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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

1. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. away. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. as shown in Fig. until it is bound as shown in Fig. wide and 2 ft. The finished preserver is shown in Fig.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. 1. Fig. grasp it and hold the same as a club. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. with the hollow side away from you. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. 2. long will make six boomerangs.Fig. A piece of plank 12 in. It is held in this curve until dry. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. distant. To throw a boomerang. apart. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. --Contributed by J. Ontario. Noble. The pieces are then dressed round. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. as shown in Fig. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. E. 1. 2. Toronto. 2 -.

The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. forcing it down closely. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. it is not essential to the support of the walls. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. dry snow will not pack easily. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. A very light. however. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. and with a movable bottom. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. but about 12 in. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. First. minus the top. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. A wall. made of 6-in. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. thick. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. blocks . Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. 6 in. which makes the building simpler and easier. If the snow is of the right consistency. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. the block will drop out. and it may be necessary to use a little water. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. long. or rather no bottom at all. one inside of the circle and the other outside. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. high and 4 or 5 in. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in.

1. Fig. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. Union. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. Fig. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. The piece of wood. It also keeps them out. 2. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. above the ground. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. long and 1 in. Ore. 3 -. A nail. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. is 6 or 8 in. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. which can be made of wood. C. 2. wide. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. and the young architect can imitate them. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. --Contributed by Geo. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. Goodbrod. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. Fig. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. D. which is about 1 ft. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. or an old safe dial will do. a. 1. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. 3. There is no outward thrust. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door.

the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. If ordinary butts are used.When taking hot dishes from the stove. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. as the weight always draws them back to place. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. New York. Syracuse. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. one pair of special hinges. says the Sphinx. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. S. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. --Contributed by R. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. Merrill. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. the box locked . Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes.

1. Augusta. allowing each coat time to dry. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. one for each corner. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. as shown in Fig. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. 3. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. Fig. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. When the sieve is shaken. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. -Contributed by L. To make a design similar to the one shown. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. All . smooth surface. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel.and the performer steps out in view. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. If they do not. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. Place the piece in a vise. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. It remains to bend the flaps. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. draw one-half of it. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Ga. as shown. as shown in Fig. 2. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. With the metal shears. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Alberta Norrell. on drawing paper. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. If the measuring has been done properly. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. about 1-32 of an inch. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. proceed as follows: First. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece.

Galbreath. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. causing it to expand. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. If a touch of color is desired. B. in diameter. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. A resistance. and in the positions shown in the sketch. long. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. R. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. of No. In boring through rubber corks. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. which is about 6 in. used for insulation. A piece of porcelain tube. from the back end. in passing through the lamp. if rolled under the shoe sole. about 6 in. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. heats the strip of German-silver wire. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. as shown at AA. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. should be in the line. Denver. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. C. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. --Contributed by R. The common cork. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . To keep the metal from tarnishing. When the current is turned off. 25 German-silver wire. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. The current. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. is fitted tightly in the third hole. Colo. After this has dried. H. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. 25 gauge German-silver wire.the edges should be left smooth.

Kansas City. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Mo. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. with thin strips of wood. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Fig. as shown in Fig.bottom ring. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. 1. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Purchase two long book straps. --Contributed by David Brown. 2. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. 3. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. between them as shown in Fig. . leaving a space of 4 in.

as . Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. The string is then tied. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood.. 2. 1.An ordinary electric bell. C. Doylestown. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Fig. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Morse. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. and tack smoothly. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Two strips of brass. 3. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. When the aeroplane tips. These are shown in Fig. one weighing 15 lb. Y. which is the right weight for family use. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. and a pocket battery. 1. --Contributed by Katharine D. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. long. in diameter. --Contributed by James M. just the right weight for a woman to use. 4. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. The folds are made over the string. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Syracuse.. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. A. are mounted on the outside of the box. Pa. Fig. to form a handle. 1. 36 in. and one weighing 25 lb. Kane. N. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. Fig. having a gong 2-1/2 in.

then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. such as brackets. AA. long. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. 2. in diameter. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Louis J. 3/32 or 1/4 in. machine screws. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Frame Made of a Rod . The saw. if once used. 2. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. and many fancy knick-knacks. two 1/8 -in. Y. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. N. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. Day. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. 1. bent as shown in Fig. Floral Park. four washers and four square nuts. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw.

The buckle is to be purchased. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. Silver is the most desirable but. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. after breaking up. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. treat it with color. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. For etching. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. of water. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. as well as brass and copper. if copper or brass. --Contributed by W. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. If it colors the metal red. 1 part nitric acid. Michigan. be covered the same as the back. as well as the depth of etching desired. Watch Fob For coloring silver. 1 part sulphuric acid. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. An Austrian Top [12] . Scranton. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. of course. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. using a swab and an old stiff brush.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. the most expensive. Rub off the highlights. Of the leathers. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. In the design shown. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. A. therefore. copper. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. Drying will cause this to change to purple.may be made of either brass. it has the correct strength. green and browns are the most popular. Apply two coats. File these edges. though almost any color may be obtained. of water in which dissolve. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer.. Detroit. or silver. use them in place of the outside nuts. allowing each time to dry.

When the shank is covered. Michigan. wide and 3/4 in. long. starting at the bottom and winding upward. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. in diameter. A 1/16-in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. --Contributed by J. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. allowing only 1-1/4 in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Tholl. long. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. A handle. The handle is a piece of pine. Parts of the Top To spin the top. set the top in the 3/4 -in. is formed on one end. 3/4 in. 5-1/4 in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. hole. 1-1/4 in. hole in this end for the top. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. pass one end through the 1/16-in. thick. Ypsilanti. .F. Bore a 3/4-in.

Houghton. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Ga. Alberta Norrell. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. The baking surface. tarts or similar pastry. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. --A. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Mich. Augusta. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. A. --Contributed by Miss L. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. . This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Northville. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. having no sides. For black leathers.

Stringing Wires [13] A. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . Centralia.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. Mo. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. then solder cover and socket together. the same as shown in the illustration. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. says Studio Light. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. two turns will remove the jar. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. glass fruit jar. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. When you desire to work by white light.

square by 12 in. and not tip over. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. 4 Braces. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. as shown in the cross-section sketch. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. They are fastened. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. . 16 Horizontal bars. so it can be folded up. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. Janesville. 1-1/4 in. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. 1-1/4 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. Wis. square by 62 in. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes.for loading and development. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. 4 Vertical pieces. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits.

The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. Rosenthal. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. after filling the pail with water. -Contributed by Charles Stem. The front can be covered . Cincinnati. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. from scrap material. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. C. New York.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. Phillipsburg. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. O. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. --Contributed by Dr. If the loop is tied at the proper place. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. After rounding the ends of the studs. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. H. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. and a loop made in the end. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. The whole. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch.

In my own practice. By using the following method. The results will be poor. Wehr. the color will be an undesirable. Develop them into strong prints. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. Baltimore. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. sickly one. you are. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. --Contributed by Gilbert A. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. principally mayonnaise dressing. 1 FIG. if you try to tone them afterward. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. The . the mouth of which rests against a. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. thoroughly fix. Md. either for contact printing or enlargements. FIG. If the gate is raised slightly. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. and. by all rules of the game. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly.

long to admit the angle support.. L. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.. A good final washing completes the process.... etc... 2 oz.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. in size. transfer it to a tray of water. It will bleach slowly and evenly. 5 by 15 in........ Water .. Iodide of potassium ." Cyanide of potassium .... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. --Contributed by T. Place the dry print. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. 2. Gray. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. 20 gr. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.... as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. but.... preferably the colored kind... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder... wide and 4 in. when it starts to bleach. When the desired reduction has taken place. The blotting paper can . without previous wetting..bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. With a little practice.... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. 1 and again as in Fig. where it will continue to bleach. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. San Francisco. three times.... to make it 5 by 5 in... 16 oz....... Cal.. in this solution..

wide below the . Monahan. Wilson Aldred Toronto.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. 20 gauge. Oshkosh. wide. --Contributed by L. Wisconsin. Make a design similar to that shown.J. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. 3. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Corners complete are shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Canada. and a length of 5 in. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. the head of which is 2 in. having a width of 2-1/4 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. the shaft 1 in.

Pierce a hole with a small drill. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. 3. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. which gives the outline of the design Fig. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. but use a swab on a stick. freehand. then put on a second coat. Trace the design on the metal. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. using turpentine. With the metal shears. Do not put the hands in the solution. After this has dried. The metal must be held firmly. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper.FIG. then coloring. 1 part nitric acid. 1 Fig. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. After the sawing. then trace the other half in the usual way. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. 1 part sulphuric acid. Apply with a small brush. using carbon paper. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. 4. deep. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. . large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. after folding along the center line. Make one-half of the design. Allow this to dry. as shown in Fig. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. With files. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. using a small metal saw. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. 2. 1. For coloring olive green. being held perpendicular to the work. Fig.

which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. Ii is an ordinary staple. --Contributed by Katharine D. East Hartford. . The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Morse. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. then stain it a mahogany color. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Cal. --Contributed by M. New York. Burnett. on a chopping board.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. --Contributed by H. Carl Cramer. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. When this is cold. it does the work rapidly. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Richmond. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. as shown. attach brass handles. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. M. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Syracuse. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. thick. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. After the stain has dried. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Conn.

The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. L. --Contributed by Mrs. . H. not over 1/4 in. 53 steel pens. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Cal. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. two enameled. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. thick. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time.. saucers or pans. A.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. square. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. 4. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. machine screws. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Atwell. 1. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. as shown in Fig. in width at the shank. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. --Contributed by W. Florida. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. about 3/16 in. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. thick and 4 in. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Kissimmee. Jaquythe. or tin. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. 1/4 in. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. and several 1/8-in. one shaft. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. also locate the drill holes. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. holes. as shown at A. brass. indicating the depth of the slots. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. Fig. Richmond. some pieces of brass. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered.

The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. and the ends filed round for the bearings. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . using two nuts on each screw.. long and 5/16 in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. in diameter and 1/32 in. hole in the center. thick. 6. There should be a space of 1/16 in. about 1/32 in. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. machine screws and nuts. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. wide. brass and bolted to the casing. A 3/4-in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. and pins inserted. lead should be run into the segments. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. with 1/8-in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. into the hole. each about 1 in. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. 7. a square shaft used. If the shaft is square. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. thick. with a 3/8-in. 2. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. If metal dishes. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. hole is drilled to run off the water. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. hole. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. Bend as shown in Fig. Fig. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. as in Fig. with the face of the disk. machine screws. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. Fig. 3. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. can be procured. 5. Fig. as shown in Fig. long by 3/4 in. supply pipe. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. 2. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. 3. as shown. 1.

La Salle. three of which are in the basket. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. --Contributed by F. to make the bottom. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. long. --Contributed by S. from the bottom end of the legs. from the top of the box. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Canada. Smith. square and 30-1/2 in. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. deep and 1-1/4 in. 8-1/2 in.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Now you will have the box in two pieces. When assembling. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Stain the wood before putting in the . screws. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. Ill. Cooke. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Be sure to have the cover. Fasten with 3/4-in. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. deep over all. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. we will call the basket. high and 15 in. The four legs are each 3/4-in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Hamilton. make these seams come between the two back legs. V. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. using four to each leg. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. With a string or tape measure. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. The lower part. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. or more in diameter. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact.

Sew on to the covered cardboards. Packard. --also the lower edge when necessary. The side. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Md. wide. The folded part in the center is pasted together. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. you can. Baltimore. sewing on the back side. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. -Contributed by Stanley H. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. with the crudest of tools and a little practice.2 Fig. wide and four strips 10 in. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Boston. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. When making the display. and gather it at that point.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape .lining. 2. as shown in the sketch. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. 1. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Mass. Cover them with the cretonne. Fig. If all the parts are well sandpapered.

Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. with slight modifications. When through using the pad. It is cleanly. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. 3. Crockett. Fig. Gloversville. --Contributed by B. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. saving all the solid part. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Mo. Cross Timbers. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. and. --Contributed by H. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Y. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. It is not difficult to . L. Orlando Taylor.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. N.

Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. S. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Mass. -Contributed by C. Both of these methods are wasteful. or if desired. it should be new and sharp. Texas. --Contributed by Edith E. and secure it in place with glue or paste. remove the contents. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Lowell. El Paso. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Lane. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. across the face. After this is done. are shown in the diagram. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. After stirring. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. and scrape out the rough parts. Bourne. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. If a file is used.

I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Turl. --Contributed by Marion P. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. Greenleaf. Ill. --Contributed by Geo. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall.cooking utensil. A Postcard Rack [25]. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. He captured several pounds in a few hours. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. The process works well and needs no watching. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Canton. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. F. circled over the funnel and disappeared. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Wheeler. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Those having houses . Oregon. As these were single-faced disk records. The insects came to the light. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Oak Park. Ill. Des Moines. Iowa. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. After several hours' drying.

by 2 ft. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Dobbins. not even with the boards themselves. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. and both exactly alike. --Contributed by Wm. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Mass. Lay the floor next. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. material. one on each side of what will be the . Both sides can be put together in this way. The single boards can then be fixed. but for cheapness 3/4 in. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. Glenbrook. --Contributed by Thomas E. and the second one for the developing bench. boards are preferable. plane and pocket knife. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. 6 in. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. and as they are simple in design. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch.. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. Only three pieces are required. Worcester. thick. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. will do as well. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. 6 in.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. the best material to use being matched boards. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. the bottom being 3/8 in. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. Conn. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them.. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Rosenberg.

Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door.. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. so that the water will drain off into the sink. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. and to the outside board of the sides. by screwing to the floor. of the top of the door for the same reason. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. The developing bench is 18 in. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. is cut. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. the closing side as at B. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. which is fixed on as shown . wide. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. below which is fixed the sink. 2 in section. nailing them to each other at the ridge. In hinging the door. so that it will fit inside the sink. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 8. 10). three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. and the top as at C in the same drawing. 7. etc. hinged to it. 3 and 4. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A.doorway. 9 by 11 in. These are all in section and are self-explanatory.. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. At the top of the doorway. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig.. It is shown in detail in Fig. 11. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. and in the middle an opening. Fig. The roof boards may next be put on. 6. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 9). 6. 6 and 9. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. as shown in Figs. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. and should be zinc lined. 5. and act as a trap for the light. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. brown wrapping paper.

Details of the Dark Rook .

If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. as at I. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. it is better than anything on the market. Pennsylvania. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. after lining with brown paper. In use. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . which makes it possible to have white light. 14. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. 17. 18. as at M. hole bored in the center for a handle. 15. 20. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. if desired. are fastened in the corners inside. 13. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. Fig. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. Fig. A circular piece about 2 in. preferably maple or ash. 2. though this is hardly advisable. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. The handle should be at least 12 in. as shown in Fig. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. 16. Fig. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. or the room may be made with a flat roof. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. Fig.in Fig. mixing flour and water. as in Fig. --Contributed by W. Erie. The house will be much strengthened if strips. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. but not the red glass and frame. and a 3/8-in. For beating up an egg in a glass. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. 6. these being shown in Fig. and a tank stand on it. 19. 16. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. screwing them each way into the boards. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. 13. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. Karl Hilbrich. as shown in the sections. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. four coats at first is not too many. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. or red light as at K. 1. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing.

long. about 3/8 in. Ark. G. Mo. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Wm. when put together properly is a puzzle. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. New York. Kansas City. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. --Contributed by L. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Mitchell. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. for a handle. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Eureka Springs. which.copper should be. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. L. -Contributed by E. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. D. To operate. Smith. Yonkers. Schweiger.

One form of panel design is shown in Fig. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. as is usually the case. need them. Each cork is cut as in Fig. Having completed the bare box. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. If the sill is inclined. The design shown in Fig. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. to make it set level. 1. the box will require a greater height in front. as shown in Fig. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. holes should be drilled in the bottom. the rustic work should be varnished. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. 3. After the box is trimmed. for the moment. as shown in Fig. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. which binds them together. as well as improve its appearance. in order to thoroughly preserve it. especially for filling-in purposes. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. 2. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 3. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. A number of 1/2-in. . The corks in use are shown in Fig. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage.

Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. 2. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking.. F. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. drilled at right angles. 3. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. can't use poison. being partly eaten into. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. But I have solved the difficulty. When the corn is gone cucumbers. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. 1. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. cabbages. share the same fate. 4. and observe results. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. as shown in Fig. etc. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. . life in the summer time is a vexation. Traps do no good. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. it's easy. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. too dangerous. Each long projection represents a leg.

26 gauge heating wire will be about right. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. of No. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. cut some of it off and try again. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. . Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. -. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. the coil does not heat sufficiently. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. by trial. About 9-1/2 ft. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. The solution can be used over and over again. and made up and kept in large bottles. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. strips. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. Iowa. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. If. cut in 1/2-in. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. long.

spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Do not wash them. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Knives. Kane. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Texas. Y. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Dallas. Fig 2. D. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. N. of whiting and 1/2 oz. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. it falls to stop G. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. but with unsatisfactory results. Doylestown. is a good size--in this compound. Morse. In cleaning silver. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. of gasoline. to cause the door to swing shut. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Syracuse. 1) removed. . coffee pot. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. hot-water pot. as shown in the sketch. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. forks. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. and a strip. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. C. --Contributed by Katharine D. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Pa. --Contributed by James M. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Stir and mix thoroughly. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat.

If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. La. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. which is. --Contributed by Theodore L. . To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. using the paper dry.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Fisher. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. of course. Ill. Harrisburg. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Pa. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. negatives. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. but unfixed. Sprout. --Contributed by Oliver S. later fixed and washed as usual. New Orleans. Waverly. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall.

The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. 1. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. In this uncertainty lies the charm. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. a harmonograph is a good prescription. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. metal. The harmonograph. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. To obviate this difficulty. Fig. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. then .

--Contributed by James T. as shown in the lower part of Fig. --Contributed by Wm. Holes up to 3 in. that is. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. Punch a hole. as shown in Fig. of about 30 or 40 lb. in the center of the circle to be cut. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. in diameter. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. Arizona. what is most important. 1. R. is attached as shown at H. which can be regulated. for instance.. to prevent any side motion. such as a shoe buttoner. A weight. Gaffney. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . Rosemont. Another weight of about 10 lb. makes respectively 3. Chicago. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. as long as the other. K. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. G. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. with a nail set or punch. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. A length of 7 ft. etc.. ceiling. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. 1-3/4 by 2 in. The length of the short pendulum H. is about right for a 10-ft. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. Ingham. or the lines will overlap and blur. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. and unless the shorter pendulum is. one-fourth. exactly one-third. A small table or platform. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. J. one-fifth. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. A small weight. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. A pedestal. provides a means of support for the stylus. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. 1.

-Contributed by W. The capacity of the vise. The two key cards are made alike. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. and proceed as before. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. 3. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. --Contributed by J. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. one for the sender and one for the receiver. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. and 4 as in Fig. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Morey. of course. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. then put 2 at the top.H. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. distributing them over the whole card.J. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. Chicago. a correspondent of . N. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. then 3 as in Fig. 5. dividing them into quarters. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. 6.J. Fig. Fig. Cape May City. 1. Cruger.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. 2. 4.

Wind the successive turns of . The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. sheet of well made asbestos paper. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Cut through the center. drill 15 holes. After securing the tint desired. wood-screws. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. from the top and bottom. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. 1/4 in. acetic acid and 4 oz. the portion of the base under the coil. 6 gauge wires shown. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. of water. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. citrate of iron and ammonia. To assemble. If constructed of the former. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Augusta. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. 22 gauge German-silver wire. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. Alberta Norrell. --Contributed by L. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. 30 gr. long.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Asbestos board is to be preferred. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. Ga. of the uprights. deep. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. 1/2 oz. After preparing the base and uprights. of 18-per-cent No. says Popular Electricity. respectively. of ferricyanide of potash. remove the prints. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in.

This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. if one is not a smoker. then fasten the upright in place. as they are usually thrown away when empty. Ward. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. N. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. cut and dressed 1/2 in. rivets. Small knobs may be added if desired. Ampere. The case may be made of 1/2-in. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. 14 gauge. 16 gauge copper wire. --Contributed by Frederick E. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. but these are not necessary. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. screws. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Labels of some kind are needed. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . Y.. etc. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. square. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. which.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No.

particularly so when the iron has once been used. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. a piece of solder. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. tinner's acid. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. In soldering galvanized iron. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. tin. galvanized iron. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. it must be ground or filed to a point. --Contributed by W. Kenosha. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. Copper. sandpaper or steel wool. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. lead. D. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. G.. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. being careful about the heat. Heat it until hot (not red hot). a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. of water. zinc. The material can be of any wood. or has become corroded. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. and labeled "Poison. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Wis. California. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. A. B. --C. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. of glycerine to 16 oz. Jaquythe. .14 oz. as shown in the sketch. S. Eureka Springs. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. Richmond. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. E and F. then to the joint to be soldered. Larson. Ark. and one made of poplar finished black. This is considerable annoyance. brass. C. the pure muriatic acid should be used. --Contributed by A. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. and rub the point of the copper on it. especially if a large tub is used. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. The parts are put together with dowel pins. If the soldering copper is an old one. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab.

1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. in diameter. D. Fig. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Six issues make a well proportioned book. 1. Take a 3/4-in. Brass rings can be plated when finished. This will leave a clear hole. The punch A. Apart from this. C. 7/8 in. such as copper. This completes the die. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. thick and 1-1/4 in. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. in diameter. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. 2. round iron. with good results. -Contributed by H. nut. however. B.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . W. Fig. brass and silver. Troy. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. Y. The disk will come out pan shaped. Hankin. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. The dimensions shown in Fig. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. The covers of the magazines are removed. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Place the band. a ring may be made from any metal. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. and drill out the threads. wide. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. which gives two bound volumes each year. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. N. I bind my magazines at home evenings.

2. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. as shown in Fig. threaded double. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. 1. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. of the ends extending on each side. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. Start with the front of the book. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. size 16 or larger. allowing about 2 in. then back through the notch on the right side. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. After drawing the thread tightly. Place the cardboard covers on the book. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. The string No. Coarse white thread. using . The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. Five cuts. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. The covering should be cut out 1 in. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. is used for the sewing material. which is fastened the same as the first. is nailed across the top. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. 1/8 in. through the notch on the left side of the string No. and place them against the strings in the frame. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. deep. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. 2. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. 1. on all edges except the back. The covering can be of cloth. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. C. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. The sections are then prepared for sewing. 5. . A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. If started with the January or the July issue. 1 in Fig. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. 1. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. and a third piece. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. and then to string No. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge.4.

fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. College View. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Nebr. at opposite sides to each other. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. --Contributed by Clyde E. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Cal. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Divine. Tinplate. For the blade an old talking-machine . The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Encanto. round iron. on which to hook the blade. and mark around each one. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. and.

and 1/4 in. F. by 4-1/2 in. A. E. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. by 1 in. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. On the upper side. Hays. Miss. B. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. -Contributed by Willard J. with a steel sleeve. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Moorhead. Summitville. and 1/4 in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. or double extra heavy. in order to drill the holes in the ends. and a long thread plug. and file in the teeth. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Then on the board put . hydraulic pipe. as shown. fuse hole at D. at the same end. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). thick. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. as it is sometimes called.. long. with 10 teeth to the inch. thick. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. C. Make the blade 12 in. bore.. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Ohio. and another piece (B) 6 in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose.

H. If you are going to use a current of low tension. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Philadelphia. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. of wire to each coil. Boyd. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Connect up as shown. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. --Contributed by Chas. high around this apparatus. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. about 5 ft. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. 4 jars. the jars need not be very large. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. and some No. of rubber-covered wire. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. as from batteries. using about 8 in. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. A lid may be added if desired.

two for each jar. long by 22 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. The stock required for them is oak. 4 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 2 is lower down than in No. See Fig. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery... thick.. square by 14 ft. two pieces 34 in. B. 4) of 3/4-in. and four pieces 14 in. Use no screws on the running surface. On the door of the auto front put the . Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. by 2 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. wide by 3/4 in. is used to reduce friction.. by 1 in. Fig. 30 in. 2. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. beginning at the rear.. 2 in. C. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. two pieces 14 in. 4. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. oak boards. An iron washer. however. The illustration shows how to shape it. 7 in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against.. 2 and 3. 1 is connected to point No. First sandpaper all the wood. 3. long. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. B. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. A variation of 1/16 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. 3 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. The sled completed should be 15 ft. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. by 1-1/4 in. A 3/4-in. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. 2. 16-1/2 in. two pieces 30 in. and for the rear runners: A. wide. C. steel rod makes a good steering rod. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. 5 on switch. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. by 5 in. The connection between point No. For the brass trimmings use No. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. 34 in. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. by 1-1/4 in. as they are not substantial enough. are important. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. The top disk in jar No. Z. by 6 in. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. direct to wire across jars. wide and 2 in. 15-1/2 in. sheet brass 1 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in.. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. and plane it on all edges. Put arm of switch on point No. At the front 24 or 26 in. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added.the way. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. making them clear those in the front runner. . For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. To wire the apparatus. 27 B. long. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. No. apart. 3 and No. and bolt through. Their size also depends on the voltage. long. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 1 on switch. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. Construct the auto front (Fig. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. 2. as they "snatch" the ice. & S. Use no nails. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. gives full current and full speed. B and C. The current then will flow through the motor. by 5 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 1. by 2 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. 11 in. 1 and so on for No. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. with the cushion about 15 in. thick. above the ground. In proportioning them the points A. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. on No. or source of current. long. wide and 3/4 in.

On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. If desired. long. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. such as burlap. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. brass plated. Fasten a horn. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. If desired. by 30 in. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. to improve the appearance. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. etc. cutting it out of sheet brass. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. The best way is to get some strong. which is somewhat moist. If the expense is greater than one can afford. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. Then get some upholstery buttons. to the wheel. cheap material. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. by 1/2 in. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. fasten a cord through the loop. such as used on automobiles. or with these for $25. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. a brake may be added to the sled. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. may be stowed within. overshoes. lunch. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . parcels. a number of boys may share in the ownership.

the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Ill. Leland.tree and bring. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. . Lexington. --Contributed by Stewart H.

