to cross in the center. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Fig. as shown. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. and Fig. B. diameter.

say 1/2 or 3/4 in. Louis.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. Mo. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. From a piece of thin . A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. which allows the use of small sized ropes. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. long. W.G. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. St.. This in turn will act on the transmitter. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. To make this lensless microscope. such as clothes lines. from the transmitter. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. as shown in the illustration. procure a wooden spool. which accounts for the sound. produces a higher magnifying power).M. --Contributed by H. but not on all. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. A (a short spool.

or 64 times. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. A. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. E. bent as shown. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. cut out a small disk. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle.) But an object 3/4-in. C. and so on. the diameter will appear twice as large. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. 2.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. B. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. in which hay has been soaking for several days.. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. if the distance is reduced to one-half. D. The lever. as in all microscopes of any power. The spring. the diameter will appear three times as large. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. i. D. by means of brads. Fig. if the distance is reduced to one-third. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. is fastened at each end by pins. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. . Viewed through this microscope.. C. held at arm's length. place a small object on the transparent disk. fastened to a wooden base. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. e. To use this microscope. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. the object should be of a transparent nature. which costs little or nothing to make. which are pieces of hard wood. can be made of brass and the armature. An innocent-looking drop of water. 3. and at the center. 1. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. darting across the field in every direction. is made of iron. otherwise the image will be blurred. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. B. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. The pivot. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. H. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. and look through the hole D. (The area would appear 64 times as large.

K. long by 16 in. wide and about 20 in. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. fastened near the end. C. DD. KEY-A.SOUNDER-A. B. F. A switch. 1. and are connected to the contacts. 16 in. long and 14-1/2 in. 2. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. . wood. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. 16 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. brass or iron soldered to nail. K. E. should be about 22 in. The base of the key. Each side. coils wound with No. between the armature and the magnet. connection of D to nail. thick. which are made to receive a pivot. The door. or a single piece. B. binding posts: H spring The stop. brass. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. brass: E. Fig. wide and set in between sides AA. wood: C. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. Fig. D. soft iron. long. brass: B. wide. nail soldered on A. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. is cut from a board about 36 in. wood: F. or taken from a small one-point switch. C. HH. can be made panel as shown. The back. 26 wire: E. wide. FF. D. AA. D. wide. Cut the top. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. The binding posts. in length and 16 in. A. similar to the one used in the sounder. wide.

Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Ill. In operation. Make 12 cleats. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. as shown. AA. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. brads. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. material. as shown in the sketch. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. E. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. cut in them. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in.. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. When the electrical waves strike the needle. 13-1/2 in. with 3/4-in. 2 and made from 1/4-in. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. Garfield. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. long.

and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. through which a piece of wire is passed. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. J. the magnet. when used with a motor. A (see sketch). --Contributed by R. --Contributed by John Koehler. F. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . Brown. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. E. N. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. When the pipe is used. and thus decreases the resistance. N. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. pulls down the armature. filled with water. Y. will give a greater speed. The cord is also fastened to a lever. A. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Pushing the wire. B. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. Fairport. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. A. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. and. C. in order to increase the surface. A fairly stiff spring. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. Ridgewood.

A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. if desired. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Gachville. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Borden. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open.for the secret contact. B. N. Of course. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. even those who read this description. --Contributed by Perry A.

wide.. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. apart. thick and 12-in. D. from the bottom. East Orange. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. Compton. long and 5 in. as shown in Fig. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. J. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Nails for stops are placed at DD. Jr. Dobson. long and full 12-in. A. in a semicircle 2 in. With about 9 ft. --Contributed by Dr. records and 5-5/8 in. The top board is made 28-in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. C. wide. wide. C. where the other end of wire is fastened. as shown in Fig. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. 2. Two drawers are fitted in this space. deep and 3/4 in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. Connect switch to post B. records. . long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. --Contributed by H. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. wide. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Cal. E. From a piece of brass a switch. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. wide. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Mangold. 1. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. for 6-in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. N. and on both sides of the middle shelf.whenever the bell rings. H. for 10in. Washington.

B. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. as shown by the dotted lines. as shown in Fig. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. 1. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. When the cord is passed over pulley C.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. E. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . to which is fastened a cord. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Roanoke. A. Va. which in operation is bent. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. closed.

this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. wide. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. excepting the crank and tubing. 5) when they are placed. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. it too loose. E. holes (HH. apart. thick. Figs. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. square and 7/8 in. In the sides (Fig. 1 in. against which the rubber tubing. Put the rubber tube. through one of these holes. in diameter. 1. long. wide. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. These wheels should be 3/4 in. in diameter. is compressed by wheels. Figs. Bore two 1/4 in. Fig. as shown in the illustration. deep and 1/2 in. in diameter. B. one in each end. deep. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. In these grooves place wheels. which should be about 1/2 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Fig. Do not fasten the sides too . they will let the air through. The crankpin should fit tightly. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. D. 3. they will bind. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. 3). thick (A. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. to turn on pins of stout wire. Fig. but a larger one could be built in proportion. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. Cut two grooves. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. Now put all these parts together. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. If the wheels fit too tightly. E. Notice the break (S) in the track. in diameter. 4 shows the wheel-holder. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. CC. 1 in.

1. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. For ease in handling the pump. 2. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. Take the center of the bar. tubing. costing 10 cents. AA. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. mark for hole and 3 in. from the bottom and 2 in.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. The three legs marked BBB. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. from each end. Fig. Then turn the crank from left to right. The screen which is shown in Fig. In the two cross bars 1 in. beyond each of these two. 1. 1. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. To use the pump. Fig. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. Fig. a platform should be added. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. Hubbard. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. 15 in. as it gives steadiness to the motion. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. --Contributed by Dan H. and are 30 in. of material. The animal does not fear to enter the box. If the motion of the wheels is regular. Idana. B. AA. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. mark again. from each end. and 3-1/2 in. 1. 2. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. 17-1/2 in. iron. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. Fig. though a small iron wheel is better. the pump will give a steady stream. 1. the other wheel has reached the bottom. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. stands 20 in.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. and mark for a hole. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. long. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. because he can . as shown in Fig. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. from each end. A in Fig. Cut six pieces. is all the expense necessary. Kan. Two feet of 1/4-in. from that mark the next hole.

shuts him in. rub the zinc well. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. Philadelphia. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. but if one casts his own zinc. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. 1) must be prepared. The mercury will adhere. sulphuric acid. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. there is too much liquid in the jar. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. 4 oz. or. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. It is useful for running induction coils. C. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. stirring constantly. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. long having two thumb screws. and the solution (Fig. until it is within 3 in. 14 copper wire. Place the carbon in the jar. silvery appearance. When through using the battery. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. If the battery has been used before. When the bichromate has all dissolved. giving it a bright. 2). This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in.see through it: when he enters. The battery is now complete. If it is wet. If the solution touches the zinc. The battery is now ready for use. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. To cause a flow of electricity. The truncated. potassium bichromate. add slowly. dropping. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. and touches the bait the lid is released and. --Contributed by H. or small electric motors. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. Meyer. acid 1 part). . the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. some of it should be poured out. of the top. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. however. of water dissolve 4 oz. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts.

Madison. pressing the pedal closes the door. e.Fig.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. Wis. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. the jump-spark coil . which opens the door. After putting in the coal. however. the battery circuit. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. with slight changes. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted.. i. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. The price of the coil depends upon its size. while the coal door is being opened. If. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal.

while a 12-in. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. W W. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. being a 1-in. Now for the receiving apparatus. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. in a partial vacuum. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. . the full length of the coil. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. This coil. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. apart. in a straight line from top to bottom.described elsewhere in this book. W W. After winding. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. 7. which is made of light copper wire. 7). coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. 6. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. 7.7. Change the coil described. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. as shown in Fig. coil. and closer for longer distances. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. made of No. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. as shown in Fig. diameter. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. Fig. 5. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. This will make an excellent receiver. 6.

To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. No. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. being at right angles. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. which will be described later. but simply illustrates the above to show that. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. A large cone pulley would then be required. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. above the ground. Figs. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). at any point to any metal which is grounded. A. but it could be run by foot power if desired. Run a wire from the other binding post. 90°. in the air. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles.The aerial line. For an illustration. being vertical. 1). wireless is very simple when it is once understood. 1 to 4. 90°. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them.6 stranded. . How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. The writer does not claim to be the originator. using an electric motor and countershaft. as it matches the color well. after all. where A is the headstock. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. only. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. to the direction of the current. I run my lathe by power. These circles. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. B the bed and C the tailstock. and hence the aerial line. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. may be easily made at very little expense. are analogous to the flow of induction.

the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. pitch and 1/8 in. 2 and 3. 6. one of which is shown in Fig. too. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. on the under side of the bed. If the bearing has been properly made. Fig. which pass through a piece of wood. which are let into holes FIG. A. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. To make these bearings. tapered wooden pin. and Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. The headstock. Fig. steel tubing about 1/8 in. 5. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. but not hot enough to burn it. 6 Headstock Details D. just touching the shaft. The bearing is then ready to be poured. B. The bolts B (Fig. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. Heat the babbitt well. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 4. and it is well to have the shaft hot. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. After pouring.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. and runs in babbitt bearings. Fig. deep. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. 5. thick. 4. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. Fig. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side.

thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. lock nut. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. If one has a wooden walk. This prevents corrosion. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. Oak Park. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. so I had to buy one.J. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. of the walk . Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. embedded in the wood. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. If not perfectly true. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. Take up about 5 ft. The tail stock (Fig. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach.other machines. Newark. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. B. they may be turned up after assembling. the alarm is easy to fix up. A. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. FIG. and a 1/2-in. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. N. Ill.

Minn. --Contributed by R. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. hang the articles on the wires. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Then make the solution . to roughen the surface slightly. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. before dipping them in the potash solution. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. add potassium cyanide again. Jackson. of water. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. so that they will not touch. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. clean the articles thoroughly. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. (A. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. and the alarm is complete. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. to remove all traces of grease. silver or other metal. To avoid touching it. leaving a clear solution. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. S. 2). and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Fig. water. Finally. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. save when a weight is on the trap. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Minneapolis. Connect up an electric bell.

but opens the door. If more solution is required. 1 in.up to 2 qt. of clothesline rope and some No. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. Make a somewhat larger block (E. light strokes. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. from the lower end. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. 18 wire. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. with the pivot 2 in. The wooden block C. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. use 2 volts for large articles. and 4 volts for very small ones. thick by 3 in. The wooden catch. If accumulators are used. which . On brass. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. With an electric pressure of 3. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. will serve for the key. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. Before silver plating. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. Fig. lead. 10 in. which is held by catch B. long. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. pewter. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. A (Fig. shaking. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. and the larger part (F. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. Can be made of a 2-in. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. copper. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. with water. Take quick. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. which is advised. saw a piece of wood. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. 1). zinc. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. 3) strikes the bent wire L. When all this is set up. In rigging it to a sliding door. 3. B should be of the same wood. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. such metals as iron. nickel and such metals. Repeat six times. a hand scratch brush is good. square. 3) directly over the hole. if one does not possess a buffing machine. hole in its center. silver can be plated direct. 1. about 25 ft. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. Where Bunsen cells are used. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. make a key and keyhole. also. This solution. and then treated as copper. must be about 1 in. A 1/4 in. 1). Fig. German silver. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. Having finished washing the precipitate. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. Fig. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. Then. long. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Fig. an old electric bell or buzzer. I. --Model Engineer.5 to 4 volts. a circuit is completed. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. 1 not only unlocks. of water. piece of broomstick. with water. as at F. To provide the keyhole. Screw the two blocks together. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. when the point of the key touches the tin.

The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. 1. New Jersey. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. H. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. Klipstein. or cave. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. 1. which unlocks the door. some black paint. no painting inside is required. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. --Contributed by E. the illumination in front must be arranged. he tosses it into the cave. top. The box must be altered first. is the cut through which the rope runs. Fig. To prepare such a magic cave. and black art reigns supreme. should be cut a hole. with a switch as in Fig. 116 Prospect St. H. so much the better. and a slit. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. One thing changes to another and back again. enlarged. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. and hands its contents round to the audience. . heighten the illusion. the box should be painted black both inside and out. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. 2. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. floor. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. such as forks. 0. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. he points with one finger to the box. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. shows catch B. In front of you. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. half way from open end to closed end. B. Fig. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. The magician stands in front of this. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. spoons and jackknives. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. Next. surrounding a perfectly black space. He removes the bowl from the black box. One end is removed. On either side of the box. a few simple tools. the requisites are a large soap box. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. to throw the light toward the audience. Heavy metal objects. although a little more trouble. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. one-third of the length from the remaining end. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. Receiving the bowl again. and finally lined inside with black cloth. cut in one side. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. Fig. Thus.. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. with the lights turned low. 2. sides and end. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. East Orange. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. The interior must be a dead black. 3. some black cloth. Next.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. Objects appear and disappear. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. and plenty of candles. between the parlor and the room back of it. H. Fig. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. in his shirt sleeves.

The illusion. The exhibitor should be . Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. and several black drop curtains. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. as presented by Hermann. only he. Consequently. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain.Finally. his confederate behind inserts his hand. a screen must be used. is on a table) so much the better. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. But illusions suggest themselves. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. one on each side of the box. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. of course. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. you must have an assistant. and if portieres are impossible. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. had a big stage. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. in which are oranges and apples. into the eyes of him who looks. if. which are let down through the slit in the top. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. the room where the cave is should be dark. was identical with this. which can be made to dance either by strings. and pours them from the bag into a dish. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. of course. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The audience room should have only low lights.

. respectively. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. respectively. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. c2. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . Finally. c3. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. Fig. making contact with them. 2. 2). FIG. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. held down by another disk F (Fig. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. by 4 in. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. 1. 2. or binding posts. if you turn handle K to the right. Then.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. About the center piece H moves a disk. square.a boy who can talk. b2. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. On the disk G are two brass strips. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. terminal c3 will show +. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. so arranged that. A. is shown in the diagram. b3.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. their one end just slips under the strips b1. f2. b2. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. and c4 + electricity. A represents a pine board 4 in. c4. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. and c2 to the zinc. when handle K is turned to one side. b1. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. by means of two wood screws. with three brass strips. held down on it by two terminals. c1. making contact with them as shown at y. d. or b2. as shown in Fig. vice versa. held down on disk F by two other terminals. at L. and c1 – electricity. and a common screw. e1 and e2. terminal c3 will show . making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). 1. respectively. b3.

thus making the message audible in the receiver. 3. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. jump spark coil. and when on No. -Contributed by A. Jr. . which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. when on No. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). from five batteries. B is a onepoint switch. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. 4. Ohio. 1. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. when on No. when A is on No. from three batteries. and then hold the receiver to your ear. When switch B is closed and A is on No.. Newark. Joerin. E. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. and C and C1 are binding posts. --Contributed by Eugene F. 5. Tuttle. you have the current of one battery. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. from four batteries. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in.

per second. so one can see the time. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand.. A. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. B. Handy Electric Alarm . which may be a button or other small object. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. Thus.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. The device thus arranged. of Burlington. La. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. mark. over the bent portion of the rule. Redmond. and supporting the small weight. per second for each second. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. is the device of H. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. as shown in the sketch. P. and placed on the windowsill of the car. A. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. Wis. rule. mark. New Orleans. E. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. traveled by the thread. When you do not have a graduate at hand. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening.

To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. Then if a mishap comes.which has a piece of metal. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. When the alarm goes off. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. soldered to the alarm winder. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Instead. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. Lane. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. S. C. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. --Contributed by Gordon T. but may be closed at F any time desired. Pa. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. and with the same result. wrapping the wire around the can several times. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. --C. . fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. B. which illuminates the face of the clock. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Crafton. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. for a wetting is the inevitable result.

binding posts. C. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. as shown. With the easily made devices about to be described. small machinery parts. but it is a mistake to try to do this. and duplicates of all these. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. 1. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. engines. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. whence it is soon tracked into the house. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. AA. L.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. and many other interesting and useful articles. BE. battery zincs. cannons. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. 1 . thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. --Contributed by A. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. models and miniature objects. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. A. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. New York City. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. If there is no foundry Fig. It is possible to make molds without a bench. The first thing to make is a molding bench. Macey. ornaments of various kinds. Two cleats. which may. as shown in Fig. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. bearings. when it is being prepared.

thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. by 8 in. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. makes a very good sieve. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. It is made of wood and is in two halves. The flask. as shown. and saw it in half longitudinally. and a sieve. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. CC. by 6 in. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed." or upper half. and the "drag. Fig. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. will be required.near at hand. a little larger than the outside of the flask. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. The dowels. is nailed to each end of the cope. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. as shown. nailed to replace the bottom of a box.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. A A. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. DD. and the lower pieces. is about the right mesh. If desired the sieve may be homemade. 1. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. II . which can be either aluminum. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. which can be made of a knitted stocking. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. try using sand from other sources. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. previous to sawing. which should be nailed in. G. E. but this operation will be described more fully later on. An old teaspoon. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. high. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. The rammer. 2 . The cloth bag. 1. is filled with coal dust. and this. 2." or lower part. D. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. white metal. A slight shake of the bag Fig. F. is made of wood. A wedge-shaped piece. say 12 in. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. H. If the box is not very strong.How to Make a Mold [96] . Fig. is shown more clearly in Fig. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. the "cope. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. J. CC.

everything will be ready for the operation of molding. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. as shown at E. and thus judge for himself. the surface of the sand at . or "cope. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. as described. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. in order to remove the lumps. but care should be taken not to get it too wet." in position. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. as shown at D. and then more sand is added until Fig. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. as it is much easier to learn by observation. as shown. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. or "drag. After ramming. and by grasping with both hands. Place another cover board on top. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. and if water is added. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. The sand is then ready for molding. In finishing the ramming. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. and scatter about 1/16 in. turn the drag other side up. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. where they can watch the molders at work. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. It is then rammed again as before. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. as shown at C. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry.

as shown at F. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. This is done with a spoon. it shows that the sand is too wet. Place a brick or other flat. is next cut. Fig. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. III. as shown at J. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. and then pour. as shown in the sketch. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. After drawing the pattern. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. as shown at H. after being poured. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. wide and about 1/4 in. deep. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam." or pouring-hole. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. as shown at G. thus making a dirty casting. as shown at H. to give the air a chance to escape. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. thus holding the crucible securely. The "sprue.E should be covered with coal-dust. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. in order to prevent overheating. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. . which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. in diameter. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. made out of steel rod. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. place the cope back on the drag. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle.

Minneapolis. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. but any reasonable number may be used. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. --Contributed by Harold S. Morton. and. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. is very desirable. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. and the casting is then ready for finishing. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. white metal and other scrap available. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. babbitt. or from any adjacent pair of cells. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. 15% lead. battery zincs. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. the following device will be found most convenient. used only for zinc. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. Although the effect in the illustration . may be used in either direction. If a good furnace is available. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. In my own case I used four batteries. although somewhat expensive.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. Referring to the figure.

taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. The bearings. Chicago. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . connected by cords to the rudder. 3/4 in.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. Make one of these pieces for each arm. Put a sharp needle point. B. outward. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. Then walk down among the audience. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. as shown in the illustration. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. The brass rings also appear distorted. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. shaft made. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. If desired. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. By replacing the oars with paddles. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. may be made of hardwood. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. Then replace the table. B. --Contributed by Draughtsman. which will be sufficient to hold it. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. To make it take a sheet-iron band. backward. A. as shown at A. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. Fig. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. 2.

Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. should be made of wood. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. E. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. Fig. as shown in Fig. being simply finely divided ice. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. 1. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. and a weight. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. D. or under pressure.melted babbitt. 2. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. It may seem strange that ice . Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. but when in motion. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. The hubs. when it will again return to its original state. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. spoiling its appearance. If babbitt is used. 1. 1. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. as shown in Fig. C. 3. W. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. A block of ice. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. In the same way. A. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. The covers. or the paint will come off. If galvanized iron is used. 2 and 3. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. Snow.

and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. --Contributed by Gordon T. Lane.. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. The rate of flow is often very slow. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. P. it will gradually change from the original shape A. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. by 5 in. and assume the shape shown at B. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. no matter how slow the motion may be. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. thus giving a high resistance contact. but by placing it between books. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. Pressing either push button. or supporting it in some similar way. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. but. Pa. which resembles ice in this respect. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. square. in. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. sometimes only one or two feet a day. Crafton. by 1/4. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. as shown on page 65. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. brass. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. as per sketch. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. by 1/2 in. B. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. whenever there is any connection made at all.should flow like water. by 2 in.

