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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 1. long will make six boomerangs. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. --Contributed by J. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. Toronto. Noble. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. as shown in Fig. with the hollow side away from you. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. as shown in Fig.Fig. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. A piece of plank 12 in. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. Fig. apart. 1. It is held in this curve until dry. wide and 2 ft. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. grasp it and hold the same as a club. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. E. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. 1. 2. To throw a boomerang. away. 2 -. The pieces are then dressed round. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. Ontario. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. 2. until it is bound as shown in Fig. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. distant.

In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. long. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. 6 in. it is not essential to the support of the walls. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. dry snow will not pack easily. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. and it may be necessary to use a little water.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. blocks . Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. forcing it down closely. First. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. minus the top. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. but about 12 in. and with a movable bottom. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. or rather no bottom at all. which makes the building simpler and easier. thick. A very light. the block will drop out. made of 6-in. one inside of the circle and the other outside. high and 4 or 5 in. however. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. If the snow is of the right consistency. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. A wall.

2. The piece of wood. or an old safe dial will do. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. above the ground. 1. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. --Contributed by Geo. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. Fig. D. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. a. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] .throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. C. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. A nail. There is no outward thrust. Ore. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. is 6 or 8 in. Union. It also keeps them out. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. Fig. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. 3. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. and the young architect can imitate them. which can be made of wood. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. Goodbrod. long and 1 in.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. 1. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. wide. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. 3 -. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. which is about 1 ft. Fig. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. 2. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side.

one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. New York. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. the box locked . one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. Merrill. If ordinary butts are used. one pair of special hinges. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. says the Sphinx. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person.When taking hot dishes from the stove. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. as the weight always draws them back to place. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Syracuse. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. S. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. --Contributed by R. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box.

1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. 3. Place the piece in a vise. Ga. as shown in Fig. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. With the metal shears. one for each corner. If the measuring has been done properly. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. about 1-32 of an inch. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. smooth surface. 2. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. If they do not. Augusta. as shown in Fig. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Fig. -Contributed by L.and the performer steps out in view. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. All . and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. 1. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Alberta Norrell. To make a design similar to the one shown. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. proceed as follows: First. on drawing paper. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. When the sieve is shaken. It remains to bend the flaps. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. as shown. draw one-half of it. allowing each coat time to dry. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly.

The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. of No. --Contributed by R. A piece of porcelain tube. After this has dried. is fitted tightly in the third hole. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. in diameter. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. R. The current. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. Colo. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. Galbreath.the edges should be left smooth. if rolled under the shoe sole. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. and in the positions shown in the sketch. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. causing it to expand. from the back end. A resistance. about 6 in. heats the strip of German-silver wire. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. C. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. B. To keep the metal from tarnishing. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. The common cork. When the current is turned off. as shown at AA. used for insulation. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. Denver. which is about 6 in. If a touch of color is desired. In boring through rubber corks. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. 25 gauge German-silver wire. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. in passing through the lamp. H. long. 25 German-silver wire. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. should be in the line.

Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. as shown in Fig. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. 3. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Mo. Purchase two long book straps. Kansas City. 2.bottom ring. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. 1. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. leaving a space of 4 in. with thin strips of wood. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. . Fig. between them as shown in Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. --Contributed by David Brown.

as . A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. just the right weight for a woman to use. 2. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. to form a handle. --Contributed by James M. C. The string is then tied. A. Two strips of brass. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. long.. are mounted on the outside of the box. Fig. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. 4. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag.. 3. These are shown in Fig. Fig. When the aeroplane tips. and one weighing 25 lb. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. The folds are made over the string. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. 1. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. --Contributed by Katharine D. Pa. which is the right weight for family use.An ordinary electric bell. one weighing 15 lb. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. having a gong 2-1/2 in. 1. Kane. and tack smoothly. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Y. 1. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. and a pocket battery. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. in diameter. Doylestown. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Syracuse. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Fig. N. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. 36 in. Morse.

long. if once used. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. N. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. and many fancy knick-knacks. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. --Contributed by Louis J. such as brackets. Y. Frame Made of a Rod . 2. four washers and four square nuts. in diameter. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. Day. Floral Park. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. The saw. 2. AA. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. 3/32 or 1/4 in. two 1/8 -in.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. bent as shown in Fig. machine screws. 1.

Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. as well as brass and copper. For etching. therefore. Rub off the highlights. 1 part sulphuric acid. Of the leathers.may be made of either brass. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Drying will cause this to change to purple. or silver. using a swab and an old stiff brush. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Watch Fob For coloring silver. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. allowing each time to dry. File these edges. the most expensive. Apply two coats. after breaking up. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. In the design shown. 1 part nitric acid. of course. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. of water. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. of water in which dissolve. --Contributed by W. A. it has the correct strength. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. be covered the same as the back. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. The buckle is to be purchased. Scranton.. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. if copper or brass. Detroit. Michigan. as well as the depth of etching desired. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. rounding and smoothing with emery paper.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. If it colors the metal red. treat it with color. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. copper. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. green and browns are the most popular. Silver is the most desirable but. though almost any color may be obtained. An Austrian Top [12] . With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. use them in place of the outside nuts.

Michigan. allowing only 1-1/4 in. long. Ypsilanti. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. When the shank is covered. Bore a 3/4-in. pass one end through the 1/16-in. --Contributed by J. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way.F. thick. in diameter. Parts of the Top To spin the top. A handle. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. . Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. 3/4 in. A 1/16-in. Tholl. 5-1/4 in. 1-1/4 in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. set the top in the 3/4 -in. hole in this end for the top. is formed on one end. The handle is a piece of pine. wide and 3/4 in. long. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. starting at the bottom and winding upward. hole. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously.

This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. --Contributed by Miss L. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. having no sides. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Augusta. --A. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Northville. tarts or similar pastry. Houghton. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. A. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. The baking surface. . Ga. Alberta Norrell. For black leathers. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Mich.

break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. glass fruit jar. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. then solder cover and socket together. says Studio Light. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. When you desire to work by white light. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. the same as shown in the illustration. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. Centralia. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. two turns will remove the jar. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Mo. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Stringing Wires [13] A.

A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. . Janesville. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. square by 62 in. 1-1/4 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint.for loading and development. square by 12 in. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. so it can be folded up. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. as shown in the cross-section sketch. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. 4 Braces. 1-1/4 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 16 Horizontal bars. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. and not tip over. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. 4 Vertical pieces. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. Wis. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. They are fastened.

The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. --Contributed by Dr.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. The whole. after filling the pail with water. Phillipsburg. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. -Contributed by Charles Stem. If the loop is tied at the proper place. C. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. from scrap material. The front can be covered . 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. and a loop made in the end. H. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. Rosenthal. Cincinnati. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. O. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. New York. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. After rounding the ends of the studs. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler.

says a correspondent of Camera Craft. FIG. The . as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. The results will be poor. Md. In my own practice. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. 1 FIG. by all rules of the game. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. and. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. if you try to tone them afterward. Baltimore. Develop them into strong prints. sickly one. you are. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. By using the following method. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. principally mayonnaise dressing. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. the mouth of which rests against a. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. If the gate is raised slightly. --Contributed by Gilbert A. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. either for contact printing or enlargements. Wehr. the color will be an undesirable. thoroughly fix.

.. Gray.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. in size.. 2 oz. to make it 5 by 5 in. 1 and again as in Fig. wide and 4 in. --Contributed by T... With a little practice.. transfer it to a tray of water...bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper... San Francisco. When the desired reduction has taken place.. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. Water ...... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper... in this solution.. The blotting paper can .. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.. 2. preferably the colored kind. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. A good final washing completes the process. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.... L. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. 16 oz." Cyanide of potassium ... as it will appear clean much longer than the white... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes..... Cal. 20 gr. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. three times........ It will bleach slowly and evenly.. Place the dry print... but. Iodide of potassium .... long to admit the angle support. when it starts to bleach.. 5 by 15 in... etc..... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. where it will continue to bleach..... without previous wetting.