The straight-edge. Fig. when flat against it. will be over the line FG. A small clearance space. The Model Engineer. 3. With no other tools than a hacksaw. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. outside diameter and 1/16 in. say 1 in. This guide should have a beveled edge. some files. which. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. sheet metal. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . Fig. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. CD. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. 2. First take the case of a small gearwheel. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. with twenty-four teeth.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. the cut will be central on the line. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. The first tooth may now be cut. Draw a circle on paper. the same diameter as the wheel. E. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. so that the center of the blade. mild steel or iron. by drawing diameters. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. though more difficult. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. FC. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. thick. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. 1. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. made from 1/16-in. from F to G. a compass. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. 4). The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. London. Fig.

as shown in Fig. or several pieces bound tightly together. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. hold in one hand. 1. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. as shown in Fig. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. either the pencils for arc lamps. and the other outlet wire. electric lamp. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. Focus the camera in the usual manner. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. If there is no faucet in the house. some wire and some carbons. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. transmitter. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. B. . blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. 1. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. each in the center. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. A bright. No shock will be perceptible. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon.Four Photos on One Plate of them. Make a hole in the other. as shown in Fig. Then take one outlet wire. ground it with a large piece of zinc. R. 2. B.

then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. under the gable. Several battery cells. as indicated by E E. Ohio. by 1 in. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. are also needed. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. as shown. 36 wire around it. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Dry batteries are most convenient. D D are binding posts for electric wires. --Contributed by Geo. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. and about that size. a transmitter which induces no current is used. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. They have screw ends. leaving about 10 in. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. of course. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. A is a wooden block. serves admirably. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. by 12 in.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Pa. One like a loaf of bread. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Slattery. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. J. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Emsworth. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. and will then burn the string C. Then set the whole core away to dry. or more of the latter has been used. Wrenn. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. B. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . But in this experiment. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. at each end for terminals. Ashland. and again wind the wire around it. one at the receiver can hear what is said. If desired. even though there are no batteries in the circuit.

Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. These should have hollow ends. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C.wire. D. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. as shown. run a No. 12 or No. connecting lamp receptacles. D. B B. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. Fig. 2. 14 wire. 1. Ohio. and one single post switch. while C is open. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. and switch. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. as shown. The oven is now ready to be connected. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. Newark. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. for the . Connect these three to switch. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. Turn on switch. until the hand points to zero on the scale.. B B. C. in parallel. C. in series with bindingpost. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. Fig. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. F. The apparatus is now ready for operation. The coil will commence to become warm. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. At one side secure two receptacles. E. and the lamps. From the other set of binding-posts. First make a support. Place 16-cp. Jr. the terminal of the coil.

4 amperes. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. Fig. Fig. A wooden box.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. a battery. long and make a loop. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. wind with plenty of No. 1. etc. The box is 5-1/2 in. Dussault. The core. At a point a little above the center. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. long. To make one. 14 wire. This is slipped on the pivot. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. although brass is better. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. Fig. After drilling. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. is made of iron. 14. Fig. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. 1/2 in. where A is the homemade ammeter. wide and 1-3/4 in. is made of wire. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. B. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. a standard ammeter. drill a hole as shown at H. until the scale is full. 5. long. 6. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. If for 3-way. E. 4. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. to prevent it turning on the axle. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. 10 turns to each layer. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. drill in only to the opening already through. remove the valve. deep. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . inside measurements. thick. as shown in the cut. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. Mine is wound with two layers of No. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. although copper or steel will do. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. is then made and provided with a glass front. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. high. D. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. This may be made of wood. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. 36 magnet wire instead of No. 3. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument.. The pointer or hand.or 4-way valve or cock. C. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. Montreal. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. 2. 1. wide and 1/8 in. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. a variable resistance. 1/4 in. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. D. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. drill through the entire case and valve.E. --Contributed by J. but if for a 4way. 3 amperes. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. and D. 7. from the lower end. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. 4 in. It is 1 in. 5.

is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. To start the light. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. and a metal rod. A. This stopper should be pierced. and the arc light. high. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. in thickness . E. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. as shown. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. making two holes about 1/4 in. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. B. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. One wire runs to the switch. By connecting the motor. F. and the other connects with the water rheostat. provided with a rubber stopper.performing electrical experiments. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. which is used for reducing the current. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. in diameter. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. D.

Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Y. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Carthage. where he is placed in an upright open . Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Fig. If the interrupter does not work at first. Turn on the current and press the button. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. 1. N. Jones. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Fig. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. B. as shown in C. A.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. If all adjustments are correct. --Contributed by Harold L. As there shown. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. 2. 1. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. 2. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Fig. Having finished the interrupter. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. as shown in B. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. A piece of wood. long. 1. Having fixed the lead plate in position. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. To insert the lead plate. Fig. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle.

When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. Its edges should nowhere be visible. dressed in brilliant.. loosejointed effect. from which the gong has been removed. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. as the entire interior. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. until it is dark there. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. high. to aid the illusion. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. should be miniature electric lamps. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. light-colored garments. giving a limp. The lights. could expect from a skeleton. They need to give a fairly strong light. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. The skeleton is made of papier maché. A. If it is desired to place the box lower down. with the exception of the glass. is constructed as shown in the drawings. especially the joints and background near A. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. figures and lights. The model. should be colored a dull black. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. All . and wave his arms up and down. L and M. within the limits of an ordinary room. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass.coffin. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. and can be bought at Japanese stores. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. A white shroud is thrown over his body. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. especially L. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. by 7-1/2 in. and must be thoroughly cleansed. inside dimensions. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The glass should be the clearest possible. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. which can be run by three dry cells. by 7 in. the illusion will be spoiled. If everything is not black. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine.

To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. Cal. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. Two finishing nails were driven in. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. square block.that is necessary is a two-point switch. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. If a gradual transformation is desired. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. as shown in the sketch. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. after which it assumes its normal color. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. San Jose. W. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. placed about a foot apart. --Contributed by Geo. fat spark. Fry.

which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. by small pieces of wood.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. into the receiver G. A (see sketch). by a piece of hard rubber at each end. In Fig. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. and should be separated about 1/8 in. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. soldered in the top. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. or a solution of sal soda. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. Cohen. One of these plates is connected to metal top. The plates are separated 6 in. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. New York. In Fig. 1. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. -Contributed by Dudley H. This is a wide-mouth bottle. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. F. to make it airtight. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. B and C. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. If a lighted match . It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. the remaining space will be filled with air. with two tubes. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. as shown. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. hydrogen gas is generated.

should be only 5/16 of an inch. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . A. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. C C. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. 36 insulated wire. 1. long. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. Fig. N. 1-5/16 in. A. is then coiled around the brass tube. is made by drilling a 1/8in. and the ends of the tube. from the bottom. then a suitable burner is necessary. A nipple. which forms the vaporizing coil. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. A. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. P. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. A 1/64-in. of No. If desired. The distance between the nipple. long. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. 2 shows the end view. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. N. says the Model Engineer. One row is drilled to come directly on top. Fig. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. in diameter and 6 in. which is plugged up at both ends. 1/2 in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. copper pipe. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. A. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. copper pipe. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. London. or by direct contact with another magnet. A piece of 1/8-in. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. by means of the clips. either by passing a current of electricity around it. as is shown in the illustration. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. B. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil.

It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. about 8 or 10 in. leaving the folded edge uncut. 1. with a fine saw. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. larger all around than the book. Cut four pieces of cardboard. Take two strips of stout cloth. but if the paper knife cannot be used. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). smoothing and creasing as shown at A. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. 1/4 in. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. boards and all. fold and cut it 1 in. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Fig. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. 2). Fig. Turn the book over and paste the other side. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. at the front and back for fly leaves. Fig. should be cut to the diameter of the can. taking care not to bend the iron. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. trim both ends and the front edge. duck or linen. longer and 1/4 in. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. smoothly. 3. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. A disk of thin sheet-iron. cut to the size of the pages. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out.lamp cord. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. this makes a much nicer book. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in.

B. the joint will be gas tight. Bedford City. A gas cock. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. H. but its diameter is a little smaller. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Parker. 18 in. deep. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Ont. pasting them down (Fig. Another can. This will cause some air to be enclosed. as shown. 4). A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. which will just slip inside the little can. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. Noble. E. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. of tank A is cut a hole. is fitted in it and soldered. without a head. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. --Contributed by Joseph N. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. or rather the top now.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. is soldered onto tank A. In the bottom. --Contributed by James E. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. is made the same depth as B. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. . Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Another tank. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. and a little can. is turned on it. C. Toronto. A. as shown in the sketch. in diameter and 30 in. is perforated with a number of holes. D. Va.

They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. and about 26 in. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better..Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. The bridle knots. when finished. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. making the width. exactly 12 in. Fig. The wiring diagram. The longitudinal corner spines. The armature. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. 2. by 1/2 in. should be 3/8 in. Fig. B. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. which moves to either right or left. If the back armature. which may be either spruce. and sewed double to give extra strength. Bott. The small guards. D. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. and the four diagonal struts. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. should be 1/4 in. fastened in the bottom. If the pushbutton A is closed. are shown in detail at H and J. to prevent splitting. tacks. H is a square knot. Beverly. 1. -Contributed by H. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. basswood or white pine. with an electric-bell magnet. J. A A. shows how the connections are to be made. B. D. N. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. S. long. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. B. The diagonal struts. should be cut a little too long. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. square by 42 in. C. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. E. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. long. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. thus adjusting the . A. as shown at C.

If the kite is used in a light wind.lengths of F and G. and. with gratifying results. --Contributed by A. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. E. the batteries do not run down for a long time. however. Harbert. Chicago. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Clay Center. --Contributed by Edw. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. to prevent slipping. for producing electricity direct from heat. that refuse to slide easily. thus shortening G and lengthening F. and if a strong wind is blowing. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Stoddard. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. shift toward F. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. as shown. Closing either key will operate both sounders. Kan. can be made of a wooden . D.

to the cannon. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. with a number of nails. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. A. with a pocket compass. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. spark. A. B. in position. Then. and also holds the pieces of wood. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. The wood screw. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. --Contributed by A. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. When the cannon is loaded. 14 or No. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. E. F. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. C. which conducts the current into the cannon. and the current may then be detected by means. or parallel with the compass needle. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. by means of machine screws or. E. A. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. placed on top. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. C. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . A and B. D. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. C. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires.frame. Fasten a piece of wood. Chicago. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. 16 single-covered wire. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. if there are no trunnions on the cannon..

To lock the door. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Ohio. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. To reverse. press the button. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. Big Rapids. 1. within the reach of the magnet. Connect as shown in the illustration. A hole for a 1/2 in. Fig. H. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. Fig. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. where there is a staple. in this position the door is locked. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. when in position at A'. To unlock the door. Bend the strips BB (Fig. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. --Contributed by Joseph B. Keil. L. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Chicago.the current is shut off. Mich. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. In Fig. requiring a strong magnet. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. --Contributed by Henry Peck. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. A and S. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. . with the long arm at L'. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. square and 3/8 in. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. B. but no weights or strings. screw is bored in the block. 1. now at A' and S'. 1. A. to receive the screw in the center. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Marion. A and S.

A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. put in the handle. are enameled a jet black. West Somerville. pipe with 1-2-in. J. gas-pipe. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. Thread the other end of the pipe. and may be made at very slight expense. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. When ready for use. long. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. Rand. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. or for microscopic work. When the holes are finished and your lines set. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. and if desired the handles may . about 18 in. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. hole. The standard and base. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. and C is a dumbbell. --Contributed by C. if enameled white on the concave side. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. Mass.

while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. which shall project at least 2 in. Warren. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. 1. M. Fig. Mass. --Contributed by C. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C.be covered with leather. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. E. 1.. long and 8 in. as shown at A in the sketch. Make a cylindrical core of wood. inside the pail. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. high by 1 ft. across. This peculiar property is also found in ice. A. 8 in. with a cover. Fig. across. B. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. North Easton. D. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln .

At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. 60%.. about 1 in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. C. in diameter. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. and with especial caution the first time. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. full length of iron core. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. or make one yourself. 1). It is placed inside the kiln. 3) with false top and bottom. strip of sheet iron. 1390°-1410°. and 3/4 in. 1330°. 1). How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. W. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. and on it set the paper wrapped core. The 2 in. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. When lighted. This done. in diameter. and cut it 3-1/2 in. L. C. pipe. as is shown in the sketch. C. If the cover of the pail has no rim. as dictated by fancy and expense. E. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. 2 in. bottom and sides. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in.mixture of clay. 25%. make two wood ends. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. sand. pack this space-top. Line the pail. and varnish. but it will burn a great deal of gas. the firing should be gradual. and graphite. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. Fig. Set aside for a few days until well dried. say 1/4 in. Wind about 1/8 in. diameter. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. wider than the kiln. Whatever burner is used. if you have the materials. pipe 2-ft. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. After finishing the core. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. 2. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. long. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. long over the lid hole as a chimney. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. if there is to be any glazing done. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. thick. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. of fine wire. In like manner make the cover of the kiln.. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. to hold the clay mixture. Fit all the parts together snugly. After removing all the paper.-G. cutting the hole a little smaller. which is the hottest part. such . and your kiln is ready for business. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. hard porcelain. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. and 3/8 in. projecting from each end (Fig. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. carefully centering it.. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. let this dry thoroughly. thick. the point of the blue flame. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. but will be cheaper in operation. Cover with paper and shellac as before. layer of the clay mixture. 15%. hotel china. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln.

and discharges into the tube. C. as in Fig. Then. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. A. Next restore all the cards to one pack. --Contributed by J. Then take the black cards. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. around the coil. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. T. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. 2. 1. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. 8 in. the next black. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. and so on. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. Chicago. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. . and divide it into two piles. every alternate card being the same color. The funnel. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. D.53 in. square them up and place in a vise. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. with a plane. taking care to have the first card red. Of course. and plane off about 1/16 in. leaving long terminals. B. square them up. procure a new deck. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. You can display either color called for. as shown in the sketch herewith. overlaps and rests on the body. 2). Washington. R. Take the red cards. as in Fig. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich.. about 1/16 in. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. red and black. all cards facing the same way. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. C. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. C. diameter. bind tightly with black silk.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. 2. length of . one containing the red cards and the other the black ones.

so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. N. Long Branch. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in.. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. The cement. All the horizontal pieces. stove bolts. to form a dovetail joint as shown. so that when they are assembled. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. B. C. the first thing to decide on is the size. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. about 20 in. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. the same ends will come together again.C. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. To find the fall of snow. Let . 1.J. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. A. Drill all the horizontal pieces. stove bolts. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. thus making all the holes coincide. F. through the holes already drilled. It should be placed in an exposed location. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. A. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. of the frame. 1 gill of litharge. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. E. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. B. B. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. as the difficulties increase with the size. and then the frame is ready to assemble. The bottom glass should be a good fit. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. and this is inexpensive to build. Fig. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. 1 gill of fine white sand. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. angle iron for the frame. The upright pieces. E. D. When the glass is put in the frame a space.

Fig. A. Fasten the lever. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. B.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. and. on the door by means of a metal plate. if desired. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. D. to the door knob. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. Aquarium Finished If desired. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. having a swinging connection at C. a centerpiece (A. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish.

screwed to the door frame. Do not fasten these boards now. showing the paddle-wheel in position. 1 . for the top.. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. Cut two of them 4 ft. F. 2 at GG. Fig. another. hoping it may solve the same question for them. to form the slanting part. will open the door about 1/2 in. Fig. N. from the outside top of the frame. to keep the frame from spreading. I referred this question to my husband. thus doing away with the spring. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. PAUL S. 1. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Orton E. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. AA. several lengths of scantling 3 in. 6 in. 1 is the motor with one side removed. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. They are shown in Fig. but mark their position on the frame. 3 shows one of the paddles. as at E. Two short boards 1 in. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. 2 ft. Fig. with a water pressure of 70 lb. E.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. C. Cut two pieces 30 in. and Fig. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. 2 is an end view. To make the frame. Fig. 26 in. which is 15 in. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. and another. approximately 1 ft. to form the main supports of the frame. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. Y. A small piece of spring brass. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. long. wide by 1 in. wide . Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. long. D. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. long. Buffalo. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Fig. long. 1. another. soldered to the end of the cylinder. B. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. White. Fig. according to the slant given C.

after which drill a 5/8 in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Fig. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. thick. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. 2) and another 1 in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in. GG. Fig.burlap will do -. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. with the wheel and shaft in place. in diameter. Fig. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. These are the paddles. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). iron 3 by 4 in. steel shaft 12 in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig.along the edges under the zinc to form . Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. hole through them. Fasten them in their proper position. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. iron. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. remove the cardboard. Make this hole conical. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. that is. Now block the wheel. and drill a 1/8-in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. 2) with a 5/8-in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. long to the wheel about 8 in. take down the crosspieces. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Take the side pieces. hole through its center. by 1-1/2 in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. long and filling it with babbitt metal. 24 in. hole to form the bearings. 1. hole through their sides centrally. thick (HH. Tack one side on. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Next secure a 5/8-in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. tapering from 3/16 in. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. 2) form a substantial base. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. (I. 4. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. then drill a 3/16-in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. holes. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. and drill a 1-in. and a 1/4 -in. pipe. as shown in Fig. to a full 1/2 in. When it has cooled. from one end by means of a key. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Drill 1/8-in.

Correct exposure depends. The best plate to use is a very slow one. It is obvious that. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. If the bearings are now oiled. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. . Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Darken the rest of the window. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. Focus the camera carefully. of course. light and the plate. on the lens.a water-tight joint. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. sewing machine. Drill a hole through the zinc. and leave them for an hour or so. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. it would be more durable. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. remove any white curtains there may be. and as near to it as possible. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. or what is called a process plate. shutting out all light from above and the sides. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. as shown in the sketch at B. says the Photographic Times. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. drill press. and the subject may move. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Do not stop down the lens. but now I put them in the machine. ice-cream freezer. start the motor. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. place the outlet over a drain. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. but as it would have cost several times as much. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. any window will do. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. as this makes long exposure necessary. If sheet-iron is used. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Raise the window shade half way. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise.

2. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. 2. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. With a piece of black paper. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. which is made of iron and cork. as a slight current will answer. as shown in Fig. or wood. with binding posts as shown. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. full of water. hard rubber. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. B. a core. or an empty developer tube. by twisting. On completing . Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. and a base. The core C. the core is drawn down out of sight. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. without detail in the face. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. A. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. an empty pill bottle may be used. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. until the core slowly rises.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. a glass tube. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. C. D. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. The current required is very small. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. or can be taken from an old magnet. The glass tube may be a test tube. and without fog. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right.

Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. according to his control of the current. and are changed by reversing the rotation. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. and make a pinhole in the center. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. is Benham's color top. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. finest graphite. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. white lead. The colors appear different to different people.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. 1 lb. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. 1 pt. This is a mysterious looking instrument. 1. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. water and 3 oz. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. whale oil. and one not easy to explain. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows .

.L. fan-like. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. Chicago. thus partly filling bottles A and C. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. C. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. before cutting. when the action ceases. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. nearly every time. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. A. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. B. or three spot. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. especially if the deck is a new one. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. In prize games. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. As this device is easily upset. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. In making hydrogen. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. deuce. -Contributed by D. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure.B.

How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. --Contributed by F. that will fit loosely in the tube A. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. --Contributed by C. Detroit.. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Make a 10-sided stick. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Fig. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Fig. (Fig. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. in diameter. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. 12 in. Bently. Dak. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Huron. 2. 1. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. 9 in. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. long. Detail of Phonograph Horn . using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. S.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. in length and 3 in. S. Form a cone of heavy paper. Jr. W. 4. as shown in Fig.. 10 in. long and 3 in. 3). . J. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box.

long. --Contributed by Reader. it is equally easy to block that trick. A second piece of silk thread. Fig. on one side and the top. C. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. A piece of tin. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. E. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. allowing 1 in. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. bend it at right angles throughout its length. Denver. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. Fortunately. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. 6. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. A. making it three-ply thick. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . but bends toward D. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. Remove the form. with a pin driven in each end. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. push back the bolt. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. and walk in. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. Cut out paper sections (Fig. will cause an increased movement of C. about the size of a leadpencil. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge.

is connected each point to a battery. --Contributed by J. The reverse switch.. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. long. By this arrangement one. are 7 ft. 4 ft. R. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with.. S S. and rest on a brick placed under each end. The feet. posts. W. West St. or left to right. Two wood-base switches. S. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. Fremont Hilscher. long. Minn. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. B. will last for several years. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. as shown. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached.strip. The upper switch. while the lower switch. Jr. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. B. A. are made 2 by 4 in. S. put together as shown in the sketch. Paul. The 2 by 4-in.

and in Fig. which is made of tin. with two washers. Fig. H and K. and has two wood blocks. thick. The valve motion is shown in Figs. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. E. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. and a cylindrical . pulley wheel. The hose E connects to the boiler. which will be described later. and the crank bearing C. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. In Fig. The steam chest D. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. the other parts being used for the bearing B. and valve crank S. the size of the hole in the bearing B. The piston is made of a stove bolt.every house. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. 2. Fig. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. either an old sewing-machine wheel. 2 and 3. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. cut in half. is an old bicycle pump. 1. or anything available. The base is made of wood. 3/8 in. FF.

Wis. C. First. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. and a very amusing trick. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. powder can. 3. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Schuh and A. This is wound with soft string. and the desired result is obtained. G. Fig. to receive the connecting rod H. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper.piece of hard wood. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. W. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Cal. Fry. J. of Cuba. Eustice. G. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. using the positive wire as a pen. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. as shown in Fig. 1. The valve crank S. This engine was built by W. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. . The boiler. is cut out of tin. at that. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Fig. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. as it is merely a trick of photography. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. and saturated with thick oil. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. or galvanized iron. 4. San Jose. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. --Contributed by Geo. can be an old oil can.

The smaller wheel. and place a bell on the four ends. and Fig. 1 by covering up Figs. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Cut half circles out of each stave. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. as shown at AA. diameter. to cross in the center. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. They may be of any size. Fig. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. 1 will be seen to rotate. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. and pass ropes around . Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. B. as shown.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. B. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. Fig. C. When turning. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Fig.

Louis.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. --Contributed by H. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. from the transmitter. To make this lensless microscope. such as clothes lines. Mo.. St. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. which accounts for the sound. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. but not on all. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope.M. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. produces a higher magnifying power). long. From a piece of thin .G. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. This in turn will act on the transmitter. A (a short spool. procure a wooden spool. as shown in the illustration. which allows the use of small sized ropes. W.

Viewed through this microscope. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. fastened to a wooden base.. E. D. the diameter will appear twice as large. which are pieces of hard wood. which costs little or nothing to make. 1. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. . H. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. place a small object on the transparent disk. C. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. darting across the field in every direction. otherwise the image will be blurred. as in all microscopes of any power. cut out a small disk. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. D. Fig. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. if the distance is reduced to one-third. i. The spring. and look through the hole D. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature.. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. or 64 times. B. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. by means of brads. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. the object should be of a transparent nature. (The area would appear 64 times as large. can be made of brass and the armature. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. To use this microscope. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. and at the center. B. bent as shown.) But an object 3/4-in. the diameter will appear three times as large. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. The lever. The pivot. in which hay has been soaking for several days. e. held at arm's length. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. and so on. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. C. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. 3. 2. An innocent-looking drop of water. is made of iron. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. if the distance is reduced to one-half. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. is fastened at each end by pins. A.

brass or iron soldered to nail. between the armature and the magnet. wide. long. or taken from a small one-point switch. F. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. wood: C. A switch. thick. B. D. K. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. . Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. The door. binding posts: H spring The stop. HH. 2. brass. long by 16 in. wide and about 20 in.SOUNDER-A. Fig. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. D. wide. The back. long and 14-1/2 in. wood: F. KEY-A. wide. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. FF. DD. in length and 16 in. soft iron. Each side. which are made to receive a pivot. The binding posts. brass: E. fastened near the end. nail soldered on A. wide. should be about 22 in. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. AA. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. 1. and are connected to the contacts. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. C. B. A. connection of D to nail. wide and set in between sides AA. can be made panel as shown. is cut from a board about 36 in. Fig. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. wood. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. K. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. Cut the top. 16 in. D. coils wound with No. or a single piece. 26 wire: E. similar to the one used in the sounder. 16 in. E. brass: B. C. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. The base of the key.

This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. E. material. as shown. long. brads. as shown in the sketch. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. cut in them. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . When the electrical waves strike the needle.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. In operation. Garfield. with 3/4-in. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Make 12 cleats.. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. AA. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. Ill. 2 and made from 1/4-in. 13-1/2 in. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. the only materials necessary being a glass tube.

made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. F. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . Fairport. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. --Contributed by R. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. pulls down the armature. --Contributed by John Koehler. N. in order to increase the surface. and thus decreases the resistance. J. E. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. filled with water. when the coil is not provided with a regulator.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. When the pipe is used. will give a greater speed. The cord is also fastened to a lever. when used with a motor. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. A fairly stiff spring. Y. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. N. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. Pushing the wire. through which a piece of wire is passed. A. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. C. and. A (see sketch). down into the water increases the surface in contact. the magnet. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. B. Brown. A. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Ridgewood.

for the secret contact. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Of course. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. --Contributed by Perry A. even those who read this description. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Borden. B. if desired. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. N. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Gachville. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm.

long and full 12-in. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. 2. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. wide.whenever the bell rings. long and 5 in. Jr. for 10in. E. From a piece of brass a switch. The top board is made 28-in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. Washington. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. thick and 12-in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. C. wide. Two drawers are fitted in this space. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. --Contributed by Dr. H. records. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. J. Cal. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. Compton. and on both sides of the middle shelf. N. wide. where the other end of wire is fastened. C. wide. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. from the bottom. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn.. East Orange. apart. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. Dobson. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. --Contributed by H. wide. records and 5-5/8 in. 1. as shown in Fig. Nails for stops are placed at DD. A. deep and 3/4 in. in a semicircle 2 in. . A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. With about 9 ft. Mangold. D. as shown in Fig. Connect switch to post B. The three shelves are cut 25-in. for 6-in.

depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. closed. which in operation is bent. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. to which is fastened a cord. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. A. Roanoke. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. When the cord is passed over pulley C. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. as shown in Fig. as shown by the dotted lines. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . E. Va.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. 1. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. B. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened.

The crankpin should fit tightly. 1 in. deep and 1/2 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. long. against which the rubber tubing. 3. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. as shown in the illustration. apart. 5) when they are placed. wide. 1. 1 in. E.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. in diameter. Put the rubber tube. to turn on pins of stout wire. In the sides (Fig. Now put all these parts together. thick (A. it too loose. B. CC. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Figs. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. square and 7/8 in. Bore two 1/4 in. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. D. holes (HH. excepting the crank and tubing. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. they will bind. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. Notice the break (S) in the track. Fig. through one of these holes. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. in diameter. In these grooves place wheels. Cut two grooves. Figs. which should be about 1/2 in. one in each end. but a larger one could be built in proportion. These wheels should be 3/4 in. is compressed by wheels. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. E. If the wheels fit too tightly. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. in diameter. thick. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. 4 shows the wheel-holder. 3). When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. wide. Fig. in diameter. deep. Fig. they will let the air through. Do not fasten the sides too .

the other wheel has reached the bottom. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. iron. the pump will give a steady stream. Fig. mark again. Fig. from the bottom and 2 in. Two feet of 1/4-in. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. and are 30 in. AA. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. The animal does not fear to enter the box. Cut six pieces. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. as shown in Fig. A in Fig. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. In the two cross bars 1 in. Hubbard. 1. from each end. The screen which is shown in Fig. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. Kan. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Then turn the crank from left to right. and mark for a hole. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. Take the center of the bar. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. of material. from that mark the next hole. is all the expense necessary. The three legs marked BBB. Fig. To use the pump. 2. costing 10 cents.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. Idana. beyond each of these two. 17-1/2 in. 2. AA. 1. stands 20 in. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. 1. Fig. For ease in handling the pump. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. though a small iron wheel is better. from each end. 1.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. tubing. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. and 3-1/2 in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. 15 in. long. B. --Contributed by Dan H. mark for hole and 3 in. If the motion of the wheels is regular. as it gives steadiness to the motion. 1. a platform should be added. because he can . from each end. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in.