The parts are: A. cord. H. C. about the size used for automobiles. D. the battery. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. G. as shown. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch.thumb screws. alarm clock. pulleys. I. horizontal lever. draft. wooden supports. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. the induction coil. and five dry batteries. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. G. Wilkinsburg. as shown. Pa. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. furnace. weight. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. B. J. Indianapolis. The success depends upon a slow current. In the wiring diagram. and C. draft chain. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. vertical lever.000 ft. A is the circuit breaker. Ward. --Contributed by A. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. E. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. B. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. K . The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. F.

is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. will fit nicely in them. such as used for a storm window. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. The frame (Fig. which will provide a fine place for the plants. as well as the bottom. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. Kalamazoo. where house plants are kept in the home. Artistic Window Boxes The top. material framed together as shown in Fig. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. 3. 2 are dressed to the right angle. Mich. -Contributed by Gordon Davis.

1.. N. It must be remembered. is something that will interest the average American boy. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. a cork and a needle. i. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. Canada. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted.. A certain number of these. in diameter. and cost 27 cents FIG. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. Push the needle into the cork. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. which sells for 25 cents. Thus. can be connected up in series. in any system of lamps. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. W. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. for some time very satisfactorily. The 1/2-cp. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. --Contributed by Wm. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. since a battery is the most popular source of power. in this connection. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. However. as if drawn upon for its total output. this must be done with very great caution. Halifax. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. Grant. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. multiples of series of three. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. This is more economical than dry cells. so as to increase the current. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. by connecting them in series. S. e. as indicated by Fig. where they are glad to have them taken away. 1 each complete with base. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. and a suitable source of power. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. and the instrument will then be complete. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. However. after a rest. but maintain the voltage constant. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. one can regulate the batteries as required.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper.. and will give the . It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. 1 cp.

. double insulated wire wherever needed. to secure light by this method. according to the water pressure obtainable. and then lead No. In conclusion. . 11 series. 2 shows the scheme. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. we simply turn on the water. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. 1-cp. and diffused light in a room.proper voltage. and for Christmas trees. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. However. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. 18 B & S. generates the power for the lights. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. FIG. although the first cost is greater. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. by the proper combination of these. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. especially those of low internal resistance. If wound for 10 volts. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. which is the same as that of one battery. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. lamp. and running the series in parallel. So. lamps. Chicago. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. each. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. making. where the water pressure is the greatest. for display of show cases. if wound for 6 volts. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. Thus. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. Fig. lamps. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. These will give 3 cp. as in Fig. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. or 22 lights. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. 3. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. Thus. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost.

Ind. outside points of switch. A indicates the ground. are cut just alike. thus reversing the machine. and C. simply change the switch. B.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. DD. Emig. After I connected up my induction coil. Santa Clara. Parker. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. or from one pattern. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. To reverse the motor. Plymouth. and the sides. . a bait of meat. field of motor. Cal. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. BB. we were not bothered with them. CC. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. AA. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. switch. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. A. --Contributed by F. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. brushes of motor. as shown in the sketch. B. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. or a tempting bone. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. bars of pole-changing switch. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. the letters indicate as follows: FF. center points of switch. --Contributed by Leonard E. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves.

The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. and a table or bench. Melchior. -Contributed by Claude B. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. The button can be hidden.. Cal. Fry. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. thus locking the door.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. a piece of string. which is in the door. or would remain locked. merely push the button E. attached to the end of the armature B. W. When the circuit is broken a weight. 903 Vine St. To unlock the door. a hammer. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. If it is not. Hutchinson. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. A. Minn. The experiment works best . San Jose. as it is the key to the lock. one cell being sufficient. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch.

Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. the stick falls away. 3. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Brockville. Porto Rico. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. 1). Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. the current flows with the small arrows. P. attached at the other end. Crawford Curry. I. 2. 4). D. Ontario. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. C. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. 18 Gorham St. Madison. Canada. . in the ceiling and has a window weight. W. Tie the ends of the string together. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Wis. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. releasing the weight. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. When the alarm rings in the early morning. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. On another block of wood fasten two wires. where it will remain suspended as shown. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. 3. Schmidt. which pulls the draft open. the key turns. forming a loop. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head.Contributed by F. Culebra. --Contributed by Geo. run through a pulley. A. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. -. as shown in Fig..

and then to the receiver. or from a bed of flowers. thence to a switch. S. D.. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. Connect two wires to the transmitter. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. --Contributed by Wm. Farley. get two pieces of plate glass. J. made with his own hands. Camden. square and 1 in. The cut shows the arrangement. R. and the other to the battery. which fasten to the horn.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. 6 in. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. or tree. Jr. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. thick. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. including the mouthpiece. J. running one direct to the receiver. First. and . Use a barrel to work on. and break the corners off to make them round. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. N. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver.

paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. a round 4-in. with pitch. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. twice the focal length away. melt 1 lb. and is ready for polishing. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Fig. L. and spread on the glass. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. by the side of the lamp. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. of water. 2. 1. and a large lamp. set the speculum against the wall. unless a longer focal length is wanted. or less. When polishing the speculum. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length.. wide around the convex glass or tool. using straight strokes 2 in. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. while walking around the barrel. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. Fig. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. A. then 8 minutes. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. 2. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. When done the glass should be semitransparent. In a dark room. and the under glass or tool convex. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. the coarse grinding must be continued. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. so the light . When dry. also rotate the glass. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. wetting it to the consistency of cream. spaces. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. then take 2 lb. as in Fig. wet till soft like paint. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. or it will not polish evenly. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum.. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. Then warm and press again with the speculum. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. Use a binger to spread it on with.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. Fasten. and label. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Have ready six large dishes. with 1/4-in.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. in length. Place a large sheet of pasteboard.

. Place the speculum. also how the rays R from a star . and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Nitric acid . When dry. must be procured. The knife should not be more than 6 in. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. deep. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. then ammonia until bath is clear.. Fig.. 2. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use.……………. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. face down. if a hill in the center. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum).………………………………. fill the dish with distilled water.. or hills.……………………………... When the focus is found. 4 oz. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. The polishing and testing done. 100 gr. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. 4 oz. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Then add 1 oz. Fig.. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside.100 gr. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Silver nitrate ……………………………. that was set aside.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass.. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. with distilled water. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water.. Fig. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. touched with rouge. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. 840 gr.. Solution D: Sugar loaf . add the ammonia solution drop by drop. 2. the speculum is ready to be silvered. cement a strip of board 8 in. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. Now add enough of the solution A. With pitch. and pour the rest into the empty dish. longer strokes. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. If not. Place the speculum S. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. as in K. Then add solution B. the speculum will show some dark rings. from the lamp. long to the back of the speculum. 25 gr. 39 gr.

The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. slightly wider than the lens mount. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position.. Thus an excellent 6-in. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. About 20. Mellish. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. using strawboard and black paper. Make the tube I of sheet iron. The flatter they are the less they will distort. stop down well after focusing.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. Then I made the one described. with an outlay of only a few dollars. is a satisfactory angle. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. cover with paper and cloth. telescope can be made at home. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. deg. Place over lens. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. long and cost me just $15.John E. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. My telescope is 64 in. which proves to be easy of execution. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. . two glass prisms. and proceed as for any picture.

The window must be darkened all around the shelf. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Boody. unobstructed light strike the mirror. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. through the lens of the camera and on the board. B. 1. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. 2. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. and reflect through the negative. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. To unlock. Zimmerman. add the plaster gradually to the water. Do not stir it. -Contributed by A. A. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. The paper is exposed. push the button D. but will not preserve its hardening. says the Master Painter. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. as shown in Fig. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. complete the arrangement. instead of the contrary. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. The rays of the clear. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. . D. Fig. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. or powdered alum. then add a little sulphate of potash. Ill.

Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. To reverse. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. as shown in the sketch. 2.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Fig. throw . Then blow through the spool. 2. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. also provide them with a handle. so that it can rotate about these points. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Fasten on the switch lever. 1). and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. 3. but will remain suspended without any visible support. use a string. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. as at A and B. as in Fig.

Levy. . the armature. L. North Bend. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. and rub dry with linen cloth. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. and E E. Tex. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. rinse in alcohol. Tex. Push one end of the tire into the hole. as shown in the sketch. although this is not necessary. C C. --Contributed by Geo. -Contributed by Morris L. Go McVicker. carbon sockets. D. San Marcos. B. In the sketch. carbons. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Take out. Thomas. San Antonio. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. binding posts. wash in running water. A is the electricbell magnet. --Contributed by R. Neb. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds.

If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. wound evenly about this core. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. 36 magnet wire. 14 or No. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. By means of two or more layers of No. 16 magnet wire. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . long or more. --Contributed by Joseph B. Brooklyn. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Bell. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch.

a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. and the results are often unsatisfactory. 4. as the maker prefers. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. with room also for a small condenser. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. coil illustrates the general details of the work. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. After the core wires are bundled. in length. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. 2 yd. The condenser is next wrapped . making two layers. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. 1. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. at a time. This makes a condenser which may be folded. but if it is not convenient to do this work. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. in diameter. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. and finally the fourth strip of paper. which is an important factor of the coil. wide. a box like that shown in Fig. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. which is desirable. The following method of completing a 1-in. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. hole is bored in the center of one end. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. long and 5 in. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. one piece of the paper is laid down. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. A 7/8-in. Beginning half an inch from one end.which would be better to buy ready-made. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. diameter. In shaping the condenser. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. as shown in Fig. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. then the strip of tin-foil. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. When cut and laid in one continuous length. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. or 8 in. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. The primary is made of fine annealed No. about 6 in. the entire core may be purchased readymade. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. long and 2-5/8 in. No.

open switch C. round so that the inside . spark. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. shows how the connections are made. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. forms the other pole or terminal. which is insulated from the first. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. copper lever with 1-in. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. Fig. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. long and 12 in.. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. wide. E. the letters indicate as follows: A. and one from battery. long to key. one from bell. by 12 in. 4 in. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. B. C. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. to the door. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. which allows wiring at the back. V-shaped copper strip. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. go. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection.) The wiring diagram. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. shelf for clock. battery . G.securely with bands of paper or tape. D. bell. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. A. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. F. I. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. lines H. ready for assembling. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. whole length. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. B. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. The alarm key will turn and drop down. 3. switch. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. and the other sheet. flange turned on one side.

but add 5 or 6 oz. If desired for use immediately. That is what they are for. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. Short-circuit for three hours.diameter is 7 in. The circuit should also have a high resistance. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in.. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. of blue stone. do not shortcircuit. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. Line the furnace. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. from the bottom. instead of close to it. and the battery is ready for use. of zinc sulphate. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. 2 in. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. . but with the circuit. This is for blowing. Use a glass or metal shade. and then rivet the seam. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. London. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. says the Model Engineer.

below the bottom of the zinc. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in." which created much merriment. but the thing would not move at all. Try it and see. oxygen to ozone. the second finger along the side. Outside of the scientific side involved. If too low. for some it will turn one way. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. To operate the trick. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. or think they can do the same let them try it. changes white phosphorus to yellow. grip the stick firmly in one hand. At least it is amusing. 2. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. g. Ohio. square and about 9 in. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. as in the other movement. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. porcelain and paper. and therein is the trick. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. long. imparting to them a violet tinge. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. and many other things in order to make the arm operate.. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. 1. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. This type of battery will give about 0. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. thus producing two different vibrations. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. while for others it will not revolve at all. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. herein I describe a much better trick. Enlarge the hole slightly. affects . If any or your audience presume to dispute. for others the opposite way. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm.9 of a volt. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. and then.

chemicals. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. but not essential. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. and. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. if possible.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. and one of them is photomicrography. however. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. a short-focus lens. an old tripod screw. To the front board is attached a box. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . earth. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. insects. says the Photographic Times. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. a means for holding it vertical. but this is less satisfactory. but small flowers. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera.

which is 15 ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 268 17 lb.--Contributed by George C. in Cu. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. CD. 113 7 lb. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 8 ft. Divide one-quarter of the circle . then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. If the balloon is 10 ft. long and 3 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 179 11 lb. 12 ft. 5 in. AB. 65 4 lb. The following table will give the size. 905 57 lb. and a line. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. or 31 ft. 6 ft. Fig. A line. while it is not so with the quill. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 1. 697 44 lb. 5 ft. Ft Lifting Power. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Mass. 9 ft. Cap. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 7 ft. 381 24 lb. Madison. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 7-1/2 in. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Boston. wide from which to cut a pattern. or 3 ft. 11 ft. 7-1/2 in. in diameter. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. balloon. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle.

The pattern is now cut. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. 2. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. 70 thread. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. 4. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. Procure 1 gal. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. on the curved line from B to C. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. keeping the marked part on the outside. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. The cloth segments are sewed together. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. and so on. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. of the very best heavy body. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. cutting all four quarters at the same time. This test will show if the bag is airtight. making a double seam as shown in Fig. of beeswax and boil well together. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. using a fine needle and No. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. 3. Repeat this operation four times. The amounts necessary for a 10- .

balloon are 125 lb. should not enter into the water over 8 in. until no more dirt is seen. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. 5 . This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. B. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. with water 2 in. with 3/4in. 5. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings.. The 3/4-in. if it is good it will dry off. of water will make 4 cu. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. Vegetable oils should never be used. as shown in Fig.ft. of gas in one hour. above the level of the water in barrel A. About 15 lb. with the iron borings. A. C. A. it is not fit to use. oil the spindle holes carefully. this should be repeated frequently. . In the barrel. 1 lb. pipe. ]. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. but if any grease remains on the hand. B. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. by fixing. B. C. A. After washing a part.Green Iron ammonium citrate . The outlet. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. All FIG. or dusting with a dry brush. 150 gr. ft. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. of iron. or a fan. 1 lb. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. When the clock has dried. . When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. of sulphuric acid. a clean white rag. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. using a fine brush. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. of iron borings and 125 lb. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. which may sound rather absurd. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. Fill the other barrel. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. leaving the hand quite clean. Water 1 oz. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. to the bag. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. capacity and connect them.

Dry in the dark.000 ft. Dry the plates in the dark. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. and keep in the dark until used. and a vigorous negative must be used. . 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. at the time of employment. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. fix in hypo. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. says the Moving Picture World. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. 20 to 30 minutes. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. The positive pole. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Port Melbourne. This aerial collector can be made in . of the cell is connected to the aerial line. . of any make. or carbon.. Exposure. keeping the fingers out of the solution. A longer exposure will be necessary.Water 1 oz. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. The miniature 16 cp. to avoid blackened skin. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. The negative pole. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. A cold. Printing is done in the sun. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. dry atmosphere will give best results. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. toning first if desired. or zinc. or battery. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz.

in diameter. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. a positive and a negative. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. 5 in. and have the other connected with another aerial line.various ways. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. If the waves strike across the needle. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. If the wave ceases. when left exposed to the air. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. and as less current will flow the short way. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. will soon become dry and useless. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. long. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. This will complete the receiving station. As the telephone offers a high resistance. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. making a ground with one wire. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. as described below. The storage cell. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. forming a cup of the pipe. lay a needle. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. lead pipe. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. holes . the resistance is less. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. both positive and negative. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal.

and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. This box can be square. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. one to the positive. a round one. The other plate is connected to the zinc. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. and the other to the negative. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. says the Pathfinder. When mixing the acid and water. D. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. on each end. does not need to be watertight. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid.as possible. an oblong one and a triangular one. Two binding-posts should be attached. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. of course. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. by soldering the joint. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. namely: a square hole. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. or tube B. This. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. This support or block. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . or tube C. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. except for about 1 in. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. B. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste.

all around the edge. 3. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. The third piece of brass. long.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. Only galvanized nails should be used. about 20 in. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. and has plenty of good seating capacity. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. Ill. . The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. deep and 4 ft. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. 2. C. is built 15 ft. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. 2. Chicago. as it is not readily overturned. in place on the wood. as shown in Fig. C. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. A and B. wide. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. 1. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. 1. were fitted by this one plug. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. and match them together. thick cut two pieces alike. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. leaving about 1/16 in. This punt. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. wide. back and under. as shown in Fig. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end.

B. Wash. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. A piece of 1/4-in. gas pipe. is cut 1 in.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. square (Fig 2). 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. thick and 3-1/2 in. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. Tacoma. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. In Fig. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb.

or "rotor. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. no special materials could be obtained. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. H. says the Model Engineer. The winding of the armature. with the exception of insulated wire. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. Wagner. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. it had to be borne in mind that. which the writer has made. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. lamp. and to consume. without auxiliary phase.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. which can be developed in the usual manner. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. no more current than a 16-cp. may be of interest to some of our readers. if possible. In designing.--Contributed by Charles H. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor." has no connection with the outside circuit.

the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. Unfortunately. They are not particularly accurate as it is. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. or "stator. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. 3. holes. being used. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. 5. as shown in Fig. After assembling a second time. no steel being obtainable. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current.the field-magnet. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. in diameter were drilled in the corners. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. 4. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. 2. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. Holes 5-32 in. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. wrought iron. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. 1. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. and all sparking is avoided. while the beginnings . which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. as shown in Fig. C. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. about 2-1/2 lb. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. B. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. A. thick. to be filed out after they are placed together. and filled with rivets. were then drilled and 1/4-in. this little machine is not self-starting. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. bolts put in and tightened up. The stator is wound full with No. also varnished before they were put in. with the dotted line.

N. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. as a means of illustrating songs. film to film. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. 2. if applied immediately. Newark. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. The rotor is wound with No. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. which will make it appear as shown in Fig.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. J.. and as the motor runs at constant speed. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. If too late for alcohol to be of use. and would not easily get out of order. The lantern slide is a glass plate. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. having no commutator or brushes. 1. a regulating resistance is not needed. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. Jr. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. This type of motor has drawbacks. as shown in Fig. No starting resistance is needed. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. and as each layer of wire was wound. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. 3-Contributed by C. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. and all wound in the same direction. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. The image should . as before stated. McKinney. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. it would be very simple to build. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. and the other by reduction in the camera. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. E. One is by contact. In making slides by contact. and especially of colored ones. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on.

appear in. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. and then a plain glass. as shown in Fig. C. as shown in Fig. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. 5. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. also. It is best. 4. Being unbreakable. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. if possible. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . and development should be over in three or four minutes. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. a little extra work will be necessary. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. A. they are much used by travelers. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. to use a plain fixing bath. Fig. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. the formulas being found in each package of plates. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. If the exposure has been correct. 1. These can be purchased from any photo material store. over the mat. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. 3. D. about a minute. except that the binding is different. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. 2. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. Draw lines with a pencil. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. B. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. Select a room with one window. and the three bound together with passepartout tape.

Fig. as shown at A. from the ends. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. These longer pieces can be made square. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. Hastings. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. holes bored in the end pieces. If the star is in front of the left eye. long. or other stout cloth. wide and 50 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. as shown at B. known as rods and cones. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. 1. from the center of this dot draw a star. A piece of canvas. while the dot will be in front of the other. 1. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. long. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. 16 in. long. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. 2. is to be used for the seat. from the end piece of the chair. Vt. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. in diameter and 40 in. Corinth. Fig. in diameter and 20 in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. as shown in Fig. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye.

was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. made from an ordinary sash cord. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. 2. as well as to operate other household machines. A belt. in thickness and 10 in. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. . as shown in Fig. J. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. per square inch. as shown in Fig. 1. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. A disk 1 in. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board.-Contributed by P. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. O'Gara. Cal. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. Auburn.

Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. long. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and counting the threads in an inch of its length.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. 3/4 in. Bore a 1/4-in. and the construction is complete. . and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. A simple. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. square for a support. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. it serves a very useful purpose. wide. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. direction. divided by the number of threads to the inch. says the Scientific American. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. screwing it through the nut. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. or inconvenient to measure. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. then removing the object. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Cut out a piece from the block combination. will be the thickness of the object. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. Put the bolt in the hole. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. thick and 2-1/2 in. The part of a rotation of the bolt. fairly accurate. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. with as fine a thread as possible. to the top of the bench. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. leaving it shaped like a bench.

--Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Oal. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Place a 3/4-in. bolt in each hole. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. The wheel should be open .Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. long. beyond the end of the wood. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. globe that has been thrown away as useless. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. material 12 ft. piece of wood 12 ft. Santa Maria. long is used for the center pole. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Bore a 3/4-in. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. which show up fine at night. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in.

Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. and on its lower end a socket. square and 3 or 4 in. The coil. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. from the top end. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. 1/2 in. thick is used for the armature. is soldered. Fort Worth. The spool . of the ends with boards. long. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. thick. The boards may be nailed or bolted. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. C. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing.-Contributed by A. B. at the top and 4 in. wide and 1/8 in. A cross bar. L. A piece of brass 2 in. wide and 1/8 in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. made of the same material. C. at the bottom. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. which should be 1/4 in. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. long. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. H and J. O. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. in diameter. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. to be operated by the magnet coil. from the ends. long. thick. Graham. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. pieces used for the spokes. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. P. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. Tex. long. A. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in.Side and Top View or have spokes. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. and the lower part 61/2 in.

as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. 2.J. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. S. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. A soft piece of iron. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. S. 2 the hat hanging on it. D and E. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. then with a firm. long. by soldering.E. R. C. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. Bradlev. A. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. and directly centering the holes H and J. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. which may be had by using German silver wire. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. F. When you slide the pencil along the casing. for insulating the brass ferrule. . This tie can be used on grain sacks. or a water rheostat heretofore described. is drilled. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. one without either rubber or metal end. At the bottom end of the frame. and is adjusted in place by two set screws.000. and place it against a door or window casing. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. and in numerous other like instances.--A. 1. B. --Contributed by Arthur D. Randolph. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. that holds the lower carbon. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. This is a very neat trick if performed right. Mass. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw.is about 2-1/2 in. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. do it without any apparent effort. The armature. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection.000 for irrigation work.

When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The vibrator. about 1/8 in. and then 1. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. 1.500 turns of No. is constructed in the usual manner. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. S. The core of the coil. 1. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. Fig. B. in diameter and 1/16 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. 2. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. About 70 turns of No. A. Experiment with Heat [134] . with a 3/16-in. long. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. in diameter and 2 in. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. may be made from a 3/8-in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. F. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. C. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. for the secondary. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. about 3/16 in. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. Fig. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. is connected to a flash lamp battery. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. S. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. for the primary. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. from the core and directly opposite. for adjustment. in diameter. wide. hole in the center. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. in diameter. The switch. mixed with water to form a paste. The coil ends are made from cardboard. leaving the projections as shown. thick. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. D. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. long and 1 in. about 1 in. The vibrator B. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections.

This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. in an ordinary water glass. The tin is 4 in. Fig. it laps down about 8 in. thick on the inside. which is cut with two holes. with which to operate the dial. The three screws were then put in the hasp. which seemed to be insufficient. The hasp. board. and the same distance inside of the new board. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. wide. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. and then well clinched. brass plate. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. The knob on the dial extends out too far. 1. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover.Place a small piece of paper. 1. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. as shown. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. The lock. . lighted. between the boards. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. was to be secured by only three brass screws. which is only 3/8-in. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. 2 to fit the two holes. long and when placed over the board. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. as shown in the sketch. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. 16 in. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section.

The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. When making of wood. When the rear part is illuminated. and the back left dark. the glass. If the box is made large enough. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . high for use in window displays. one in each division. square and 10-1/2 in. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. but when the front part is illuminated. any article placed therein will be reflected in. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. clear glass as shown. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. or in the larger size mentioned. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. not shiny. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. which completely divides the box into two parts. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. square and 8-1/2 in. black color. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp.

long and 1 ft. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. as it appears. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. alternately. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. as shown at A in the sketch. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. and with the proper illumination one is changed. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. a tank 2 ft.. When using as a window display. above the top of the tank. wide will be about the right size. . Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. When there is no electric current available. into the other. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. as shown in the sketch.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

from either end and in the crack between the pieces. with a length of 13 in. is built on the front. high. 5 ft. two pieces 1-1/8 in. and a door in front. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. wide.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. but with a length of 12 in. one for each side. square. 1 in. long. long. and boring two holes with a 1-in. each. square and 40 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. hole bored the full length through the center. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. hole. Shape the under sides first. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. gauge for depth. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. and 6 ft. thick and 3 in. A small platform. O. from the ground. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. If a planing mill is near. This precipitate is then washed. dried and mixed with linseed oil. bore from each end. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. under sides together. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. using a 3/4-in. The 13-in. however. Iron sulphate. 6 in. bit. then use a red-hot iron to finish. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. or ferrous sulphate. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. The pieces can then be taken out. is the green vitriol. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. radius. Columbus. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. as shown. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. lines gauged on each side of each. This hole must be continued . and a solution of iron sulphate added. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. wide. Three windows are provided. 2 ft. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in.

The sketch shows one method of attaching. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. Electric globes--two. hole in each block. For art-glass the metal panels are . To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. apply two coats of wax. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. thick and 3 in. A better way. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. When this is dry." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. if shade is purchased. If the parts are to be riveted. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. When the filler has hardened. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. square and drawing a diagonal on each. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Saw the two blocks apart. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. three or four may be attached as shown. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in.through the pieces forming the base.

The Completed Lamp cut out.Construction of Shade . and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. as brass. METAL SHADE . Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. such as copper.

the object and the background.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. and Fig. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The arms holding the glass. 2 the front view of this stand. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. one way and 1/2 in. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. as shown in the sketch. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. the other. Figure 1 shows the side. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. as in ordinary devices. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length.

thick 5/8-in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. in diameter for a base. thus forming a 1/4-in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Before mounting the ring on the base. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. as it is very poisonous. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. wide and 6-5/16 in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. as shown in the cut. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. and swinging freely. pointing north and south. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. An ordinary pocket compass. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. long. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Put the ring in place on the base. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. uncork and recork again. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. outside diameter. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. If the light becomes dim. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . about 1-1/4 in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. in diameter. as shown in the sketch. Cut another circular piece 11 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. wide and 11 in. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out.

Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. AA. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. into these cylinders.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. from the second to the third. 1 oz. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.182 . Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye.289 .420 . For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. above the half can. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.715 . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second.600 . EE. Corresponding mirrors. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.088 . to which a wire has been soldered for connections. B. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. black oxide of copper. are mounted on a base. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg.500 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. and north of the Ohio river. of the top. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.865 1. The results given should be multiplied by 1. Place on top the so- .3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. and mirrors. CC. in diameter and 8 in.

during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. which otherwise remains clear. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. says Metal Worker. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. little crystals forming in the liquid. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. University Park. slender bottle. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. 62 gr. of pulverized campor. always remove the oil with a siphon. Put the solution in a long. When renewing. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. the wheel will revolve in one direction. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . In Fig. alcohol. Colo. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. then they will not rust fast. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. 31 gr. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust.

A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. If zinc and carbon are used. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. --Contributed by C. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. If zinc and copper are used. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. Attach to the wires. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. will allow the magnet to point north and south. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. If two of them are floating on the same solution. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. Lloyd Enos. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. on the under side of the cork. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. about 1-1/4 in. floating on a solution. Solder in the side of the box . they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. This is used in place of the spoon. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. A paper-fastener box.

Secure a piece of 1/4-in. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. The bottom of the box. hole. H. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. E. can be made of oak. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. Rhamstine. A. Bore holes for binding-posts. D. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. F.in. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. G--No. thick. and on the other around the glass tube. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. If the hose is not a tight fit. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. The base. B. long. Use a board 1/2. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. Thos. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. C. Put ends. long. 1. stained and varnished. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. E. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid.not shorter than 18 in. . 1/2. long that has about 1/4-in. 14 wire will do. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. D. The spring should be about 1 in. A. To this standard solder the supporting wire. as shown in Fig.Contributed by J. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. Wind evenly about 2 oz. is made from a piece of No. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. one on each side of the board. C. wide and 6 in. glass tubing . or made with a little black paint. wide and 2-1/2 in. and then solder on the cover.1-in. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. Take a small piece of soft iron. C. of No. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. B. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. A circular piece of cardboard. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. to it. of wire on each end extending from the coil. piece of 1/4-in. The standard. 3 in. 1-1/4 in. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. brass tubing. away. D.in. 10 wire about 10 in. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint.

some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. long. Wis. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. making a support as shown in Fig. is drawn nearer to the coil. long. 3-in. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. E. of 8-oz. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. Cuba. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. of mercury will be sufficient. J. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. as shown in Fig. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. D. four hinges. The iron plunger. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. Teasdale. . 2. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. about 1 in. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. long are used for the legs. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. long. Smith. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. 5. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. from the right hand. long. Milwaukee. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands.--Contributed by Edward M. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl.of the coil. of No. two pieces 2 ft. About 1-1/2 lb. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. 3 in. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. canvas. When the glass becomes soft. long. in diameter. Y. N. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. 3.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig.--Contributed by R. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. 1.

The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. 3. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. 2. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig.. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. Fig. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. long. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. This tube as described will be 8 in. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. of vacuum at the top. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. The tube now must be filled completely. Measure 8 in. thus leaving a. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. 6. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. 5. Can.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. holding in the left hand. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Take 1/2 in. Break off the piece of glass. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner.. 4. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. small aperture in the long tube. Keys. expelling all the air. leaving 8 in. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. --Contributed by David A. Toronto.

long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. long. 4. joint be accurately put together. thick. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. wood screws.6 -. This forms a slot. 9 in. material 2 in. FIG. 7. wide and 5 ft. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. Fig. 3 in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. wide and 5 ft. as in Fig. 3 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. from the end of same. 1. These are bent and nailed. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. wide and 3 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. long. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . with each projection 3-in. 5. 4 in. thick. wide and 12 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. thick. as shown in Fig. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. long. thick. The large pulley is about 14 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. long. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. in diameter. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 1 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. cut in the shape shown in Fig. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. 2. Four blocks 1/4 in. 6. but yellow pine is the best. as shown in Fig. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. wide and 5 ft. thick. 3. 1 in. and 1/4 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background.

first removing the crank. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. . attach runners and use it on the ice. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Kan. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. above the runner level. by 1-in. says Photography. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Welsh. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Water 1 oz. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. Manhattan. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. --Contributed by C. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. R.

The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Leominster. 1.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. also. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Mass. 1 oz. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. 3. 2. Treasdale. --Contributed by Wallace C. and very much cheaper. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Newton. . How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. as shown in Fig. of water. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. from an ordinary clamp skate. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. as shown in Fig. Printing is carried rather far. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. The print is washed. --Contributed by Edward M.

A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. and bend them as shown in the sketch. 1 ft. from one end. and 3 ft. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. high for rabbits. Church. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. Then. 1. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. about 10 in. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. Place a 10-in. extending the width of the box. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. which represents the back side of the door. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. as shown in the sketch. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. hole. --Contributed by H. Fig. too. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. fasten a 2-in. F. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. 2. causing the door to swing back and up. with about 1/8-in. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. 1. The thread is broken off at the . Va. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. high. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Fig. 1-1/2 ft. Take two glass tubes. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. The swing door B. square piece. wide and 4 in. wide. say. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. and to the bottom. long. Alexandria. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. A.

3. shorter. Out two rectangular holes. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. inside of the opening. from the edge on each side of these openings. Take two pieces of pasteboard. wide. in size. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Jr. say 8 in. Crilly. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through.by 5-in. trolley cars. horses and dogs. shorter at each end.proper place to make a small hole. . 10 in. black surfaced if possible. Chicago. Paste a piece of strong black paper. but cut it 1/4 in. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. A and B. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. wide. Fig. C. being 1/8 in. in size. and go in the holder in the same way. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. to be used as a driving pulley. Fig. Cut an opening in the other piece. D. automobiles. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. B. wide and 5 in. long. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. as shown in Fig.by 7-in. camera and wish to use some 4. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. says Camera Craft. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. plates.. This opening. 1. 2. 1 in. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. high and 12 in. and exactly 5 by 7 in. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. long. -Contributed by William M. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in.

How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. in diameter. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. long and 6 in. if it has previously been magnetized.. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. making a . A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. wide will be required. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. into which the dog is harnessed. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. The needle will then point north and south. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. A cell of this kind can easily be made.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water.in. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill.

The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. one that will hold about 1 qt. says Electrician and Mechanic. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Form a 1/2-in. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Do not paint any surface. with narrow flanges. . beeswax melted together. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. plaster of paris. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. F is a spool. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. and a notch between the base and the pan. 1 lb. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. of rosin and 2 oz. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. zinc oxide. in diameter and 6 in. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. of the top. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. B is a base of 1 in. only the joints. A is a block of l-in. for a connection. This makes the wire smooth. of the plate at one end.watertight receptacle. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. pull out the wire as needed. Place the pan on the stove. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. when the paraffin is melted. of water. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. 1/4 lb. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. Pack the paste in. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. fuel and packing purposes. short time. pine. fodder. leaving about 1/2-in.in. 3/4 lb. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. in which P is the pan. filter. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. under the spool in the paraffin. long which are copper plated. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. sal ammoniac. File the rods to remove the copper plate. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Carbons used in arc lamps will do.

in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and he finally. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. 2. At least it is amusing. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. or think they can do the same. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. long. and then. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics." which created much merriment. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Enlarge the hole slightly. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. If any of your audience presume to dispute. thus producing two different vibrations. Ohio. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. for others the opposite way. as in the other movement. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Toledo. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. let them try it. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. g. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. and one friend tells me that they were . Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Try it and see. and therein is the trick. but the thing would not move at all. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. square and about 9 in. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches.. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. while for others it will not revolve at all. by the Hindoos in India. from vexation. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. for some it will turn one way. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement.

As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. If the pressure was upon an edge. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. and I think the results may be of interest. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. p. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. 2. 7. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. secondly. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. the rotation may be obtained. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. and. 3. Thus a circular or . A square stick with notches on edge is best. To operate. 5. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin.100 r. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. gave the best results. by means of a center punch. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. m. 4. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. no rotation resulted. The experiments were as follows: 1. rotation was obtained. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. 6. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. Speeds between 700 and 1. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric.

or greasy. it will be clockwise. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. A wire is tied around the can. a piece of wire and a candle. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. --Contributed by G. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. C. the upper portion is. D. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. forming a handle for carrying.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Lloyd. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. G. if the pressure is from the left. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. A. Sloan. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. so far as can be seen from the photographs." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in.D. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid.. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops.. as shown. . For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). Minn. Washington. unwetted by the liquid. at first. --Contributed by M. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. is driven violently away. and the height of the fall about 6 in. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. Ph. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Duluth. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. and the resultant "basket splash.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. with a 1/16-in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. Each wheel is 1/4 in. hole drilled in the center. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. 1. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. as shown in Fig. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. in diameter. axle. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . thick and 1 in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. as shown. about 2-5/8 in. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. long. flange and a 1/4-in.

put together complete. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. 2.brass. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. 6. Fuller. The motor is now bolted. San Antonio. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. long. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. If the ends are to be soldered. which must be 110 volt alternating current. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. 2. The parts. This will save buying a track. or main part of the frame. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. The first piece. and the locomotive is ready for running. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. --Contributed by Maurice E. of No. wide and 16 in. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. with cardboard 3 in. 3. The current. as shown in Fig. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. 4. These ends are fastened together. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. holes 1 in. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch .50. wood. Fig. Texas. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. is made from brass. lamp in series with the coil. bent as shown. 5. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. is made from a piece of clock spring. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. are shown in Fig. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. 1 from 1/4-in. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. each in its proper place. bottom side up. 3. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. A trolley. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Fig. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. 3/4 in.

Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. O. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Fig 1. the length of a paper clip. but do not heat the center. Cincinnati. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Fig. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. 1. 2. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. as shown in Fig. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. as shown in Fig. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. then continue to tighten much more. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. 3. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. and as this end . The quarter will not go all the way down. and holes drilled in them.

The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. 2 and 1 respectively. has finished a cut for a tooth. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. and adjusted . A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. A pair of centers are fitted. or should the lathe head be raised. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. When the cutter A. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. When the trick is to be performed.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. or apparent security of the knot. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. In the sketch. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them.

draw center lines across the required space. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick .) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. book mark. if but two parts. --Contributed by Samuel C.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. twisted around itself and soldered. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. In this manner gears 3 in. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). --Contributed by Howard S. Bott. dividing it into as many parts as desired. 1. coin purse. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. 2. trace the outline. watch fob ready for fastenings. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. (6.) Place the paper design on the leather and. if four parts are to be alike. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. (4. such as brass or marble. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. long. swing lathe. tea cosey. note book. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. An ordinary machine will do. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). above the surface.to run true. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. N. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. at the same time striking light. about 1-1/2 in. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. (5. and a nut pick. (2. Bunker. Y. The frame holding the mandrel. lady's belt bag. tea cosey. (3. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. (1. Fold over along these center lines.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. gentleman's card case or bill book. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. Second row: -Two book marks. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Fig. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. lady's card case. or one-half of the design. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster.) Make on paper the design wanted. When connecting to batteries. holding it in place with the left hand. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. blotter back. Brooklyn.

some heavy rubber hose. Secure . and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

Thrust a pin.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. B. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. into which fit a small piece of tube. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. where it condenses. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. and push it through a cork. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. D. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. and bore a hole through the center. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. a distance of 900 miles. from Key West. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground.C. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. If the needle is not horizontal. C.. Florida. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. The electrodes are made . A. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube.

1-1/2 in. long. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. take the glider to the top of a hill. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft.in. All wiring is done with No. 2 in. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. and also to keep it steady in its flight. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. long. both laterally and longitudinally. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. which is tacked to the front edge. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. 1. Connect as shown in the illustration. long.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. thick. C. wide and 4 ft long. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. long for the body of the operator. thick. lumber cannot be procured. 3. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. lengths and splice them. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. wide and 4 ft. use 10-ft. free from knots. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. thick. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. 1. long. D. Four long beams 3/4 in. 16 piano wire. 1-1/4 in. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. several strips 1/2 in. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. Washington. 2 arm sticks 1 in. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. wide and 20 ft. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. wide and 3 ft. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. thick. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. or flying-machine. wide and 4 ft. Powell. 3/4 in. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. wide and 3 ft. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. 12 uprights 1/2 in. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. 2. The operator can then land safely and . long. slacken speed and settle. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. 2. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. To make a glide. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. using a high resistance receiver. by 3/4 in. apart and extend 1 ft. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. 1. 1/2. --Contributed by Edwin L. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. as shown in Fig. If 20-ft. thick. square and 8 ft long.

gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Great care should be . the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. but this must be found by experience.gently on his feet. Of course. Glides are always made against the wind.

the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. half man and half horse. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. M. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. which causes the dip in the line. a creature of Greek mythology. 1. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. When heated a little. Bellingham. as shown in Fig. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. 2. Olson. --Contributed by L. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig.exercised in making landings.

If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. will complete the material list. long. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. While at the drug store get 3 ft. about the size of door screen wire. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. 14 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. long and about 3/8 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. The light from the . Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. a piece of brass or steel wire. square. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. outside the box. making it 2-1/2 in. of small rubber tubing. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. this will cost about 15 cents. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. about the size of stove pipe wire.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. at the other. in diameter. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in.

A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Hunting. M. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. 1. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Dayton. . but puzzling when the trick is first seen. while others will fail time after time.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. 2. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. as shown in Fig. O. as shown in the sketch. --Photo by M. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. This is very simple when you know how. If done properly the card will flyaway. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. as shown in Fig. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand.

revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. Cool in water and dry. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. as before. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. then put it on the hatpin head. This game is played by five persons. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. as shown. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters." or the Chinese students' favorite game. place the other two. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. as described. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. hold the lump over the flame. When the desired shape has been obtained.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. closing both hands quickly. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. If a certain color is to be more prominent.

using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. passing through neutralizing brushes. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. these sectors. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. distribute electric charges . Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. or more in width. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal.

The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. brass tubing and the discharging rods. 1-1/2 in. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. long and the standards 3 in. The collectors are made. The fork part is 6 in. 1. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. in diameter. D. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. the side pieces being 24 in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. The two pieces. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. in diameter. in diameter. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. Fig. and the outer end 11/2 in. in diameter. The plates. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The plates are trued up. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. or teeth. as shown in Fig. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. at the other. are made from 7/8-in. long and the shank 4 in. to which insulating handles . 3. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. GG. Fig. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. long. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. turned wood pieces. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. Two pieces of 1-in. as shown in Fig. and 4 in. RR. C C. 2. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. wide at one end. 1 in. and of a uniform thickness. free from wrinkles. wide. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. 3/4 in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. EE. 3. and pins inserted and soldered. after they are mounted. long. material 7 in. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. Two solid glass rods. in diameter and 15 in. from about 1/4-in. in diameter. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. in diameter. The drive wheels. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. are made from solid. 4. These pins.

A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. 12 ft. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. and the work was done by themselves. Lloyd Enos. ball and the other one 3/4 in. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. D. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. --Contributed by C. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. wide and 22 ft. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods.are attached. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. which are bent as shown. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. one having a 2-in. Colo. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water.. KK. long. in diameter. Colorado City.

All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. yet such a thing can be done. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand.is a good one. bit. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. The key will drop from the string. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. string together. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. pens . Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. using a 1-in. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. deep. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. as at A. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place.

If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. When the stamping is completed. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. sharp division between background and design.and pencils. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. 23 gauge. etc. 8. flat and round-nosed pliers. 3. They are easily made. stamp the background promiscuously. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. 2. file. 5. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Proceed as follows: 1. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. Draw one-half the design free hand. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 7.. above the metal. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. then the other side. and the third one 1/4 in. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. Having determined the size of the tray.. Raise the ends. The second oblong was 3/4 in. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. 6. using a nail filed to chisel edge. This is to make a clean. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. etc. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. unless it would be the metal shears. extra metal on each of the four sides. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. they make attractive little pieces to have about. Use . above the work and striking it with the hammer. slim screw. about 3/4-in. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. very rapid progress can be made. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. Inside this oblong. inside the first on all. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. inside the second on all. 9. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. also trace the decorative design. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. or cigar ashes. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. 4. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. two spikes.

Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. In the first numbering. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. and fourth fingers. 6. The eyes. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. second fingers. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . 10. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. and the effect will be most pleasing. 9. third fingers. first fingers. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. 7. 8.

or the product of 8 times 9. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. thumbs. above 20 times 20. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. 12.. which tens are added. 600. Let us multiply 12 by 12. 400.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. In the second numbering. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. above 15 times 15 it is 200. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. etc. renumber your fingers. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. Still. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. which would be 16. 25 times 25. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. there are no fingers above. etc. and the six lower fingers as six tens. 2 times 2 equals 4. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. if we wish. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right.. etc. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. or numbers above 10. first fingers. Put your thumbs together. which would be 70. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. or 80. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. or the product of 6 times 6. as high as you want to go. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. 11. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. . At a glance you see four tens or 40.. viz. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. the product of 12 times 12. but being simple it saves time and trouble. or 60. Two times one are two. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers.

beginning the thumbs with 16. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. twenties. when he removes his spectacles. further. however. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. Take For example 18 times 18. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. 8. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. 2. 7. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. the inversion takes place against his will. And the lump sum to add. any two figures between 45 and 55. and.. the revolution seems to reverse. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. the value which the upper fingers have. For figures ending in 6. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. It takes place also. in the case of a nearsighted person. adding 400 instead of 100. thumbs. lastly. at the will of the observer. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. . such as an used for lighting gas-burners. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. and so on. 3. not rotation. the lump sum to add. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. 75 and 85. Proceed as in the second lumbering. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. For example. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. as one might suppose. whether the one described in second or third numbering. forties. being 80). first finger 17.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. or from above or from below. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. 21. The inversion and reversion did not take place. first fingers 22. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. thirties. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. or what. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. about a vertical axis. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. which is the half-way point between the two fives. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. etc. the value of the upper fingers being 20. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324.

and putting a cork on the point. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. the other appearance asserts itself. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. The ports were not easy to make. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. as . The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. Looking at it in semidarkness. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. sometimes the point towards him.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. when he knows which direction is right. A flat slide valve was used. tee. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance.

in diameter.. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. Springfield. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. Next take a block of wood. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. secure a piece of No. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. If nothing better is at hand. such as is shown in the illustration. across the head. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. The tools are simple and can be made easily. deep. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. pipe. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. The steam chest is round.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. apart. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. as in a vise. Kutscher. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Fasten the block solidly. Ill. -Contributed by W. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. inexpensive. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. bottom side up. about 2 in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. it is easily built. across and 1/2 in. pipe 10 in. The eccentric is constructed of washers. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. . saw off a section of a broom handle. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. and make in one end a hollow. H. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. While this engine does not give much power. if continued too long without proper treatment.

sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. Camden. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. Hay. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. O. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. as it softens the metal. and. This process is called annealing. To overcome this hardness. the other to the left. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. Vinegar. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. To produce color effects on copper. --Contributed by W. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. S. C. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . especially when the object is near to the observer.will cause the metal to break.

Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. the further from the card will the composite image appear. would serve the same purpose. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. the left eye sees through a blue screen. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. as for instance red and green. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. diameter. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. . that for the right. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. they must be a very trifle apart. orange. with the stereograph. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. The red portions of the picture are not seen. in the proper choice of colors. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. the one for the left eye being blue. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. But they seem black. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. although they pass through the screen. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. It is just as though they were not there. however. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. disappears fully. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. In order to make them appear before the card. So with the stereograph. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. and lies to the right on the picture. only the orange rays may pass through. it. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. not two mounted side by side. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. because of the rays coming from them. from the stereograph. The further apart the pictures are. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. because. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. while both eyes together see a white background. and without any picture. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in.stereoscope.

The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. San Francisco. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The weight of the air in round . The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. A No. in the shape of a crank. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. Place a NO. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. in diameter. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. long and a hole drilled in each end. wide and 1 in. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Cal. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. etc. 12 gauge wire. thick. wireless. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. or the middle of the bottle. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. 1/4 in. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. This should only be bored about half way through the block. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in.

The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. thick. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. Before fastening the scale. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. internal diameter and about 34 in. 34 ft. the instrument. wide and 4 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. square. long. but before attempting to put in the mercury. high. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. wide and 40 in. and a slow fall. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. a bottle 1 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. a glass tube 1/8 in. long. . When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. if you choose. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. or a column of mercury (density 13. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. inside diameter and 2 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. The 4 in.numbers is 15 lb. But if a standard barometer is not available. long. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. 30 in. In general. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. or. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury.6) 1 in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. the contrary. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. Only redistilled mercury should be used. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather.. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. square. will calibrate itself. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. high. if accurately constructed. pine 3 in. high.

3. which is slipped quickly over the end. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. 6 and 7. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Mark out seven 1-in. wide and 10 in. and place them as shown in Fig.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 2. a cover from a baking powder can will do. 1. the size of the outside of the bottle. 5. long. Procure a metal can cover. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. thick. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. Number the pieces 1. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed.

1. Move 8-Jump No. 1 into No. Move 13-Move No. 6 to No. Move 9-Jump No. 5 over No. 5's place. 2 over No. Move ll-Jump No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. which is the very best material for the purpose. N. Woolson.J. as shown in Fig. L. 3. Move 10-Move No. Move 7-Jump No. 2. To make such a tent. 2 . This can be done on a checker board. 6 in. 2's place. 7 over No. procure unbleached tent duck. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 3 over No. 1 to No. Move 5-Jump No. 7 over No. l over No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 7. Move 4-Jump No. 6. Move 6-Move No. 1. 6 over No. each 10 ft. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads.-Contributed by W. Move 2-Jump No. 5's place. 5. Move 15-Move No. 3 to the center. 3 into No. 2 over No. 3. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 6. 2. 6 into No. using checkers for men. Cape May Point. 7's place. long and 2 ft.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 2's place. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 3. in diameter. shaped like Fig. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 5 over No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Move 12-Jump No. Move 14-Jump No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Move 3-Move No. Make 22 sections. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces.

How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Punch holes in the brass in . Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Fig. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. wide by 12 in. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Emsworth. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent.J. Use blocks. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. added. high. long and 4 in. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Nail a thin sheet of brass. as in Fig. 2 in. Pa. leaving the rest for an opening. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. to a smooth board of soft wood. 2. 9 by 12 in. In raising the tent. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. wide at the bottom. from the top. round galvanized iron. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. wide at the bottom. will do. made in two sections. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. These are ventilators. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. 3 in. about 9 in. diameter. 5) stuck in the ground. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top.. Tress. 5.in. --Contributed by G. 6. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. in diameter. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. After transferring the design to the brass. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. long. fill with canvas edging. Have the tent pole 3 in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Fig. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. As shown in the sketch. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. 6-in.

remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. Chicago. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. apart. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. around the outside of the pattern. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. excepting the 1/4-in. It will not. When the edges are brought together by bending. .the spaces around the outlined figures. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. cut out the brass on the outside lines. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. When all the holes are punched. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. Corr. but before punching the holes. bend into shape. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The pattern is traced as before.

--Contributed by Geo. --Contributed by H. between which is placed the fruit jar. These pipes are . E. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. A cast-iron ring. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in.however. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. allowing 2 ft. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post.. A 6-in. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. Dunham. better still. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Que. If a wheel is selected. Stevens. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. Mayger. partially filled with cream. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. or center on which the frame swings. Badger. or. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Oregon. or less. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. G. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. pipe. pipe is used for the hub. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in.

pipe clamps. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. bent to the desired circle. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. Four braces made from 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in.

but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. as shown in Fig. which was placed in an upright position. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. while doing this. and the guide withdrawn. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. and dropped on the table. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. 3. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. 1. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The performer.

in diameter on another piece of tin. The box can be made of selected oak or . it requires no expensive condensing lens. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. D. in a half circle. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. and second. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. --Contributed by H. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Denver. Harkins. Louis. 1. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. -Contributed by C. White. St. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. first. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Mo. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. F. 2. Colo. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover.

This will be 3/4 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. from each end of the outside of the box. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. The door covering this hole in the back. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. and. wide and 5 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. high and must . long and should be placed vertically. fit into the runners.mahogany. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. represented by the dotted line in Fig. long. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. from each end. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. An open space 4 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. 2. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. but not tight. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. wide and 6-1/2 in. focal length. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. AA. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. high and 11 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. and 2 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. long. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. Two or three holes about 1 in. 3-1/2 in. wide. wide by 5 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. 1. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. If a camera lens is used. 5-1/2 in.

Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. June and November. calling this February. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. Bradley. then the second knuckle will be March. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. --Contributed by Chas. and so on. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. as it requires an airtight case. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. and extending the whole height of the lantern. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Ohio." etc.. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. 1. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. This process is rather a difficult one. April. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. C. provided it is airtight. the article may be propped up . calling that knuckle January. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. West Toledo. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown.

Schenectady. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. . The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. Y. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. one of lead and one of aluminum. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. but waxed. 2. running small motors and lighting small lamps. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. in. Pour in a little turpentine. In both Fig. and set aside for half a day. Crawford. taking care to have all the edges closed. the lid or cover closed. N. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. in. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. 1. fruit jars are required. or suspended by a string.with small sticks. H. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. In each place two electrodes. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. 1 and 2. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. giving it an occasional stir. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. The top of a table will do. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. and the lead 24 sq.

although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. as well as others. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. he throws the other. He. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain.. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. O. you remove the glass. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Cleveland. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. After a few seconds' time. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. You have an understanding with some one in the company. which you warm with your hands. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. as you have held it all the time. This trick is very simple. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will .

The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. but by being careful at shores. in diameter in the center. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Victor. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. on a table. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Crocker. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. put it under the glass. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. near a partition or curtain. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. J. but in making one. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint.-Contributed by E.take the handiest one. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Be sure that this is the right one. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. . if any snags are encountered. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. Pull the ends quickly. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Colo. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely.

the smaller is placed 3 ft. 1/8 in. 11 yd. as illustrated in the engraving. by 16 ft. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 3 and 4. selected pine. wide and 12 ft. by 10 ft. and. Paint. thick and 3/4 in. long. 3 in. and fastened with screws. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. ducking. from each end to 1 in. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 1 in. square by 16 ft. long. 50 ft. 1 in.. long. of 1-1/2-yd. by 8 in. is 14 ft. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. by 12 in. for the stern piece. 2 gunwales. The keelson. wide 12-oz. 1/4 in. 1 in. of 1-yd. 1 in. 2 and braced with an iron band. and is removed after the ribs are in place. for cockpit frame. 8 in. from the bow and the large one. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. by 16 ft. 1. 8 yd. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 1 piece. at the ends.. and the other 12 in. 1 mast. by 2 in. one 6 in. drilled and fastened with screws. clear pine. 4 outwales. from the stern. wide unbleached muslin. screws and cleats. apart. 9 ft. are as follows: 1 keelson. 14 rib bands.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. wide. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 1 piece. for center deck braces. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. long. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. by 15 ft. wide and 12 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. 3 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. Both ends are mortised. 2 in. by 2 in. of rope. for the bow. 7 ft. Fig.

long is well soaked in water. 1 in. corner braces. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. is cut to fit under the top boards. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. wide and 3 ft. wide. thick. wide and 24 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. . apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. 6 and 7. wide. apart. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. thick. 9. The block is fastened to the keelson. thick 1-1/2 in. The trimming is wood. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. A piece of oak. and fastened to them with bolts. The 11-yd. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. Fig. long. a piece 1/4 in. 4 in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. gunwales and keelson. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. Fig. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. 7 and 8. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. 6. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. in diameter through the block. A block of pine. is a cube having sides 6 in. doubled. A seam should be made along the center piece. A 6-in. Before making the deck. The deck is not so hard to do. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. 6 in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. also. wide and 14 in. thick and 12 in. long. Braces. They are 1 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. thick and 1/2 in. 5. Figs. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 1 in. wood screws. length of canvas is cut in the center. screws.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. 3-1/2 ft. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. This block. from the bow. 1/4 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. long. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. These are put in 6 in.

The mast has two side and one front stay. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. are used for the boom and gaff. Fig. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. The house will accommodate 20 families. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. long. thick by 2 in. . The inside of the rooms should be stained black. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. 11. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. Tronnes. The keel. wide at one end and 12 in. is 6 in. Wilmette. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. wide. long. --Contributed by O. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. E. each 1 in. A strip 1 in. at the other. 10 with a movable handle. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The sail is a triangle. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. Ill. 12. apart in the muslin. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. in diameter and 10 ft.

Wilmette. wide and 30 in. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. 1 yd. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. five 1/2-in. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. one 11-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. Take this and fold it over . 2-1/2 in. long. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. and the other 18 in. 2-1/2 in.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. square. long and five 1/2-in. wide. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. and 3 ft. thick. flat-headed screws. E.into two 14-in. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. thick. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. wide and 2 ft. Ill. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. 3. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. with the ends and the other side rounding. thick. about 5/16 in. 2 in. Cut the maple. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. long. flat headed screws. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Bevel both sides of the pieces. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. wide. Fig. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. 4. flat on one side. long. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. --Contributed by O. 1. 2. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. 5. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. Tronnes.

to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. long. A. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. of each end unwound for connections. wide and 3 ft. long. C. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. Figs. --Contributed by W. The bag is then turned inside out. wide . Cut another piece of board. 6-1/2 in. 3/8 in. Wind three layers of about No. forming an eye for a screw. F. 1. When the glue is set. wide and 5 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. long. If carefully and neatly made. as well as the edges around the opening. but can be governed by circumstances. The front. are rounded. about 3/8 in. Fig. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. Another piece. St. thick and 3 in. and take care that the pieces are all square. About 1/2 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. pieces 2-5/8 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. square. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. wide and 6-3/4 in. 5 from 1/16-in. soaked with water and blown up. wide and 4-1/2 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. wide and 6-1/2 in. D. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. E. the mechanical parts can be put together. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. then centered. thick. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. B. long. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. this square box is well sandpapered. long. wide and 2-3/4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. long. and make a turn in each end of the wires. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown.once. 1-1/4 in. After the glue. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. is set. the top and bottom. Glue a three cornered piece. square. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. 3 in. thick. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. Louis. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. 2 and 3. C. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. Bliss. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. A. Mo. 3-1/4 in. and the four outside edges. The sides are 3-1/4 in. long. long.

wide and 2-1/2 in. thick. Another strip of tin. W. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Place the tin. so it will just clear the tin. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. The resistance is now adjusted to show . These wires should be about 1 in. hole is fastened to the pointer. 5-1/2 in. C. Chapman.and 2-5/8 in. from the spindle. I. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. wide and 9 in. long. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in.A. --Contributed by George Heimroth. Richmond Hill. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. R. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. Austwick Hall. When the current flows through the coil. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. and fasten in place. L. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . showing a greater defection of the pointer. the same size as the first. The base is a board 5 in. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. from one end. in diameter. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. The stronger the current. 4 is not movable. board. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. 4. 4. that has the end turned with a shoulder. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. 1/16 in. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. Fig. Like poles repel each other. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. and the farther apart they will be forced. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. F. bored in the back. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. 5. Fig. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass.S. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. 1/4 in. long. The end of the polar axis B. A pointer 12 in. Yorkshire.R. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. G. long. the part carrying the pointer moves away. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. and as the part Fig.

all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. 10 min. The following formula will show how this may be found. 10 min. and vice . If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. shows mean siderial. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. at 9 hr. 1881. say Venus at the date of observation. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. M. thus: 9 hr. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. A. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. 30 min.

f. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. --Contributed by Robert W. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. . Conn. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery.m. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. or. Hall. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. New Haven. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. and then verify its correctness by measurement. if one of these cannot be had. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. owing to the low internal resistance.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down.

after scraping away the greater part of the coals. long. Fig. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. When the follower is screwed down. 1-3/4 in. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. of alum and 4 oz. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. as shown in the accompanying picture. Then. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. thick. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. and heap the glowing coals on top. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. The boring bar. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. 3/8 in. inside diameter and about 5 in. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. fresh grass. cover up with the same. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . put the fish among the ashes. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. arsenic to every 20 lb. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. especially for cooking fish. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. leaves or bark. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. 1. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Wet paper will answer.

when they were turned in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. about 1/2 in. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. fastened with a pin. pipe. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. thick. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. pipe. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . and threaded on both ends. Two pieces of 3/4 -in.

4. a jump spark would be much better. 5. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. Fig. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. It . however. 2. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. Fig. was then finished on an emery wheel. This plate also supports the rocker arms. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. 3. The rough frame. 30 in. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. Iowa. wide. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. but never one which required so little material. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. as the one illustrated herewith. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. long. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. and which gave such satisfactory results. the float is too high. Clermont. thick and 3 in. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. Fig. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. bent in the shape of a U. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. If the valve keeps dripping. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. labor and time. A 1-in. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. square iron. then it should be ground to a fit.valve stems. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe.

timber. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. completes the merry-go-round. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. Use a heavy washer at the head. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. --Contributed by C. strong clear material only should be employed. It looks like a toy. 12 ft. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. square. long. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. The crosspiece is 2 in. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. Nieman. being held in position by spikes as shown. As there is no bracing. The seats are regular swing boards. long is the pivot. in the ground with 8 ft. strengthened by a piece 4 in. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. square and 2 ft. for the "motive power" to grasp. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. rope is not too heavy. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. extending above. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. The illustration largely explains itself. butting against short stakes. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. square and 5 ft. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. set 3 ft. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. 3/4 in." little and big. This makes an easy adjustment. and a little junk. hole bored in the post. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. in diameter and 15 in. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. A malleable iron bolt. with no trees or buildings in the way. A 3/4 -in. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . from all over the neighborhood. long. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. W. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. in fact. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. so that there will be plenty of "wobble." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. so it must be strong enough. from the center. and. long. If it is to be used for adults. no matter what your age or size may be. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet.

therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. then it is securely fastened. These ends are placed about 14 in. The bow is now bent. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. Having placed the backbone in position. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. A reel is next made. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft.the fingers. one for the backbone and one for the bow. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. 1/4 by 3/32 in. long. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. The backbone is flat.2 emery. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. and 18 in. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. away. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. if nothing better is at hand. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. 2. as shown in Fig. To wind the string upon the reel. Both have large reels full of . light and strong. square. a wreck. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. 1. 4. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. and sent to earth. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching.

the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Y. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. If the second kite is close enough. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. --Contributed' by Harry S. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Mass. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. N. Bunker. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away.-Contributed by S.string. First. C. he pays out a large amount of string. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Brooklyn. the balance. The handle end is held down with a staple. or glass-covered string. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Moody. often several hundred yards of it. Newburyport. common packing thread. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever.

Hastings. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. then draw the string up tight. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Vt.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. each the size of half the table top. length of 2-in. then a dust protector. Corinth. lengths (Fig. --Contributed by Earl R. If the table is round. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. cutting the circular piece into quarters. square (Fig. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. make the pad as shown in the illustration. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. must be attached to a 3-ft. such as mill men use.

Wharton. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. Moisten the . Use a smooth. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. 6-1/4 in. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions.9-1/4 in. and E to G. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. from C to D. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.-Contributed by H. 17-1/2 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring.. E. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. which spoils the leather effect. hard pencil. Oakland. from E to F. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. G to H. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. 2-1/4 in. 16-1/4 in.. Calif. . The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless.. trace the design carefully on the leather. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.

make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. H-B. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. and lace through the holes. Trace the openings for the handles. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. with the rounded sides of the tools. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. and corresponding lines on the other side. Now cut narrow thongs. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. if not more than 1 in. is taken off at a time. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. wide. about 1/8 in.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. apart. G-J. I made this motor . get something with which to make a lining. Cut it the same size as the bag. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. To complete the bag. place both together and with a leather punch. and E-G. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. also lines A-G.

The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. as shown in Fig. 1. B. Calif. of No. iron. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. 2. 1. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. 2-1/4 in. Pasadena. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. 24 gauge magnet wire. each being a half circle.M. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. --Contributed by J. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. . long. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. Shannon. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. D. in length. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel.

The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the .Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. balloon should be about 8 ft. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. 1. pasted in alternately. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. from the bottom end. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. near the center. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The gores for a 6-ft. high. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. and the gores cut from these. are the best kind to make. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors.

using about 1/2-in. The boat soon attains considerable speed. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. If the gores have been put together right. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. lap on the edges. 4. --Contributed by R. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. as shown in Fig. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. 1. saturating it thoroughly. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. 3. leaving the solution on over night. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. somewhat larger in size. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. coming through the small pipe A. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. so it will hang as shown in Fig. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. After washing. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . E. in diameter. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. In removing grease from wood. B. Staunton. as shown in Fig. The steam. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. 5.widest point. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. As the boat is driven forward by this force. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. In starting the balloon on its flight. 2. These are to hold the wick ball. after which the paint will adhere permanently. Fig. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. leaving a long wake behind. A. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose.

Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. 1. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The blocks are about 6 in. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . apart on these lines. long. There are three ways of doing this: First. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. in bowling form. as is shown in Fig. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. Third. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. wide by 6 in. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. long and each provided with a handle. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. if you have several copies of the photograph. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. high and 8 in. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. Second. In using either of the two methods described. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft.

Hellwig. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Fig. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. 2. Y. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal.Fig. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Albany. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. being careful not to dent the metal. N. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Rinse the plate in cold water. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. --Contributed by John A. thick.

It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. In Fig. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. are screwed to the circular piece. B. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. These corner irons are also screwed to. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Break off the frame. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. in diameter. Corner irons. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. thick. through which passes the set screw S. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. and. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. A circular piece of wood. 1 Fig. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. and not produce the right sound. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. is fastened to a common camera tripod. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations.upon any particular object. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. 5 in. Paine. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. 6 in. and Fig. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. A. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. 2 the front view. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. long for the base. wide and 8 in. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. --Contributed by R. A. wide and of any desired height. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Richmond. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. With this device. which is 4 in. with a set screw. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . CC. Va. S.

-1. thus producing sound waves. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. in diameter of some 1-in. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. Ill. pine boards.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. S. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. as only the can is visible. I made a wheel 26 in. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. This horn. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. La Salle. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. D. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. Kidder. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. Lake Preston. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. This will make a very compact electric horn. R. .

Ghent. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. square. 1. If the collection consists of only a few coins. If there is a large collection of coins. Fig. Purdy. 2. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. O. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. 1. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. B. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. thick and 12 in. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. A. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Feet may be added to the base if desired. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. the same thickness as the coins. Kane. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Doylestown. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. The frame is made of a heavy card. --Contributed by James R. --Contributed by C. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp.

It will hold 4 oz. --Contributed by R. several large nails. Neyer. they become uninteresting. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. border all around. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. One Cloud. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Canada. for after the slides have been shown a few times. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. cut and grooved. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. A lead pencil. If desired. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Noble. Cal. thick. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing.J. A rivet punch is desirable. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Smith. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder.E. into which to place the screws . This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. a hammer or mallet. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Wis. Milwaukee. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. melted and applied with a brush. though not absolutely necessary. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. and then glued together as indicated. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. The material required is a sheet of No. --Contributed by J. of developer. --Contributed by August T. plus a 3/8-in. Toronto. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost.

This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. never upon the metal directly. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. using 1/2-in. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. both outline and decoration.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. like the one shown. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. There are several ways of working up the design. Take the nail. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. and file it to a chisel edge. Remove the screws. draw one part. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. screws placed about 1 in. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape.

Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. long. 3. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. square and 11 in. of 11-in. for the top.wall. Rivet the band to the holder. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. and two lengths. long. being ball bearing. 3/4 in. up from the lower end. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. each 1 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. square. square and 181/2 in. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. long. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. in the other. 1. l-1/8 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. two lengths. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. as shown in Fig. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. using a 1/2in. Provide four lengths for the legs. Do not bend it over or flatten it. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. About 1/2 yd. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. . for the lower rails. 2. The pedal.

New York City. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . F. Ala.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. Attalla. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. having quite a length of threads. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. --Contributed by W. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. --Contributed by John Shahan. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Quackenbush.

of sal-soda in one pailful of water. and the other 2-3/4 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. in depth. and 3/8 in. each 1-1/4 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Two pieces of felt. long. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in.. and two holes in the other. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. long. using class. stitched on both edges for appearance. one about 1 in. from the end. --Contributed by C.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. something that is carbonated. wide and 8-1/4 in. making a lap of about 1 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . long. D. wide and 4-1/4 in. Ironwood. college or lodge colors. from one end. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. Mich. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. The desired emblem. the end of the other piece is folded over. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. Luther. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. initial. Assemble as shown in the sketch.

the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. This method allows a wide range of designs. or a pasteboard box.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. --Contributed by John H. 2. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. Fig. Schatz. in the cover and the bottom. if desired by the operator. as shown in the sketch. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. which can be procured from a plumber. Ind. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. from the center and opposite each other. in diameter and 2 in. 1/4 in. and the cork will be driven out. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . 1. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Indianapolis. about 2 in. Punch two holes A. or more in height. as shown at B. A piece of lead.

but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. 3. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. as shown in Fig. metal. putting in the design. or marble will serve. it winds up the rubber band. O. When the can is rolled away from you. . There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. Columbus.Rolling Can Toy lead. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. Fig. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. The pieces of tin between the holes A. 5. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. 4. A piece of thick glass. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. and the ends of the bands looped over them. 1. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. allowing the two ends to be free. on both top and bottom. are turned up as in Fig. These tools can be bought for this special purpose.

Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. New York City. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. wide and 20 in. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. thicker than the pinion. from each end. A pencil may be used the first time over. long and bored a 1/2-in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. If it is desired to "line" the inside. or more thick on each side. The edges should be about 1/8 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. Next place the leather on the glass. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. hole through it. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. I secured a board 3/4 in. thick. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . 3 in. mark over the design. deep in its face. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. 1 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. face up. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. After this has been done. and.

in the board into the bench top. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 2 crosspieces. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 1 top board. N. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 2 end rails. Brooklyn. 1 top board. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 2. 1 piece. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 2 by 12 by 77 in. --Contributed by A. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. lag screws as shown. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. Fig. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1 piece for clamp. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 1 piece for clamp. 2 side rails. and fit it in place for the side vise. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Syracuse. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 1 back board. Y. in diameter. pieces for the vise slides. Make the lower frame first. 3 by 3 by 36. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 1 screw block. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Rice. M. Now fit up the two clamps. 4 guides. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. much of the hard labor will be saved. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. countersinking the heads of the vise end. New York. thick top board. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Cut the 2-in.

1 pair dividers.. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 pair pliers. 1 cross cut saw. 3 and 6 in. If each tool is kept in a certain place. it can be easily found when wanted. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 2 screwdrivers. 1 compass saw. 1 rip saw. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. The amateur workman. The bench is now complete. 1 set gimlets. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 nail set. 1 monkey wrench. 24 in. rule. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 jack plane or smoother.. . 1 pocket level. as well as the pattern maker.. 1 claw hammer. 1 2-ft. 1 marking gauge. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 countersink. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. Only the long run.screws. 1 set chisels. 24 in. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. in diameter. 1 wood scraper.

1. No. Fig. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 3. but will not make . To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. Fig. becomes like A. the projecting point A. The calf skin. after constant use. Doylestown. 2 and 00 sandpaper. ---Contributed by James M. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. 1. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 2. Fig. Pa. Kane. Fig.1. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C.1 6-in. try square. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. 1 oilstone. will be easier to work. being softer.

Having prepared the two sides. when dry. then prepare the leather. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. such as copper or brass. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. will do just as well. If cow hide is preferred. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Turn the leather. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. cover it completely with water enamel and. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. After the outlines are traced. The form can be made of a stick of wood. secure a piece of modeling calf.as rigid a case as the cow skin. water or heat will not affect. lay the design on the face. which steam. -Contributed by Julia A. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. If calf skin is to be used. but a V-shaped nut pick. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. and the length 6-5/8 in. First draw the design on paper. the same method of treatment is used. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Two pieces will be required of this size. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. White. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. . New York City. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall.

Cobb. A. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Portland. . Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Richmond. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Jaquythe. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. --Contributed by Chester L. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. as shown in the sketch. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Herrman. and an adjustable friction-held loop. C. Cal. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by W. New York City. Maine.

--Contributed by Wm. an inverted stewpan. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. B. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. Roberts. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. --Contributed by Geo. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Cambridge. A thick piece of tin. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. was marked out as shown. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Wright. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. This was very difficult.. Mass. for instance. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Middletown. . Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Conn.

or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. but not running over. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. such as chair seats. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. . and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. Illinois. Ind. on a clear piece of glass. --Contributed by Paul Keller. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. pulverized and applied. so some bones were quickly calcined. If any traces of the grease are left. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. but only an odor which soon vanished. --Contributed by C. A beautifully bound book. of boiling water. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Bone. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass.. apply powdered calcined magnesia. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. L. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. which has been tried out several times with success. Chicago. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. well calcined and powdered. F. If the article is highly polished. When dry. and quite new. The next morning there was no trace of oil. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Indianapolis. and the grease will disappear. used as part of furniture. face down. There was no quicklime to be had. Herbert. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. as shown.

--Contributed by Geo. the pieces . 6 in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. wide and 12 in. high and are bolted to a block of wood.. deep and 5 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. A. set and thumbscrews. The pieces marked S are single. thick. Howe. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. soft steel with the opening 6 in.. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. New York. 2 in. If properly adjusted. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. long. Tarrytown. says Scientific American. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner.

albums and the like. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. Their size depends on the plate used. to the underside of which is a block. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. If the letters are all cut the same height. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . says Camera Craft. The seat is a board. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. they will look remarkably uniform. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. A sharp knife. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. no doubt. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. E. for sending to friends. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown.

the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. So made. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. for example. So arranged. In cutting out an 0. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. photographing them down to the desired size. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. pasting the prints on some thin card. using care to get it in the right position. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. mount them on short pieces of corks. The puzzle is to get . This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. and. after. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. these letter pictures can be made with a black border.

long that will just fit are set in. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. Cape May Point. N. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand.J. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. He smells the bait. snow or anything to hide it. Old-Time Magic .-Contributed by I. G. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. squeezes along past the center of the tube. of its top. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. so they will lie horizontal. Bayley. hung on pivots. with the longest end outside. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. says the American Thresherman. A hole 6 or 7 in. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand .Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand.

putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. N. Pocatello. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. or rub the hands a little before doing so. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Press the hands together. Szerlip. Parker. Brooklyn. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. E. Rhode Island. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. --Contributed by L. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Y. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole.faced up. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. then expose again. then spread the string. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Pawtucket. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Idaho. --Contributed by L.

then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. 4 on the blade. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. they will look very much like the genuine article. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. narrower. long. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. 3 Fig. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. Glue the other side of the blade. if any. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. in width.. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. wipe the blade . wide and 2 in. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. dark red. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle.. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. and if carefully made. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. 1. in building up his work from the illustrations. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The blade should be about 27 in.Genuine antique swords and armor. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. When the whole is quite dry. The pieces. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. end of the blade. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The handle is next made. When the glue is thoroughly dry. 1 Fig. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. full size. near the point end. using a straightedge and a pencil. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. or a complete suit of armor. thick. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. whether he requires a single sword only. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. or green oil paint. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. says the English Mechanic. 2 Fig.

the other two are identical. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. and 3 in. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. preferably of contrasting colors. Both edges of the blade are sharp. the other is flat or half-round. as it is . should be about 9 in. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. thick and 5 in. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. in diameter. 4. Fig. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. shows only two sides. 1. 1/8 in. follow the directions as for Fig. 3. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose.. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. The length of the handle. take two pieces of wood. not for use only in cases of tableaux. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. the other is flat or halfround. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. allowing for a good hold with both hands. square and of any length desired. 3. 1. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. In making. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. In the finished piece. wind it around in a continuous line closely together.with light strokes up and down several times. in the widest part at the lower end. 2. 2. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. the illustration. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. of course.. about 1-1/2 in. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. 1. In making this scimitar. 1. the length of the blade 28 in. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. long. This sword is about 68 in. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig.

N. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. --Contributed by Katharine D. It is made of a plank. square.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Mass. each about 1 ft. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. as can the pitch bed or block. Y. Syracuse. Both can be made easily. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. or an insecure fastening. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Doctors probed for the button without success. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. and if so. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Franklin. --Contributed by John Blake. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. long. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. On each edge of the board. as shown in the sketch. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. in an attempt to remove it. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. and. at the lower end. A cold . took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. A piece of mild steel. however. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. piping and jackets by hard water. 2 in. about 3/8 in. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Morse. The thinness of the plank. as there was some at hand. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward.

heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Trim up the edges and file them . plaster of Paris. When the desired form has been obtained.. 5 lb. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. a file to reduce the ends to shape. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. When this has been done. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. tallow.. on the pitch. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. secure a piece of brass of about No. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. design down. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. 18 gauge. using a small metal saw. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. To remedy this. 5 lb. To put it in another way.

This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. The smaller is placed within the larger. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. but not to stop it. over the smaller vessel. or 550 ft. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. in diameter (Fig. per second. and still revolve. That is lifting 33. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. in one minute or 550 lb. in diameter (Fig. This in turn divided by 33. using powdered pumice with lye. 2). Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush.smooth. 3. and hang a bird swing. space between the vessels with water.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. one 18 in. --Contributed by Harold H. make an unusual show window attraction. Before giving the description. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. 1 ft.000 ft. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Fill the 3-in. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. in one second. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. or fraction of a horsepower. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. per minute. to keep it from floating. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Clean the metal thoroughly. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. in the center. 30 ft.000 lb. A. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. 1) and the other 12 in. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. . 1 ft. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Fig. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. lb. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. lb. Cutter.

F. --Contributed. The effect is surprising. 1 Fig. Szerlip.18 in. --Contributed by J. Y. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. by L. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Brooklyn.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Campbell. Mass.3 Fig. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Diameter Fig. 2 Fig. N. Somerville. or on a pedestal. Diameter 12 in.

care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. Polish both of these pieces. This compound is impervious to water. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. is. often render it useless after a few months service. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. and the clay . with other defects. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. unsatisfactory. to keep the metal from tarnishing. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. the same as removing writing from a slate. as a rule. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. which. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. and then. In riveting. after which it is ready for use. using any of the common metal polishes. Do not be content merely to bend them over.copper of No. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. and cut out the shape with the shears. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Rivet the cup to the base. with the pliers. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. keeping the center high. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. which may be of wood or tin. away from the edge. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. then by drawing a straightedge over it. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished.

Dunlop. Grand Rapids. Mich. 3/4 in. Northville. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. long. 1. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. as shown in Fig. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Scotland. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. --Contributed by A. --Contributed by John T. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. -Contributed by Thos. Houghton. DeLoof. the device will work for an indefinite time. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. A. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Mich. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig.can be pressed back and leveled. Shettleston. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. . The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. It is made of a glass tube. in diameter and 5 in. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. 2.

The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. As the handle is to . allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. London. stilettos and battle-axes. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.FIG. put up as ornaments. in width and 2 in.1 FIG. long. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. 1. This sword is 4 ft. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. long with a dark handle of wood. small rope and round-headed nails. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. These must be cut from pieces of wood. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. which is about 2-1/2 ft. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. the same as used on the end of the handle. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. 8. This stiletto has a wood handle. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. The crossbar and blade are steel. In Fig. firmly glued on. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. in length. 9. with both edges of the blade sharp. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. This weapon is also about 1 ft. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. 11 were used. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. In Fig. 3 is shown a claymore. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. is shown in Fig. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. Cut two strips of tinfoil. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. with both edges sharp. 7. In Fig. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. narrower. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. A German poniard is shown in Fig. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. This sword is about 4 ft. very broad. A German stiletto. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. with wire or string' bound handle. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. This axe is made similar to the one . 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The sword shown in Fig. sharp edges on both sides. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. long. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. 5. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. When dry. Both handle and axe are of steel. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. in width. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. Three large. the upper part iron or steel. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. When the whole is quite dry. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. 4. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. The handle is of wood. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. 6. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. string. 20 spike. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. This weapon is about 1 ft. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel.represent copper. The ball is made as described in Fig. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. the axe is of steel. paint it a dark brown or black. The lower half of the handle is of wood. sometimes called cuirass breakers. then glued on the blade as shown. wood with a keyhole saw. in length. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. glue and put it in place. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. one about 1/2 in. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. studded with brass or steel nails.

together as shown in Fig. the ends are tied and cut off. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. This will make a very good flexible belt.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. Chicago. will pull where other belts slip. high. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. --Contributed by E. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper.described in Fig. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. When wrapped all the way around. 10. Davis. 2. Old-Time Magic . such as braided fishline. so the contents cannot be seen. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. . W. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand.

The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Oakland. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. about one-third the way down from the top. some of the liquid. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. apparently. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Calif. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. 2. These wires are put in the jar. Macdonald. filled with water. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . with the circle centrally located. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Before the performance. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. There will be no change in color. four glass tumblers. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher.J. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. 1 and put together as in Fig. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. in a few seconds' time. --Contributed by A. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. S. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. To make the flowers grow in an instant. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. The dotted lines in Fig. an acid. causing the flowers to grow. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. or using small wedges of wood. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. N. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Bridgeton. held in the right hand.

How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . and equally worthy of individual treatment. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. says a correspondent of Photo Era. unless some special device is used. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. This outlines the desired opening. Cal. --Contributed by W. If the size wanted is No.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. A. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. practical and costs nothing. Jaquythe. 2 for height. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. Richmond. 4 for width and No. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. When many slides are to be masked. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. not only because of the fact just mentioned. and kept ready for use at any time. which are numbered for convenience in working. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple.

The one shown is merely suggestive. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. With a stick. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. Draw a design. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. which is dangerous. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. using the carbon paper. not the water into the acid. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. This done. The decoration. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. and do not inhale the fumes. possibly. the paper is folded along the center line. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. 16 gauge. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. and the extreme length 7 in. too. is about right for the No. the margin and the entire back of the metal. about half and half. or. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. or a pair of old tongs. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. a little less acid than water. paint the design. may be changed. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. When etched to the desired depth. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. Secure a sheet of No. but they can be easily revived. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. These colors fade away in the course of a long time.

24 parts water. 5. or more wide. wide and of the same length as the table. to the table. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. about 3 ft. Fig. attached to a post at each end. 1. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. the bell will ring. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. C and D. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. Then get two posts. as at H. as in Fig. 5. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. with the wires underneath. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. thick. Fig. it will touch post F. 2. J is another wire attached in the same way. repeat as many times as is necessary. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Paint the table any color desired. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. about 2-1/2 in. and about 2-1/2 ft. in diameter and 1/4 in. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. It may be either nailed or screwed down. long and 1 ft. about 8 in. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Nail a board. through it. A. high. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. as shown in the illustration. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. wide. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. 0 indicates the batteries. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. and bore two holes. 4. Fig. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. 3. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. 3/8 in. about 1 in. so that when it is pressed down. long. Fig. 2. as shown in Fig. Fig. 2. When the button S is pressed. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. . Buttons for the bells may be purchased. The connections are simple: I. Cut out a piece of tin. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig.

but they are somewhat difficult to make. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. says the English Mechanic. the wood peg inserted in one of them. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. 2. The imitation articles are made of wood. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together.Imitation Arms and Armor . long. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. This weapon is about 22 in. A wood peg about 2 in. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. long serves as the dowel. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. After the glue is dry. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. 1. such as .. handle and all. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. is to appear as steel. The circle is marked out with a compass. These rings can be carved out. The entire weapon. thick.

The lower half of the handle is wood. covered with red velvet. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. . and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The handle is of wood. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. used at the end of the fifteenth century. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. as described in Fig. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. Its length is about 3 ft. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. flowers. The entire handle should be made of one piece. also. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. 3. leaves. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. long. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. All of these axes are about the same length. studded with large brass or steel nails. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth.ornamental scrolls. 2. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. with a sharp carving tool. The spikes are cut out of wood. This weapon is about 22 in. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. as before mentioned. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. the hammer and spike. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 5. etc. 6. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. as shown. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The axe is shown in steel. If such a tool is not at hand. or the amateur cannot use it well. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The handle is of steel imitation. The upper half of the handle is steel. 8. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. is shown in Fig.

a three-base hit. as shown in Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Chicago. 3. calls for a home run. 5.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. 6. 7) calls for one out. as in Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. The knife falling on its side (Fig. . 1. then the other plays. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 2. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. and so on for nine innings. 4). Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. Fig. the knife resting on its back.

with the rope laced in the cloth. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. Somerville. of water for an hour or two. as shown in Fig. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. while the committee is tying him up. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. Old-Time Magic . Mass. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. 3. hypo to 1 pt. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. as shown in Fig. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. This he does. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. of the rope and holds it. one of them burning . F. Campbell. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. 2.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through.-Contributed by J. If it is spotted at all. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. It may be found that the negative is not colored. 1.

at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. thus causing it to light. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. with which he is going to light the other candle. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. Ky. etc. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. the other without a light. and. Lebanon. of plumbago. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. Louisville. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. 4 oz. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. --Contributed by C. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger.. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. --Contributed by L. Brown. 3/4 in. invisible to them (the audience). New York City. Evans. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. of water and 1 oz. B. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way.brightly.Contributed by Andrew G. Thome. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. showing that there is nothing between them. thick. shades the light for a few seconds. bolt. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. of sugar. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. . of turpentine. The magician walks over to the burning candle. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. He then walks over to the other candle. Ky. Drill Gauge screw. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. 4 oz.

but is not so good. Its current strength is about one volt. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. Do not add water to the acid. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. Denniston. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. H. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. diameter. 5 in. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. long. thick. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. which will give a strong. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. for the material. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. To make the porous cell. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. --Contributed by C. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. into a tube of several thicknesses. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. N. or blotting paper. about 5 in. Y. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. Pulteney. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. steady current. In making up the solution.

carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. one drawing them together. steel.) may be obtained. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. Finally. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company.station. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. As to thickness. After much experimentation with bearings. while the other end is attached by two screws. The . One hole was bored as well as possible. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. To insure this. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. steel. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. the other holding them apart. a positive adjustment was provided. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. but somewhat lighter. long with a bearing at each end. carrying the hour circle at one end. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. steel. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground.