To cause a flow of electricity. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. The battery is now ready for use. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. 4 oz. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. Philadelphia. 2). rub the zinc well. long having two thumb screws.see through it: when he enters. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. silvery appearance. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. stirring constantly. The truncated. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. 14 copper wire. of the top. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. Meyer. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. 1) must be prepared. C. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. there is too much liquid in the jar. add slowly. sulphuric acid. If the solution touches the zinc. When through using the battery. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. The mercury will adhere. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. It is useful for running induction coils. and touches the bait the lid is released and. If the battery has been used before. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. giving it a bright. of water dissolve 4 oz. and the solution (Fig. If it is wet. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. however. or. . raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. or small electric motors. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. --Contributed by H. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. The battery is now complete. shuts him in. Place the carbon in the jar. potassium bichromate. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. but if one casts his own zinc. acid 1 part). dropping. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. some of it should be poured out. When the bichromate has all dissolved. until it is within 3 in. take out the carbon and lower the zinc.

while the coal door is being opened. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. e. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. i. Madison. however. After putting in the coal. the battery circuit. If. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. Wis. the jump-spark coil . With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. pressing the pedal closes the door.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. The price of the coil depends upon its size.. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. which opens the door. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use.Fig. with slight changes. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch.

described elsewhere in this book. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. coil. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. 7. apart. 5. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. as shown in Fig. This coil. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. 7. W W.7. while a 12-in. as shown in Fig. in a straight line from top to bottom. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. the full length of the coil. 6. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. which is made of light copper wire. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. being a 1-in. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. Now for the receiving apparatus. W W. After winding. . while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. and closer for longer distances. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. Fig. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. made of No. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. 7). In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. in a partial vacuum. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. Change the coil described. This will make an excellent receiver. 6. diameter.

only. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. but simply illustrates the above to show that. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. The writer does not claim to be the originator. being at right angles. No. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. but it could be run by foot power if desired. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. For an illustration. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. are analogous to the flow of induction. A large cone pulley would then be required. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. may be easily made at very little expense. at any point to any metal which is grounded. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. 90°. using an electric motor and countershaft. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. where A is the headstock. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. and hence the aerial line. in the air. 1 to 4.The aerial line. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. A. above the ground. Run a wire from the other binding post. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. 1). being vertical. I run my lathe by power. Figs. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. These circles. to the direction of the current. after all. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. B the bed and C the tailstock. as it matches the color well. which will be described later. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated).6 stranded. . 90°.

If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. 5. which are let into holes FIG. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. A. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. The headstock. 5. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . The shaft is made of 3/4-in. B. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. on the under side of the bed. 2 and 3. too. 6. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. 6 Headstock Details D. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. just touching the shaft. 4. If the bearing has been properly made. and Fig. After pouring. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. but not hot enough to burn it. The bolts B (Fig. and runs in babbitt bearings. steel tubing about 1/8 in. tapered wooden pin. Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. which pass through a piece of wood. deep. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. thick. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. Fig. Fig. 4. pitch and 1/8 in. The bearing is then ready to be poured. To make these bearings. one of which is shown in Fig. Heat the babbitt well. Fig. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. and it is well to have the shaft hot.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round.

--Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. they may be turned up after assembling. so I had to buy one. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. Oak Park. the alarm is easy to fix up. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue.J. embedded in the wood. B. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. FIG. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. and a 1/2-in. If one has a wooden walk. Take up about 5 ft. If not perfectly true.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. This prevents corrosion. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. of the walk . but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator.other machines. The tail stock (Fig. Ill. N. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. lock nut. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. A. Newark.

save when a weight is on the trap. (A. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. clean the articles thoroughly. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Finally. and the alarm is complete. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. water. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. 2). Jackson. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. silver or other metal. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. S. Minn. add potassium cyanide again. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Fig. before dipping them in the potash solution. hang the articles on the wires. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. leaving a clear solution.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Connect up an electric bell. to roughen the surface slightly. To avoid touching it. so that they will not touch. of water. Minneapolis. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. to remove all traces of grease. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Then make the solution . --Contributed by R.

bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. nickel and such metals. On brass. 1). The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. piece of broomstick. Fig. A 1/4 in. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. which . zinc. I. a circuit is completed. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. 1 not only unlocks. light strokes. of water. with the pivot 2 in. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. such metals as iron. silver can be plated direct. Repeat six times. will serve for the key. pewter. long. 1. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. Having finished washing the precipitate. if one does not possess a buffing machine. If more solution is required. about 25 ft. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. Take quick. when the point of the key touches the tin. German silver. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. 3. 10 in. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. as at F. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. as shown in Fig. square. must be about 1 in. --Model Engineer. use 2 volts for large articles. which is advised. 3) directly over the hole. In rigging it to a sliding door. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. Fig. The wooden catch. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. To provide the keyhole. hole in its center. copper. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. 18 wire. 3) strikes the bent wire L. Fig. long.5 to 4 volts. saw a piece of wood. and then treated as copper. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. With an electric pressure of 3. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. and the larger part (F. When all this is set up. If accumulators are used. Make a somewhat larger block (E. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. lead. and 4 volts for very small ones. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. thick by 3 in. Before silver plating.up to 2 qt. Where Bunsen cells are used. This solution. with water. with water. The wooden block C. a hand scratch brush is good. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. shaking. 1 in. from the lower end. make a key and keyhole. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. an old electric bell or buzzer. which is held by catch B. Fig. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. 1). B should be of the same wood. Then. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. but opens the door. also. A (Fig. Can be made of a 2-in. of clothesline rope and some No. Screw the two blocks together.

Heavy metal objects. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. Thus. some black paint. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. floor. On either side of the box. half way from open end to closed end. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. and finally lined inside with black cloth. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. The magician stands in front of this. should be cut a hole. cut in one side. shows catch B. One thing changes to another and back again. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. is the cut through which the rope runs. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. H. sides and end. 2. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. The box must be altered first. heighten the illusion. Objects appear and disappear. . enlarged. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. Receiving the bowl again. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. New Jersey. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. Next. Next. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. he points with one finger to the box. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. and hands its contents round to the audience. B. a few simple tools. so much the better. and plenty of candles. East Orange. which unlocks the door. with a switch as in Fig. Klipstein. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. 116 Prospect St. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. the box should be painted black both inside and out. to throw the light toward the audience. the illumination in front must be arranged. 1. and black art reigns supreme.. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. The interior must be a dead black. or cave. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. H. no painting inside is required. spoons and jackknives. 3. top. one-third of the length from the remaining end. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. Fig. Fig. 1. the requisites are a large soap box. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. and a slit. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. Fig. 0. Fig. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. with the lights turned low. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. between the parlor and the room back of it. such as forks. He removes the bowl from the black box. One end is removed. To prepare such a magic cave. --Contributed by E. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). he tosses it into the cave. surrounding a perfectly black space. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. although a little more trouble. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. 2. some black cloth. In front of you. in his shirt sleeves.

But illusions suggest themselves. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. The illusion. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. into the eyes of him who looks. The audience room should have only low lights. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. you must have an assistant. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. only he. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. and pours them from the bag into a dish. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. a screen must be used. if.Finally. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. Consequently. is on a table) so much the better. in which are oranges and apples. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. of course. which are let down through the slit in the top. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. which can be made to dance either by strings. was identical with this. one on each side of the box. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. the room where the cave is should be dark. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. and several black drop curtains. The exhibitor should be . The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and if portieres are impossible. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. had a big stage. as presented by Hermann. his confederate behind inserts his hand. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. of course.

How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . or b2. Finally. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. square. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. as shown in Fig. and a common screw. d. 2). so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. b1.a boy who can talk. b2. b3. by means of two wood screws. b3. respectively. A. 2. vice versa. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. FIG. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. Fig. c3.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. their one end just slips under the strips b1. c4. and c1 – electricity. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. terminal c3 will show . and c4 + electricity.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. at L. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. On the disk G are two brass strips. 2. making contact with them. b2. About the center piece H moves a disk. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. f2. held down by another disk F (Fig. or binding posts. respectively. making contact with them as shown at y. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. 1.. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). if you turn handle K to the right. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. when handle K is turned to one side. held down on it by two terminals. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. so arranged that. with three brass strips. 1. by 4 in. and c2 to the zinc. is shown in the diagram. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. e1 and e2. held down on disk F by two other terminals. terminal c3 will show +. c2. A represents a pine board 4 in. c1. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. respectively. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. Then.

Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. When switch B is closed and A is on No. from five batteries. Newark. . By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. 4. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. --Contributed by Eugene F. 1. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. 5. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Jr. -Contributed by A. when on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. thus making the message audible in the receiver. jump spark coil. Tuttle. and when on No.. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Ohio.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. from three batteries. 3. from four batteries. you have the current of one battery. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). and C and C1 are binding posts. E. and then hold the receiver to your ear. when A is on No. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. when on No. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Joerin. B is a onepoint switch. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B.

--Contributed by Maurice Baudier. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. P.. A. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. New Orleans. per second. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. Handy Electric Alarm . Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. and supporting the small weight. is the device of H. The device thus arranged. La. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. per second for each second. rule. traveled by the thread. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. so one can see the time. as shown in the sketch. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. Redmond. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. When you do not have a graduate at hand. A. A. B. Thus. over the bent portion of the rule. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. mark. which may be a button or other small object. of Burlington. mark. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. E. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. Wis. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. and placed on the windowsill of the car.

I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. which illuminates the face of the clock. S. Then if a mishap comes. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. B. for a wetting is the inevitable result. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. C. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. Pa. Instead. When the alarm goes off. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. and with the same result. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. Lane. Crafton. --C. but may be closed at F any time desired. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. . --Contributed by Gordon T. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E.which has a piece of metal. soldered to the alarm winder. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. wrapping the wire around the can several times. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways.

With the easily made devices about to be described. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. cannons. It is possible to make molds without a bench. AA. L. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. BE. If there is no foundry Fig. small machinery parts. but it is a mistake to try to do this. engines. models and miniature objects. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. --Contributed by A. binding posts. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. bearings. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. 1 . C. whence it is soon tracked into the house. and many other interesting and useful articles. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. Macey. as shown. ornaments of various kinds. A. New York City. 1. and duplicates of all these. when it is being prepared. battery zincs. which may. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. as shown in Fig. Two cleats. The first thing to make is a molding bench.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment.

Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. previous to sawing. CC. The rammer. by 8 in. and a sieve. as shown. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. J. is about the right mesh. An old teaspoon. which can be made of a knitted stocking. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. which should be nailed in.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. CC. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. high. a little larger than the outside of the flask." or lower part. D. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. Fig. white metal. and this. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. the "cope. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. 2. If desired the sieve may be homemade. and saw it in half longitudinally. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. II . will be required. try using sand from other sources. is shown more clearly in Fig. say 12 in. It is made of wood and is in two halves. A wedge-shaped piece. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds." or upper half. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. DD. which can be either aluminum.How to Make a Mold [96] . A good way to make the flask is to take a box. by 6 in. H. E. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. The cloth bag. 1. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. 1. and the lower pieces. G. is nailed to each end of the cope. If the box is not very strong. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. Fig. is filled with coal dust. The flask. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. A A. and the "drag. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. is made of wood. makes a very good sieve. F. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. A slight shake of the bag Fig. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. as shown. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers.near at hand. 2 . but this operation will be described more fully later on. The dowels.

The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. After ramming. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. Place another cover board on top. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. where they can watch the molders at work. It is then rammed again as before. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. or "drag. everything will be ready for the operation of molding." in position.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. as described. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. as shown at E. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. or "cope. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. in order to remove the lumps. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. as shown at C. In finishing the ramming. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. and thus judge for himself. as shown. turn the drag other side up. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. as shown at D. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. and scatter about 1/16 in. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. and by grasping with both hands. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. as it is much easier to learn by observation. the surface of the sand at . The sand is then ready for molding. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. and then more sand is added until Fig. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. and if water is added. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand.

in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. is next cut. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. as shown in the sketch. thus making a dirty casting. and then pour. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. it shows that the sand is too wet. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. This is done with a spoon. as shown at H. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. After drawing the pattern. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. in diameter. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. place the cope back on the drag. in order to prevent overheating. to give the air a chance to escape." or pouring-hole. after being poured. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. as shown at H. as shown at F. thus holding the crucible securely. Place a brick or other flat. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening.E should be covered with coal-dust. . III. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. as shown at J. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. wide and about 1/4 in. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. as shown at G. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. The "sprue. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. Fig. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. made out of steel rod. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. deep. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. The pattern is then drawn from the mold.

but any reasonable number may be used. the following device will be found most convenient. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. In my own case I used four batteries. white metal and other scrap available. Morton. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. is very desirable. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. 15% lead. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. may be used in either direction. and the casting is then ready for finishing. babbitt. used only for zinc. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. --Contributed by Harold S. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. or from any adjacent pair of cells. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. Although the effect in the illustration . Referring to the figure. although somewhat expensive. and. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. battery zincs. Minneapolis. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. If a good furnace is available.

New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. To make it take a sheet-iron band. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. Make one of these pieces for each arm. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. Fig. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. A. Chicago. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. as shown at A. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. as shown in the illustration. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. Put a sharp needle point.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . backward. outward. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. The bearings. B. By replacing the oars with paddles. Then walk down among the audience. --Contributed by Draughtsman. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. may be made of hardwood. If desired. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. B. shaft made. 3/4 in. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. 2. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. Then replace the table. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. which will be sufficient to hold it. The brass rings also appear distorted. connected by cords to the rudder.

Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. Snow. If babbitt is used. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. If galvanized iron is used. being simply finely divided ice. 1. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking.melted babbitt. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. It may seem strange that ice . for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. E. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. or under pressure. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. when it will again return to its original state. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. W. as shown in Fig. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. A. spoiling its appearance. 1. or the paint will come off. 1. 2 and 3. as shown in Fig. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. The hubs. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. C. A block of ice. Fig. 2. and a weight. D. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. In the same way. The covers. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. but when in motion. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. 3. should be made of wood. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure.

the large body of ice has to bend in moving. which resembles ice in this respect. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. but. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. as shown on page 65.. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. P. by 2 in. --Contributed by Gordon T. and assume the shape shown at B. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. as per sketch. or supporting it in some similar way. by 1/2 in. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . sometimes only one or two feet a day. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. by 5 in. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. by 1/4. thus giving a high resistance contact. but by placing it between books. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. no matter how slow the motion may be. Lane. whenever there is any connection made at all. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. in. B. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. it will gradually change from the original shape A. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. Pa. Pressing either push button. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight.should flow like water. The rate of flow is often very slow. brass. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. square. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. Crafton. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself.

F. G. draft. cord. horizontal lever. A is the circuit breaker. the battery. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. wooden supports. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. J. vertical lever. The success depends upon a slow current. K . Ward. B. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. as shown. and five dry batteries. draft chain. weight. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time.thumb screws. G. Indianapolis. C.000 ft. The parts are: A. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. Pa. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. E. B. Wilkinsburg. pulleys. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. I. the induction coil. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. --Contributed by A. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. about the size used for automobiles. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. D. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. and C. In the wiring diagram. alarm clock. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. H. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. as shown. furnace.

2 are dressed to the right angle. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. Artistic Window Boxes The top. material framed together as shown in Fig. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. as well as the bottom. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. 3. The frame (Fig. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. where house plants are kept in the home. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. Kalamazoo. will fit nicely in them. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. which will provide a fine place for the plants. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. such as used for a storm window. Mich. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up.

It must be remembered.. a cork and a needle. Thus. W. and cost 27 cents FIG. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. in diameter. 1 each complete with base. The 1/2-cp. which sells for 25 cents. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. in this connection. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. 1.. this must be done with very great caution. S. as indicated by Fig. i. in any system of lamps. --Contributed by Wm. one can regulate the batteries as required. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. 1 cp. Grant. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. can be connected up in series. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. as if drawn upon for its total output. Halifax. by connecting them in series. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. since a battery is the most popular source of power. so as to increase the current. is something that will interest the average American boy. However. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. for some time very satisfactorily. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. A certain number of these. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. However.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. e. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series.. N. Push the needle into the cork. and the instrument will then be complete. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. This is more economical than dry cells. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. Canada. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. but maintain the voltage constant. multiples of series of three. and a suitable source of power. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. where they are glad to have them taken away. and will give the . after a rest. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it.

it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. for display of show cases. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. 11 series. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. making. to secure light by this method. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. double insulated wire wherever needed. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. Thus. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. especially those of low internal resistance. where the water pressure is the greatest. FIG. Fig. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. although the first cost is greater. generates the power for the lights. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. and then lead No. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. and running the series in parallel. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. If wound for 10 volts. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. These will give 3 cp. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. which is the same as that of one battery. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. according to the water pressure obtainable.proper voltage. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. we simply turn on the water. 1-cp. However. In conclusion. So. as in Fig. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. Thus. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. each. by the proper combination of these. lamps. Chicago. or 22 lights.. and diffused light in a room. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. 3. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. lamps. and for Christmas trees. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. 2 shows the scheme. lamp. . 18 B & S. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. if wound for 6 volts.

B. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. . How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Emig. Parker. outside points of switch. and C. AA. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. A. a bait of meat. or from one pattern. DD. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Plymouth. we were not bothered with them. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. or a tempting bone. simply change the switch. --Contributed by Leonard E. A indicates the ground. the letters indicate as follows: FF. thus reversing the machine. and the sides. To reverse the motor. BB. B. Ind. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. field of motor. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. brushes of motor. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. center points of switch. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. bars of pole-changing switch. CC. --Contributed by F.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. After I connected up my induction coil. Cal. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. are cut just alike. switch. as shown in the sketch. Santa Clara.

Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. The button can be hidden. as it is the key to the lock. or would remain locked. merely push the button E.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. thus locking the door. The experiment works best . 903 Vine St. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. A. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. which is in the door. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. a piece of string. -Contributed by Claude B. Minn. and a table or bench. To unlock the door. San Jose. one cell being sufficient. If it is not. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. a hammer. Melchior. Fry. Hutchinson.. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. Cal. When the circuit is broken a weight. attached to the end of the armature B. W.

C. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. forming a loop. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. -. W. Porto Rico. the key turns. P. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. When the alarm rings in the early morning. I.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head.Contributed by F. Canada. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Tie the ends of the string together. 3. in the ceiling and has a window weight. Crawford Curry. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. 2. attached at the other end. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Culebra. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. A. . as shown in Fig. the current flows with the small arrows. which pulls the draft open. Madison. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Brockville. Ontario. run through a pulley. --Contributed by Geo. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands.. releasing the weight. 4). the stick falls away. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. where it will remain suspended as shown. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Schmidt. 18 Gorham St. 1). Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Wis. 3. D.

Camden. Connect two wires to the transmitter. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. thick. Farley. N.. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. running one direct to the receiver. D. Jr. including the mouthpiece.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. The cut shows the arrangement. --Contributed by Wm. square and 1 in. or from a bed of flowers. which fasten to the horn. made with his own hands. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. First. 6 in. J. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. thence to a switch. and break the corners off to make them round. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. Use a barrel to work on. get two pieces of plate glass. and . and the other to the battery. or tree. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. and then to the receiver. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. R. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. J. S. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat.

Fasten. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. wide around the convex glass or tool. 2. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. unless a longer focal length is wanted. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. a round 4-in.. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. the coarse grinding must be continued. When polishing the speculum.. then 8 minutes. wet till soft like paint. then take 2 lb. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. with 1/4-in. Fig. 2. When dry. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. by the side of the lamp. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. and is ready for polishing. or less. so the light . being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. twice the focal length away. and the under glass or tool convex. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. also rotate the glass.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. 1. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. of water. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. or it will not polish evenly. Fig. A. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. L. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. while walking around the barrel. with pitch. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. and a large lamp. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. using straight strokes 2 in. Use a binger to spread it on with. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. wetting it to the consistency of cream. and spread on the glass. When done the glass should be semitransparent. spaces.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. Then warm and press again with the speculum. melt 1 lb. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. and label. In a dark room. Have ready six large dishes. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. set the speculum against the wall. as in Fig. in length. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft.

the speculum will show some dark rings. then ammonia until bath is clear. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. Silver nitrate …………………………….Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. Alcohol (Pure) …………….……………………………. Then add 1 oz. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. Two glass or earthenware dishes. or hills. Fig. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. 4 oz. Solution D: Sugar loaf . The knife should not be more than 6 in. Fig. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right.. Place the speculum S. Place the speculum. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. long to the back of the speculum. longer strokes. cement a strip of board 8 in.. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. if a hill in the center. Fig. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. and pour the rest into the empty dish. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube.100 gr. 100 gr. The polishing and testing done. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. from the lamp. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. fill the dish with distilled water. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. deep.. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.. 2. must be procured. 2. When dry. If not. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. the speculum is ready to be silvered. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. Then add solution B... When the focus is found. as in K.. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. touched with rouge. 39 gr. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. also how the rays R from a star . Now add enough of the solution A. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. With pitch. Nitric acid . Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. face down. 4 oz. 25 gr.. that was set aside. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water …………………………….. 840 gr. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.. with distilled water.…………….………………………………. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum).

are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. telescope can be made at home. and proceed as for any picture. Make the tube I of sheet iron. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. . I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass.John E. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. is a satisfactory angle. Mellish. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. Place over lens. The flatter they are the less they will distort. slightly wider than the lens mount.. Then I made the one described. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. deg. stop down well after focusing. About 20. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. with an outlay of only a few dollars. two glass prisms. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. using strawboard and black paper. My telescope is 64 in. Thus an excellent 6-in. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. which proves to be easy of execution. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. cover with paper and cloth. long and cost me just $15. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it.

with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. and reflect through the negative. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. 2. To unlock. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. . The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. says the Master Painter. or powdered alum. Ill. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. B. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. but will not preserve its hardening.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. D. A. as shown in Fig. Fig. 1. The paper is exposed. through the lens of the camera and on the board. unobstructed light strike the mirror. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. add the plaster gradually to the water. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. -Contributed by A. Boody. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. The rays of the clear. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. then add a little sulphate of potash. Zimmerman. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. Do not stir it. instead of the contrary. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. complete the arrangement. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. push the button D. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A.

Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. but will remain suspended without any visible support. 2. Fasten on the switch lever. Fig. To reverse. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. as in Fig. 2. so that it can rotate about these points. also provide them with a handle. use a string. throw . as shown in the sketch. 3. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. 1). as at A and B. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Then blow through the spool.

the armature. Push one end of the tire into the hole. although this is not necessary. Levy. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. and E E. B. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. carbon sockets. Thomas. In the sketch. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. --Contributed by Geo. San Antonio. A is the electricbell magnet.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. carbons. Tex. D. Neb. rinse in alcohol. binding posts. C C. --Contributed by R. as shown in the sketch. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Take out. L. Tex. . San Marcos. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. Go McVicker. and rub dry with linen cloth. -Contributed by Morris L. wash in running water. North Bend.

the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . wound evenly about this core. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. 36 magnet wire. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. Bell. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Brooklyn. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. --Contributed by Joseph B. long or more. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. 14 or No. 16 magnet wire. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. By means of two or more layers of No. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory.

as the maker prefers. The primary is made of fine annealed No. wide. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. 2 yd. 1. The condenser is next wrapped . The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. as shown in Fig. Beginning half an inch from one end. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. 4. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. which is an important factor of the coil. a box like that shown in Fig. the entire core may be purchased readymade. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. and the results are often unsatisfactory. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. diameter. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. and finally the fourth strip of paper. at a time. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. long and 5 in. which is desirable. or 8 in. then the strip of tin-foil. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. one piece of the paper is laid down. long and 2-5/8 in. but if it is not convenient to do this work. coil illustrates the general details of the work. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. hole is bored in the center of one end. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. No. in length. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. about 6 in. The following method of completing a 1-in. A 7/8-in. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. This makes a condenser which may be folded. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. making two layers. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. In shaping the condenser. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. When cut and laid in one continuous length. After the core wires are bundled. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. with room also for a small condenser. in diameter. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire.which would be better to buy ready-made.

shows how the connections are made. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. go. switch. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. E. battery . but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. lines H.) The wiring diagram. V-shaped copper strip. and the other sheet. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. to the door. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. copper lever with 1-in. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. B. I. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes.. long and 12 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. G. which is insulated from the first. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. B. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. 3. forms the other pole or terminal. wide. open switch C. shelf for clock. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. which allows wiring at the back. A. Fig. whole length. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. spark. 4 in. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. ready for assembling. one from bell. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. long to key. F. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. The alarm key will turn and drop down. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. flange turned on one side. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. by 12 in. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. round so that the inside . but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. bell. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. and one from battery. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. C.securely with bands of paper or tape. the letters indicate as follows: A. D. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types.

or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. but with the circuit. of zinc sulphate. from the bottom. That is what they are for. and then rivet the seam. Use a glass or metal shade. but add 5 or 6 oz.. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. Line the furnace. If desired for use immediately. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. instead of close to it. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. do not shortcircuit. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. of blue stone. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells.diameter is 7 in. London. 2 in. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. The circuit should also have a high resistance. and the battery is ready for use. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. This is for blowing. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. says the Model Engineer. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. . The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. Short-circuit for three hours. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results.

Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. imparting to them a violet tinge. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. affects . --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. grip the stick firmly in one hand. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Enlarge the hole slightly. thus producing two different vibrations. and then. long. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. 2. Try it and see. At least it is amusing. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. 1. herein I describe a much better trick. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. but the thing would not move at all. as in the other movement. for others the opposite way. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make.9 of a volt. square and about 9 in. while for others it will not revolve at all. If any or your audience presume to dispute. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. oxygen to ozone. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. This type of battery will give about 0. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Ohio. If too low. To operate the trick. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Outside of the scientific side involved. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. g. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. changes white phosphorus to yellow. and therein is the trick. for some it will turn one way. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. or think they can do the same let them try it. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. porcelain and paper." which created much merriment. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. below the bottom of the zinc. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made.. the second finger along the side. Very few can make it turn both ways at will.

These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. and. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. earth. a short-focus lens. but not essential. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. a means for holding it vertical. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. however. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand .a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. To the front board is attached a box. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. and one of them is photomicrography. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. an old tripod screw. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. insects. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. if possible. but small flowers. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. says the Photographic Times.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. but this is less satisfactory. chemicals.

while it is not so with the quill. 8 ft. balloon. The following table will give the size. 5 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 905 57 lb.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. or 31 ft. Boston. long and 3 ft. which is 15 ft. Ft Lifting Power. AB. 381 24 lb. 10 ft 523 33 lb. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 7-1/2 in. and a line. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 1. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 11 ft. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments.--Contributed by George C. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 12 ft. or 3 ft. 65 4 lb. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Mass. 697 44 lb. If the balloon is 10 ft. 7-1/2 in. Cap. 6 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. CD. in Cu. in diameter. 179 11 lb. 5 in. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Divide one-quarter of the circle . We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. Madison. wide from which to cut a pattern. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 113 7 lb. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 9 ft. A line. Fig. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 268 17 lb. 7 ft.

on the curved line from B to C. The pattern is now cut. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. 4. of beeswax and boil well together. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. The cloth segments are sewed together. of the very best heavy body. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. Repeat this operation four times. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. making a double seam as shown in Fig. Procure 1 gal. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. using a fine needle and No. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. 3. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. keeping the marked part on the outside.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. 2. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. 70 thread. This test will show if the bag is airtight. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. cutting all four quarters at the same time. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. and so on.