45 min. All these adjustments. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. and if it is not again directed to the same point. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. are tightened.. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. save the one in the pipe. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. once carefully made. Each shaft. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar." When this is done. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. subtract 24. Cassiopiae. It is. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. turn the pointer to the star. If the result is more than 24 hours. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. All set screws. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. apart. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. To locate a known star on the map. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Declination is read directly. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. need not be changed. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. and 15 min. excepting those on the declination axis. The pole is 1 deg. Point it approximately to the north star. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. in each direction from two points 180 deg. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. When properly set it will describe a great circle. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. Instead. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. To find a star in the heavens. The aperture should be 1/4 in. Set the declination circle to its reading.axis is adjusted by turning these screws.." Only a rough setting is necessary. is provided with this adjustment. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer.

The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. long. The dance will begin. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. If this will be too transparent. which is the one examined.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. In reality the first ball. The ball is found to be the genuine article. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. a great effect will be produced. 3 or 4 in. La. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. then add 1 2-3 dr. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. benzole. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. taking care not to add too much. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. the others . is folded several times. add a little more benzole. Ohio.. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. cannon balls. is the real cannon ball. as shown in the sketch. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Plain City. -Contributed by Ray E. of ether. New Orleans. Strosnider. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. 2. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. San Francisco. Campbell. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Somerville. In boxes having a sliding cover. --Contributed by J. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Cal. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Wis.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band.. Mass. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Return the card to the pack. F. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Milwaukee. Fig. without taking up any great amount of space. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. etc. taps. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. as shown in the illustration. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. small brooches. 1). How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band.

Beller. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Connecticut. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. prints. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. This box has done good service. as shown in the illustration. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. round pieces 2-1/4 in. . This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. thus giving ample store room for colors. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. slides and extra brushes. from the bottom of the box. Hartford. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink.

-Contributed by C. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. holes in the bottom of one. When the ends are turned under. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. Mass. tacking the gauze well at the corners. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. . Darke. West Lynn. about threefourths full. or placed against a wall. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. 2). Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. costing 5 cents. O. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. Fill the upper tub. FIG. will answer the purpose.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. 1). with well packed horse manure.

oil or other fluid. cutting the cane between the holes. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. --Contributed by L. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. M. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. they should be knocked out. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. when they are raised from the pan. If plugs are found in any of the holes. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. Eifel. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. and each bundle contains . Chicago. If the following directions are carried out. if this is not available. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back.

as it must be removed again.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. as shown in Fig. then across and down. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. In addition to the cane. a square pointed wedge. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. put about 3 or 4 in. it should be held by a plug. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. after having been pulled tight. 1. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. held there by inserting another plug. No plugs . and. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn.

can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. for 2°. Detroit. as it always equals the latitude of the place. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. Their difference is .should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. When cool. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. as for example. 1. Patrick.42 in. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. It consists of a flat circular table. Michigan. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. is the horizontal dial. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. There are several different designs of sundials. Fig. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. called the gnomon. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. as shown in Fig. 1. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. but the most common. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. 4. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig.075 in.075 in.3 in.2 in. the next smallest. 5. Fig. using the same holes as for the first layer. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. and the one we shall describe in this article. 41°-30'. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. 42° is 4. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. as shown in Fig. This will make three layers. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. R. 41 °-30'. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. 1 lat. in this case) times the .5 in. 40°. as the height of the line BC for lat. and for lat. --Contributed by M. it is 4. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. 5 in. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. After completing the second layer. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. trim off the surplus rosin. 1. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. lat. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. and for 1° it would be . All added to the lesser or 40°. Even with this lubrication. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. If you have a table of natural functions. No weaving has been done up to this time.2+. W. D. we have 4. the height of which is taken from table No. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. During the weaving. 3.= 4. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. If handled with a little care. is the base (5 in. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. From table No. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. The style or gnomon. -Contributed by E. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. stretch the third one. 3. the height of the line BC.15+.15 in. or the style.

66 latitude.30 1. 2 for given latitudes. Draw the line AD. and perpendicular to the base or style. long. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.11 3.10 6. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. For latitudes not given. Its thickness. or if of stone. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.12 52° 6.29 4-30 7-30 3. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.37 54° 6.26 4.57 1.55 5.37 5.50 26° 2.46 3. Chords in inches for a 10 in.85 1. according to the size of the dial. 1.40 34° 3. or more. and intersecting the semicircles.56 .46 .88 36° 3. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.96 32° 3.77 2.55 30° 2.82 5. To layout the hour circle.32 6.82 2.68 5-30 6-30 5.49 30 .94 1.55 4.38 . base.44 44° 4. using the points A and C as centers.97 5 7 4.83 27° 2.18 28° 2. Draw two semi-circles.99 2.30 2.59 2.27 2.14 5. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.57 3.40 1. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.82 3. 2.76 1.63 56° 7.33 42° 4.16 40 .28 . an inch or two.87 1.87 4. Fig.02 1.39 . The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.66 48° 5.23 6.03 3.20 60° 8.33 .06 2. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. .93 2.19 1. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .42 1.55 46° 5.79 4.81 4.16 1.93 6.91 58° 8.tangent of the degree of latitude.41 38° 3.42 45 .07 4. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. 2. circle Sundial.85 35 .64 4 8 3. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. gives the 6 o'clock points. Table NO. with a radius of 5 in. which will represent the base in length and thickness. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.49 3.00 40° 4.66 1. and for this size dial (10 in. if of metal.89 50° 5.42 .

08 1.60 4. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.46 5. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.50 55 .add those marked + subtract those Marked . April 16. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.77 3. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. London.68 3.21 2. says the English Mechanic. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . and on these dates the dial needs no correction. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.30 2. This correction can be added to the values in table No.82 3. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.. 900 Chicago.52 Table No.14 1.01 1. Mitchell. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. adding to each piece interest and value.71 2. 3. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. then the watch is slower. if west.63 1. 3. 2 and Dec.24 5. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. and for the difference between standard and local time. Sioux City.93 6. As they are the genuine reproductions.89 3. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. Each weapon is cut from wood. An ordinary compass. --Contributed by J. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.from Sundial lime.87 6. will enable one to set the dial. and the .98 4. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. each article can be labelled with the name. June 15.34 5.72 5.79 6.54 60 . reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. Sept.49 5.57 1.37 2. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. Iowa. The + means that the clock is faster. after allowing for the declination. 25. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.53 1. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. Sun time to local mean time. it will be faster. E.46 4.means that the dial is faster than the sun.49 3.19 2.10 4. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.12 5.06 2.50 .

This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. When putting on the tinfoil. the length of which is about 5 ft. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft.. 3. 1. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. Partisan. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. . wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry.

It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. 7. It is about 6 ft. 6 ft. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. is shown in Fig. The spear is steel. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. long with a round wooden handle. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. This weapon is about 6 ft. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. long with a round staff or handle. sharp on the outer edges. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. used about the seventeenth century. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. long. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. 8.. 5. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. A gisarm or glaive. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. . The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. which are a part of the axe. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The edges are sharp. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. about 4 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. in diameter. The extreme length is 9 ft. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century.which is square. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. press it well into the carved depressions. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. the holes being about 1/4 in. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear.

Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. Workman. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. are less durable and will quickly show wear. apart. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. are put in place. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. the most durable being bamboo. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. or in holes punched in a leather strap. 5. B. Cut all the cords the same length. Ohio. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. The twisted cross cords should . Loudonville. the cross cords. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. 4. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. as shown in Fig. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig.-Contributed by R. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. In Figs. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. This is important to secure neatness. 2 and 3. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. Substances such as straw. used for spacing and binding the whole together. H. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. They can be made of various materials. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. 1.

remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. Lockport. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. La. M. A slit was cut in the bottom. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. wide. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. New Orleans. New York. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. in which was placed a piece of glass. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. Four V-shaped notches were cut. for a length extending from a point 2 in. below the top to within 1/4 in. This was turned over the top of the other can. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. bamboo or rolled paper. as shown at B. The first design shown is for using bamboo. Harrer. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. 3 in. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. shaped as shown at C. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. -Contributed by Geo.be of such material. To remedy this. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. of the bottom. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced.

is shown in the accompanying sketch. Schaffner. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. Newburgh. H. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. --Contributed by Chas. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. wide. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. turned over but not fastened. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. --Contributed by W. It would be well to polish the brass at first. about 1/16 in. --Contributed by Joseph H. Shay. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. the brass is loosened from the block. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Sanford. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. giving the appearance of hammered brass. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. Maywood. Ill. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. do not throw away the gloves. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. This should be done gradually. After this is finished. N. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. Cal. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. This plank. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. and two along the side for attaching the staff. Y. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there .tape from sticking to the carpet. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Pasadena. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled.

Unlike most clocks. Ill. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. A.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. K. bent as shown. Oak Park. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Jaquythe. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. the pendulum swings . --E. -Contributed by W. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Marshall. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. in diameter. Cal. Richmond.

is an electromagnet. A. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. bar. wide that is perfectly flat. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. about 12 in. Metzech.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. and the other two 2-5/8 in. such as this one. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. away. In using this method. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. C. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. about 6 in. 6 in. only have the opposite side up. high. The construction is very simple. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. --Contributed by V. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. Now place the board to be joined. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. 5/16 in. 3/4 in. wide. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. . B. in diameter. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. to the first one with screws or glue. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. high. the center one being 2-3/4 in. high. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. Chicago. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. by 1-5/16 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. long and at each side of this. says the Scientific American. high and 1/4 in. Secure a board. thick. Two uprights.. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. 7-1/2 in. are secured in the base bar. bearing on the latter. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. on the board B. Fasten another board.

It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. 1. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. plates should be made 8 in. square inside. . The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Phoenixville. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Vanderslice. 2. by driving a pin through the wood. as shown at A. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. --Contributed by Elmer A. 1. or more. The trigger. 4. from one end. square. Fig. wide and 1 in. 1. 3. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. long. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. Pa. whose dimensions are given in Fig. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. Fig. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. is fastened in the hole A. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. wide and 5 in.

as shown in the illustration. if only two bands are put in the . and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. 2 parts of whiting. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Fostoria. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. rubbing varnish and turpentine. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. Simonis.A. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. which allows 1/4 in. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. by weight. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. Ohio. square. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. one-half the length of the side pieces. -Contributed by J. 5 parts of black filler.

London. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. A double convex lens. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. Dartmouth. II.lower strings. It must be kept moist and well . The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. deep. keeps the strong light out when sketching. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. -Contributed by Abner B. Grand Rapids. is necessary. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. DeLoof. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. long. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. is set at an angle of 45 deg. A piece of metal. Shaw. 1. G. which may be either of ground or plain glass. and the picture can be drawn as described. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. in the opposite end of the box. place tracing paper on its surface. Michigan. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. 8 in. as shown in Fig. In use. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. --Contributed by Thos. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. preferably copper. wide and about 1 ft. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. In constructing helmets. A mirror. says the English Mechanic. No. If a plain glass is used. and it may be made as a model or full sized. Mass.

1. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. After the clay model is finished. The clay. 1. This being done. take. shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. or some thin glue. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. a few clay-modeling tools. with a keyhole saw. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and continue until the clay is completely covered. on which to place the clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. brown. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. 2. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. Scraps of thin. joined closely together. and left over night to soak. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. the clay model oiled. and over the crest on top. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. will be necessary. and the deft use of the fingers. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. as in bas-relief. All being ready. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. 3.kneaded. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised.

9. The whole helmet. will make it look neat. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. which should be no difficult matter. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. 7. a crest on top. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. owing to the clay being oiled. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. as seen in the other part of the sketch. with the exception of the vizor. as shown: in the design. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. should be modeled and made in one piece. The center of the ear guards are perforated. When the helmet is off the model. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. When perfectly dry. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. The band is decorated with brass studs. --Contributed by Paul Keller. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. the piecing could not be detected. 1. or. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. square in shape. This contrivance should be made of wood. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. a few lines running down. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. Before taking it off the model. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. When dry. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. the skullcap.as possible. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. and so on. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. 5. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. and the ear guards in two pieces. one for each side. then another coating of glue. Indiana. In Fig. They are all covered with tinfoil. In Fig. Indianapolis. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up.

is shown in Fig. Fig. 3 in. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. The reverse side of the base. Fig. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. Fig. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. The holes B and C are about 3 in. of the top. until it is within 1 in. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. high. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. Fig. as shown in Fig. AA. about 1 lb. long. 1. about 80 ft. Fig. if the measurements are correct. as shown in Fig. also the switch B and the fuse block C. is then packed down inside the collar. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. The mineral wool. 2. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . 22 gauge resistance wire. 4. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. 4. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. Fig. This will make an open space between the plates. 4. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. FF. thick sheet asbestos. 4 lb. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. German-silver wire is better. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. Fig. 1. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. wide and 15 in. GG. one small switch. in diameter and 9 in. thick. 4. If asbestos is used. and. one fuse block. two ordinary binding posts. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. The plate. AA. Fig. when they are placed in opposite positions. Fig. screws. A round collar of galvanized iron. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. the fuse block. Fig. which can be bought from a local druggist. or. each 4-1/2 in. if this cannot be obtained. JJ. 12 in. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. The two holes. Fig. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. If a neat appearance is desired. above the collar. 1. of fire clay. Fig. 4. as shown in Fig. with slits cut for the wires. 2. Fig. E and F. should extend about 1/4 in. 4. 2. long. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. and C. 1 in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. AA. 3. 1. 1. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. and two large 3in. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. long. to receive screws for holding it to the base. as it stands a higher temperature. about 1/4 in. for connections. one oblong piece of wood. are allowed to project about 1 in. This will allow the plate. of No. the holes leading to the switch.same size. 1. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. one glass tube. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 4. of mineral wool.

If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. Richmond. Cover over about 1 in. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. steam will form when the current is applied. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. Fig. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. causing a short circuit. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. as the turns of the wires. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. more wire should be added. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Can. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . A file can be used to remove any rough places. It should not be left heated in this condition. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. Cnonyn. It should not be set on end. H. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. Fig. If this is the case. deep. and pressed into it. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. The clay. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. allowing a space between each turn. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. When the tile is in place. When this is done. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. so that the circuit will not become broken. when cool. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. then. St. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. 2. As these connections cannot be soldered. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. apart. This completes the stove. While the clay is damp. above the rim. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. A. will slip and come in contact with each other. --Contributed by W. II. --Contributed by R. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. This point marks the proper length to cut it. Catherines. 4. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Jaquythe.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. If it is not thoroughly dry. it leaves a gate for the metal. Cut a 1/2-in. Next. using care not to get it too wet. Cal. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. when heated. KK. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube.

" A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. says the Photographic Times. the pie will be damaged. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. Ky. --Contributed by Andrew G. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. as shown. Thorne. and the frame set near a window. but 12 by 24 in. and the prints will dry rapidly. Then clip a little off the .Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. is large enough. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. Louisville. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. constructed of 3/4-in. square material in any size. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them.

1. long. Fig. Fig. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. for the crank. 1/2 in. W. in diameter and about 4 in. The connecting rod E. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. A 1/8-in. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. Herron. The board can be raised to place . Iowa. Figs. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. 1. 22 gauge magnet wire.Paper Funnel point. thereby saving time and washing. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. The driving arm D. long. high. high. which are fastened to the base. The upright B. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. Two supports. long. wide. An offset is bent in the center. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. 1/2 in. 2. each 1 in. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. -Contributed by S. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. wide and 7 in. as shown. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. 1 and 3. Le Mars. wide and 3 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. at GG. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. 3. slip on two cardboard washers. in diameter. high. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. long. 2-1/2 in. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. 4 in. thick. Fig. which gives the shaft a half turn. 14 in. open out. each 1/2 in. 1. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. thick and 3 in. causing a break in the current. thick and 3 in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. allowing each end to project for connections. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 1. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. As the shaft revolves.

making a framework suitable for a roost. in height. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. One or more pots may be used. In designing the roost. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. bottom side up. Mass. as shown in the sketch. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. --Contributed by William F. Stecher. on a board. 3 in.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Place the pot. . The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Dorchester. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect.

1. paraffin and paint or varnish. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. preferably.. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. Fig. grills and gratings for doors. The materials required are rope or. F. and give it time to dry. adopt the method described. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. F.. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. The bottom part of the sketch. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. odd corners. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. 1. as shown in Fig. in diameter. etc. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. ordinary glue. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. will produce the pattern desired. Wind the . if it is other than straight lines. windows. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. without any corresponding benefit. shelves. when combined. that it is heated. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects.

2. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Fig. Y. M. N. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. cut and glue them together. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Harrer. six designs are shown. -Contributed by Geo. Lockport.Fig.

1. chips of iron rust. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. but no farther. etc. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. says the English Mechanic.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. which was used in front of a horse's head. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. will be retained by the cotton.. etc. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. London. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. As the . when it will be observed that any organic matter. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches.. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. and the sides do not cover the jaws.. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. This piece of horse armor.

main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. then another coat of glue. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. and therefore it is not described. This triangularshaped support. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. but the back is not necessary. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. except the thumb and fingers. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. as shown in the sketch. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. An arrangement is shown in Fig. This can be made in one piece. In Fig. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. The armor is now removed from the model. and the clay model oiled. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. which can be made in any size. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. with the exception of the thumb shield. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. the rougher the better. 4. but for . as the surface will hold the clay. which is separate. 2. This being done. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. 2. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. This will make the model light and easy to move around. 8. the same as in Fig. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. All being ready. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. 6 and 7. and will require less clay.

Redondo Beach. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. . running down the plate. are glued to it. If it does not hold a charge. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. in depth. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. are better shown in Fig. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. the top of the rod. Buxton. 1/2 in. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. and the instrument is ready for use. When locating the place for the screw eyes. two in each jaw. fastened to the rod. La Rue. each about 1/4 in. but 3-1/2 in. the two pieces of foil will draw together. Fasten a polished brass ball to. N.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. two for the jaws and one a wedge. wide and 1/2 in. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. --Contributed by Ralph L. Goshen. --Contributed by John G. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. long. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Calif. 2. 9. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. The two pieces of foil. the foils will not move. A piece of board. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. Y. cut into the shape shown in Fig. will be about right.

long. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. When a fish is hooked. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. The can may be bronzed. silvered. from the smaller end. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. At a point 6 in.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. as shown in the illustration. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. A. Texas. as indicated in the . the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. Bryan. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. pine board. Corsicana. --Contributed by Mrs. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. 2-1/2 in. M. hole bored through it. as this will cut under the water without splashing. is made of a 1/4-in. about 15 in. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. enameled or otherwise decorated. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength.

The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. take a piece of thin wood. or even pine. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Basswood or butternut. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. thick. long over all. as shown. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. 3/8 or 1/4 in. Any kind of wood will do. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Having completed the drawing. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. using a piece of carbon paper. When it has dried over night. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. 22 is plenty heavy enough. and trace upon it the design and outline. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth.Match Holder accompanying sketch. then with a nail. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. such as basswood or pine was used." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Next prepare the metal holder. wide by 6 in. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. will do as well as the more expensive woods. If soft wood. A good size is 5 in. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. punch the holes. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. using powdered pumice and lye. Polish the metal.

Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. Richmond. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Jaquythe. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. wide and 5 in. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. thick. 2 in. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. 1/2 in. A. . To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. --Contributed by W. long. are used for the cores of the magnets. If one has some insight in carving. each 1 in. Cal. Instead of the usual two short ropes. It is useful for photographers. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Two wire nails. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. is used for the base of this instrument. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. If carving is contemplated. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. of pure olive oil. can be made on the same standards. long. the whole being finished in linseed oil. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached.

This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. in the shape shown in the sketch. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. A piece of tin. 1. about No. the paper covering put on. --Contributed by W. as shown by the dotted lines. except that for the legs. as shown in Fig. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. similar to that used in electric bells. A rubber band. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. London. cloth or baize to represent the legs. says the English Mechanic. leaving about 1/4 in. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. acts as a spring to keep the key open. when the key is pushed down. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. at A. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. 25 gauge. cut in the shape of the letter T. 3. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. All of the parts for the armor have been described. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. Lynas. . then covered with red. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. H. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. About 1 in. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet.