In the barrel. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. 5 . place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water.ft. this should be repeated frequently. 150 gr. Fill the other barrel. A. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. by fixing. with 3/4in. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. of sulphuric acid. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. B. using a fine brush. of gas in one hour. . of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. or dusting with a dry brush. All FIG. B. When the clock has dried. ]. oil the spindle holes carefully. to the bag. should not enter into the water over 8 in. with water 2 in. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. C. About 15 lb. A. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. as shown in Fig. A. of iron borings and 125 lb. B. With a little care and patience and using some benzine.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. it is not fit to use. capacity and connect them. 1 lb. Vegetable oils should never be used. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. After washing a part. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. balloon are 125 lb. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. above the level of the water in barrel A. 1 lb. ft. until no more dirt is seen. The outlet. leaving the hand quite clean.Green Iron ammonium citrate . of water will make 4 cu. with the iron borings. pipe. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. The 3/4-in. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. Water 1 oz. which may sound rather absurd. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. or a fan. C. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. but if any grease remains on the hand. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. . of iron. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. a clean white rag. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. if it is good it will dry off. 5. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point..

may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Dry in the dark. dry atmosphere will give best results. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. of any make. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. The positive pole. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Printing is done in the sun. Port Melbourne. Dry the plates in the dark. This aerial collector can be made in . The miniature 16 cp. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Exposure. fix in hypo. 20 to 30 minutes. to avoid blackened skin. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry.. and keep in the dark until used.Water 1 oz. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. The negative pole. or zinc. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. A cold. or carbon. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. .000 ft. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. toning first if desired. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. at the time of employment. . JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. A longer exposure will be necessary. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. says the Moving Picture World. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. and a vigorous negative must be used. or battery.

To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. If the wave ceases. The storage cell. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. will soon become dry and useless. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. and have the other connected with another aerial line.various ways. long. lay a needle. as described below. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. when left exposed to the air. the resistance is less. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. This will complete the receiving station. both positive and negative. holes . How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. If the waves strike across the needle. and as less current will flow the short way. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. As the telephone offers a high resistance. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. forming a cup of the pipe. 5 in. a positive and a negative. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. making a ground with one wire. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. in diameter. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. lead pipe. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water.

one to the positive. or tube C. When mixing the acid and water. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. by soldering the joint. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. a round one. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . except for about 1 in. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. Two binding-posts should be attached.as possible. does not need to be watertight. D. namely: a square hole. an oblong one and a triangular one. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. of course. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. on each end. The other plate is connected to the zinc. This. or tube B. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. and the other to the negative. B. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. This support or block. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. says the Pathfinder. This box can be square.

is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. . 1. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. 2. thick cut two pieces alike. and has plenty of good seating capacity. back and under. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. C. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. deep and 4 ft. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. Only galvanized nails should be used. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. were fitted by this one plug. is built 15 ft. wide. long. and match them together. in place on the wood. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. 1. as shown in Fig. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. C. as shown in Fig. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. wide. This punt. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. A and B. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. as it is not readily overturned. leaving about 1/16 in. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. Ill. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. Chicago. about 20 in. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. The third piece of brass. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. all around the edge. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. 3. 2.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig.

The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Tacoma. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. A. Wash. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. B. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. thick and 3-1/2 in. is cut 1 in. In Fig. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. gas pipe. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. square (Fig 2). A piece of 1/4-in.

The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. Wagner. says the Model Engineer. no more current than a 16-cp. may be of interest to some of our readers. it had to be borne in mind that. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. The winding of the armature. which can be developed in the usual manner. which the writer has made. and to consume. if possible. H. or "rotor. In designing. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night.--Contributed by Charles H. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. with the exception of insulated wire. lamp. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of ." has no connection with the outside circuit. no special materials could be obtained. without auxiliary phase. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning.

in diameter were drilled in the corners. holes. and all sparking is avoided. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. 4. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. They are not particularly accurate as it is. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. 1. while the beginnings . bolts put in and tightened up. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. and filled with rivets. B. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. as shown in Fig. After assembling a second time. Unfortunately. wrought iron. to be filed out after they are placed together. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. no steel being obtainable. C. 2. 3. Holes 5-32 in. The stator is wound full with No. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. 5. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. or "stator. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. this little machine is not self-starting. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. also varnished before they were put in. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. about 2-1/2 lb. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe.the field-magnet. being used. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. with the dotted line. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. A. were then drilled and 1/4-in. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. thick.

but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. The rotor is wound with No. as before stated. No starting resistance is needed.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. Jr. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. if applied immediately. McKinney. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. it would be very simple to build. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. and as the motor runs at constant speed. having no commutator or brushes. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. as a means of illustrating songs. Newark. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. and as each layer of wire was wound. and especially of colored ones. If too late for alcohol to be of use. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. film to film. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. and all wound in the same direction. as shown in Fig. and would not easily get out of order. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. The lantern slide is a glass plate. 2. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. N. E.. The image should . This type of motor has drawbacks. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. J. 1. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. One is by contact. and the other by reduction in the camera. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. 3-Contributed by C. a regulating resistance is not needed. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. In making slides by contact. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high.

except that the binding is different. the formulas being found in each package of plates. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. to use a plain fixing bath. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. 3. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. B. and development should be over in three or four minutes. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. a little extra work will be necessary. they are much used by travelers. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. A. Draw lines with a pencil. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . and then a plain glass. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. also. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. It is best. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. Fig. 1. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. D. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. 4.appear in. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. over the mat. These can be purchased from any photo material store. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. Select a room with one window. Being unbreakable. as shown in Fig. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. If the exposure has been correct. C. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. 5. 2. about a minute. as shown in Fig. if possible.

The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. 16 in. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. or other stout cloth. in diameter and 20 in. These longer pieces can be made square. from the end piece of the chair. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. Fig. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Fig. from the center of this dot draw a star. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. in diameter and 40 in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. as shown at B. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. If the star is in front of the left eye. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. Corinth. wide and 50 in. long. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. as shown at A.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. Vt. long. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. 2. 1. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. holes bored in the end pieces. while the dot will be in front of the other. long. 1. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. as shown in Fig. Hastings. known as rods and cones. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. from the ends. A piece of canvas. is to be used for the seat.

A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. A belt. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. O'Gara. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. made from an ordinary sash cord. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. as well as to operate other household machines. Auburn. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. . Cal. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. 1. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. in thickness and 10 in. per square inch. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. J. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. A disk 1 in. as shown in Fig.-Contributed by P. 2. as shown in Fig.

and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. or inconvenient to measure. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. The part of a rotation of the bolt. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. Cut out a piece from the block combination. it serves a very useful purpose. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. to the top of the bench. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. then removing the object. long. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. fairly accurate. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. Put the bolt in the hole. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. . will be the thickness of the object. 3/4 in. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. screwing it through the nut. divided by the number of threads to the inch. wide. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and the construction is complete. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. direction. A simple. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. leaving it shaped like a bench. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. square for a support. says the Scientific American. with as fine a thread as possible. Bore a 1/4-in. thick and 2-1/2 in. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in.

yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. long. Santa Maria. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. bolt in each hole. piece of wood 12 ft. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. which show up fine at night. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. material 12 ft. Place a 3/4-in. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. The wheel should be open . This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Bore a 3/4-in. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. beyond the end of the wood. long is used for the center pole. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Oal. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. globe that has been thrown away as useless. from the end that is to be used for the bottom.

A piece of brass 2 in. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. wide and 1/8 in. B.-Contributed by A. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. The spool . thick. from the top end. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. wide and 1/8 in. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. Graham. of the ends with boards. at the top and 4 in. pieces used for the spokes. P. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. A. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. at the bottom. from the ends. Tex. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. A cross bar. The boards may be nailed or bolted. C. and the lower part 61/2 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. long. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. which should be 1/4 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. H and J. made of the same material. The coil. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. thick. long. in diameter. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. C. to be operated by the magnet coil. square and 3 or 4 in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. is soldered. L. long.Side and Top View or have spokes. and on its lower end a socket. 1/2 in. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. thick is used for the armature. Fort Worth. O. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. long. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft.

which is also connected to the brass ferrule. 1. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. F. . A soft piece of iron. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. This tie can be used on grain sacks. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. At the bottom end of the frame. do it without any apparent effort. B.000. Mass. long. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig.E. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. 2. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. one without either rubber or metal end. Bradlev. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. 2 the hat hanging on it. S. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. which may be had by using German silver wire. or a water rheostat heretofore described.000 for irrigation work. A.is about 2-1/2 in.J. This is a very neat trick if performed right. R. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. and directly centering the holes H and J.--A. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. is drilled. The armature. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. When you slide the pencil along the casing. for insulating the brass ferrule. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. Randolph. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. S. and place it against a door or window casing. then with a firm. --Contributed by Arthur D. D and E. and in numerous other like instances. that holds the lower carbon. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. C. by soldering. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it.

Experiment with Heat [134] . The switch. A. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The vibrator. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. in diameter and 1/16 in. Fig. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. and then 1. from the core and directly opposite. may be made from a 3/8-in. mixed with water to form a paste. D. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. wide. S. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. in diameter and 2 in. with a 3/16-in. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. F. for the primary. The vibrator B. S. about 3/16 in. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. 1. is connected to a flash lamp battery. 1. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. hole in the center. Fig. The core of the coil. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. in diameter. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. long. for adjustment. about 1 in. long and 1 in. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. B. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil.500 turns of No. The coil ends are made from cardboard. thick.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. is constructed in the usual manner. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. in diameter. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. 2. leaving the projections as shown. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. C. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. about 1/8 in. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. for the secondary. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. About 70 turns of No. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket.

The hasp. it laps down about 8 in. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. lighted. The three screws were then put in the hasp. as shown in the sketch. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. The tin is 4 in. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. long and when placed over the board. 1. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. The lock. and the same distance inside of the new board. brass plate. board. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. which is cut with two holes. between the boards. as shown. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water.Place a small piece of paper. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. wide. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. 1. and then well clinched. . 2 to fit the two holes. The knob on the dial extends out too far. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. with which to operate the dial. 16 in. in an ordinary water glass. was to be secured by only three brass screws. which seemed to be insufficient. which is only 3/8-in. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. thick on the inside. Fig. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling.

The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. black color. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. the glass. square and 8-1/2 in. which completely divides the box into two parts. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. and the back left dark. When making of wood. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. If the box is made large enough.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. any article placed therein will be reflected in. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. not shiny. but when the front part is illuminated. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. clear glass as shown. high for use in window displays. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. square and 10-1/2 in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. or in the larger size mentioned. When the rear part is illuminated. one in each division.

This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. When using as a window display. wide will be about the right size. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. as it appears. as shown in the sketch. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. into the other. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. and with the proper illumination one is changed.. alternately.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. When there is no electric current available. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. long and 1 ft. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. above the top of the tank. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. a tank 2 ft. as shown at A in the sketch. . Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

O. then use a red-hot iron to finish. hole. high. long. bit. and boring two holes with a 1-in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. square and 40 in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. The pieces can then be taken out. and a door in front. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. wide. Three windows are provided. 5 ft. A small platform. If a planing mill is near. This precipitate is then washed. and a solution of iron sulphate added.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. under sides together. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. and 6 ft. one for each side. lines gauged on each side of each. long. Iron sulphate. bore from each end. The 13-in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. or ferrous sulphate. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. Shape the under sides first. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. wide. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. with a length of 13 in. thick and 3 in. 6 in. radius. each. 1 in. square. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. as shown. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. Columbus. is the green vitriol. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. using a 3/4-in. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. This hole must be continued . piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. but with a length of 12 in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. 2 ft. dried and mixed with linseed oil. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. gauge for depth. however. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. is built on the front. from the ground. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. hole bored the full length through the center. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces.

Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Electric globes--two. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. hole in each block. three or four may be attached as shown. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. square and drawing a diagonal on each. thick and 3 in. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. For art-glass the metal panels are . A better way. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. Directions will be found on the filler cans. apply two coats of wax. When the filler has hardened. Saw the two blocks apart. When this is dry. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in.through the pieces forming the base. if shade is purchased. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. If the parts are to be riveted. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain.

Construction of Shade . Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. such as copper. METAL SHADE .The Completed Lamp cut out. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. as brass.

and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. and Fig. Figure 1 shows the side. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The arms holding the glass. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. 2 the front view of this stand. as shown in the sketch. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. as in ordinary devices. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. the object and the background. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. the other. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. one way and 1/2 in.

prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. uncork and recork again. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. wide and 11 in. If the light becomes dim. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. wide and 6-5/16 in. as it is very poisonous. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. and swinging freely. Put the ring in place on the base. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. thick 5/8-in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. pointing north and south. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. about 1-1/4 in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. in diameter for a base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. and an inside diameter of 9 in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. thus forming a 1/4-in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. channel in the circumference of the ring. long. Cut another circular piece 11 in. as shown in the sketch. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. outside diameter. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. as shown in the cut. Before mounting the ring on the base. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. in diameter. An ordinary pocket compass. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac.

AA. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. Corresponding mirrors. black oxide of copper. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. are mounted on a base. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. from the second to the third. in diameter and 8 in. EE. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders.289 .420 . The results given should be multiplied by 1.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.715 . are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. and north of the Ohio river. Place on top the so- . and mirrors. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. 1 oz. above the half can. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. CC.600 .865 1. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. into these cylinders. B. of the top.500 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.182 .088 . Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.

little crystals forming in the liquid. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. then they will not rust fast. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. When renewing. says Metal Worker. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. alcohol. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. which otherwise remains clear. Colo. Put the solution in a long. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. of pulverized campor. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. slender bottle. University Park. In Fig. always remove the oil with a siphon. the wheel will revolve in one direction. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . This device makes an attractive advertising sign. 31 gr. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. 62 gr. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. It makes no difference which way the wind blows.

the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. Lloyd Enos. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. floating on a solution. A paper-fastener box. If two of them are floating on the same solution. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. If zinc and copper are used. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. This is used in place of the spoon. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. on the under side of the cork. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. about 1-1/4 in. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. --Contributed by C. Solder in the side of the box . Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. Attach to the wires. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. If zinc and carbon are used. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. will allow the magnet to point north and south.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet.

Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. Rhamstine. Put ends. as shown in Fig. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. D. Bore holes for binding-posts. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. E. To this standard solder the supporting wire. and on the other around the glass tube. D. 1. The base. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. wide and 6 in. away. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. stained and varnished. Take a small piece of soft iron. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire.Contributed by J.1-in. hole. can be made of oak.in. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. If the hose is not a tight fit. G--No. 10 wire about 10 in. B. Wind evenly about 2 oz. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. long. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. piece of 1/4-in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine.not shorter than 18 in. C. C. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. Use a board 1/2. H. C. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. D. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. thick. The spring should be about 1 in. A. long that has about 1/4-in. The standard. one on each side of the board. glass tubing . The bottom of the box. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. 1/2. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft.in. to it. long. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. E. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. and then solder on the cover. A. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. A circular piece of cardboard. 1-1/4 in. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. Thos. 14 wire will do. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. is made from a piece of No. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. F. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. or made with a little black paint. of No. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. wide and 2-1/2 in. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . long for the base and fasten the coil to it. . 3 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. of wire on each end extending from the coil. B. brass tubing.

Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. of No. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. two pieces 2 ft. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. J. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. E. Cuba. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. long. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. is drawn nearer to the coil. 3 in. about 1 in. D. of 8-oz. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. long. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig.of the coil. canvas. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. Wis. in diameter. N.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. About 1-1/2 lb. . long. 3-in. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. long are used for the legs. When the glass becomes soft. Y. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. making a support as shown in Fig. from the right hand. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. 3. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. 1. Teasdale. of mercury will be sufficient. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. Milwaukee. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in.--Contributed by R. long. four hinges. long. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Smith. 5. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. The iron plunger. 2.--Contributed by Edward M. as shown in Fig. square of which two pieces are 6 ft.

6. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. Take 1/2 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. Keys. leaving 8 in. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. The tube now must be filled completely. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. expelling all the air. --Contributed by David A. Can. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. long. 4. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. Measure 8 in. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. holding in the left hand. small aperture in the long tube. Break off the piece of glass. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. 2. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig.. thus leaving a. 3. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. 5. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. This tube as described will be 8 in. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. Toronto. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. of vacuum at the top. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube.. Fig.

The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. in diameter. A crosspiece 3/4-in. wood screws. as in Fig. thick. thick. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. from the end of same. as shown in Fig. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. long. 6. The large pulley is about 14 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. Four blocks 1/4 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. 1 in. wide and 3 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. as shown in Fig. 1 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. wide and 5 ft. thick. Fig. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. and 1/4 in. wide and 5 ft. and the single projection 3/4 in. FIG. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. thick. This forms a slot. 9 in. but yellow pine is the best. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. 4 in. with each projection 3-in. 3 in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. joint be accurately put together. 2. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. material 2 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. long. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. 1. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in.6 -. wide and 5 ft. cut in the shape shown in Fig. thick. These are bent and nailed. long. 3.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. long. 4. wide and 12 in. 5.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. 7. 3 in.

Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. by 1-in. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. above the runner level. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Kan. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. . The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. says Photography. Welsh. attach runners and use it on the ice. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. first removing the crank. R. --Contributed by C. Manhattan. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Water 1 oz.

After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. from an ordinary clamp skate. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. as shown in Fig. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. also. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. . 1. --Contributed by Edward M. Printing is carried rather far. 3. of water. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. Newton. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. The print is washed. Mass. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. as shown in Fig. 2.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Treasdale. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Leominster. --Contributed by Wallace C. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. 1 oz. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. and very much cheaper.

wide. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. from one end.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. as shown in the sketch. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. Take two glass tubes. square piece. fasten a 2-in. and bend them as shown in the sketch. Place a 10-in. causing the door to swing back and up. Then. 1 ft. with about 1/8-in. and 3 ft. 1. extending the width of the box. say. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. Alexandria. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. hole. high. Fig. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. long. which represents the back side of the door. too. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. The swing door B. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Va. F. --Contributed by H. Church. wide and 4 in. high for rabbits. Fig. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. A. about 10 in. and to the bottom. The thread is broken off at the . 1. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. 1-1/2 ft. 2.

and go in the holder in the same way. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. D. Cut an opening in the other piece. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. long. says Camera Craft. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. 10 in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. to be used as a driving pulley. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. wide. Out two rectangular holes. -Contributed by William M. Crilly. horses and dogs. Chicago. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. but cut it 1/4 in. Fig. Take two pieces of pasteboard. wide. 2. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. 3. A and B. Fig.by 5-in. shorter. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. 1. as shown in Fig. . over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. being 1/8 in. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. C.proper place to make a small hole. B. trolley cars. Paste a piece of strong black paper. and exactly 5 by 7 in. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. shorter at each end. black surfaced if possible. camera and wish to use some 4. automobiles. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. long.by 7-in. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. This opening. say 8 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. plates. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. in size. inside of the opening. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. in size.. Jr. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. 1 in. high and 12 in. wide and 5 in.

" The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. making a . in diameter. The needle will then point north and south. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water.in. if it has previously been magnetized. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. A cell of this kind can easily be made. wide will be required. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. long and 6 in. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. into which the dog is harnessed. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile..

with narrow flanges. Pack the paste in. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb.watertight receptacle. under the spool in the paraffin. beeswax melted together. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. short time. of the plate at one end. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. one that will hold about 1 qt. and a notch between the base and the pan. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. filter. fuel and packing purposes. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. of the top. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. 1 lb. only the joints. Do not paint any surface. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. zinc oxide.in. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. pull out the wire as needed. Place the pan on the stove. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. This makes the wire smooth. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. when the paraffin is melted. leaving about 1/2-in. F is a spool. long which are copper plated. pine. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. plaster of paris. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. in which P is the pan. of rosin and 2 oz. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. for a connection. in diameter and 6 in. 3/4 lb. File the rods to remove the copper plate. says Electrician and Mechanic. B is a base of 1 in. 1/4 lb. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. Form a 1/2-in. . A is a block of l-in. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. fodder. of water. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. sal ammoniac. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in.

for some it will turn one way. square and about 9 in. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. g. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. At least it is amusing. 2. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. and then. Enlarge the hole slightly. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement.. Ohio. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. grip the stick firmly in one hand. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. but the thing would not move at all. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. long. Toledo. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and one friend tells me that they were . By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. or think they can do the same. by the Hindoos in India. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. as in the other movement. and therein is the trick. from vexation. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and he finally. If any of your audience presume to dispute. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. thus producing two different vibrations. let them try it. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge." which created much merriment. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. while for others it will not revolve at all. for others the opposite way. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Try it and see.

but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. If the pressure was upon an edge. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. gave the best results. 5. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. p. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. no rotation resulted. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. Speeds between 700 and 1. and I think the results may be of interest. 3. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. rotation was obtained. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. The experiments were as follows: 1. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. Thus a circular or . The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. A square stick with notches on edge is best. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. 6. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. by means of a center punch. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. m. 2. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. To operate. the rotation may be obtained. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. 4. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face.100 r. secondly. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. 7. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. and. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin.

and the height of the fall about 6 in. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. if the pressure is from the left. and the resultant "basket splash. or greasy. forming a handle for carrying. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. Ph. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. . and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. is driven violently away. it will be clockwise. Duluth. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. the upper portion is. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. so far as can be seen from the photographs.. A wire is tied around the can. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. at first. a piece of wire and a candle.." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. --Contributed by M. C. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Minn. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. G.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Lloyd. unwetted by the liquid. D. A. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. Washington. --Contributed by G. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown.D. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Sloan. as shown.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

Each wheel is 1/4 in. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. flange and a 1/4-in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. long. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy .How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. as shown in Fig. 1. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. hole drilled in the center. about 2-5/8 in. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. axle. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. as shown. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. thick and 1 in. with a 1/16-in. in diameter.

In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. long. are shown in Fig. 3/4 in.50. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. Fig. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. 3. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. This will save buying a track. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. A trolley. The motor is now bolted. which must be 110 volt alternating current. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. These ends are fastened together. Fig. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. The current. lamp in series with the coil. holes 1 in. 2. --Contributed by Maurice E. is made from brass. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. 6. or main part of the frame. 1 from 1/4-in. San Antonio. put together complete. 3. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. as shown in Fig. 5. 4. Texas. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. wide and 16 in. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. If the ends are to be soldered. with cardboard 3 in. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. Fuller. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. 2. wood. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. The first piece. is made from a piece of clock spring. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. bent as shown. each in its proper place. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. bottom side up. and the locomotive is ready for running. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. as shown in Fig. of No.brass. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. The parts. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit.

Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. 2. Fig 1. and as this end . Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. the length of a paper clip. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. then continue to tighten much more. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Fig. Cincinnati. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. O. as shown in Fig. and holes drilled in them. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. but do not heat the center. as shown in Fig. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. 1. 3. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. The quarter will not go all the way down. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a.

One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. or should the lathe head be raised. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. In the sketch. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. When the trick is to be performed. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. has finished a cut for a tooth. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. 2 and 1 respectively. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. A pair of centers are fitted. When the cutter A. or apparent security of the knot. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. and adjusted . Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line.

) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. above the surface. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. Fig. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. swing lathe. dividing it into as many parts as desired. if four parts are to be alike. lady's belt bag. An ordinary machine will do. Brooklyn. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. tea cosey. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. (1. or one-half of the design. --Contributed by Samuel C. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. --Contributed by Howard S. holding it in place with the left hand. blotter back. The frame holding the mandrel. (4. about 1-1/2 in. (2. such as brass or marble. Bott. 1. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. trace the outline.) Place the paper design on the leather and. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Fold over along these center lines. book mark. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. lady's card case. N. tea cosey. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick .) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. long. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. (3. at the same time striking light. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. In this manner gears 3 in. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks).) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. if but two parts.) Make on paper the design wanted. Y. Bunker. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. coin purse. note book. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). (5. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. gentleman's card case or bill book. When connecting to batteries.to run true. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. Second row: -Two book marks. (6. 2. twisted around itself and soldered. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. watch fob ready for fastenings. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. and a nut pick. draw center lines across the required space.

some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. Secure .

and push it through a cork. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. from Key West. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. Florida. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube.. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. C. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. and bore a hole through the center. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. A. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. a distance of 900 miles. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches.C. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. D. Thrust a pin. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. where it condenses. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. into which fit a small piece of tube. B.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. If the needle is not horizontal. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The electrodes are made . Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington.

by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. The operator can then land safely and . The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. long. slacken speed and settle. 3/4 in. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. wide and 4 ft. long. square and 8 ft long. which is tacked to the front edge. by 3/4 in. wide and 20 ft. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. D. All wiring is done with No. 1. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. long. using a high resistance receiver. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. 2. If 20-ft. Four long beams 3/4 in.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. 1. wide and 4 ft. long. lumber cannot be procured. thick. long for the body of the operator. To make a glide. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. both laterally and longitudinally. wide and 3 ft. 1. --Contributed by Edwin L. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. 1-1/2 in. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. thick. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. as shown in Fig. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. thick. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. 16 piano wire. thick. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. lengths and splice them. 1/2. 3. thick. take the glider to the top of a hill. 1-1/4 in. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. Powell. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. as shown in Fig. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. wide and 3 ft. several strips 1/2 in. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. or flying-machine. long. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position.in. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. use 10-ft. 12 uprights 1/2 in. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. C. apart and extend 1 ft. and also to keep it steady in its flight. Connect as shown in the illustration. 2. as shown in Fig. 2 in. Washington. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. 2 arm sticks 1 in. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. wide and 4 ft long. free from knots.

and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Glides are always made against the wind. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. but this must be found by experience. Of course. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly.gently on his feet. Great care should be . Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes.

When heated a little. a creature of Greek mythology. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur.exercised in making landings. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. M. 2. Bellingham. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. as shown in Fig. which causes the dip in the line. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. half man and half horse. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. 1. Olson. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. --Contributed by L.

To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. at the other. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. long. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. in diameter. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. square. outside the box. 14 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. about the size of door screen wire. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. making it 2-1/2 in. The light from the . When through with the lamp place the cover over it. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. about the size of stove pipe wire. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. this will cost about 15 cents. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. long and about 3/8 in. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. of small rubber tubing. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. a piece of brass or steel wire. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. will complete the material list. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus.

2. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. M. Dayton. as shown in Fig. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. If done properly the card will flyaway. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. . With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. O. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. 1. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. Hunting. while others will fail time after time. --Photo by M.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. This is very simple when you know how.

and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. as described. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen." or the Chinese students' favorite game. as shown. This game is played by five persons. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. When the desired shape has been obtained. Cool in water and dry. closing both hands quickly. place the other two. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. then put it on the hatpin head. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. hold the lump over the flame. as before.

and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. or more in width. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. these sectors. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. distribute electric charges . Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. passing through neutralizing brushes. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in.

long. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. D. Fig. The collectors are made. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. 1 in. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. Fig. the side pieces being 24 in. or teeth. 1. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. and of a uniform thickness. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. turned wood pieces. Two pieces of 1-in. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. 3. in diameter. wide at one end. long and the shank 4 in. The two pieces. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. after they are mounted. RR. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. wide. long and the standards 3 in. material 7 in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. as shown in Fig. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. from about 1/4-in. and pins inserted and soldered. 4. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. GG. 2. and 4 in. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. 1-1/2 in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. 3/4 in. are made from solid. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. in diameter and 15 in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. to which insulating handles . long. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. The plates. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. in diameter. free from wrinkles. The fork part is 6 in. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. in diameter. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. Two solid glass rods. in diameter. C C. The plates are trued up. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. and the outer end 11/2 in. in diameter. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. 3.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. The drive wheels. EE. in diameter. These pins. at the other. as shown in Fig. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. are made from 7/8-in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in.

The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. ball and the other one 3/4 in. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results.. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. one having a 2-in. and the work was done by themselves. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. which are bent as shown. Lloyd Enos. D. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. 12 ft. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. --Contributed by C. wide and 22 ft. KK. Colo. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Colorado City. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence.are attached. in diameter. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. long.

using a 1-in. deep.is a good one. bit. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. string together. They can be used to keep pins and needles. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. The key will drop from the string. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. as at A. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. pens . Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. yet such a thing can be done. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. and bore a hole 1/2 in. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork.

With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. two spikes. This is to make a clean. etc. They are easily made. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in.. file. above the work and striking it with the hammer. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 2. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. they make attractive little pieces to have about. inside the first on all. then the other side. or cigar ashes. 7. 5. Inside this oblong. Use . By holding the nail about 1/4 in. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Having determined the size of the tray. Proceed as follows: 1. When the stamping is completed. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. stamp the background promiscuously. extra metal on each of the four sides. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. 4. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. slim screw. 9. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. Draw one-half the design free hand. above the metal. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. very rapid progress can be made. 23 gauge. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. and the third one 1/4 in. also trace the decorative design. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings.. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. The second oblong was 3/4 in. about 3/4-in. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. flat and round-nosed pliers. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. Raise the ends. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. unless it would be the metal shears. etc. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in.and pencils. using a nail filed to chisel edge. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. 8. 3. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. inside the second on all. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. sharp division between background and design. 6.

10. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. and the effect will be most pleasing. 7. third fingers. 8. second fingers. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. first fingers. In the first numbering. 9. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. The eyes. 6. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. and fourth fingers. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color.

which would be 16. first fingers.. renumber your fingers. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. if we wish. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. there are no fingers above. 2 times 2 equals 4. viz. above 15 times 15 it is 200. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. Still.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. 25 times 25. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. thumbs. or 60. 11. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. or 80. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. At a glance you see four tens or 40. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. as high as you want to go. Put your thumbs together. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. 12. or numbers above 10. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired.. 400. Let us multiply 12 by 12. which would be 70. . and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. etc. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. or the product of 8 times 9. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. etc. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. the product of 12 times 12. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Two times one are two. above 20 times 20. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. which tens are added. or the product of 6 times 6. and the six lower fingers as six tens.. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. etc. 600. In the second numbering.

and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. about a vertical axis. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. For example. The inversion and reversion did not take place. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. beginning the thumbs with 16. Take For example 18 times 18. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. further. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. twenties.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. 3. etc. 2. . This system can be carried as high as you want to go. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked.. or from above or from below. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. when he removes his spectacles. and so on. For figures ending in 6. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. being 80). any two figures between 45 and 55. the lump sum to add. and. in the case of a nearsighted person. however. 75 and 85. at the will of the observer. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. not rotation. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. lastly. whether the one described in second or third numbering. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. first fingers 22. the inversion takes place against his will. or what. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. 7. thumbs. the revolution seems to reverse. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. the value of the upper fingers being 20. 21. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. And the lump sum to add. 8. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. It takes place also. forties. thirties. Proceed as in the second lumbering. which is the half-way point between the two fives. as one might suppose. adding 400 instead of 100. the value which the upper fingers have. first finger 17.

when he knows which direction is right. The ports were not easy to make. as . The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. Looking at it in semidarkness. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. A flat slide valve was used. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. and putting a cork on the point. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. sometimes the point towards him. tee. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. the other appearance asserts itself.

With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. Fasten the block solidly. secure a piece of No. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. saw off a section of a broom handle. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. as in a vise. While this engine does not give much power. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. if continued too long without proper treatment. -Contributed by W. pipe. about 2 in. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. deep. H. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. bottom side up. and make in one end a hollow. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. in diameter. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. pipe 10 in. Springfield. it is easily built. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. Beating copper tends to harden it and. Kutscher. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. Next take a block of wood. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. . The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. If nothing better is at hand. inexpensive. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. across the head. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. The tools are simple and can be made easily. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. The eccentric is constructed of washers. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. The steam chest is round. Ill.. across and 1/2 in. such as is shown in the illustration. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. apart.

sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. --Contributed by W. and. Vinegar. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. as it softens the metal. O. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. To overcome this hardness. To produce color effects on copper. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. Hay. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. the other to the left. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. especially when the object is near to the observer. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. This process is called annealing. S.will cause the metal to break. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . Camden. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. C.

the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. and without any picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. because. The further apart the pictures are. while both eyes together see a white background. would serve the same purpose. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. in the proper choice of colors. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. But they seem black. So with the stereograph. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. The red portions of the picture are not seen. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. that for the right." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. although they pass through the screen. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. . The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. and lies to the right on the picture. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. In order to make them appear before the card. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. disappears fully. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one.stereoscope. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. from the stereograph. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. however. not two mounted side by side. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. the one for the left eye being blue. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. with the stereograph. diameter. because of the rays coming from them. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. only the orange rays may pass through. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. the left eye sees through a blue screen. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. they must be a very trifle apart. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. orange. the further from the card will the composite image appear. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. as for instance red and green. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. it. It is just as though they were not there.

Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. or the middle of the bottle. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. thick. Cal. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. long and a hole drilled in each end. in diameter. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The weight of the air in round . The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. Place a NO. 1/4 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. San Francisco. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. etc. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. 12 gauge wire. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. wireless. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. A No. wide and 1 in. This should only be bored about half way through the block. in the shape of a crank.

But if a standard barometer is not available. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. Before fastening the scale. high. wide and 4 in. The 4 in. internal diameter and about 34 in.numbers is 15 lb. and a slow fall. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. if accurately constructed. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. pine 3 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather.. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. . When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. inside diameter and 2 in. thick. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. Only redistilled mercury should be used. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. will calibrate itself. In general. a glass tube 1/8 in. or. long. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. long. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. high. a bottle 1 in. 30 in. high. if you choose. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. square. but before attempting to put in the mercury. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. the contrary. the instrument. long. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. 34 ft. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow.6) 1 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. square. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. wide and 40 in. or a column of mercury (density 13.

wide and 10 in. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. 6 and 7. Procure a metal can cover. 2. long. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. Mark out seven 1-in. Number the pieces 1. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. the size of the outside of the bottle. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. 5. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 3. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . and place them as shown in Fig. a cover from a baking powder can will do. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. thick. 1. which is slipped quickly over the end.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle.

while paint requires recovering three or four times a year.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 6. Move 10-Move No. Cape May Point. each 10 ft. 5's place. 3 over No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 5's place. 1 into No. 2 over No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 6 into No. procure unbleached tent duck. 1. Move 2-Jump No. 7 over No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 3. 6. 2 . but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 7-Jump No. Move 6-Move No. 1. Make 22 sections. using checkers for men. 3 to the center. 6 to No. 2 over No. 5 over No. 7's place. l over No. 7 over No. 5. Move 15-Move No. To make such a tent. 3. 5 over No. Move 5-Jump No. shaped like Fig.-Contributed by W. in diameter. 3. 6 over No. Move 12-Jump No. Woolson. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 2. Move 14-Jump No.J. 7. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. This can be done on a checker board. 2's place. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 4-Jump No. Move 3-Move No. 6 in. which is the very best material for the purpose. 2's place. 3 into No. long and 2 ft. Move 8-Jump No. Move 9-Jump No. as shown in Fig. Move ll-Jump No. N. 1 to No. Move 13-Move No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 2. L.

leaving the rest for an opening. Tress. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. wide by 12 in. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. --Contributed by G. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. high. fill with canvas edging. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip.J. Have the tent pole 3 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Emsworth. 3 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. made in two sections. in diameter. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. long and 4 in. diameter. as in Fig.. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. round galvanized iron. 2 in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. 5. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. 2. long. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Punch holes in the brass in . the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. 5) stuck in the ground. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. about 9 in. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Use blocks. added. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. These are ventilators. 9 by 12 in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. In raising the tent. from the top. As shown in the sketch. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. 6. After transferring the design to the brass. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. wide at the bottom. to a smooth board of soft wood. Pa. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. 6-in. wide at the bottom. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Fig. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas.in. will do. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Fig. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent.

It will not. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. around the outside of the pattern. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. Chicago. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. When the edges are brought together by bending. apart. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. excepting the 1/4-in. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. bend into shape. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. cut out the brass on the outside lines. . The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. but before punching the holes. Corr. The pattern is traced as before. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. When all the holes are punched. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better.the spaces around the outlined figures.

the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. If a wheel is selected. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. Oregon.. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. E. Mayger. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. pipe is used for the hub. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. G. Que. Stevens. A 6-in. --Contributed by Geo. pipe. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. partially filled with cream. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Badger. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Dunham. These pipes are . but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. or center on which the frame swings. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft.however. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. or. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. between which is placed the fruit jar. A cast-iron ring. allowing 2 ft. or less. better still. --Contributed by H.

Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. An extra wheel 18 in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe. pipe clamps.

then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. while doing this. as shown in Fig. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. and the guide withdrawn. The performer. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. 3. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. 1. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. which was placed in an upright position. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . and dropped on the table. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes.

--Contributed by H. in diameter on another piece of tin. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Louis. Mo. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. F.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. it requires no expensive condensing lens. Colo. The box can be made of selected oak or . White. Denver. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. D. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. first. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. in a half circle. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. and second. 2. 1. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. -Contributed by C. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. St. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Harkins. These leaves can be made up in regular book form.

Two strips of wood 1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. from each end. AA. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. 2. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. 5-1/2 in. high and 11 in. fit into the runners. represented by the dotted line in Fig. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. 1. high and must . The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. focal length. but not tight. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. and 2 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. 3-1/2 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. wide by 5 in. An open space 4 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. long. The door covering this hole in the back. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. as shown in Fig. Two or three holes about 1 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. This will be 3/4 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. long. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. and. wide and 5 in.mahogany. long and should be placed vertically. If a camera lens is used. wide. from each end of the outside of the box. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light.

West Toledo. --Contributed by Chas. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. provided it is airtight. calling that knuckle January. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. April. 1. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. then the second knuckle will be March. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. calling this February." etc. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September.. the article may be propped up . Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. Bradley. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. as it requires an airtight case. Ohio. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. June and November. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. This process is rather a difficult one. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. and extending the whole height of the lantern. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. and so on. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. C.

The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. Crawford. Pour in a little turpentine. taking care to have all the edges closed. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. running small motors and lighting small lamps. the lid or cover closed. 2. giving it an occasional stir. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The top of a table will do. N. but waxed. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. --Contributed by J. . In each place two electrodes. In both Fig. Schenectady. fruit jars are required. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. in.with small sticks. and set aside for half a day. 1. Y. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. in. and the lead 24 sq. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. H. one of lead and one of aluminum. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. 1 and 2. or suspended by a string. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes.

Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. as well as others. which you warm with your hands. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. as you have held it all the time. After a few seconds' time. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. he throws the other. you remove the glass. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. This trick is very simple. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Cleveland. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. O. You have an understanding with some one in the company.. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. He.

it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. in diameter in the center. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out.-Contributed by E. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Colo. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Pull the ends quickly. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. near a partition or curtain. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Crocker. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. . and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. on a table. but in making one. put it under the glass. but by being careful at shores. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. if any snags are encountered. Be sure that this is the right one. J.take the handiest one. Victor.

7 ft. wide and 12 ft. as illustrated in the engraving. by 12 in. and is removed after the ribs are in place. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. of 1-1/2-yd. from each end to 1 in. long. wide unbleached muslin. from the bow and the large one. 14 rib bands. 2 and braced with an iron band. by 15 ft. by 16 ft. 1. by 2 in. wide 12-oz. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. long. 3 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. for the bow. wide and 12 ft. The keelson. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. 9 ft. thick and 3/4 in. for center deck braces. are as follows: 1 keelson. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. and. by 2 in. 8 in. is 14 ft. 1 in. 3 in. by 16 ft. 8 yd. 1/4 in. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 1 in. 2 gunwales. at the ends. of 1-yd. apart. selected pine. by 10 ft. Paint. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 11 yd. the smaller is placed 3 ft. for the stern piece. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. one 6 in. and fastened with screws. for cockpit frame. 1 piece. long. by 8 in.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 4 outwales. 1 in. ducking. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. Two forms are made as shown in Figs.. 2 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. Both ends are mortised. 50 ft. wide. 1 mast. Fig. of rope. 1 piece. square by 16 ft. drilled and fastened with screws. long.. and the other 12 in. from the stern. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. clear pine. screws and cleats. 1 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 1/8 in. 3 and 4. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces.

The trimming is wood. is a cube having sides 6 in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. wide. corner braces. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. 1 in. gunwales and keelson. 1 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. length of canvas is cut in the center. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. from the bow. and fastened to them with bolts. Fig. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. A block of pine. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. thick. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. doubled. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. thick 1-1/2 in. Figs. 7 and 8. wide. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. The 11-yd. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. wide and 24 in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. 6 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. A seam should be made along the center piece. Fig. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. 9. long. The deck is not so hard to do. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. 3-1/2 ft. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. These are put in 6 in. Before making the deck. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. They are 1 in. This block. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. thick and 1/2 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. thick. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. thick and 12 in. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. A piece of oak. wide and 14 in. 6 and 7. apart. long. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 5. A 6-in. wood screws. long. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. . also. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. long is well soaked in water. 4 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. 6. screws. 1/4 in. wide and 3 ft. in diameter through the block. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. Braces. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. a piece 1/4 in.

10 with a movable handle. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. --Contributed by O. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. thick by 2 in. long. each 1 in. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. Fig. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. 11. wide at one end and 12 in. in diameter and 10 ft. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. at the other. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. Wilmette. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. Tronnes. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The house will accommodate 20 families. long. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. is 6 in. apart in the muslin. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. A strip 1 in. Ill. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. The sail is a triangle. 12. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. are used for the boom and gaff. The keel. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. . The inside of the rooms should be stained black. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. E. The mast has two side and one front stay. wide. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin.

long. wide.into two 14-in. as shown in Fig. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. Fig. flat headed screws. flat on one side. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. wide and 30 in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. flat-headed screws. one 11-1/2 in. 4. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. 2-1/2 in. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Ill. E. long. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. Cut the maple. Bevel both sides of the pieces. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. wide. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. 2 in. thick. about 5/16 in. thick. --Contributed by O. square. 5. 2. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. wide and 2 ft. thick. and the other 18 in. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. Take this and fold it over . Tronnes. 1 yd. and 3 ft. with the ends and the other side rounding. long. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. long and five 1/2-in. 2-1/2 in. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. five 1/2-in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. 3. 1. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Wilmette.

forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. The front. thick and 3 in. long. 3 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. Another piece. wide and 2-1/2 in. long. square. wide and 6-1/2 in. When the glue is set. the top and bottom. wide and 5 in. After the glue. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. long. of each end unwound for connections. this square box is well sandpapered. B. St. long. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. pieces 2-5/8 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. The sides are 3-1/4 in. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. wide and 4-1/2 in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. Bliss. 2 and 3. F. E. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. wide and 6-3/4 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. A. as well as the edges around the opening. 5 from 1/16-in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces.once. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. The bag is then turned inside out. 6-1/2 in. long. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. Figs. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. and the four outside edges. and take care that the pieces are all square. but can be governed by circumstances. long. wide . brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. About 1/2 in. Wind three layers of about No. are rounded. soaked with water and blown up. C. long. then centered. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. If carefully and neatly made. 3-1/4 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. 1-1/4 in. Fig. about 3/8 in. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. Glue a three cornered piece. and make a turn in each end of the wires. 3/8 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. C. wide and 3 ft. square. thick. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. is set. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. Cut another piece of board. --Contributed by W. Mo. wide and 2-3/4 in. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. D. forming an eye for a screw. Louis. A. thick. the mechanical parts can be put together. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. long. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. 1.

Like poles repel each other. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. long.R. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. and fasten in place. The stronger the current. and the farther apart they will be forced. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. board. The base is a board 5 in. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. wide and 2-1/2 in. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. R. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. These wires should be about 1 in. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. from the spindle. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. I. hole is fastened to the pointer. Fig. L. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. the same size as the first. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. Chapman. C. so it will just clear the tin.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. When the current flows through the coil.S. Yorkshire. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. in diameter. Place the tin. 5-1/2 in. 1/16 in. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. Austwick Hall. W. showing a greater defection of the pointer. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. Richmond Hill. Fig. 4. long. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. --Contributed by George Heimroth. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. from one end. 4 is not movable. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. bored in the back. The resistance is now adjusted to show . 4. wide and 9 in. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. 1/4 in. Another strip of tin. and as the part Fig. F. The end of the polar axis B.and 2-5/8 in. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. long. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. thick. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. that has the end turned with a shoulder. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. G. 5.A. A pointer 12 in. the part carrying the pointer moves away. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J.

M. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. 1881. 30 min. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. The following formula will show how this may be found. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. thus: 9 hr. at 9 hr. shows mean siderial. A. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. and vice . There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. 10 min. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. say Venus at the date of observation. 10 min.

Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid.m. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e.f. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Conn. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Hall. . owing to the low internal resistance. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. --Contributed by Robert W. New Haven. if one of these cannot be had. or.

especially for cooking fish. arsenic to every 20 lb. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. 1-3/4 in. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. thick. 1. 3/8 in. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. inside diameter and about 5 in. put the fish among the ashes. leaves or bark. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. and heap the glowing coals on top. as shown in the accompanying picture. Then. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. The boring bar. When the follower is screwed down. of alum and 4 oz. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . after scraping away the greater part of the coals. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. Fig. fresh grass.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. long. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Wet paper will answer. cover up with the same. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in.

a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. when they were turned in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. thick. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. about 1/2 in. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . and threaded on both ends. pipe. pipe. fastened with a pin. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder.

and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. square iron. as the one illustrated herewith. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. The rough frame. wide. then it should be ground to a fit. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. 30 in. 4. but never one which required so little material. Clermont. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. Iowa. bent in the shape of a U. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. Fig. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. a jump spark would be much better. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. A 1-in. the float is too high. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. This plate also supports the rocker arms. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. was then finished on an emery wheel. 3. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. Fig. It . Fig. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. and which gave such satisfactory results. however. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. labor and time. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe.valve stems. 2. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. 5. If the valve keeps dripping. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. thick and 3 in. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. long. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods.

long is the pivot. from all over the neighborhood. A malleable iron bolt. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. for the "motive power" to grasp." little and big. square. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. set 3 ft. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. and. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. long. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. extending above. no matter what your age or size may be. W. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. 12 ft. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. rope is not too heavy. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. and a little junk. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. Nieman. square and 5 ft. in the ground with 8 ft. The seats are regular swing boards. Use a heavy washer at the head. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . strengthened by a piece 4 in. The crosspiece is 2 in. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. being held in position by spikes as shown. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. This makes an easy adjustment. strong clear material only should be employed. The illustration largely explains itself. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. A 3/4 -in. If it is to be used for adults. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. completes the merry-go-round. in diameter and 15 in. It looks like a toy. in fact. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. so it must be strong enough. long. hole bored in the post. --Contributed by C. As there is no bracing. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. long. 3/4 in. timber. from the center. butting against short stakes. with no trees or buildings in the way. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. square and 2 ft. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment.

These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. square. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. 1.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly.2 emery. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. if nothing better is at hand. light and strong.the fingers. To wind the string upon the reel. as shown in Fig. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. 2. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. 4. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. then it is securely fastened. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. and 18 in. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. Both have large reels full of . then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. and sent to earth. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. A reel is next made. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. The backbone is flat. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. 1/4 by 3/32 in. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. one for the backbone and one for the bow. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. a wreck. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. Having placed the backbone in position. These ends are placed about 14 in. The bow is now bent. long. away. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig.

N. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Y. Mass. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. If the second kite is close enough. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . common packing thread. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Brooklyn. First.string. Bunker. Moody. C. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. he pays out a large amount of string. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. often several hundred yards of it. Newburyport. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. --Contributed' by Harry S. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The handle end is held down with a staple. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench.-Contributed by S. or glass-covered string. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. the balance. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise.

tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. lengths (Fig. If the table is round. Corinth. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Hastings. must be attached to a 3-ft. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. --Contributed by Earl R. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. each the size of half the table top. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. square (Fig. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. cutting the circular piece into quarters. then draw the string up tight. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. make the pad as shown in the illustration. such as mill men use. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Vt. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. then a dust protector. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. length of 2-in.

How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. hard pencil. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away.9-1/4 in. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. E. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together.. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless.. Calif.. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. 16-1/4 in. from E to F. G to H. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. trace the design carefully on the leather. 2-1/4 in. which spoils the leather effect. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. from C to D. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. Wharton. Use a smooth. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. Moisten the . Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Oakland. . trace this or some other appropriate design on it. 6-1/4 in. and E to G. 17-1/2 in.-Contributed by H.

leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. also lines A-G. and corresponding lines on the other side. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. and lace through the holes. Now cut narrow thongs. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. apart. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. place both together and with a leather punch. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. about 1/8 in. G-J. wide. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Trace the openings for the handles. get something with which to make a lining. if not more than 1 in. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. I made this motor . with the rounded sides of the tools. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. is taken off at a time. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Cut it the same size as the bag. and E-G. To complete the bag. H-B. Cut out the leather for the handle openings.

The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft.M. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. as shown in Fig. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. iron. 1. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. Shannon. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. in length. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. 1. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. Calif. 2. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. of No. --Contributed by J. each being a half circle. Pasadena. 2-1/4 in. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. B. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. long. . D. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. 24 gauge magnet wire.

Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. and the gores cut from these. near the center. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. from the bottom end. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The gores for a 6-ft. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. are the best kind to make. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. pasted in alternately. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. 1. high. balloon should be about 8 ft.

widest point. 1. 5. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. as shown in Fig. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. In removing grease from wood. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. after which the paint will adhere permanently. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. 2. lap on the edges. leaving a long wake behind. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. 4. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. in diameter. as shown in Fig. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. 3. leaving the solution on over night. E. A. B. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. saturating it thoroughly. If the gores have been put together right. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. somewhat larger in size. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. coming through the small pipe A. so it will hang as shown in Fig. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The boat soon attains considerable speed. In starting the balloon on its flight. The steam. These are to hold the wick ball. Staunton. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. Fig. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. As the boat is driven forward by this force. --Contributed by R. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. After washing. using about 1/2-in.

apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. long. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. apart on these lines. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. high and 8 in. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. There are three ways of doing this: First.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. In using either of the two methods described. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . The blocks are about 6 in. as is shown in Fig. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. 1. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. Third. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. wide by 6 in. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. in bowling form. if you have several copies of the photograph. long and each provided with a handle. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. Second. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle.

Hellwig. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Fig. N.Fig. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Rinse the plate in cold water. thick. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. --Contributed by John A. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Y. being careful not to dent the metal. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. not pointed down at the road at an angle. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. 2. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Albany. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque.

it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. These corner irons are also screwed to. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Va. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. through which passes the set screw S. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. 6 in. A. 2 the front view. and Fig. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. with a set screw. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. wide and 8 in. and not produce the right sound. Break off the frame. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. --Contributed by R. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Corner irons. A circular piece of wood. S. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. With this device. in diameter. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. B. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. which is 4 in. CC. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. thick. A. are screwed to the circular piece. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. is fastened to a common camera tripod. Paine. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . 1 Fig. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. wide and of any desired height. Richmond. long for the base. and. 5 in. In Fig.upon any particular object. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles.

it can be mounted on the inside of the can. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. pine boards. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. This will make a very compact electric horn. thus producing sound waves. Kidder. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. . The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. as only the can is visible. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. Lake Preston. -1. I made a wheel 26 in. D. Ill. La Salle. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. S. R. This horn. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. in diameter of some 1-in. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery.

Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. B. the same thickness as the coins. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Purdy. Ghent. thick and 12 in. 1. If there is a large collection of coins. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Doylestown. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. --Contributed by C. --Contributed by James R. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Kane. O. The frame is made of a heavy card. 2. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . 1. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Fig. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. A. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. square. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Feet may be added to the base if desired. If the collection consists of only a few coins.

Canada. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. several large nails. --Contributed by R. If desired. Milwaukee. into which to place the screws . Wis. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Smith. Neyer. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used.E. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box.J. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. A lead pencil. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Noble. cut and grooved. The material required is a sheet of No. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. It will hold 4 oz. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. Cal. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. of developer. though not absolutely necessary. A rivet punch is desirable. --Contributed by August T. they become uninteresting. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. melted and applied with a brush. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. --Contributed by J. Toronto. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. for after the slides have been shown a few times. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. One Cloud. and then glued together as indicated.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. plus a 3/8-in. border all around. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. a hammer or mallet. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. thick.

apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. and file it to a chisel edge. There are several ways of working up the design. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Remove the screws. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Take the nail. using 1/2-in. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. both outline and decoration. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. screws placed about 1 in. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. like the one shown. never upon the metal directly. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. draw one part. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry.

3/4 in. two lengths. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. About 1/2 yd.wall. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. long. long. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. Do not bend it over or flatten it. each 1 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. 1. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. Provide four lengths for the legs. 2. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. . and two lengths. long. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. The pedal. in the other. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. as shown in Fig. square. of 11-in. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. 3. for the top. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. square and 181/2 in. using a 1/2in. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. for the lower rails. square and 11 in. up from the lower end. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. being ball bearing. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. l-1/8 in. Rivet the band to the holder.