Silver paper will do very well. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. So set up. 3 in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. A 1/4-in. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. drill six 1/4-in. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. These can be purchased at a stationery store. 2. not too tight. In one end of the piece. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. By moving the position of the bolt from. Take the piece shown in Fig. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. apart. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. says Camera Craft. Cut them to a length or 40 in. can be made in a few minutes' time. long. and eight small holes. Secure two strips of wood. or ordinary plaster laths will do. flat headed carriage bolt. Instead of using brass headed nails. in the other end. holes. make the same series of eight small holes and. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. 1 in. 1 and drill a 1/4in. completes the equipment. hole in the center.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. at each end. Fig.. about 1 in. apart. The two pieces are bolted together. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. for the sake of lightness. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. one to another . brass paper fasteners will be found useful.

almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. Then take B and lay it over A. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. 1. and lay it over the one to the right. Then draw all four ends up snugly. long. A round fob is made in a similar way. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. 4. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. In this sketch. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. as in portraiture and the like. and the one beneath C. doubled and run through the web of A. A is the first string and B is the second. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. of the ends remain unwoven. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. then B over C and the end stuck under A. in Fig. as shown in Fig.of the larger holes in the strip. Fig. lay Cover B and the one under D. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. 2. Start with one end. D over A and C. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. but instead of reversing . This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. C over D and B. for instance. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. the one marked A. taking the same start as for the square fob. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. 2. 2. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel.

is to be made of leather. especially if silk strings are used. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. The round fob is shown in Fig. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Ohio. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. A loop. as B. always lap one string. Monroeville. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. --Contributed by John P. Other designs can be made in the same manner. over the one to its right. Rupp. the design of which is shown herewith. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. is left out at the center before starting on one side. 3. long. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. as at A in Fig. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. 1-1/2 in. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . 5. as in making the square fob.

The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. . such as a nut pick. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. it can be easily renewed. filling them with wax. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Houghton. pressing it against the wood. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. A. When the supply of wax is exhausted. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. door facing or door panel. using the reverse side. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Mich. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. beeswax or paraffin. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. Northville. Any smooth piece of steel. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. -Contributed by A.

Y. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. but any kind that will not stick may be used. New York. Enough plaster should. long. --Contributed by O. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. The tacks should be about 1 in. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. E and F. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. those on matte paper will work best. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. J. Thompson. D. Ill. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. place it face down in the dish. and after wetting. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. if blueprints are used. N. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Fold together on lines C. remaining above the surface of the board. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. and about 12 in. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Select the print you wish to mount. Petersburg. apart and driven in only part way. says Photographic Times. leaving about 1/4 in. thick. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. . although tin ones can be used with good success. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed.

will be rendered perfectly white. One of the . Lower into the test tube a wire. roses. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. bell flowers. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. filling the same about onehalf full. as shown in the right of the sketch. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle.. without mixing the solutions. as shown at the left in the sketch. violets. etc. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized.

The diaphragm. but which will not wobble loose. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. South Dakota. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. When soldering these parts together. 1-7/8 in. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. L. as shown. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. 3. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. turned a little tapering. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. --Contributed by L. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The tin horn can be easily made.. long and made of wood. or delicate tints of the egg. not too tightly. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. about 1/8s in. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. in diameter and 1 in. long. Millstown. 2. Shabino. and at the larger end. as shown in the sketch. Fig. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. 1. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. should be soldered to the box. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. thick. shading. to keep the core from coming off in turning. made of heavy tin. is about 2-1/2 in. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. A rod that will fit the brass tube. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. The first point should be ground blunt. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The sound box.

mice in the bottom.Contributed by E. and. Jr. Victor.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Colo. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. put a board on top. says the Iowa Homestead. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. wondering what it was. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Ill. Gold. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. Chicago. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . E.

Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Y. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Can. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. N. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Pereira. . --Contributed by Lyndwode. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. Buffalo. Ottawa. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time.

through which several holes have been punched. De Loof. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. A. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . and at one end of the stick fasten. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. Grand Rapids. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. as shown. longer than the length of the can. a piece of tin. Richmond. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. --Contributed by Thos. Put a small nail 2 in. Cal. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. above the end of the dasher.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. cut round. --Contributed by W. This cart has no axle. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Mich. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Jaquythe. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. as it can be made quickly in any size. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. by means of a flatheaded tack. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels.

were below the level of the bullseye. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. La. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. 2. of course. wide. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. Doylestown. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. 1/4 in. apart. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. wide and as long as the box. Kane. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. --Contributed by James M. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. The baseboard and top are separable. Notches 1/8 in. board. 2. The candles. Pa. deep and 3 in. thick. long. A wedge-shaped piece of . wide and 1/8 in. as shown. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. New Orleans. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. cut in the center of the rounding edge. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. Fig. 2. screwed it on the inside of a store box. 1-1/2 in. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. wide and 3 ft. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. 1.1. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. 2 in. 1 ft. I reversed a door gong.

West Union. can be picked up without any trouble. it can be removed without marring the casing. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. to prevent its scratching the desk top. For the handle. etc. take two pieces of hard wood. dressing one surface of each piece. After completing the handle. will. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Mass. scissors. This device is very convenient for invalids. A. Needles. by cutting away the ends. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. 3. the blade is put back into the groove . --Contributed by G. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in.Book Back Holders metal. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. the shelf could not be put on the window. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. wide rubber bands or felt. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. When not in use. Worcester. After the glue has dried. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it.. as shown in Fig. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Cover the block with rubber. Wood. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. 1. Ia. wide into each side of the casing. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. stone or wood. when placed as in Fig. the reason being that if both were solid. The block can also be used as a paperweight. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end.

--Contributed by H. Malden. Erie. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. A notch is cut in one side. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. square and 4 in. Hutchins.and sharpened to a cutting edge. 1 in. If desired. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Each one is made of a hardwood block. A. 1. as shown in Fig. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Jacobs. -Contributed by W. thus carrying the car up the incline. . Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Cleveland. as shown in Fig. Pa. long. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Ohio. 2. S. Mass. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. is shown in the accompanying sketch.

--Contributed by Willie Woolsen. The letters can be put on afterward. One sheet of metal. will be needed. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. .. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. and an awl and hammer. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. This will insure having all parts alike. a board on which to work it.J. 6 by 9-1/2 in. Prepare a design for the front. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. Cape May Point. N. If one such as is shown is to be used.

placed on a table. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. only the marginal line is to be pierced. as shown. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. applied by means of a brush. a violin. On the back." In all appearance. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. but weird and distant. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. Remove the metal. The music will not sound natural. which is desirable. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. says Master Painter. One coat will do. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. If any polishing is required. if desired. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. paste the paper design right on the metal. flat brush. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. varnish. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. 1/4 part. to right angles. turpentine. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. in the waste metal. 1 part. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. So impressive are the results. . mandolin or guitar. The stick may be placed by the side of. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. 2 parts white vitriol. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color.Fasten the metal to the board. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. or. 3/4 part. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. that can be worked in your own parlor. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. behind or through the center of a table leg. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes.

One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. long and measuring 26 in. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. each 6 in. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. thick by 1/2 in. wide. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. . round-head machine screws. long and spread about 8 in. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. 2. it might be difficult. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. With proper tools this is easy. are shaped as shown in Fig. and is easy to construct. 3. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. square bar iron. across the top. The longest piece. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. apart. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. says Work. each 28 in. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. Two pairs of feet. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. London. without them. is bent square so as to form two uprights. long. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files.

or. After the glass is cut. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. is held by the brads. lead. cut a long piece of lead. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. using rosin as a flux. in the grooves of the borders. 7. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. A. 6. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. After the joints are soldered. 5.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. and the base border. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. Place the corner piece of glass. special flux purchased for this purpose. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. B. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. Fig. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. The glass. While the piece of lead D. Fig. The design is formed in the lead. 4. D. better still. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. 5. C. as shown in Fig. The brads are then removed. the latter being tapped to . of which a cross section is shown in Fig. on it as shown. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun.

It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Secure a post. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in.the base of the clip. plank about 12 ft. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. A and B. H. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. holes through their centers. Fasten the plates to the block B. 8. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. and two wood blocks. rounded at the top as shown. This . Bore a 5/8-in. in diameter and about 9 in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. in diameter and 1/4 in. bolt. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. then drill a 3/4-in. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. long. as shown in Fig. long. and round the corners of one end for a ring. thick and drill 3/4-in. rocker bolt. one on each side and central with the hole. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. plates. wood screws in each washer. This ring can be made of 1-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. then flatten its end on the under side. long. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Make three washers 3-in. Jr. Two styles of hand holds are shown. N. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. Camden. not less than 4 in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. Dreier.. bolt. Bore a 3/4-in. --Contributed by W. J. The center pin is 3/4-in.

long. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. long. If trees are convenient. 2-1/2 in. from one edge. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 9 in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . hickory. maple. New Orleans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. square by 5 ft. straight-grained hickory. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. 1 by 7 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. 4 in. chestnut or ash. 4 pieces. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. long. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 4 filler pieces. long. long and 1 piece. bolts and rope. 3/4 by 3 in. by 2 ft. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 2 by 4 in. 7 in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. long. 4 pieces. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. because it will not stand the weather. La. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts.will make an excellent cover for a pot. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. shanks. 3 in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 50 ft. 4 in. can make a first class gymnasium. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 1-1/4in. long. 16 screws. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. 1/2 in. of 1/4-in. boards along the side of each from end to end. 1. the money outlay will be almost nothing. and some one can swing an axe. in diameter and 7 in. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. square by 9-1/2 ft. Draw a line on the four 7-in. by 6-1/2 ft. To substitute small. bit. horse and rings. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. screws. The four 7-in. by 3 ft. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home.

Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place.bored. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. from the end. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. apart. boards coincide. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. 2. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. deep and remove all loose dirt. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. and once tightened the bar will be rigid.. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. Bore a 9/16-in. piece of wood. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. so the 1/2-in. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. then buried to a depth of 2 ft.. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. each 3 ft. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. 8 in. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. at each end. apart. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar.

disappearing only to reappear again. but most deceptive at dusk. about 100 ft. apart. . As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. not much to look at in daytime. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. just visible against the dark evening sky. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. And all he used was a black thread. When the interest of the crowd. was at its height. He stretched the thread between two buildings. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. the effect is very striking. and then passes in a curve across the base. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. not even the tumbler. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. which at once gathered. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. W. and materially heightened the illusion. in an endless belt. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip." which skimmed along the distant horizon. If the tumbler is rotated. it follows the edge for about 1 in. passing through a screweye at either end. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. it is taken to the edge of the foot. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. and ascends the stem. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end.. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C.

These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. La. 2 by 4 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. long and 1 doz. 4 in. large spikes. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 6 in. square and 6 ft. beginning at a point 9 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. from either side of the center. long. by 2 ft. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 3 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. by 3 ft. long. 2 in. 1. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. wide and 1 in. deep. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. Bevel the ends of . 4 wood screws. 7 in. square and 51/2 ft. 8 in. 8 in. 2 cross braces. and turned in a spiral D. Chisel out two notches 4 in. long. The cork will come out easily. 2 by 4 in. A wire about No. long. by 10 ft. 8 in. 2 side braces. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 4 bolts. long. 4 in. New Orleans. by 7 ft. To make the apparatus. preferably cedar. 8 bolts. long. 4 knee braces. so the point will be on top. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 2 base pieces. Fig. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles.

A large sized ladle. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. Cal. etc. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. These will allow the ladle to be turned. leaving the strainer always in position. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. but even unpainted they are very durable. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. additional long. Two endpieces must be made. The wood so treated will last for years. Richmond. jellies. screws. as shown in the diagram. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. except the bars. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. --Contributed by W. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. of 7 ft. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. equipped with a strainer. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. leave it undressed. Jaquythe. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. A. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. . of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. ( To be Continued. so the bolts in both will not meet. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands..the knee braces. save the bars. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. and countersinking the heads. using four of the 7-in bolts. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. If using mill-cut lumber. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. After the trenches are dug. which face each other. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. before burying the lower part of the end pieces.

which seems impossible. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. A. In order to accomplish this experiment. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. it is necessary to place a stick.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. . it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. Oil. drill press or planer. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. partly a barrier for jumps. of sufficient 1ength. milling machine. thus holding the pail as shown. or various cutting compounds of oil. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over.

2 by 4 in. bolts.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. 3 in. bolts. apart. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . square by 5-1/2 ft. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. 1 in. long. apart in a central position on the horse. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. but 5 ft. These are well nailed in place. 2 by 4 in. To construct. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. long. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. These are placed 18 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. beginning 1-1/2 in. by 3 ft. 2 by 4 in. 4-1/2 in. long. Procure from a saw mill. long. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. stud cut rounding on one edge. bolt. two 1/2-in. 2 bases. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. to fasten the knee braces at the top. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. piece of 2 by 4-in. in diameter--the larger the better. from each end.. Hand holds must be provided next. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. 1 cross brace. is a good length. long. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 4 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. by 3 ft. 4 in.. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. bolts. 7 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. 2 adjusting pieces. by 3 ft. wood yard or from the woods. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. ten 1/2-in. The round part of this log must be planed. projections and splinters. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. long. 4 knee braces. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. in the ground. and free from knots. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. long. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. square by 5 ft. long. 4 in.

it is caused by an overloaded shell. it is caused by some obstruction. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. no one is responsible but himself. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. but nevertheless. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. A. Also. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape.--Contributed by W. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Jaquythe. Such a hand sled can be made in a . and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. then bending to the shape desired. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Cal. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. over and around. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. Richmond. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. such as a dent. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. water.horse top. pipe and fittings. etc. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. snow.

This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. These. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. 1. . Noble. The end elevation. Vener. will give the length. Joerin. are all the tools necessary. 2. Mass. 1/4 or 3/16 in. is much better than a wood sled. when complete. --Contributed by J. --Contributed by James E. which. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Paris. then run a string over each part. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Boston. at E and F. W. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. France. --Contributed by Arthur E. in width and 1/32 in. Toronto. Ontario. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. when straightened out. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. thick.

It is best to use soft water. nor that which is partly oxidized. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. The method shown in Figs. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. 4. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. . 3. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. are nailed. AA and BB. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig.

5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. Broad lines can be made. 4. The materials used are: backbone. class ice-yacht. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. Percy Ashley in Rudder. as shown in Fig. . 2. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 2. 1). as shown in Fig. or various rulings may be made. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. or unequal widths as in Fig. 8 and 9. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 3. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

bent and drilled as shown. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. but if it is made much longer. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. pipe. It can be made longer or shorter. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron.Fig. a larger size of pipe should be used. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. pins to keep them from turning. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. A good and substantial homemade lathe. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. about 30 in. 1. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The headstock is made of two tees. a tee and a forging. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. out from the collar. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. long. Both the lower .

tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. as shown in Fig. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. Boissevain. but also their insulating properties. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. Held. 3/4 or 1 in. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. thick as desired. as shown in Fig. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. 2. UpDeGraff. Laporte. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. a corresponding line made on this. 2. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. It is about 1 in. M. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. W. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. 1. To do this. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. and will answer for a great variety of work. Musgrove. or a key can be used as well. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Indiana. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. Fruitvale. --Contributed by W. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Man. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. --Contributed by M. Cal. 2. . else taper turning will result.

Smith. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. In use. Ft. The handle is of pine about 18 in. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. long. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . and the two loops are made of heavy wire. as shown. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Cline. Ark. To obviate this. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. --Contributed by E. J.

on starting the lathe. centering is just one operation too many. New Orleans. take . Colo. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. La. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. --Contributed by Walter W. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. face off the end of the piece. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. After being entered. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. This prevents the drill from wobbling. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. which should be backed out of contact. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. the drill does not need the tool. and when once in true up to its size. White. Denver. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. if this method is followed: First. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and.

after being shown empty. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. It can be used in a great number of tricks. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. as shown in D. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. the cap is placed over the paper tube. says the Sphinx. a long piece of glass tubing. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. and this given to someone to hold. is put into the paper tube A. The handkerchief rod. all the better. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. unknown to the spectators. shown at C. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. and can be varied to suit the performer. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. by applying caustic soda or . After the wand is removed. In doing this. vanishing wand. a bout 1/2 in. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. shorter t h a n the wand. The glass tube B.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler.

can be made by the home mechanic. long. by 14 by 17 in. and glue it to the neck at F. The brace at D is 1 in. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in.potash around the edges of the letters. preferably hard maple. With care and patience. This dimension and those for the frets . 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. 1/4 in. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 3/16. 1. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. and if care is taken in selecting the material. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. as shown by K. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 2 Sides. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. 1 Bottom. cut to any shape desired. The sides. End. Cut a piece of hard wood. 1 Neck. Glue the neck to the box. thick. Glue strips of soft wood. As the cement softens. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. square and 1-7/8 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. with the back side rounding. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 1 End. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. across the front and back to strengthen them. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry.

3/16 in. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Norwalk. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. H.should be made accurately. Stoddard. or backbone. 1) on which to stretch the paper. toward each end. A board 1 in. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length.Pa. O. --Contributed by Chas. -Contributed by J. Carbondale. thick and about 1 ft. in diameter. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. and beveled . probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. E. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Six holes. but it is not. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. long is used for a keel. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Frary. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars.

with long stout screws. a. and are not fastened. slender switches of osier willow. or other place. the loose strips of ash (b. or similar material. as shown in Fig. buy some split cane or rattan. are next put in. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. as shown in Fig. Any tough. 2). winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. as before described. such as is used for making chairbottoms. Fig. Fig. in such cases. probably. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. as they are apt to do. C. In drying. Fig.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. long. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. b.. Green wood is preferable. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. thick. and so. 1. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. 4. but twigs of some other trees. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. B. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Fig. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. Fig. procure at a carriage factory. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. when made of green elm. 2). These are better. The cross-boards (B. 3). . such as hazel or birch. C. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Osiers probably make the best ribs. thick. 4). stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. Shape these as shown by A. twigs 5 or 6 ft. long are required. Fig. by means of a string or wire. 3. 3. wide by 26 in. two strips of wood (b. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. Fig. in thickness and should be cut. two twigs may be used to make one rib. The ribs. which are easily made of long. Fig. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. 13 in. Fig. For the gunwales (a. some tight strips of ash. 3). For the ribs near the middle of the boat. 2. and. 1 and 2. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. and notched at the end to receive them (B. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. b. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. 3/8 in. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. b. but before doing this. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them.) in notches. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. will answer nearly as well. apart. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable.

and held in place by means of small clamps. If not. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. apply a second coat of the same varnish. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Then take some of the split rattan and. if it has been properly constructed of good material. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. When the paper is dry. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. after wetting it. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. but with less turpentine. It should be drawn tight along the edges. and very tough. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. and steady in the water. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. wide. Fig. When thoroughly dry. tacking it to the bottom-board. and as soon as that has soaked in. B. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. If the paper be 1 yd.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Being made in long rolls. of very strong wrapping-paper. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. It should be smooth on the surface. preferably iron. however. 5). but neither stiff nor very thick. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. The paper is then trimmed. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. You may put in . by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. and light oars. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it.

Fig. 1. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. We procured a box and made a frame.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. to fit it easily. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. 2. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. Fig. they will support very heavy weights. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. Drive the lower nail first. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. and if driven as shown in the cut. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. fore and aft. 1 and the end in . Fig. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. 5. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. and make a movable seat (A. 5). allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry.

a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. Pa. This way has its drawbacks. Pittsburg. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. and the glass. 4. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. --Contributed by Albert Niemann.Fig. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. this makes the tube airtight. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. This is an easy . the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. Close the other end with the same operation. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. A good way to handle this work. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. being softer where the flame has been applied. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. 5. and the result is. 3.

Give the metal a circular motion. extra metal all around. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. also trace the decorative design. flat and round-nosed pliers. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. After the bulb is formed. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. fifth. with a piece of carbon paper. Oswald. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. The candle holders may have two. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. four. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. very rapid progress can be made. Sixth. above the metal. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. Seventh. fourth. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet.way to make a thermometer tube. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. third. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. then reverse. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. rivet punch. second. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. or six arms. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. three. file. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . metal shears. -Contributed by A. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. thin screw. 23 gauge.

The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Metal polish of any kind will do. and holder. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. drip cup. Small copper rivets are used. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Having pierced the bracket.

I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. hammer. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. The boom. F. using a steel pen. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. when it will be ready for use. they were like an ice boat with a sail. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and brace and bit were the tools used. glycerine 4 parts. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. Shiloh. and it will be ready for future use. Twenty cents was all I spent. all the rest I found. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. The gaff. Soak 1 oz. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. Mother let me have a sheet. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. the stick at the bottom of the sail. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. winding the ends where they came together with wire. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. and water 24 parts. N. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. and in a week . I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. and other things as they were needed. on a water bath.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. is a broomstick. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. I steer with the front wheel. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Fifty. thus it was utilized. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. deep. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. smooth it down and then remove as before. J. of glycerine to about 200 deg. except they had wheels instead of runners. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. and add the gelatine. sugar 1 part. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. if it has not absorbed too much ink. A saw. alcohol 2 parts. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions.

a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.