The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Ala. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . Attalla. New York City. --Contributed by John Shahan. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. having quite a length of threads. Quackenbush. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. F. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. --Contributed by W.

and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. wide and 4-1/4 in. Luther. and 3/8 in. and two holes in the other. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. and the other 2-3/4 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. long. the end of the other piece is folded over. using class. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. from one end. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. long. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. Two pieces of felt. something that is carbonated. in depth. The desired emblem. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. Assemble as shown in the sketch. stitched on both edges for appearance. wide and 8-1/4 in. each 1-1/4 in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. one about 1 in.. initial.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. --Contributed by C. long. D. Mich. making a lap of about 1 in. Ironwood. from the end. college or lodge colors. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied .

as shown at B. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. from the center and opposite each other. or more in height. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Indianapolis. 2. 1/4 in. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. in the cover and the bottom.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. about 2 in. Fig. in diameter and 2 in. --Contributed by John H. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. and the cork will be driven out. This method allows a wide range of designs. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. Schatz. A piece of lead. Ind. Punch two holes A. which can be procured from a plumber. 1. if desired by the operator. as shown in the sketch. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . or a pasteboard box.

made of paper strips pasted on the tin. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. Fig. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. putting in the design. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. Columbus. The pieces of tin between the holes A. A piece of thick glass. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. 5. it winds up the rubber band. on both top and bottom. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. 4. 3. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. allowing the two ends to be free. or marble will serve. . as shown in Fig.Rolling Can Toy lead. metal. O. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. and the ends of the bands looped over them. When the can is rolled away from you. are turned up as in Fig. 1. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig.

1 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. deep in its face. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. from each end. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. I secured a board 3/4 in. or more thick on each side. The edges should be about 1/8 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. face up. mark over the design. 3 in. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. After this has been done. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. thick. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. hole through it. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. Next place the leather on the glass. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. thicker than the pinion. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. wide and 20 in. and. long and bored a 1/2-in. New York City. A pencil may be used the first time over. If it is desired to "line" the inside. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer.

A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 2 end rails. 1 top board. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Y. 2. much of the hard labor will be saved. 1 top board. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Now fit up the two clamps. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 1 piece. 2 crosspieces. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Syracuse. pieces for the vise slides. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1. Cut the 2-in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Rice. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. lag screws as shown. N. 4 guides.in the board into the bench top. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. --Contributed by A. Brooklyn. Make the lower frame first. M. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 3 by 3 by 6 in. thick top board. 2 side rails. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Fig. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . in diameter. and fit it in place for the side vise. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. New York. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1 screw block. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 3 by 3 by 36. 1 piece for clamp. 1 piece for clamp. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 1 back board. countersinking the heads of the vise end. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length.

1 bench plane or jointer. 1 pocket level. 1 set chisels.. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. The bench is now complete. as well as the pattern maker.. 1 marking gauge. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 2-ft. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 pair dividers. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 24 in. 1 brace and set of bits. Only the long run. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 claw hammer. 3 and 6 in. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. The amateur workman.screws. 1 nail set. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 monkey wrench. in diameter. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 wood scraper. . 1 countersink. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 cross cut saw. 1 set gimlets. rule. 24 in. 1 compass saw. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view.. 2 screwdrivers. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 pair pliers. 1 rip saw.

1 oilstone. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. will sink into the handle as shown at D. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. 1. becomes like A. the projecting point A. 2. Pa. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Fig. No. ---Contributed by James M. but will not make .1. 3. Fig. The calf skin.1 6-in. after constant use. Kane. try square. Doylestown. Fig. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. being softer. Fig. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. will be easier to work. 1. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. 2 and 00 sandpaper.

The form can be made of a stick of wood. White. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. New York City. . The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. will do just as well. when dry. and the length 6-5/8 in. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. water or heat will not affect. such as copper or brass. -Contributed by Julia A. lay the design on the face. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. which steam. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. cover it completely with water enamel and. Turn the leather. the same method of treatment is used. but a V-shaped nut pick. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. Two pieces will be required of this size.as rigid a case as the cow skin. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. secure a piece of modeling calf. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. If cow hide is preferred. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. First draw the design on paper. If calf skin is to be used. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. After the outlines are traced. then prepare the leather. Having prepared the two sides. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface.

Cal. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Maine. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. as shown in the sketch. A. --Contributed by W. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Jaquythe. . Herrman. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Cobb. and an adjustable friction-held loop. New York City. --Contributed by Chas. Portland.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. C. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Richmond. --Contributed by Chester L. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest.

Conn. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. B. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. A thick piece of tin. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. Roberts. for instance. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. --Contributed by Wm. Wright. an inverted stewpan. was marked out as shown. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. This was very difficult.. --Contributed by Geo. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Middletown. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. . Cambridge. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Mass.

There was no quicklime to be had. If any traces of the grease are left. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. Bone. so some bones were quickly calcined. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Indianapolis. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. . of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring.. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. of boiling water. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. --Contributed by Paul Keller. apply powdered calcined magnesia. well calcined and powdered. which has been tried out several times with success. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. A beautifully bound book. but not running over. Herbert. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. Illinois. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. pulverized and applied. on a clear piece of glass. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Ind. If the article is highly polished. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. as shown. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. When dry. The next morning there was no trace of oil. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. F.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. used as part of furniture. but only an odor which soon vanished. --Contributed by C. Chicago. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. face down. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. L. and the grease will disappear. such as chair seats. and quite new.

thick. New York. A. 6 in. long.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired.. wide and 12 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. --Contributed by Geo. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. If properly adjusted. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel.. the pieces . soft steel with the opening 6 in. set and thumbscrews. Tarrytown. The pieces marked S are single. high and are bolted to a block of wood. says Scientific American. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. deep and 5 in. Howe. 2 in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner.

A sharp knife. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. they will look remarkably uniform.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. no doubt. If the letters are all cut the same height. says Camera Craft. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. for sending to friends. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Their size depends on the plate used. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. albums and the like. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. to the underside of which is a block. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. E. The seat is a board. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are.

for example. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. using care to get it in the right position. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. pasting the prints on some thin card. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. mount them on short pieces of corks. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. In cutting out an 0. So arranged. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. photographing them down to the desired size. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. and. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. after. So made. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. The puzzle is to get . the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir.

Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . G.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. of its top. Bayley. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. with the longest end outside. Cape May Point. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. so they will lie horizontal. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit.J. hung on pivots. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. squeezes along past the center of the tube. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. snow or anything to hide it. A hole 6 or 7 in. N. long that will just fit are set in. He smells the bait. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. Old-Time Magic .Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row.-Contributed by I. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. says the American Thresherman. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in.

then spread the string. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. --Contributed by L. Parker. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. then expose again. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before.faced up. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Pawtucket. Y. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Rhode Island. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. N. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . E. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Brooklyn. Idaho. --Contributed by L. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Press the hands together. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Pocatello. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Szerlip. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole.

The handle is next made. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. narrower. says the English Mechanic. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. long. dark red. in building up his work from the illustrations. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. in width. full size. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. end of the blade. 4 on the blade. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. 3 Fig. if any. 2 Fig. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. whether he requires a single sword only. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. The blade should be about 27 in. wide and 2 in. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. Glue the other side of the blade. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. they will look very much like the genuine article. near the point end. and if carefully made.. 1 Fig. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. 1. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. wipe the blade . The pieces. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. or green oil paint.Genuine antique swords and armor. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. or a complete suit of armor. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. thick. using a straightedge and a pencil. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. When the whole is quite dry. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. When the glue is thoroughly dry..

the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. long. of course. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. the other is flat or half-round. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The length of the handle. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. as it is . the length of the blade 28 in. 1. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. the other is flat or halfround. This sword is about 68 in. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. should be about 9 in. In making. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. 3.. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. in the widest part at the lower end. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. 1. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. square and of any length desired. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. take two pieces of wood. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. 4. about 1-1/2 in. 1. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. thick and 5 in. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. Both edges of the blade are sharp. 1/8 in. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. In making this scimitar. 1.with light strokes up and down several times. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. 2. and 3 in. the other two are identical. shows only two sides. allowing for a good hold with both hands. Fig. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. the illustration. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. 2. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. in diameter. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. 3. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. In the finished piece. follow the directions as for Fig. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. preferably of contrasting colors..

can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. The thinness of the plank. as can the pitch bed or block. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Y. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. square. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. about 3/8 in. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. or an insecure fastening. A piece of mild steel. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. and. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. however. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Doctors probed for the button without success. A cold . one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. each about 1 ft. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. at the lower end. On each edge of the board. piping and jackets by hard water. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Franklin. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. in an attempt to remove it. as shown in the sketch. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Both can be made easily. Mass. long. N. --Contributed by John Blake. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. --Contributed by Katharine D. Syracuse. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. as there was some at hand. Morse. 2 in. and if so. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. It is made of a plank.

heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. on the pitch. secure a piece of brass of about No. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised.. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. 18 gauge. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. a file to reduce the ends to shape. tallow. plaster of Paris. When the desired form has been obtained. To remedy this. To put it in another way. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. Trim up the edges and file them . 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. 5 lb. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. design down.. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. When this has been done. 5 lb. using a small metal saw.

Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. 3. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. and still revolve. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. living together in what seems like one receptacle. in one minute or 550 lb. to keep it from floating. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Clean the metal thoroughly. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. make an unusual show window attraction. in diameter (Fig. but not to stop it. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. The smaller is placed within the larger. or fraction of a horsepower. it may be well to know what horsepower means.000 ft. per second. over the smaller vessel. 2). That is lifting 33. 30 ft. 1 ft. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. This in turn divided by 33. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. in one second. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. and hang a bird swing. in diameter (Fig. or 550 ft. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. per minute. lb. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. A. space between the vessels with water. one 18 in.000 lb. Cutter. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Before giving the description. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. using powdered pumice with lye.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. 1) and the other 12 in. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. . at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. 1 ft. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel.smooth. Fill the 3-in. lb. Fig. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. --Contributed by Harold H. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. in the center.

N. 1 Fig. The effect is surprising. --Contributed.18 in. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . by L. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Szerlip. Mass. 2 Fig. --Contributed by J. or on a pedestal. Brooklyn.3 Fig. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Somerville. F. Diameter Fig. Diameter 12 in. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Y. Campbell.

Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. keeping the center high. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. unsatisfactory. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. as a rule. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. This compound is impervious to water. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. to keep the metal from tarnishing. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. and the clay . with other defects. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. and cut out the shape with the shears. away from the edge. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. the same as removing writing from a slate. Rivet the cup to the base. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Do not be content merely to bend them over. Polish both of these pieces. which. and then. using any of the common metal polishes. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident.copper of No. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. with the pliers. after which it is ready for use. then by drawing a straightedge over it. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. is. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. In riveting. which may be of wood or tin. often render it useless after a few months service. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge.

A. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. in diameter and 5 in. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. 3/4 in. 2. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Grand Rapids. Dunlop. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Mich. It is made of a glass tube. Scotland. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. --Contributed by A. Northville. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. 1. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. the device will work for an indefinite time. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Mich. --Contributed by John T. Shettleston. . then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Houghton. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. DeLoof.can be pressed back and leveled. -Contributed by Thos. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. as shown in Fig. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. long.

long with the crossguard and blade of steel. stilettos and battle-axes. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color.1 FIG.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. put up as ornaments. long. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. As the handle is to . The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. in width and 2 in.FIG. London. This sword is 4 ft. 1. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in.

The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. 4. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape.represent copper. Three large. sometimes called cuirass breakers. firmly glued on. When the whole is quite dry. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. sharp edges on both sides. When the glue is thoroughly dry. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. This sword is about 4 ft. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. one about 1/2 in. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. in width. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. This weapon is also about 1 ft. with both edges sharp. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. In Fig. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. paint it a dark brown or black. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. narrower. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. in length. the upper part iron or steel. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. 3 is shown a claymore. In Fig. the same as used on the end of the handle. This axe is made similar to the one . When dry. The lower half of the handle is of wood. A German poniard is shown in Fig. The sword shown in Fig. The ball is made as described in Fig. 20 spike. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. This weapon is about 1 ft. 9. 6. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. small rope and round-headed nails. long with a dark handle of wood. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. with wire or string' bound handle. 8. is shown in Fig. A German stiletto. studded with brass or steel nails. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. The handle is of wood. glue and put it in place. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. string. which is about 2-1/2 ft. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. wood with a keyhole saw. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. These must be cut from pieces of wood. The crossbar and blade are steel. In Fig. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. This stiletto has a wood handle. 5. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. very broad. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. in length. long. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. Cut two strips of tinfoil. then glued on the blade as shown. Both handle and axe are of steel. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. with both edges of the blade sharp. 7. the axe is of steel. 11 were used.

will pull where other belts slip. such as braided fishline. high. --Contributed by E. . use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper.described in Fig. Old-Time Magic . When wrapped all the way around. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. together as shown in Fig. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. so the contents cannot be seen. This will make a very good flexible belt. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. W.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. Davis. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. 2. Chicago. 10. the ends are tied and cut off.

an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. with the circle centrally located. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. There will be no change in color. As zinc is much lighter than iron. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. four glass tumblers. S. --Contributed by A. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. in a few seconds' time. To make the flowers grow in an instant. causing the flowers to grow. about one-third the way down from the top. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. These wires are put in the jar. The dotted lines in Fig. filled with water.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Macdonald. Bridgeton. 1 and put together as in Fig. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. or using small wedges of wood. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks.J. held in the right hand. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Before the performance. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. some of the liquid. an acid. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Oakland. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . apparently. N. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Calif. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. 2.

says a correspondent of Photo Era. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. 2 for height. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. When many slides are to be masked. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. Cal.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. not only because of the fact just mentioned. Jaquythe. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. and kept ready for use at any time. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . This outlines the desired opening. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. A. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. which are numbered for convenience in working. --Contributed by W. If the size wanted is No. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. 4 for width and No. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. and equally worthy of individual treatment. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. Richmond. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. unless some special device is used. practical and costs nothing.

using the carbon paper. With a stick. which is dangerous. the paper is folded along the center line. Secure a sheet of No. or. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. and do not inhale the fumes. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. paint the design.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. possibly. the margin and the entire back of the metal. may be changed. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. and the extreme length 7 in. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. Draw a design. The one shown is merely suggestive. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. or a pair of old tongs. not the water into the acid. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. The decoration. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. When etched to the desired depth. too. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. about half and half. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. a little less acid than water. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. but they can be easily revived. This done. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. is about right for the No. 16 gauge. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface.

Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. long. wide. wide and of the same length as the table. 5. as shown in Fig. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. C and D. 0 indicates the batteries. attached to a post at each end. 3/8 in. Cut out a piece of tin. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. Fig. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. about 1 in. J is another wire attached in the same way. 3. 2. 5. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. or more wide. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. the bell will ring. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Fig. as at H. Paint the table any color desired. it will touch post F. to the table. It may be either nailed or screwed down. 2. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. The connections are simple: I. Fig. 4. thick. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. 2. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. about 2-1/2 in. and bore two holes. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. high. so that when it is pressed down. with the wires underneath. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Then get two posts. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. about 3 ft. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. and about 2-1/2 ft.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. 1. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Nail a board. repeat as many times as is necessary. . and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Fig. as in Fig. Fig. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. 24 parts water. in diameter and 1/4 in. long and 1 ft. A. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. When the button S is pressed. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. as shown in the illustration. through it. about 8 in.

long. such as . remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. is to appear as steel. says the English Mechanic. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. long serves as the dowel. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in.Imitation Arms and Armor . A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together.. handle and all. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. After the glue is dry. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. These rings can be carved out. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The entire weapon. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. thick. A wood peg about 2 in. This weapon is about 22 in. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The imitation articles are made of wood. the wood peg inserted in one of them. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. 2. 1. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. The circle is marked out with a compass. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool.

the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. studded with large brass or steel nails. The spikes are cut out of wood. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 8. The upper half of the handle is steel. or the amateur cannot use it well. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 5. as before mentioned. etc. used at the end of the fifteenth century. 6. as shown. is shown in Fig. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. as described in Fig.ornamental scrolls. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. covered with red velvet. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. long. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. If such a tool is not at hand. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. All of these axes are about the same length. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. 3. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. The handle is of steel imitation. flowers. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The axe is shown in steel. with a sharp carving tool. The entire handle should be made of one piece. the hammer and spike. Its length is about 3 ft. The lower half of the handle is wood. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. leaves. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The handle is of wood. . sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. also. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. 2. This weapon is about 22 in.

as shown in Fig. 7) calls for one out. 6. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 5. Chicago. . 4). A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 2. then the other plays. and so on for nine innings. as in Fig. 3. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. Each person plays until three outs have been made. the knife resting on its back. a three-base hit. Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. calls for a home run. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. The knife falling on its side (Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. 1.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors.

When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. It may be found that the negative is not colored.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. as shown in Fig. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. If it is spotted at all. while the committee is tying him up. with the rope laced in the cloth. of the rope and holds it. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. one of them burning . as shown in Fig. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. 3. Mass. Somerville. Old-Time Magic . 1.-Contributed by J. 2. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. Campbell. This he does.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. F. of water for an hour or two. hypo to 1 pt.

of water and 1 oz. Ky. and the audience gaze on and see nothing.brightly. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. He then walks over to the other candle. thus causing it to light. --Contributed by C. --Contributed by L. the other without a light. Brown. of turpentine. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. showing that there is nothing between them. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. bolt. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. Drill Gauge screw. of sugar. etc. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. of plumbago. New York City. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. thick. . The magician walks over to the burning candle. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart.Contributed by Andrew G. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. Ky. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. Louisville. 4 oz. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. invisible to them (the audience). Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. B. Evans. shades the light for a few seconds. Thome. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. with which he is going to light the other candle. 4 oz. Lebanon. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand.. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. 3/4 in. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. and. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down.

for the material. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. steady current. thick. diameter. but is not so good. into a tube of several thicknesses. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. In making up the solution. 5 in. or blotting paper. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Its current strength is about one volt. long. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. Do not add water to the acid. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. --Contributed by C. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. Denniston. which will give a strong. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. Pulteney. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. To make the porous cell. H. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. Y. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. about 5 in. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. N. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's .

a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. but somewhat lighter. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. long with a bearing at each end. steel. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. while the other end is attached by two screws. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws.station. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. one drawing them together. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. As to thickness. The . It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. steel. To insure this. One hole was bored as well as possible. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts.) may be obtained. steel. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. Finally. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. carrying the hour circle at one end. After much experimentation with bearings. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. a positive adjustment was provided. the other holding them apart. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other.

To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. is provided with this adjustment. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. If the result is more than 24 hours. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. It is. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. and if it is not again directed to the same point. turn the pointer to the star. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph.. save the one in the pipe. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. 45 min. apart. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. All set screws. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. once carefully made. Cassiopiae. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. subtract 24. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar." Only a rough setting is necessary. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. Declination is read directly. are tightened. To locate a known star on the map. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. When properly set it will describe a great circle. Set the declination circle to its reading. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood." When this is done. The pointer is directed to Alpha. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. need not be changed. Instead. To find a star in the heavens. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. excepting those on the declination axis. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously.. Point it approximately to the north star. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. Each shaft. and 15 min. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The pole is 1 deg. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. All these adjustments. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The aperture should be 1/4 in. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground .

is folded several times. La. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. taking care not to add too much. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. Ohio. add a little more benzole. The dance will begin. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. If this will be too transparent. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. of ether. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. then add 1 2-3 dr. is the real cannon ball.. long. 3 or 4 in.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. a great effect will be produced. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. cannon balls. In reality the first ball. Strosnider. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Plain City. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. benzole. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. New Orleans. as shown in the sketch. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. -Contributed by Ray E. which is the one examined. the others . The ball is found to be the genuine article.

Fig. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Campbell. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. 2.. --Contributed by J. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. etc. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. small brooches. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Milwaukee. without taking up any great amount of space. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Mass. In boxes having a sliding cover. Cal. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. 1). F. as shown in the illustration. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. San Francisco. Somerville. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Wis. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. taps. Return the card to the pack. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them.

round pieces 2-1/4 in. . slides and extra brushes. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Connecticut. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. thus giving ample store room for colors. from the bottom of the box. Hartford. This box has done good service. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. as shown in the illustration. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Beller. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. prints. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in.

it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. West Lynn. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. about threefourths full. 2). This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. O. or placed against a wall. FIG. costing 5 cents. holes in the bottom of one. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. 1).I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. Darke. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. . Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. with well packed horse manure. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. -Contributed by C. Mass. When the ends are turned under. Fill the upper tub. tacking the gauze well at the corners. will answer the purpose. and especially are the end pieces objectionable.

How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. oil or other fluid. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. M. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. when they are raised from the pan. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. cutting the cane between the holes. If the following directions are carried out. --Contributed by L. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. If plugs are found in any of the holes. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. and each bundle contains . Chicago. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. they should be knocked out. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. if this is not available. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. Eifel. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it.

then across and down. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. No plugs . Whenever the end of one strand is reached. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. held there by inserting another plug. as shown in Fig. after having been pulled tight. In addition to the cane. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. and. as it must be removed again. put about 3 or 4 in.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. 1. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. it should be held by a plug. a square pointed wedge.

can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. as the height of the line BC for lat. Detroit. 1 lat. 3. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. After completing the second layer.15+. This will make three layers. Fig. --Contributed by M. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. -Contributed by E. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. 40°.42 in.2 in. Fig. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. the height of the line BC. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease.075 in. D. we have 4. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. for 2°. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. Their difference is . the height of which is taken from table No. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. If you have a table of natural functions. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. 41°-30'. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. as shown in Fig. and for lat. is the horizontal dial. From table No. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. During the weaving. called the gnomon.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. It consists of a flat circular table. 3. Even with this lubrication. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand.2+. No weaving has been done up to this time. using the same holes as for the first layer.5 in.= 4. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. 41 °-30'. 42° is 4. 1. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. Patrick. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. 1. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. lat. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. W. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. trim off the surplus rosin. 5 in. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. 5. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. as shown in Fig. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts.15 in. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. 4. R. as it always equals the latitude of the place. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. as for example. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. is the base (5 in. it is 4. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. If handled with a little care. and for 1° it would be . All added to the lesser or 40°. or the style.075 in. stretch the third one. but the most common. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. The style or gnomon. in this case) times the . There are several different designs of sundials. 1. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. When cool. and the one we shall describe in this article.3 in. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. Michigan. the next smallest.

16 40 . base.42 .66 48° 5. Chords in inches for a 10 in.07 4.88 36° 3.18 28° 2.79 4. an inch or two.87 4.14 5.tangent of the degree of latitude. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. Fig. and perpendicular to the base or style. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.42 1. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. or more.39 . in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.49 30 .66 latitude.50 26° 2. For latitudes not given.27 2. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.03 3. 1.37 5.87 1.46 .46 3. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.83 27° 2.28 .55 4. with a radius of 5 in. Draw two semi-circles. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. which will represent the base in length and thickness.33 42° 4. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.37 54° 6.66 1.40 34° 3. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. or if of stone.77 2.42 45 . 2. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. gives the 6 o'clock points. Draw the line AD.00 40° 4. according to the size of the dial. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.44 44° 4.99 2.93 6.33 .97 5 7 4. 2 for given latitudes.81 4.11 3.96 32° 3. circle Sundial. . for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.55 46° 5.20 60° 8. long.23 6.91 58° 8.63 56° 7.93 2.19 1. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.49 3.56 . Table NO.06 2. if of metal.29 4-30 7-30 3. 2.57 1. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .85 35 . using the points A and C as centers.76 1.89 50° 5.32 6.82 2.59 2.41 38° 3.94 1.82 5. and for this size dial (10 in.10 6.82 3. and intersecting the semicircles.85 1. Its thickness.55 5.38 .26 4.30 2.40 1.68 5-30 6-30 5. To layout the hour circle.64 4 8 3.55 30° 2.12 52° 6.30 1.16 1.57 3.02 1.

The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. June 15.57 1. after allowing for the declination.21 2.49 3. 3.46 5.37 2.49 5.14 1. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time..82 3. London. each article can be labelled with the name. This correction can be added to the values in table No.08 1.98 4.68 3. Mitchell.93 6. An ordinary compass. Sept. The + means that the clock is faster.01 1. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.50 55 .add those marked + subtract those Marked .72 5. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.10 4. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.71 2.89 3.54 60 . or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.87 6. and for the difference between standard and local time.means that the dial is faster than the sun. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.19 2. Iowa.77 3.24 5. adding to each piece interest and value.06 2. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. As they are the genuine reproductions.34 5. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. says the English Mechanic. E.53 1. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. --Contributed by J. it will be faster. Sioux City. then the watch is slower. 25.52 Table No.46 4.50 . 900 Chicago. 3. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.79 6. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. 2 and Dec.60 4. will enable one to set the dial.30 2. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.12 5. Each weapon is cut from wood. if west. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. Sun time to local mean time. April 16.from Sundial lime. and the .63 1.

The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. Partisan. 3. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. When putting on the tinfoil. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. the length of which is about 5 ft. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. 1. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. . long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil.

long. . Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. 7. the holes being about 1/4 in. long with a round staff or handle. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. 5. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The spear is steel. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. This weapon is about 6 ft. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The extreme length is 9 ft. long. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. 6 ft. is shown in Fig. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. 8.which is square. A gisarm or glaive. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century.. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. in diameter. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. It is about 6 ft. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. long with a round wooden handle. press it well into the carved depressions. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The edges are sharp. which are a part of the axe. used about the seventeenth century. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. sharp on the outer edges. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. about 4 in.

Workman. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. 2 and 3. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. 4. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper.-Contributed by R. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. Ohio. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. are less durable and will quickly show wear. They can be made of various materials. are put in place. the most durable being bamboo. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. Loudonville. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. This is important to secure neatness.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. The twisted cross cords should . H. B. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. apart. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. 1. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. as shown in Fig. Cut all the cords the same length. the cross cords. or in holes punched in a leather strap. Substances such as straw. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. used for spacing and binding the whole together. In Figs. 5. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected.

A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. To remedy this. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. of the bottom. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. -Contributed by Geo. Four V-shaped notches were cut. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. This was turned over the top of the other can. as shown at B. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. in which was placed a piece of glass. The first design shown is for using bamboo. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. bamboo or rolled paper. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . Harrer. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. New York. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. La. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. below the top to within 1/4 in. shaped as shown at C.be of such material. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. Lockport. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. M. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. A slit was cut in the bottom. 3 in. wide. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. New Orleans. for a length extending from a point 2 in.

The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. Ill. Cal. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. Schaffner. --Contributed by Joseph H. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . the brass is loosened from the block. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. Maywood. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. about 1/16 in. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. Newburgh. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. giving the appearance of hammered brass. H. Shay. Pasadena. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. and two along the side for attaching the staff. wide. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. After this is finished. It would be well to polish the brass at first. --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by W. This should be done gradually. This plank. Sanford. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. is shown in the accompanying sketch. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one.tape from sticking to the carpet. do not throw away the gloves. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Y. turned over but not fastened. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. N.

bent as shown. Marshall. --E. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Jaquythe. A. Ill. K. in diameter. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Cal. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. -Contributed by W. the pendulum swings . Richmond. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Unlike most clocks.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Oak Park.

Chicago. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. high. and the other two 2-5/8 in. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. is an electromagnet. long and at each side of this. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. wide. --Contributed by V. away. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. bar. The construction is very simple. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. high and 1/4 in. 3/4 in. Secure a board. bearing on the latter. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. B. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. wide that is perfectly flat. such as this one. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Now place the board to be joined.. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. about 6 in. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. In using this method. A. 7-1/2 in. to the first one with screws or glue. Two uprights. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. only have the opposite side up. in diameter. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. are secured in the base bar. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. the center one being 2-3/4 in. says the Scientific American. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. thick. Metzech. C. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. by 1-5/16 in. on the board B.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. 6 in. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. high. 5/16 in. Fasten another board. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. about 12 in. high. .

--Contributed by Elmer A. Pa. square inside. plates should be made 8 in. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. from one end. wide and 5 in. Fig. wide and 1 in. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. by driving a pin through the wood. or more. 1. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. 3. Phoenixville. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. 2. as shown at A. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. 4. is fastened in the hole A.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. whose dimensions are given in Fig. 1. square. long. . The trigger. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. 1. Vanderslice. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. Fig.

5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 5 parts of black filler. Fostoria. Ohio.A. Simonis. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. one-half the length of the side pieces. as shown in the illustration. square. which allows 1/4 in. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. -Contributed by J. by weight. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. rubbing varnish and turpentine. if only two bands are put in the . are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 2 parts of whiting.

in the opposite end of the box. A mirror. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. is necessary. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. G. which may be either of ground or plain glass. In use. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. London. 8 in. and the picture can be drawn as described. A piece of metal. If a plain glass is used. It must be kept moist and well . place tracing paper on its surface. Michigan. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. II. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. preferably copper. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. In constructing helmets. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. DeLoof. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. as shown in Fig. Shaw. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. says the English Mechanic. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. --Contributed by Thos. No. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. -Contributed by Abner B.lower strings. deep. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. is set at an angle of 45 deg. Grand Rapids. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. Mass. keeps the strong light out when sketching. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. 1. wide and about 1 ft. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. Dartmouth. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. long. A double convex lens. and it may be made as a model or full sized.

This being done. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. or some thin glue. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. brown. 1. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. shown in Fig. Scraps of thin. and the deft use of the fingers. and left over night to soak. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. and continue until the clay is completely covered. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. After the clay model is finished. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig.kneaded. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. a few clay-modeling tools. and over the crest on top. joined closely together. take. 2. 3. as in bas-relief. as shown in Fig. The clay. All being ready. will be necessary. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. 1. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. on which to place the clay. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. the clay model oiled. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. with a keyhole saw. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig.

A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. When the helmet is off the model. The whole helmet. In Fig. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. This contrivance should be made of wood. In Fig. 9. Indianapolis. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. as seen in the other part of the sketch. Indiana. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. should be modeled and made in one piece. and the ear guards in two pieces. Before taking it off the model. 1. square in shape. or. When perfectly dry. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. as shown: in the design. a few lines running down. --Contributed by Paul Keller. The band is decorated with brass studs. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. will make it look neat. When dry. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. the piecing could not be detected. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up.as possible. owing to the clay being oiled. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. which should be no difficult matter. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. then another coating of glue. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. with the exception of the vizor. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 7. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. and so on. 5. They are all covered with tinfoil. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. The center of the ear guards are perforated. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. a crest on top. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. the skullcap. one for each side.

2. 1. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. also the switch B and the fuse block C. This will make an open space between the plates. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. about 80 ft. The holes B and C are about 3 in. one oblong piece of wood. 4. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. high. wide and 15 in. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. Fig. 4. when they are placed in opposite positions. Fig. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. 1. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. Fig. and two large 3in. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. long. Fig. The two holes. GG. two ordinary binding posts. should extend about 1/4 in. 22 gauge resistance wire. If asbestos is used. Fig. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. and. 4.same size. 4. the holes leading to the switch. The reverse side of the base. of the top. or. Fig. in diameter and 9 in. 1. The mineral wool. The plate. above the collar. 4 lb. 2. as shown in Fig. 4. about 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. Fig. AA. about 1 lb. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. Fig. of fire clay. 4. A round collar of galvanized iron. one fuse block. Fig. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. 12 in. 2. FF. the fuse block. as it stands a higher temperature. to receive screws for holding it to the base. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. This will allow the plate. one small switch. long. Fig. 1. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 4. German-silver wire is better. which can be bought from a local druggist. AA. 1. for connections. of No. JJ. is then packed down inside the collar. as shown in Fig. E and F. and C. each 4-1/2 in. if this cannot be obtained. AA. is shown in Fig. thick sheet asbestos. Fig. are allowed to project about 1 in. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. until it is within 1 in. of mineral wool. Fig. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. with slits cut for the wires. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . long. If a neat appearance is desired. 1 in. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. one glass tube. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. thick. screws. Fig. 3 in. 1. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. 3. if the measurements are correct.

2. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. When the tile is in place. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. Cnonyn. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. deep. --Contributed by W. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. as the turns of the wires. 4. causing a short circuit. more wire should be added. A. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. above the rim. so that the circuit will not become broken. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. This completes the stove. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. Can. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. The clay. allowing a space between each turn. Cut a 1/2-in. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. II. Cal. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. It should not be left heated in this condition. apart. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. Next. If it is not thoroughly dry. then. Fig. using care not to get it too wet. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. and pressed into it. Catherines. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. Cover over about 1 in. Fig. when cool. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. H. St. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. It should not be set on end. Richmond. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. A file can be used to remove any rough places. --Contributed by R. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . it leaves a gate for the metal. steam will form when the current is applied. KK. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. will slip and come in contact with each other. When this is done. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. Jaquythe. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. While the clay is damp. This point marks the proper length to cut it. when heated. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. As these connections cannot be soldered. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. If this is the case.

and the prints will dry rapidly. is large enough. as shown. Then clip a little off the . thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. and the frame set near a window. Thorne. but 12 by 24 in. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. the pie will be damaged. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Louisville. square material in any size. --Contributed by Andrew G. constructed of 3/4-in." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. says the Photographic Times. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Ky. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle.

The board can be raised to place . which are fastened to the base. allowing each end to project for connections. as shown. Figs. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. As the shaft revolves. A 1/8-in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. thick. 1. 2-1/2 in. The driving arm D. open out. which gives the shaft a half turn. 1 and 3. wide and 7 in. An offset is bent in the center. 14 in. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. Le Mars. wide and 3 in. W. 2. Two supports. slip on two cardboard washers. long. Iowa. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. Fig. in diameter. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. thick and 3 in. 1. thereby saving time and washing. Herron. Fig. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. 1. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. 3. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. high. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. 4 in. long. long. for the crank. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. 1/2 in. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. causing a break in the current. Fig. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. high. The upright B.Paper Funnel point. wide. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. at GG. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. each 1/2 in. The connections are made as shown in Fig. each 1 in. -Contributed by S. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. high. long. 1/2 in. 22 gauge magnet wire. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. thick and 3 in. 1. The connecting rod E. in diameter and about 4 in. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case.

--Contributed by William F. . making a framework suitable for a roost. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. bottom side up. 3 in. Stecher. as shown in the sketch. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. in height. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. on a board. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Mass. Place the pot. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. One or more pots may be used. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. In designing the roost. Dorchester.

The materials required are rope or. that it is heated. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. ordinary glue.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg.. in diameter. when combined. F. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. odd corners. etc. if it is other than straight lines. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. as shown in Fig. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. preferably. adopt the method described. windows. 1. shelves. paraffin and paint or varnish. Fig. F. The bottom part of the sketch. without any corresponding benefit.. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. will produce the pattern desired. Wind the . Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. and give it time to dry. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. 1. grills and gratings for doors.

Y. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. six designs are shown.Fig. Harrer. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Fig. M. N. cut and glue them together. 2. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. -Contributed by Geo. Lockport.

etc. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. This piece of horse armor. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. says the English Mechanic. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. As the . 1.. but no farther. London. when it will be observed that any organic matter. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure.. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. will be retained by the cotton. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. which was used in front of a horse's head. and the sides do not cover the jaws. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in..Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. etc. chips of iron rust.

If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. which is separate. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. 8. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. 2. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. This can be made in one piece. This will make the model light and easy to move around. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. then another coat of glue. An arrangement is shown in Fig. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. 2. 4. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. but for . For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. All being ready. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. In Fig. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. the rougher the better. The armor is now removed from the model. as shown in the sketch. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. a weak solution of glue will do equally well.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. This being done. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. with the exception of the thumb shield. but the back is not necessary. and therefore it is not described. which can be made in any size. as the surface will hold the clay. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. and will require less clay. This triangularshaped support. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. the same as in Fig. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. except the thumb and fingers. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. and the clay model oiled. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. 6 and 7. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place.

. two in each jaw. cut into the shape shown in Fig. are better shown in Fig. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. Y. When locating the place for the screw eyes. --Contributed by Ralph L. The two pieces of foil. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. the foils will not move. will be about right. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. 9. running down the plate. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. Calif.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. in depth. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Redondo Beach. each about 1/4 in. long. the two pieces of foil will draw together. N. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. Goshen. A piece of board. but 3-1/2 in. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. 2. --Contributed by John G. La Rue. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. and the instrument is ready for use. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. If it does not hold a charge. 1/2 in. Fasten a polished brass ball to. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. wide and 1/2 in. fastened to the rod. the top of the rod. are glued to it. Buxton. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod.

hole bored through it. 2-1/2 in. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. from the smaller end. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. as this will cut under the water without splashing. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. When a fish is hooked. Bryan. At a point 6 in.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. The can may be bronzed. long. M. as shown in the illustration. as indicated in the . A. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Corsicana. --Contributed by Mrs. pine board. silvered. about 15 in. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Texas. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. is made of a 1/4-in. enameled or otherwise decorated.

Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Any kind of wood will do. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. and trace upon it the design and outline. punch the holes. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. will do as well as the more expensive woods. such as basswood or pine was used. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways.Match Holder accompanying sketch. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. 22 is plenty heavy enough. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Next prepare the metal holder. If soft wood. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. A good size is 5 in. long over all. Polish the metal. take a piece of thin wood. using a piece of carbon paper. Basswood or butternut. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. or even pine. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. wide by 6 in. thick. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. as shown. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. using powdered pumice and lye. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. then with a nail. Having completed the drawing. put a coat or two of wax and polish . Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. 3/8 or 1/4 in. When it has dried over night.

All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. Jaquythe. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. thick. Richmond. Cal. long. long. 1/2 in. can be made on the same standards. the whole being finished in linseed oil. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Instead of the usual two short ropes. wide and 5 in. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. of pure olive oil. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. is used for the base of this instrument. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. --Contributed by W. If one has some insight in carving. . This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. are used for the cores of the magnets. 2 in. A. Two wire nails. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. If carving is contemplated. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. It is useful for photographers. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. each 1 in.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest.

the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. Lynas. leaving about 1/4 in. London. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. cut in the shape of the letter T. cloth or baize to represent the legs. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. about No. the paper covering put on. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. 1. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. in the shape shown in the sketch. at A. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. except that for the legs. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. similar to that used in electric bells. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. About 1 in. then covered with red. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. acts as a spring to keep the key open. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. 3. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. H. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. when the key is pushed down. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. says the English Mechanic. A piece of tin. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. 25 gauge. as shown in Fig. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. as shown by the dotted lines. All of the parts for the armor have been described. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. A rubber band. . The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. --Contributed by W.

says Camera Craft. In one end of the piece. at each end. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. long. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. holes.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. about 1 in. can be made in a few minutes' time. A 1/4-in. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. Cut them to a length or 40 in. 2. These can be purchased at a stationery store. drill six 1/4-in. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. apart. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. So set up. completes the equipment. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. Fig. 1 and drill a 1/4in. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. apart. hole in the center. in the other end. flat headed carriage bolt. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. and eight small holes. By moving the position of the bolt from. The two pieces are bolted together. make the same series of eight small holes and. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. Instead of using brass headed nails. one to another .. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. or ordinary plaster laths will do. for the sake of lightness. Take the piece shown in Fig. Silver paper will do very well. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. Secure two strips of wood. 1 in. not too tight. 3 in.

leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. 1. long. but instead of reversing . in Fig. 2. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. D over A and C. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. and the one beneath C. Then take B and lay it over A. as shown in Fig. 2. lay Cover B and the one under D. 4. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. A round fob is made in a similar way. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. Fig. Then draw all four ends up snugly. for instance. Start with one end. C over D and B. the one marked A. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. of the ends remain unwoven. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. then B over C and the end stuck under A.of the larger holes in the strip. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. In this sketch. doubled and run through the web of A. taking the same start as for the square fob. and lay it over the one to the right. as in portraiture and the like. 2. A is the first string and B is the second.

especially if silk strings are used.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. Monroeville. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. always lap one string. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Other designs can be made in the same manner. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. The round fob is shown in Fig. --Contributed by John P. is to be made of leather. as at A in Fig. as B. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Rupp. A loop. Ohio. long. 3. the design of which is shown herewith. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. is left out at the center before starting on one side. over the one to its right. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. 1-1/2 in. as in making the square fob. 5.

A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. door facing or door panel. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. it can be easily renewed. When the supply of wax is exhausted. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Mich.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. such as a nut pick. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. pressing it against the wood. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Any smooth piece of steel. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. . beeswax or paraffin. A. Northville. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. -Contributed by A. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. filling them with wax. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. Houghton. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. using the reverse side. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly.

nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Fold together on lines C. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. it is best to leave a plain white margin. remaining above the surface of the board. leaving about 1/4 in. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. long. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Ill. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. and after wetting. J. place it face down in the dish. although tin ones can be used with good success. if blueprints are used. N.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. and about 12 in. The tacks should be about 1 in. thick. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Select the print you wish to mount. New York. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Enough plaster should. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. Thompson. --Contributed by O. says Photographic Times. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. those on matte paper will work best. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. but any kind that will not stick may be used. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. . Y. apart and driven in only part way. E and F. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Petersburg. D.

without mixing the solutions.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. violets.. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. roses. bell flowers. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. Lower into the test tube a wire. etc. as shown in the right of the sketch. filling the same about onehalf full. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. will be rendered perfectly white. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. One of the . and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. as shown at the left in the sketch. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle.

melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. Fig. long. 3. in diameter and 1 in. The first point should be ground blunt.. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. South Dakota. L. Millstown. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. A rod that will fit the brass tube. as shown. 1-7/8 in. not too tightly. and at the larger end. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. long and made of wood. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. When soldering these parts together. or delicate tints of the egg. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The tin horn can be easily made. thick. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . made of heavy tin. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The diaphragm. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by L. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. turned a little tapering. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. shading. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The sound box. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. Shabino. about 1/8s in. 2. 1. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. should be soldered to the box. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. to keep the core from coming off in turning. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. but which will not wobble loose. is about 2-1/2 in. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat.

put a board on top. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Gold.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Ill. Victor. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. and. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . and weighted it with a heavy stone. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom.Contributed by E. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Chicago. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. Jr. wondering what it was. E. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Colo. says the Iowa Homestead. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. mice in the bottom.

A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. N. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Buffalo. Pereira. Ottawa.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. --Contributed by Lyndwode. . Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Y. Can.

Jaquythe. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. This cart has no axle. Grand Rapids. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Mich. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. and at one end of the stick fasten. De Loof. a piece of tin. by means of a flatheaded tack. Cal. cut round. Richmond. --Contributed by W. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. through which several holes have been punched. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. longer than the length of the can. as shown. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Thos. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. as it can be made quickly in any size. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. A. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so .How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Put a small nail 2 in. above the end of the dasher.

wide and as long as the box. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. 1/4 in. Doylestown. wide. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. wide and 3 ft. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. 2 in. Notches 1/8 in. 1-1/2 in. of course. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. 1. 2. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. The baseboard and top are separable. 2. 1 ft. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Pa. --Contributed by James M. board. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. apart. Kane. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. screwed it on the inside of a store box.1. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. The candles. A wedge-shaped piece of . Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. wide and 1/8 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. I reversed a door gong. deep and 3 in. New Orleans. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. were below the level of the bullseye. La. Fig. 2. thick. as shown. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood.

Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. Wood. will. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. the blade is put back into the groove . Needles. Cover the block with rubber. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Mass. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. --Contributed by G. wide rubber bands or felt.. A. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. the reason being that if both were solid.Book Back Holders metal. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. After the glue has dried. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. Ia. as shown in Fig. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Worcester. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. After completing the handle. by cutting away the ends. When not in use. stone or wood. The block can also be used as a paperweight. scissors. This device is very convenient for invalids. wide into each side of the casing. etc. take two pieces of hard wood. the shelf could not be put on the window. West Union. For the handle. it can be removed without marring the casing. to prevent its scratching the desk top. when placed as in Fig. can be picked up without any trouble. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. 1. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. 3. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. dressing one surface of each piece.

1 in. 2. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Malden. thus carrying the car up the incline. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. long. A. Erie. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Jacobs. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. as shown in Fig. square and 4 in. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Hutchins. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. as shown in Fig.and sharpened to a cutting edge. A notch is cut in one side. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. 1. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Ohio. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. . --Contributed by Maud McKee. Mass. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. S. Each one is made of a hardwood block. --Contributed by H. Pa. If desired. -Contributed by W. Cleveland.

Prepare a design for the front. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. a board on which to work it. If one such as is shown is to be used. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. N. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing.. This will insure having all parts alike. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. Cape May Point.J. will be needed. . --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. and an awl and hammer. The letters can be put on afterward. One sheet of metal. 6 by 9-1/2 in.

placed on a table. 1 part. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. in the waste metal. if desired. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in.Fasten the metal to the board. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. applied by means of a brush. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. but weird and distant. 2 parts white vitriol. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. which is desirable. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. varnish. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. as shown. One coat will do. flat brush. So impressive are the results. The music will not sound natural. to right angles. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. behind or through the center of a table leg. The stick may be placed by the side of. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. Remove the metal. mandolin or guitar. that can be worked in your own parlor. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. or. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. paste the paper design right on the metal. 3/4 part. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. turpentine. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. a violin. If any polishing is required. only the marginal line is to be pierced. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. . says Master Painter." In all appearance. On the back. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. 1/4 part.

1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. With proper tools this is easy. each 6 in. are shaped as shown in Fig. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. wide. apart. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. round-head machine screws.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. across the top. London. long and spread about 8 in. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. . The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. long. square bar iron. The longest piece. Two pairs of feet. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. long and measuring 26 in. says Work. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. and is easy to construct. 2. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. without them. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. each 28 in. it might be difficult. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. thick by 1/2 in. 3. is bent square so as to form two uprights.

7. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. using rosin as a flux. 4. Fig. After the glass is cut. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. Place the corner piece of glass. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. The brads are then removed. B. A. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. is held by the brads. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. better still. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. The design is formed in the lead. 5. in the grooves of the borders. lead. 6. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. While the piece of lead D. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. The glass. D. After the joints are soldered. or. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. Fig. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. and the base border. C. on it as shown. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. as shown in Fig. cut a long piece of lead. special flux purchased for this purpose. 5. the latter being tapped to .

as shown in Fig. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. and two wood blocks. plank about 12 ft. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. and round the corners of one end for a ring. --Contributed by W. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. one on each side and central with the hole. Two styles of hand holds are shown. This ring can be made of 1-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. in diameter and about 9 in. wood screws in each washer. A and B. Bore a 5/8-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. long. Jr. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. long. J. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. 8. This . The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. not less than 4 in. in diameter and 1/4 in. long. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. then drill a 3/4-in. rocker bolt. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. bolt. Fasten the plates to the block B. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in.. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Dreier. plates. Secure a post. rounded at the top as shown. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. N. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. thick and drill 3/4-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. The center pin is 3/4-in. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. holes through their centers. Camden. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. bolt. Make three washers 3-in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. Bore a 3/4-in. H.the base of the clip. then flatten its end on the under side. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away.

Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. boards along the side of each from end to end. 1-1/4in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in.will make an excellent cover for a pot. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. by 2 ft. 2-1/2 in. by 3 ft. 3/4 by 3 in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. by 6-1/2 ft. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 16 screws. can make a first class gymnasium. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. straight-grained hickory. chestnut or ash. If trees are convenient. long. 1 by 7 in. horse and rings. because it will not stand the weather. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . apart for a distance of 3 ft. shanks. bit. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. La. 3 in. square by 9-1/2 ft. 9 in. screws. from one edge. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. long and 1 piece. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 4 in. long. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. hickory. long. long. in diameter and 7 in. The four 7-in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 7 in. 2 by 4 in. 4 filler pieces. square by 5 ft. 1. 1/2 in. 50 ft. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. long. long. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. To substitute small. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. maple. 4 pieces. bolts and rope. of 1/4-in. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. New Orleans. 4 pieces. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. and some one can swing an axe. 4 in. Draw a line on the four 7-in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot.

The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . 8 in. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. deep and remove all loose dirt. 2. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. so the 1/2-in. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats.. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground.bored. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. at each end. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. boards coincide. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in.. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Bore a 9/16-in. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. apart. each 3 ft. piece of wood. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. apart. from the end.

not much to look at in daytime. was at its height. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. When the interest of the crowd. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. about 100 ft. the effect is very striking. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. which at once gathered. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. in an endless belt. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. and materially heightened the illusion. He stretched the thread between two buildings. If the tumbler is rotated. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. it follows the edge for about 1 in. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. apart. but most deceptive at dusk.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. And all he used was a black thread. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. W. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. passing through a screweye at either end. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. it is taken to the edge of the foot. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. not even the tumbler. and ascends the stem. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. and then passes in a curve across the base. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room." which skimmed along the distant horizon. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. disappearing only to reappear again. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. just visible against the dark evening sky.. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. .

14 gauge is bent as shown at B. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. long and 1 doz. preferably cedar. 2 base pieces. wide and 1 in. beginning at a point 9 in. To make the apparatus. 2 in. long. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. Bevel the ends of . New Orleans. 8 bolts. large spikes. and turned in a spiral D. 8 in. 4 wood screws. so the point will be on top. by 7 ft. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 4 knee braces. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. square and 51/2 ft. 6 in. 2 by 3 in. 1. La. deep. 4 in. long. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by 10 ft. long. Chisel out two notches 4 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. The cork will come out easily. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 4 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. Fig. 2 cross braces. 2 by 4 in. 8 in. from either side of the center. long. by 3 ft. long. 8 in. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. square and 6 ft. 2 by 4 in. 4 bolts. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. long. by 2 ft. long. 2 by 4 in. long. A wire about No. 7 in. 2 side braces.

Cal. additional long. ( To be Continued. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. A. --Contributed by W. Richmond. These will allow the ladle to be turned. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. equipped with a strainer. After the trenches are dug.. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. save the bars. except the bars. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. screws. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. jellies. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. Two endpieces must be made. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. using four of the 7-in bolts. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. and countersinking the heads. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. etc. which face each other. . and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. If using mill-cut lumber. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. of 7 ft. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. so the bolts in both will not meet. The wood so treated will last for years. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. leaving the strainer always in position. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. A large sized ladle. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. but even unpainted they are very durable.the knee braces. as shown in the diagram. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. Jaquythe. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. leave it undressed.

A. partly a barrier for jumps. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. of sufficient 1ength. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. which seems impossible. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. . An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. Oil. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. In order to accomplish this experiment. drill press or planer. milling machine. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. thus holding the pail as shown. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. it is necessary to place a stick. or various cutting compounds of oil. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe.

by 3 ft. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. 4-1/2 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. and free from knots. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 4 knee braces. in the ground. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. bolts. to fasten the knee braces at the top.. long. 4 in. square by 5 ft. long.. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 1 in. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. wood yard or from the woods. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. apart in a central position on the horse. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. apart. by 3 ft. 7 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. long. Procure from a saw mill. is a good length. long. long. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. The material required is as follows: Two posts. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. bolts. beginning 1-1/2 in. Hand holds must be provided next. 1 cross brace. These are well nailed in place. The round part of this log must be planed. by 3 ft. long. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. ten 1/2-in. piece of 2 by 4-in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. To construct. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. long. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 4 in. bolts. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. 2 by 4 in. but 5 ft. bolt. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 3 in. 2 bases. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. from each end. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 2 by 4 in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. 2 adjusting pieces. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . stud cut rounding on one edge. These are placed 18 in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. long. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. two 1/2-in. projections and splinters. 4 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. square by 5-1/2 ft. in diameter--the larger the better. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. 2 by 4 in.

the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. no one is responsible but himself. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Such a hand sled can be made in a . and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. Also. A. over and around. then bending to the shape desired. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. etc. Cal. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Richmond. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Jaquythe. it is caused by an overloaded shell. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. but nevertheless.--Contributed by W. such as a dent.horse top. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. it is caused by some obstruction. pipe and fittings. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. snow. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. water. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed.

The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Toronto. --Contributed by James E. then run a string over each part. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. --Contributed by J. France. thick. Paris. Ontario. 1. Joerin. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. when straightened out. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. 1/4 or 3/16 in. . at E and F. Mass. Vener. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. is much better than a wood sled. are all the tools necessary. These. Boston. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. W. will give the length. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Noble. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. The end elevation. which. 2. when complete. in width and 1/32 in. --Contributed by Arthur E. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete.

4. 3. and the latter will take on a bright luster. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. AA and BB. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. . A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. nor that which is partly oxidized. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. It is best to use soft water.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. are nailed. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The method shown in Figs.

The materials used are: backbone. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 2. 3. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 1). class ice-yacht. . having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. or various rulings may be made. Broad lines can be made. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. as shown in Fig. 4. as shown in Fig. 8 and 9. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. or unequal widths as in Fig. 2. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. Both the lower . The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. but if it is made much longer. a larger size of pipe should be used. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The point should extend about 11/2 in. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. It can be made longer or shorter.Fig. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. bent and drilled as shown. The headstock is made of two tees. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. pipe. pins to keep them from turning. 1. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. long. out from the collar. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. a tee and a forging. about 30 in. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point.

2. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. To do this. 1. and will answer for a great variety of work. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. W. 2. --Contributed by W. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. --Contributed by W. but also their insulating properties. UpDeGraff. or a key can be used as well. Held. Fruitvale. 3/4 or 1 in. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. as shown in Fig. Man. a straight line should be scratched Fig. --Contributed by M. thick as desired. M. as shown in Fig. Indiana. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Laporte. 2. . Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. a corresponding line made on this. Musgrove. Boissevain. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. It is about 1 in. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. else taper turning will result.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Cal. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end.

Ft. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. J. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. as shown. In use. Smith. long. The handle is of pine about 18 in. --Contributed by E. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. Cline. Ark. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. To obviate this. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. and the two loops are made of heavy wire.

making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. White. --Contributed by Walter W. face off the end of the piece. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. which should be backed out of contact. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. and when once in true up to its size. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. on starting the lathe. Colo. take . New Orleans. centering is just one operation too many. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. the drill does not need the tool. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. After being entered. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. La. This prevents the drill from wobbling. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Denver. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. if this method is followed: First.

and can be varied to suit the performer.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. all the better. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. unknown to the spectators. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. In doing this. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. a bout 1/2 in. vanishing wand. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. The handkerchief rod. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. the cap is placed over the paper tube. and this given to someone to hold. shown at C. as shown in D. It can be used in a great number of tricks. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. After the wand is removed. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. The glass tube B. shorter t h a n the wand. by applying caustic soda or . The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. says the Sphinx. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. a long piece of glass tubing. after being shown empty. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. is put into the paper tube A.