This ring is made up from two rings. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. or glue. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. well seasoned pine. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. 1/2 to 3/4 in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. wide and 15 in. are . yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. as desired. and the lens slide. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. G. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. at a distance of 24 ft. wire brads. and the work carefully done. slide to about 6 ft. DD. A table. The board is centered both ways. long. If a small saw is used. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. The slide support. or a lens of 12-in. above the center. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. at a point 1 in. thick. but if such a box is not found. about 2 ft. high. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. 8 in. provided the material is of metal. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. Fig. 1. and 14 in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. and. A and B. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in.. 3. focus enlarging a 3-in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. E. and a projecting lens 2 in. H. wide. describe a 9-in.

E. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. should the glass happen to upset. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. A sheet . Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The arrangement is quite safe as. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. Paul. placed on the water. Small strips of tin. of safe. apply two coats of shellac varnish.constructed to slip easily on the table. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. the water at once extinguishes the flame. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered.-Contributed by G. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. the strips II serving as guides. P. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. St. and when the right position is found for each. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. JJ. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. Minn. To reach the water. B. light burning oil. but not long enough.

1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. If one of these clips is not at hand. Crawford. I ordered a canvas bag. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig.H.. --Contributed by J. 3 in. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 9 in. N. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 2. Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . to cover the mattresses. 12 ft. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. form a piece of wire in the same shape. Y. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 1. 3. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. by 12 ft. Schenectady. from a tent company.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 3. 4.

Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Walter W. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. thick. 1. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. drill two 3/16 in. 3/4 in. Fig. Fig. 2. 1/2 in. 3 to swing freely on the tack. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. apart. A Film Washing Trough [331] . which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. 1. To calibrate the instrument. open on the edges. long and 3/16 in. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. Fasten the wire with gummed label. 2. and insert two binding-posts. White. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. Warren. 2. to the coil of small wire for volts. insulating them from the case with cardboard. holes in the edge. Pa. Fold two strips of light cardboard. C. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero.each edge. so as to form two oblong boxes. Do not use too strong a rubber. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. long. wide. 3/4 in. Attach a piece of steel rod. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. V. 1/2 in. --Contributed by Edward M. for amperes and the other post. to keep it from unwinding. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. first mark the binding-post A. An arc is cut in the paper. A rubber band. Denver. Colo. in the center coil. Teasdale. through which the indicator works. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. D. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale.

with the large hole up. Wood Burning [331] . M. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Place this can on one end of the trough. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. O. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. as shown. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. --Contributed by M. Hunting. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Cut a 1/4-in.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Dayton.

The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . then into this bottle place.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. mouth downward. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.

N. thick. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. as shown in the sketch. If the cork is adjusted properly. This will make a very pretty ornament. If the small bottle used is opaque. --Contributed by Fred W. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. Ala. --Contributed by John Shahan. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. 1. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. provided the bottle is wide. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Whitehouse. Auburn. long. 2. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. but not very thick. wide and 4 in. 3/4 in. Place the small bottle in as before. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. Upper Troy.Y. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . many puzzling effects may be obtained.

or ordinary telephone transmitters. long. I. Its smaller parts. thick. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. 2 ft. line. 1. 1. 1 in. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. 4.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. iron rod. pulley. G. to the shaft. --Contributed by D. such as blades and pulleys. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. The bearing blocks were 3 in. by the method shown in Fig. was 1/4in. 1. pulley F. A staple. which extended to the ground. were constructed of 1-in. B. The 21/2-in. K. The wire L was put . sugar pine on account of its softness. 1. which was 6 in. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. high without the upper half. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. Fig. 2. Fig. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. which gave considerable power for its size. was keyed to shaft C. thick and 3 in. The shaft C. Fig. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. 3. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. If a transmitter is used. Milter. Fig. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. On a 1000-ft. wide. W. Both bearings were made in this manner. 1. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. even in a light breeze. as shown in Fig. which was nailed to the face plate. thick. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. Fig. in diameter and 1 in.

providing one has a few old materials on hand. Fig. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. 1. across the thin edge of a board. with brass headed furniture tacks. pine 18 by 12 in. 1. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. Fig. 0. 6. long and 3 in. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Fig. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. long. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. was 2 ft. H. hole for the shaft G was in the center. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. 1) 4 in. a 1/2-in. There a 1/4-in. 1. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. with all parts in place. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. was tacked. 1. Fig. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. square to the board P at the top of the tower. as. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. 25 ft. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. To lessen the friction here. The other lid. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. washers were placed under pulley F. To make the key. in the center of the board P. 3 in. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. top down also. The bed plate D. long. R. 6. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. This completes the receiver or sounder. This fan was made of 1/4-in. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Two washers were placed on shaft C. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. G. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. Fig. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. apart in the tower. wide and 1 in. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. strips. The power was put to various uses.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. The smaller one. through the latter. 5. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. cut out another piece of tin (X. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. when the windmill needed oiling. in diameter. Fig. so that the 1/4-in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. If you have no bell. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Fig. long and bend it as . long and 1/2 in. and was cut the shape shown. for instance. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. This board was 12 in. hole was bored for it. 2. long and bend it as shown at A.

Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. By adjusting the coils. as indicated. -Contributed by John R. leaving the other wire as it is. 1. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. Now. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. 2. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. after the manner of bicycle wheels. using cleats to hold the board frame. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. causing a buzzing sound. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. McConnell.shown. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. as shown at Water. like many another device boys make. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . although it can be made with but two. Before tacking it to the board. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. fitted with paddles as at M. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. The rear barrels are. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. When tired of this instrument. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. and. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. at the front. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Thus a center drive is made. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Going back to Fig.

There is no danger. To propel it. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. there will not be much friction. or even a little houseboat. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. 1. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. feet on the pedals.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. The speed is slow at first. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. which will give any amount of pleasure. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. 3. can be built. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. If the journals thus made are well oiled. copper piping and brass tubing for base. as shown in Fig. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left.

but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. 2. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Fig. Fig. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. D. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. If it is desired to make the light very complete. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. A. B. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. 2. 1. Fig. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. C. Fig. 2. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. 1. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. If magnifying glass cannot be had. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Shape small blocks of boxwood. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down.of pleasure for a little work. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. 1. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Then melt out the rosin or lead. and so creating a false circuit. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Turn a small circle of wood. Place one brass ring in cylinder. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. or it may be put to other uses if desired. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead.

wire from batteries to switch. --Contributed by C. F. wide and 1/16 in. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . Pa. T. To operate this. wire from bell to switch. E. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. some glue will secure them. dry batteries. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. To get the cylinder into its carriage. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. H. S. C. bell. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. shelf. bracket. set alarm key as shown in diagram. J. while lying in bed. --Contributed by Geo. X. D.india rubber tubing. brass strip. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. copper tubing. thick. 5-1/4 by 10 in. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . such as is used for cycle valves. To throw on light throw levers to the left. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. I. The parts indicated are as follows: A. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. brass rod. 4-1/2 in. and pulled tight. long. Brinkerhoff. 4 in. by having the switch on the baseboard. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. Chatland. B. near the bed. Throw lever off from the right to center. or 1/4in. after setting alarm. Utah. which stops bell ringing. contact post. after two turns have been made on the key. G. switch. if too small. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. Ogden. Swissvale. C. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock.. 3/8 in. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. When alarm goes off. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. key of alarm clock. long. In placing clock on shelf. wire from light to switch.

Lanesboro. from one end. wide. as . The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. A flannel bag. in diameter. 1. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. which can be made of an old can. Chapman. a bed warmer. about 6 in. as at A. as at B. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. in diameter. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. A small lamp of about 5 cp. long. gives the heater a more finished appearance. S. beyond the end of the spindle. place stick and all in a pail of sand. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Pull out the nail and stick. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. 2. as at A. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. as in Fig. will do the heating. for instance. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Minn. This is to form the fuse hole. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Having finished this. Fig. Fig. Make a shoulder. 1. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. letting it extend 3/4 in. 1/4 in. Make the spindle as in Fig. 2. about 3-1/2 in. Fig. making it as true and smooth as possible. 4 in.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. All that is required is a tin covering. being careful not to get the sand in it. 3. --Contributed by Chas. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord.

thick. wide and 6 ft. spring and arrows. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. will be sufficient to make the trigger. long. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. 11/2 in. long. 1 in. 6 in. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. wide and 3 ft. wide and 3/8 in. good straight-grained pine will do. thick. deep. Joerin. 3/8 in. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . --Contributed by Arthur E. thick. long.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. ash. 1. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. A piece of tin. this is to keep the edges from splitting. 5/8 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. or hickory. but if this wood cannot be procured. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. A piece of oak. The material must be 1-1/2 in. The illustration shows how this is done. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire.

insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. 9. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. Wilmette. When the trigger is pulled. from the end of the stock. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. better still. Ill. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. thick. which is 1/4 in. The trigger. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. To throw the arrow. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. from the opposite end. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. and one for the trigger 12 in. Such a temporary safe light may be . A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. 8. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. 2. 3. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. A spring. it lifts the spring up. --Contributed by O. as shown in Fig. place the arrow in the groove. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. The bow is not fastened in the stock. Fig. as shown in Fig. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. 6. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. or through the necessity of. The stick for the bow. 7. To shoot the crossbow. in diameter. Fig. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. 4. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. E. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. having the latter swing quite freely. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. Fig. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. wide at each end. Trownes.

which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. and nail it in position as shown at A. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. respectively. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. the bark lean-to is a . Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. making lighting and trimming convenient. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Remove one end. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. By chopping the trunk almost through. and replace as shown at B. apart. since the flame of the candle is above A. Remove the bottom of the box. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. This lamp is safe. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. from the ground. from the ground. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. The hinged cover E. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. The cut should be about 5 ft. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. is used as a door. or only as a camp on a short excursion. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. C. make the frame of the wigwam. Moreover. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. it is the easiest camp to make. says Photo Era.

quickly constructed and serviceable camp. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. selecting a site for a camp. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. long and 2 or 3 ft. For a foot in the middle of the stick. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. A piece of elm or hickory. are a convenient size for camp construction. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Sheets of bark. and when the camp is pitched. deep and covered with blankets. For a permanent camp. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. spruce. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. In the early summer. . long. wide. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. will dry flat. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Tongs are very useful in camp. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. makes a good pair of tongs. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. 6 ft. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. wide and 6 ft. thick. and cedar. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. 3 ft. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. nails are necessary to hold it in place. make the best kind of a camp bed. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. a 2-in. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. Where bark is used. and split the tops with an ax. piled 2 or 3 ft. long and 1-1/2 in.

and affording accommodation for several persons. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. hinges. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. .

A. deep and 4 in. Pa. B.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. wide. and provide a cover or door. Fig. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. I drove a small cork. Doylestown. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. --Contributed by James M. about 4 in. to another . 1. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. B. the interior can. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. Kane.. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. changing the water both morning and night.

4 and 5). The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. The current is thus compelled. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. 3. for instance. such as ether. E. fused into one side. The diagram. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. This makes . and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. which project inside and outside of the tube. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. 2. until. if necessary. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. limit. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. Fig. a liquid. to pass through an increasing resistance. C.glass tube. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. 2. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. for instance. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg.

or even 1/16 in. thick. cannot be used so often. mark off a space. A 5/8in. 3-3/8 in. they will make a frame 3/4 in. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. tap. thicker. or pattern. as shown in the left-hand sketch. When the frame is finished so far. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. drill the four rivet holes. The bearing studs are now made. is composed of wrought sheet iron. which may be of any thickness so that. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. and for the outside of the frame. 4-1/2 in. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. making it 1/16 in. on a lathe. These holes are for the bearing studs. assemble and rivet them solidly. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. set at 1/8 in. After cleaning them with the solution. as shown in Fig. between centers.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. brass. After the template is marked out. 1. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. Michigan. Fig. Alpena. hole is . to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. brass or iron. If the thickness is sufficient. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. thick. 3. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. larger than the dimensions given. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. 3-3/8 in. 2. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. two holes. clamp the template. bent at right angles as shown. screws. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. in diameter. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. by turning the lathe with the hand. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. A. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. in diameter. Then the field can be finished to these marks. when several pieces are placed together. which will make it uniform in size. but merely discolored. to allow for finishing. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. Fig. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. Before removing the field from the lathe. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. therefore.

Fig. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . When the bearings are located. brass rod is inserted. 4. and build up the solder well. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. soldered into place. The shaft of the armature. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. is turned up from machine steel. into which a piece of 5/8-in. file them out to make the proper adjustment. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. solder them to the supports. or otherwise finished. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. and drilled to receive the armature shaft.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point.

until they become flexible enough to be put in place. 6. 3. brass rod. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. or segments. as shown in Fig. then drill a 1/8-in. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. inside diameter. by 1-1/2 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Rivet them together. thick and 1/4 in. to allow for finishing to size. thick. thick. 9. 3. The sides are also faced off and finished. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. 6. Find the centers of each segment at one end. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. wide. After they . then clamp the whole in place with the nut. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. When annealed. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. When this is accomplished. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. 1-1/8 in. as shown in Fig. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. 3/4 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. Armature-Ring Core. as shown in Fig.. as shown in Fig. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. and held with a setscrew.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. 7. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. Procure 12 strips of mica. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. and then they are soaked in warm water. After the pieces are cut out. 3/4 in. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. thick. deep and 7/16 in. threaded. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. thick are cut like the pattern. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. 8. washers. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. Make the core 3/4 in. sheet fiber. holes through them for rivets. being formed for the ends. hole and tap it for a pin. 1/8 in. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. as shown m Fig. wide. The pins are made of brass. 5. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. as shown in Fig.

5. of No. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. After one coil. Fig. and bring the end of the wire out at B. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. 6 in. The two ends are joined at B. 1. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. the two ends of the wire. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. are soldered together. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. of the end to protrude. All connections should be securely soldered. sheet fiber. which will take 50 ft. or side. In starting to wind. 8 in. sheet fiber. wide and 1 in. thick. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. shown at B. The winding is started at A. they are glued to the core insulation. When the glue is set.have dried. The source of current is connected to the terminals. by bending the end around one of the projections. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. 1. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. Fig. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. To connect the wires. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. Run one end of the field wire. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. long. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. being required. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. until the 12 slots are filled. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. after the motor is on the stand. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. of the wire. shown at A. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. This winding is for a series motor. The field is wound with No. and wind on four layers. about 100 ft. yet it shows a series of .

The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . Nine wires run from the timer.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. A 1/2-in. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. one from each of the eight contacts. as in the case of a spiral. or. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. which serves as the ground wire. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. still more simply. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. and one. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. is fastened to the metallic body.

The Wind Vane. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. circle. It should be . Covering these is a thin. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. of the dial. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. Without this attachment. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. long. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. thus giving 16 different directions. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. 6 in. 45 deg. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. board. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration.

Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. will be sufficient. . the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. -Contributed by James L. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. Before tacking the fourth side. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. 14 by 18 in. if not too high. however. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. also a piece of new carpet. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Y. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. according to who is going to use it. making it heavy or light. will be enough for the two sides. called a chip carving knife." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. and securely nail on the top of the box. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. high. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. will answer the purpose just as well. though a special knife. long to give the best results. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. To work these outlines. Buffalo. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. thus making a universal joint. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. or. Place the leather on some level. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. To make it. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. Blackmer. N. and about 6 in. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. is most satisfactory.about 6 ft. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. Cut 3-in. Fill the box with any handy ballast.

Paste the silk plush to the inner side.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. An ordinary sewing-machine . A good leather paste will be required. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.

and fasten the feathers inside of it. If a fire breaks out. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. N.will do if a good stout needle is used. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. B. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Morse. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. square and tying a piece of . temporary lameness. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. a needle and some feathers. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. as in cases of a sprained ankle. --Contributed by Katharine D. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. of common salt and 10 lb. can be thrown away when no longer needed. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. and tie them together securely at the bottom. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. rather than the smooth side. or a hip that has been wrenched. away from it. Y. Syracuse. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. of water. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle.

A. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in.string to each corner. Gordon Dempsey. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. Ashland. thus helping the rats to enter. as shown. .J. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. deep. The body of the receiver. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. 1/8 in. This not only keeps the rats out. A small wooden or fiber end. but not sharp. There is a 1-in. G. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. and the receiver is ready for use. --Contributed by J.. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. and tacked it to the boards. setting traps. is cut on the wood. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. board all around the bottom on the inside. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. Paterson. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. cut to the length of the spool. Hellwig. N. E. The strings should be about 15 in. etc. --Contributed by John A. wound on the head end. made up of four layers of No. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. which is the essential part of the instrument. the corners being wired. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. long. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. commonly called tintype tin. Wis. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. N. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. Albany. The diaphragm C. and a coil of wire. B. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. laying poisoned meat and meal. long. The end is filed to an edge. The coil is 1 in. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. Y. wide and 1/16 in. letting it go at arm's length. high. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. One end is removed entirely. F. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool.

This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. gold.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. and bend each strip in shape. wide. begin with the smallest scrolls. A single line will be sufficient. The vase is to have three supports. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. Take a piece of string or. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. To clean small articles. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. better still. to . placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. a piece of small wire.

Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard.. Press or model down the leather all around the design. through which to slip the fly AGH. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. thus raising it. 6-3/8 in. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Work down the outside line of the design. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. wide when stitching up the purse. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. 3-1/2 in. sharp pencil. Fold the leather on the line EF. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. Trace also the line around the purse. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. using a duller point of the tool. . 3-1/4 in. from the lines EF on the piece.which the supports are fastened with rivets.. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. About 1 in. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. and does not require coloring. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. from E to F. 4-1/4 in.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. After taking off the pattern. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. as shown in the sketch. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. from C to D.

cut out one piece as shown in Fig. and.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. and the projections B. the "open" side. and which will be very interesting. as well as useful. following the dotted lines. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. with a compass saw. 3. 1 was cut. long. being cast in wooden molds. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. and cut out a wheel. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. Fit this to the two . 1. deep. then nail it. thick. with pins or small nails. by 12 ft. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. 1/2 in. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. Make the lug 1/4 in.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. around the wheel. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. and a model for speed and power. Now take another piece of wood. First. then place the square piece out of which Fig. square. It can be made without the use of a lathe. and cut it out as shown in Fig. with the open side down. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. leaving the lug a. deep. Then nail the wheel down firmly. all the way around. This also should be slightly beveled. 2. When it is finished. Cut off six pieces 12 in. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. as shown in Fig. b. and tack the other piece slightly. It is neat and efficient. with the largest side down.

slightly beveled. square pieces of wood. square pieces of wood. as shown by the black dots in Fig. bolts. then bolt it together. Take the mold apart. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and clean all the shavings out of it. Now take another of the 12-in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise.pieces just finished. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. 4. one of which should have a 3/8-in. 1. hole 1/4 in. and bore six 1/4-in. holes through it. After it is finished. hole entirely through at the same place. as shown by the . in the center of it. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. hole bored through its center. Now put mold No. and boring a 3/8-in. place it between two of the 12-in. deep. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and lay it away to dry.

The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. A piece of mild steel 5 in. Using the Brace . put the top of the brace through this hole. Now cut out one of the 12-in.1. 1. drill in it. 6. the other right-handed. true it up with a square. Then bolt the castings together. Pour metal into mold No. so that it will turn easily. fasten a 3/8-in. and pour babbitt metal into it.1. place it under the drill. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. take an ordinary brace. from the one end.2. This is mold No. Put this together in mold No. and bore three 1/4-in. This is for a shaft. B. in diameter must now be obtained. wide and 16 in. lay it on a level place. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. Fig. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. and drill it entirely through. and connect to the boiler. see that the bolts are all tight. Now take mold No. Let it stand for half an hour. b. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. 5. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. over the defective part.black dots in Fig. place the entire machine in a vise. d. and pouring metal in to fill it up. instead of the right-handed piece. one in the projections. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. and drill them in the same manner.2. Commencing 1-1/2 in. and run in babbitt metal again.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. one in the lug. holes at d. long. where the casting did not fill out. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and 3/8-in. 4. and the other in the base. After it is fitted in. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. only the one is left-handed. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. 6. screw down. long. holes. and two 1/4-in. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. This is the same as Fig. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. as shown in illustration. until it is full. and lay it away to dry. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. If there should happen to be any holes or spots.

with a boss and a set screw. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. while it is running at full speed. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. and. and with three small screw holes around the edge. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and the other 8 ft. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam.. turn the wheel to the shape desired. long. At each end of the 6ft. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Plan of Ice Boat . one 6 ft. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. will do good service. Then take a knife or a chisel. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. piece and at right angles to it. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned.

distant. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. Run the seam on a machine. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. where they often did considerable damage. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. The spar should be 9 ft. bolt the 8-ft. 3. long. This fits in the square hole. plank. Fig. at the top. in the top before the skate is put on. To the under side of the 8-ft. should be of hardwood. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. Fig. projecting as in Fig. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. piece and at right angles to it. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. in diameter in the center. plank nail 8-in. leaving 1 ft. The tiller. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. in front of the rudder block. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. long and 2-1/2 in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . and in order to carry out his plan he p