The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. This dimension and those for the frets .potash around the edges of the letters. 3/16. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. thick. Cut a piece of hard wood. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 1 Neck. Glue the neck to the box. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. The sides. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. and glue it to the neck at F. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. preferably hard maple. long. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. With care and patience. with the back side rounding. 1 End. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. square and 1-7/8 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. across the front and back to strengthen them. can be made by the home mechanic. 1/4 in. 2 Sides. cut to any shape desired. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. End. by 14 by 17 in. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. As the cement softens. Glue strips of soft wood. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. The brace at D is 1 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. 1 Bottom. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 1. as shown by K. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets.

Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. thick and about 1 ft. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. O. in diameter. Frary. and beveled . Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Stoddard. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. A board 1 in. or backbone. Norwalk. E. but it is not. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place.should be made accurately. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. Carbondale. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. toward each end. Six holes. --Contributed by Chas. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. long is used for a keel. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. 3/16 in.Pa. -Contributed by J. wide and 11-1/2 ft. 1) on which to stretch the paper. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. H. When it is completed you will have a canoe.

or other place. 3. C. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. C. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. but twigs of some other trees. b. The ribs. For the gunwales (a. thick. Shape these as shown by A. some tight strips of ash. b. as they are apt to do. 13 in. B. which are easily made of long. 3. will answer nearly as well. but before doing this. Fig. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. as shown in Fig. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. a. Fig. and are not fastened. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. two strips of wood (b. thick. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. such as is used for making chairbottoms. Osiers probably make the best ribs. and notched at the end to receive them (B. slender switches of osier willow. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. 2). 1. Fig. The cross-boards (B. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. such as hazel or birch. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. or similar material. 3). stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. Fig. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. and. in such cases. two twigs may be used to make one rib. with long stout screws. the loose strips of ash (b. 4). because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. in thickness and should be cut. long are required. wide by 26 in. twigs 5 or 6 ft. as shown in Fig. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. procure at a carriage factory.. Fig. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. Fig. 2. Fig. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. long.) in notches. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. b. 3/8 in. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. are next put in. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. 3). . apart. probably. 2). so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. Any tough. buy some split cane or rattan. by means of a string or wire. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Fig. In drying. as before described. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. and so. These are better. when made of green elm. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. 4. Fig. 1 and 2. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Green wood is preferable.

Fig. 5). Then take some of the split rattan and. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. B. after wetting it. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. but neither stiff nor very thick. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. tacking it to the bottom-board. and light oars. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. if it has been properly constructed of good material. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. If not. When the paper is dry. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. and as soon as that has soaked in. It should be smooth on the surface. The paper is then trimmed. and very tough. and held in place by means of small clamps. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. Being made in long rolls. however. You may put in . varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. wide. preferably iron.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. It should be drawn tight along the edges. and steady in the water. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. When thoroughly dry. If the paper be 1 yd. but with less turpentine. apply a second coat of the same varnish. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. of very strong wrapping-paper. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface.

A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. to fit it easily.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Fig. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. Drive the lower nail first. and if driven as shown in the cut. 5. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. 5). The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. We procured a box and made a frame. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. they will support very heavy weights. Fig. 2. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. and make a movable seat (A. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. Fig. fore and aft. 1. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. 1 and the end in .

This is an easy . is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. 4. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. and the glass.Fig. Close the other end with the same operation. Pittsburg. this makes the tube airtight. being softer where the flame has been applied. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. A good way to handle this work. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. Pa. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and the result is. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. This way has its drawbacks. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. 3. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. 5. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand.

The candle holders may have two. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. fifth. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. or six arms. also trace the decorative design. four. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. 23 gauge. then reverse. very rapid progress can be made. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. metal shears. thin screw. Oswald. above the metal. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. file. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. third. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. three. second. -Contributed by A. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. fourth. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. After the bulb is formed. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. flat and round-nosed pliers.way to make a thermometer tube. Seventh. rivet punch. with a piece of carbon paper. Give the metal a circular motion. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. extra metal all around. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. Sixth. above the work and striking it with the hammer.

How To Make a Hectograph [326] . The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Small copper rivets are used. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Metal polish of any kind will do. and holder. drip cup. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Having pierced the bracket. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers.

which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. The boom. hammer. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. when it will be ready for use. is a broomstick. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. Twenty cents was all I spent. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. and add the gelatine. Soak 1 oz. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. alcohol 2 parts. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. N. and water 24 parts. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. they were like an ice boat with a sail. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. on a water bath. the stick at the bottom of the sail. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. winding the ends where they came together with wire. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. and other things as they were needed. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. sugar 1 part. The gaff. of glycerine to about 200 deg.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. except they had wheels instead of runners. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. using a steel pen. Shiloh. glycerine 4 parts. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. Mother let me have a sheet. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. I steer with the front wheel. and in a week . of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. Heat 6-1/2 oz. J. thus it was utilized. F. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. A saw. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. and it will be ready for future use. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. smooth it down and then remove as before. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. all the rest I found. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Fifty. and brace and bit were the tools used. deep.

Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens . A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.

so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. 1/2 to 3/4 in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. slide to about 6 ft. 3. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. The board is centered both ways. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. are . or glue. focus enlarging a 3-in. at a distance of 24 ft. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. provided the material is of metal. H. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. A table. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. high. wide. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. about 2 ft. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. above the center. This ring is made up from two rings. 8 in. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. wide and 15 in. long. and the lens slide. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. G. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. and 14 in. If a small saw is used. as desired. wire brads. A and B. and. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws.. well seasoned pine. and the work carefully done. DD. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. or a lens of 12-in. The slide support. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. and a projecting lens 2 in. E. but if such a box is not found. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. 1. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. at a point 1 in. thick. describe a 9-in. Fig. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in.

of safe. and when the right position is found for each. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. E. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. B. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. A sheet . but not long enough. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. the water at once extinguishes the flame.-Contributed by G. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. apply two coats of shellac varnish. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. should the glass happen to upset. Small strips of tin. To reach the water. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts.constructed to slip easily on the table. P. JJ. placed on the water. The arrangement is quite safe as. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. St. Minn. light burning oil. Paul. the strips II serving as guides. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr.

. 12 ft. Fig. to cover the mattresses. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 3. Schenectady. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 2. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 1. from a tent company.H. I ordered a canvas bag. Crawford. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. then the corners on one end are doubled over. --Contributed by J. form a piece of wire in the same shape. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 4.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Y. 3. Fig. If one of these clips is not at hand. 3 in. N. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. by 12 ft. 9 in.

connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Pa. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Edward M. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. 3 to swing freely on the tack. to keep it from unwinding. A rubber band. D. first mark the binding-post A. 2. as shown in Fig. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. 1/2 in. open on the edges. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. Colo. holes in the edge. Warren. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Attach a piece of steel rod. A Film Washing Trough [331] . V. --Contributed by Walter W. 3/4 in. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. An arc is cut in the paper. 2.each edge. Fig. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Teasdale. White. 3/4 in. drill two 3/16 in. in the center coil. insulating them from the case with cardboard. 1. wide. Fasten the wire with gummed label. and insert two binding-posts. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. thick. 2. through which the indicator works. To calibrate the instrument. Denver. Do not use too strong a rubber. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. long and 3/16 in. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. Fig. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. so as to form two oblong boxes. C. apart. to the coil of small wire for volts. long. for amperes and the other post. 1. 1/2 in.

Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Dayton. O. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Hunting. Wood Burning [331] . Cut a 1/4-in. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. M. with the large hole up. Place this can on one end of the trough. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. --Contributed by M.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. as shown. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet.

The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. mouth downward.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. then into this bottle place. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .

Place the small bottle in as before. 1. wide and 4 in. Upper Troy. 2. long. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. Ala. but not very thick. thick. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. If the cork is adjusted properly. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. provided the bottle is wide. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. If the small bottle used is opaque. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. This will make a very pretty ornament. Auburn. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. many puzzling effects may be obtained. --Contributed by Fred W. N. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . as shown in the sketch.Y. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. --Contributed by John Shahan.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. Whitehouse. 3/4 in.

four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. which was nailed to the face plate. The bearing blocks were 3 in. Its smaller parts. thick. The 21/2-in. such as blades and pulleys. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. pulley. On a 1000-ft. 1. which was 6 in. long. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. 4. The shaft C. Fig. as shown in Fig. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. thick and 3 in. B. or ordinary telephone transmitters. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. --Contributed by D. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. The wire L was put . was keyed to shaft C. 1. 2 ft. If a transmitter is used. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 3.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. 1. which gave considerable power for its size. 1. Fig. iron rod. Both bearings were made in this manner. by the method shown in Fig. 1. sugar pine on account of its softness. A staple. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. which extended to the ground. was 1/4in. even in a light breeze. Milter. G. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. high without the upper half. 2. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. line. K. thick. Fig. I. were constructed of 1-in. W. Fig. wide. Fig. 1 in. to the shaft. pulley F. in diameter and 1 in. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in.

square to the board P at the top of the tower. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. through the latter. long and 1/2 in. 1. To lessen the friction here. was 2 ft. If you have no bell. across the thin edge of a board. 1) 4 in. hole for the shaft G was in the center. and was cut the shape shown. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. apart in the tower. long. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. so that the 1/4-in. Fig. 1. top down also. strips. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. long and bend it as . wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. 25 ft.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. G. a 1/2-in. for instance. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. 6. Fig. Fig. providing one has a few old materials on hand. 0. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. 3 in. washers were placed under pulley F. in diameter. There a 1/4-in. Fig. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. 1. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. R. The bed plate D. was tacked. To make the key. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. long and 3 in. when the windmill needed oiling. 1. 6. Two washers were placed on shaft C. in the center of the board P. Fig. This completes the receiver or sounder. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. Fig. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. long. H. long and bend it as shown at A. 2. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. Fig. cut out another piece of tin (X. This board was 12 in. The other lid. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. as. pine 18 by 12 in. 5. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. The power was put to various uses. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. The smaller one. with brass headed furniture tacks. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. with all parts in place. wide and 1 in. hole was bored for it.

The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. and. 1. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. like many another device boys make. although it can be made with but two. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. 2. When tired of this instrument. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . causing a buzzing sound. using cleats to hold the board frame. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. -Contributed by John R. after the manner of bicycle wheels. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough.shown. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. as shown at Water. Thus a center drive is made. Going back to Fig. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. The rear barrels are. Now. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. as indicated. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Before tacking it to the board. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. McConnell. By adjusting the coils. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. at the front. fitted with paddles as at M. leaving the other wire as it is. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly.

The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. copper piping and brass tubing for base. The speed is slow at first. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. can be built. If the journals thus made are well oiled. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. There is no danger. which will give any amount of pleasure. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. there will not be much friction. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. To propel it. or even a little houseboat. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. as shown in Fig. 1. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. feet on the pedals. 3. seat yourself on the bicycle seat.

A. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Place one brass ring in cylinder. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. Fig. Fig. If magnifying glass cannot be had.of pleasure for a little work. and so creating a false circuit. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. D. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. 2. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . 1. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. If it is desired to make the light very complete. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Fig. 2. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. C. Fig. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Turn a small circle of wood. then the glass disc and then the other ring. B. 2. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. 1. 1. or it may be put to other uses if desired. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. Then melt out the rosin or lead. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead.

wire from light to switch. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. Utah. Pa. Brinkerhoff. E. switch. S. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. B. H. To operate this. some glue will secure them. such as is used for cycle valves. which stops bell ringing. brass strip. X. The parts indicated are as follows: A. 4-1/2 in. long. bell. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. wide and 1/16 in. thick. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. F.india rubber tubing. When alarm goes off. wire from bell to switch. if too small. D. Chatland. while lying in bed. 3/8 in. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . J. or 1/4in. 5-1/4 by 10 in. To throw on light throw levers to the left. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. --Contributed by Geo. brass rod. To get the cylinder into its carriage. set alarm key as shown in diagram. shelf. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. copper tubing. Ogden. Swissvale.. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. Throw lever off from the right to center. contact post. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. near the bed. by having the switch on the baseboard. after two turns have been made on the key. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. after setting alarm. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. --Contributed by C. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. C. long. T. dry batteries. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. I. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. bracket. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. key of alarm clock. C. G. In placing clock on shelf. 4 in. and pulled tight. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . wire from batteries to switch.

as at A. from one end. 1/4 in. letting it extend 3/4 in. beyond the end of the spindle. for instance. making it as true and smooth as possible. Having finished this. 2. Minn. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. long. which can be made of an old can. being careful not to get the sand in it. place stick and all in a pail of sand. A small lamp of about 5 cp. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. as . 1. A flannel bag. Fig. a bed warmer. 1. Make a shoulder. Make the spindle as in Fig. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. gives the heater a more finished appearance. in diameter. as at B. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Fig. as in Fig. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. All that is required is a tin covering. as at A. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. 2. Pull out the nail and stick. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. in diameter. wide. about 3-1/2 in. S. Fig. but the bed warmer is probably the best example.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Chapman. about 6 in. Lanesboro. This is to form the fuse hole. 3. 4 in. will do the heating. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. --Contributed by Chas.

A piece of tin. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. long. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. 5/8 in. The material must be 1-1/2 in. Joerin. good straight-grained pine will do. --Contributed by Arthur E. this is to keep the edges from splitting. or hickory. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. wide and 6 ft. 11/2 in. 6 in.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. will be sufficient to make the trigger. but if this wood cannot be procured. ash. long. 1 in. spring and arrows. long. wide and 3/8 in. wide and 3 ft. thick. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. A piece of oak. The illustration shows how this is done. thick. thick. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. deep. 1. 3/8 in.

A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. E. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. Trownes. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. Fig. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. 3. 9. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. from the opposite end. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. The trigger. place the arrow in the groove. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. it lifts the spring up. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. as shown in Fig. 4. 7. The stick for the bow. To shoot the crossbow. from the end of the stock. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. in diameter. or through the necessity of. Such a temporary safe light may be . --Contributed by O. When the trigger is pulled. better still. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. thick. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. 6. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. having the latter swing quite freely. Fig. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. 8. as shown in Fig. To throw the arrow. Ill. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. Wilmette. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. wide at each end. and one for the trigger 12 in. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. The bow is not fastened in the stock. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. 2. which is 1/4 in. A spring. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back.

apart. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Remove the bottom of the box. Moreover. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. and nail it in position as shown at A. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. since the flame of the candle is above A. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. from the ground. Remove one end. or only as a camp on a short excursion. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. By chopping the trunk almost through. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. from the ground. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. make the frame of the wigwam. C. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. is used as a door. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. and replace as shown at B. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. making lighting and trimming convenient. says Photo Era. respectively. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. This lamp is safe. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. the bark lean-to is a . The cut should be about 5 ft. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. it is the easiest camp to make. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. The hinged cover E. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut.

and when the camp is pitched. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. thick. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. will dry flat. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. wide and 6 ft. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. are a convenient size for camp construction. Sheets of bark. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. long and 2 or 3 ft. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. nails are necessary to hold it in place. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. long and 1-1/2 in. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. Where bark is used. wide. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. a 2-in. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. A piece of elm or hickory. 6 ft. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. For a permanent camp. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. makes a good pair of tongs. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. Tongs are very useful in camp. and cedar. piled 2 or 3 ft. deep and covered with blankets. In the early summer. selecting a site for a camp. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. spruce. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. 3 ft. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. make the best kind of a camp bed. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. and split the tops with an ax. long. For a foot in the middle of the stick. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. . Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas.

Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. and affording accommodation for several persons. hinges. . Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.

Doylestown. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. A. When the temperature outside is 10 deg.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. and provide a cover or door. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. the interior can. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. to another . deep and 4 in. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. I drove a small cork. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Pa. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. changing the water both morning and night. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. 1. B. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. wide.. --Contributed by James M. B. about 4 in. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. Kane. Fig.

With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. C. for instance. for instance. a liquid. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. such as ether. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. 2. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit.glass tube. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. Fig. This makes . and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. limit. fused into one side. 4 and 5). open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. The current is thus compelled. to pass through an increasing resistance. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The diagram. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. 2. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. until. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. if necessary. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. E. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. which project inside and outside of the tube. 3.

Before removing the field from the lathe. two holes. A 5/8in. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. Alpena. on a lathe. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. brass or iron. thick. therefore. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. 3. 3-3/8 in. which will make it uniform in size. is composed of wrought sheet iron. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. assemble and rivet them solidly. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. When the frame is finished so far. 1. which may be of any thickness so that. After cleaning them with the solution. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. they will make a frame 3/4 in. If the thickness is sufficient. to allow for finishing. but merely discolored. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. Then the field can be finished to these marks. set at 1/8 in. drill the four rivet holes. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. bent at right angles as shown. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. thick. making it 1/16 in. cannot be used so often. in diameter. 2. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. hole is . and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. mark off a space. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. or even 1/16 in. larger than the dimensions given. or pattern. After the template is marked out. as shown in Fig. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. between centers. and for the outside of the frame. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. A. clamp the template. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. 4-1/2 in. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. Michigan. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. thicker. tap. screws. when several pieces are placed together. Fig. brass. in diameter. as shown in the left-hand sketch. The bearing studs are now made. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. by turning the lathe with the hand. 3-3/8 in. Fig. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. These holes are for the bearing studs.

and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The shaft of the armature. 4. into which a piece of 5/8-in. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. and build up the solder well. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. solder them to the supports. or otherwise finished. brass rod is inserted. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . is turned up from machine steel. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. file them out to make the proper adjustment. Fig. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. soldered into place.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. When the bearings are located. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point.

The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. 1/8 in. as shown in Fig. wide. 7. 6. as shown in Fig. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. holes through them for rivets. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. 3/4 in. being formed for the ends. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in.. then drill a 1/8-in. 3. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. 6. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. as shown in Fig. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. as shown in Fig. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. by 1-1/2 in. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. 3/4 in. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. hole and tap it for a pin. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. The pins are made of brass. The sides are also faced off and finished. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. brass rod. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. After the pieces are cut out. wide. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. 3. washers. When this is accomplished. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. sheet fiber. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. as shown m Fig. thick. and then they are soaked in warm water. as shown in Fig. Rivet them together. After they . 8. 9. Procure 12 strips of mica. 5. deep and 7/16 in. thick and 1/4 in. and held with a setscrew. or segments. threaded. thick. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. thick are cut like the pattern. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. thick. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. inside diameter. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. Make the core 3/4 in. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. Armature-Ring Core. Find the centers of each segment at one end. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. When annealed. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. 1-1/8 in. to allow for finishing to size.

shown at A. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. This winding is for a series motor. sheet fiber. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. wide and 1 in. about 100 ft.have dried. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. after the motor is on the stand. of the wire. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. and bring the end of the wire out at B. yet it shows a series of . 6 in. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. In starting to wind. and wind on four layers. thick. 1. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. The two ends are joined at B. When the glue is set. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. Run one end of the field wire. shown at B. 8 in. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. or side. sheet fiber. being required. The field is wound with No. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. To connect the wires. long. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. After one coil. All connections should be securely soldered. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. they are glued to the core insulation. by bending the end around one of the projections. which will take 50 ft. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. The source of current is connected to the terminals. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. the two ends of the wire. of the end to protrude. of No. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. are soldered together. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. until the 12 slots are filled. Fig. 1. The winding is started at A. 5. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. Fig.

alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. is fastened to the metallic body. or. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. which serves as the ground wire. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. Nine wires run from the timer. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. A 1/2-in. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. still more simply. one from each of the eight contacts. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. as in the case of a spiral. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. and one.

The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. thus giving 16 different directions. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. board. Covering these is a thin. It should be . the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. 45 deg.The Wind Vane. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. circle. Without this attachment. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. 6 in. long. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. of the dial. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center.

and securely nail on the top of the box. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. is most satisfactory. 14 by 18 in. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover.about 6 ft. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. making it heavy or light. thus making a universal joint. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. however. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. also a piece of new carpet. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. Place the leather on some level. Fill the box with any handy ballast. To make it. according to who is going to use it. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. . and about 6 in. will be enough for the two sides. N. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. long to give the best results. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. Cut 3-in. Blackmer. or. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. called a chip carving knife. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. Before tacking the fourth side. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. Buffalo. high. though a special knife. will be sufficient. Y. if not too high. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. To work these outlines." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. -Contributed by James L. will answer the purpose just as well. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather.

An ordinary sewing-machine . A good leather paste will be required. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.

of water. --Contributed by Katharine D. of common salt and 10 lb. away from it. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Y. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. temporary lameness. square and tying a piece of . rather than the smooth side. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. and tie them together securely at the bottom. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. B. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. N. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. or a hip that has been wrenched. Syracuse. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Morse. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb.will do if a good stout needle is used. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. If a fire breaks out. a needle and some feathers. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. and fasten the feathers inside of it. as in cases of a sprained ankle. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch.

string to each corner. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. wound on the head end. Ashland. Y. A small wooden or fiber end. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. Paterson. G. B. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. cut to the length of the spool. wide and 1/16 in. Hellwig. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. and tacked it to the boards. This not only keeps the rats out. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. There is a 1-in. is cut on the wood. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. commonly called tintype tin. The coil is 1 in. F. --Contributed by J. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. long. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. One end is removed entirely. made up of four layers of No. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. long. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. . laying poisoned meat and meal. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. high. Albany. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. A. and the receiver is ready for use. The diaphragm C. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. which is the essential part of the instrument. The strings should be about 15 in. The end is filed to an edge. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. 1/8 in. The body of the receiver.J. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. as shown. deep. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. thus helping the rats to enter.. etc. N. E. the corners being wired. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. N. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. setting traps. and a coil of wire. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. letting it go at arm's length. board all around the bottom on the inside. Wis. but not sharp. Gordon Dempsey. --Contributed by John A.

Take a pair of round-nose pliers. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. wide. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. better still. a piece of small wire. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. Take a piece of string or.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. and bend each strip in shape. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. To clean small articles. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. gold. A single line will be sufficient. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. to . The vase is to have three supports. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. begin with the smallest scrolls. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase.

Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Trace also the line around the purse.. from E to F. wide when stitching up the purse. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. using a duller point of the tool. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. through which to slip the fly AGH. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Work down the outside line of the design. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern.. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. thus raising it. 3-1/4 in. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. and does not require coloring. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Fold the leather on the line EF. 3-1/2 in. After taking off the pattern. About 1 in.which the supports are fastened with rivets. sharp pencil. 4-1/4 in. 6-3/8 in. from the lines EF on the piece. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. as shown in the sketch. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. . from C to D. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern.

long. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. deep. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. as shown in Fig. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. 1 was cut. This also should be slightly beveled. then place the square piece out of which Fig. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. by 12 ft. following the dotted lines. When it is finished. leaving the lug a. and a model for speed and power. It is neat and efficient. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. as well as useful. 2. with pins or small nails. 1/2 in. It can be made without the use of a lathe. Make the lug 1/4 in. 1. around the wheel. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and the projections B. deep. with a compass saw. b. then nail it. and. Cut off six pieces 12 in. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. Now take another piece of wood. and which will be very interesting.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. all the way around.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. with the largest side down. and cut out a wheel. being cast in wooden molds. Fit this to the two . First. thick. the "open" side. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. 3. and tack the other piece slightly. square. with the open side down. Then nail the wheel down firmly. cut out one piece as shown in Fig.

square pieces of wood. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. hole 1/4 in. hole entirely through at the same place. After it is finished. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 4. slightly beveled. Take the mold apart. and clean all the shavings out of it. square pieces of wood. Now put mold No. and lay it away to dry. place it between two of the 12-in. deep. and bore six 1/4-in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. 1. Now take another of the 12-in. holes through it. as shown by the black dots in Fig. bolts. then bolt it together. in the center of it. hole bored through its center.pieces just finished. and boring a 3/8-in. as shown by the . with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. one of which should have a 3/8-in.

lay it on a level place. This is for a shaft. A piece of mild steel 5 in. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. so that it will turn easily. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. in diameter must now be obtained. where the casting did not fill out. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. 1. This is mold No. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. 6. and bore three 1/4-in. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. until it is full. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. 6. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. one in the projections. and two 1/4-in. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. B. instead of the right-handed piece. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. screw down. place it under the drill. holes at d.black dots in Fig. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. Using the Brace . Fig. After it is fitted in. Commencing 1-1/2 in. place the entire machine in a vise. 5. one in the lug. and pouring metal in to fill it up. and 3/8-in. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. and the other in the base. and drill them in the same manner.1. This is the same as Fig. drill in it. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. Put this together in mold No. and lay it away to dry. from the one end. b. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. d. the other right-handed. Let it stand for half an hour. take an ordinary brace. and pour babbitt metal into it. and run in babbitt metal again. Then bolt the castings together. long. wide and 16 in. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in.2. as shown in illustration. Pour metal into mold No. and drill it entirely through. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. see that the bolts are all tight. Now take mold No. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made.2. long. put the top of the brace through this hole. 4.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. over the defective part. true it up with a square.1. fasten a 3/8-in. only the one is left-handed. holes. and connect to the boiler. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Now cut out one of the 12-in.

one 6 ft. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. and if instructions have been carefully followed. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. will do good service.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. At each end of the 6ft. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. long. and. and the other 8 ft. piece and at right angles to it. Then take a knife or a chisel. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in.. while it is running at full speed. with a boss and a set screw. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Plan of Ice Boat . or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned.

On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. in diameter. in front of the rudder block. which may come in handy in heavy winds. as the runners were fastened. plank nail 8-in. piece and at right angles to it. should be of hardwood. so much the better will be your boat. leaving 1 ft. long. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. The spar should be 9 ft. boards to make the platform. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. projecting as in Fig. tapering to 1-1/2 in. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. long and 2-1/2 in. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. To the under side of the 8-ft. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. at the top. where they often did considerable damage. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. in diameter in the center. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. plank. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. The tiller. 3. 2 by 3 in. 8 a reef point knot. Run the seam on a machine. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. Fig.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. bolt the 8-ft. 1. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. at the butt and 1 in. Over the middle of the 6-ft. This fits in the square hole. in diameter at the base. 1. and about 8 in. Fig. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. Make your runners as long as possible. at the end. long. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. in the top before the skate is put on. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. distant. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and .

S S. allowing the springs to contact at C. The . but one that will afford any amount of amusement. block of wood nailed to A. Its parts are as follows: A. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. bent into a hook at each end. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. R. Ariz. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. so that they come in contact at C. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. --Contributed by J. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. to block B. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. wide. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. --Contributed by John D. Comstock. and the alarm bell will ring. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. B. and place it behind a stove. Mechanicsburg. P. Adams. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. small piece of wood. P. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. Phoenix.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. The arrangement proved quite too effective. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. Pa.

The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. 1. Gild the pan all over.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. Take the glass. The center pole should be 10 ft. and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. 2. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. The stump