the head of which is 2 in. Oshkosh. the shaft 1 in. --Contributed by L. wide below the . 3. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. --Contributed by J. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Make a design similar to that shown. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Canada. and a length of 5 in. Wisconsin. Corners complete are shown in Fig.J. 20 gauge. wide. Monahan. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. having a width of 2-1/4 in.

then trace the other half in the usual way. Pierce a hole with a small drill. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. 1 part nitric acid. Apply with a small brush. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. Do not put the hands in the solution. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. using carbon paper. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. For coloring olive green. Fig. With files. which gives the outline of the design Fig. 1. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. The metal must be held firmly. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. being held perpendicular to the work. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. then coloring. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. 2. After this has dried. 4. after folding along the center line. 1 part sulphuric acid. . using turpentine. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. After the sawing. Allow this to dry. using a small metal saw. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Trace the design on the metal. Make one-half of the design. With the metal shears. freehand. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. deep. but use a swab on a stick.FIG. 3. then put on a second coat. 1 Fig. as shown in Fig. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in.

First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Syracuse. as shown. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. attach brass handles. on a chopping board.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. thick. Morse. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. --Contributed by H. Richmond. M. When this is cold. East Hartford. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Carl Cramer. Burnett. . Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. --Contributed by Katharine D. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. After the stain has dried. it does the work rapidly. Conn. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. then stain it a mahogany color. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Cal. Ii is an ordinary staple. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. --Contributed by M. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. New York. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in.

and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. WARNECKE Procure some brass. as shown in Fig. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. L. square.. . indicating the depth of the slots. Fig. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. machine screws. not over 1/4 in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. 1. thick. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. also locate the drill holes. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. brass. Jaquythe. Florida. 53 steel pens. Kissimmee. 1/4 in. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. and several 1/8-in. saucers or pans. about 3/16 in. 4. two enameled. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. one shaft. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. A. holes. as shown at A. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. in width at the shank. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. H. Richmond. --Contributed by Mrs.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. --Contributed by W. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. or tin. Cal. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. some pieces of brass. Atwell. thick and 4 in. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line.

Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. wide and bend as shown in Fig. hole is drilled to run off the water. as shown. thick. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. Fig. each about 1 in. 2. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. Fig. lead should be run into the segments. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. long and 5/16 in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. as in Fig. as shown in Fig. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. with the face of the disk. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. into the hole. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. brass and bolted to the casing. can be procured. hole. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. 2. 3. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves.. Bend as shown in Fig. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. wide. using two nuts on each screw. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. 1. If metal dishes. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Fig. 5. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. These are connected to a 3/8-in. A 3/4-in. long by 3/4 in. with 1/8-in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. 3. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. There should be a space of 1/16 in. and pins inserted. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. If the shaft is square. a square shaft used. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. machine screws and nuts. The shaft hole may also be filed square. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. machine screws. 6. with a 3/8-in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. supply pipe. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. in diameter and 1/32 in. 7. hole in the center. about 1/32 in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. thick. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig.

The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Canada. 8-1/2 in. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. deep and 1-1/4 in. or more in diameter. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. three of which are in the basket. --Contributed by S. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Cooke. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Hamilton. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. from the bottom end of the legs. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. V. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. deep over all. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. The lower part. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The four legs are each 3/4-in. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Fasten with 3/4-in. Ill. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. from the top of the box. high and 15 in. With a string or tape measure. to make the bottom. using four to each leg. make these seams come between the two back legs. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. Now you will have the box in two pieces. When assembling. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. --Contributed by F. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Be sure to have the cover. La Salle. Smith. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Stain the wood before putting in the .the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. long. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. square and 30-1/2 in. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. screws. we will call the basket.

chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. 1. you can. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Md. Fig.lining. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . wide and four strips 10 in. The folded part in the center is pasted together. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Boston. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. --also the lower edge when necessary. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Mass. Sew on to the covered cardboards. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. and gather it at that point. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. wide. as shown in the sketch. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. sewing on the back side. -Contributed by Stanley H. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. The side. 2. When making the display. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Cover them with the cretonne.2 Fig. Baltimore. Packard.

Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Y. and. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. L. saving all the solid part.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Gloversville. Orlando Taylor. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. --Contributed by H. Crockett. When through using the pad. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Mo. Cross Timbers. Fig. It is not difficult to . 3. It is cleanly. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. with slight modifications. N. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. --Contributed by B.

Texas. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. If a file is used.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. or if desired. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. remove the contents. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Lane. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. El Paso. it should be new and sharp. Mass. and secure it in place with glue or paste. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . --Contributed by Edith E. After this is done. and scrape out the rough parts. After stirring. Both of these methods are wasteful. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Bourne. are shown in the diagram. S. across the face. Lowell. -Contributed by C. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center.

I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. --Contributed by Loren Ward. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. --Contributed by Geo. F. --Contributed by Marion P. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. The process works well and needs no watching. Those having houses . it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Turl. The insects came to the light. Greenleaf. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. He captured several pounds in a few hours. After several hours' drying. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel.cooking utensil. Canton. Oregon. Oak Park. As these were single-faced disk records. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Iowa. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Des Moines. Ill. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Wheeler. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Ill. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. A Postcard Rack [25].

Worcester. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. --Contributed by Wm. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor.. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. --Contributed by Thomas E. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. The single boards can then be fixed. will do as well. Lay the floor next. 6 in. Mass. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. plane and pocket knife. Both sides can be put together in this way. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. thick. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. but for cheapness 3/4 in. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. the best material to use being matched boards. Only three pieces are required. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. the bottom being 3/8 in. Dobbins.. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. and both exactly alike. and the second one for the developing bench.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. and as they are simple in design. not even with the boards themselves. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Rosenberg. by 2 ft. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. material. 6 in. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Glenbrook. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. boards are preferable. Conn. one on each side of what will be the .

9 by 11 in. brown wrapping paper. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 11. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. which is fixed on as shown . These are all in section and are self-explanatory. wide. 7. It is shown in detail in Fig. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. etc.. 6. Fig. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. and the top as at C in the same drawing. nailing them to each other at the ridge.. and in the middle an opening. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. and should be zinc lined. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 3 and 4. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. In hinging the door. 6 and 9. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. The developing bench is 18 in. 9). 2 in section. below which is fixed the sink. as shown in Figs. so that it will fit inside the sink. The roof boards may next be put on. and act as a trap for the light. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. 5. and shown to a larger scale in Fig.doorway. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. of the top of the door for the same reason. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. At the top of the doorway. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. 6. and to the outside board of the sides. hinged to it. 10). 8. by screwing to the floor. the closing side as at B. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. so that the water will drain off into the sink. is cut.. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light.

Details of the Dark Rook .

For beating up an egg in a glass. mixing flour and water. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. --Contributed by W. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. 14. The house will be much strengthened if strips. after lining with brown paper. though this is hardly advisable. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. 1. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. it is better than anything on the market. but not the red glass and frame. 18. 17. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. Karl Hilbrich. 13. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. Fig. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. 20. 19. 16. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. Fig. are fastened in the corners inside. 13. 2. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. Fig. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. as at M. or red light as at K. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. 6. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. preferably maple or ash. if desired.in Fig. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. and a 3/8-in. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . which makes it possible to have white light. or the room may be made with a flat roof. Erie. In use. as shown in the sections. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. Fig. screwing them each way into the boards. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. Pennsylvania. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. as at I. these being shown in Fig. and a tank stand on it. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. four coats at first is not too many. A circular piece about 2 in. as shown in Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. The handle should be at least 12 in. 16. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. 15. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. as in Fig. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig.

as shown in the sketch. for a handle. To operate. long.copper should be. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. -Contributed by E. Yonkers. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Schweiger. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Smith. when put together properly is a puzzle. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. L. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. --Contributed by Wm. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Eureka Springs. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. New York. which. Ark. about 3/8 in. --Contributed by L. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Mo. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. D. Kansas City. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. G. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Mitchell.

1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. holes should be drilled in the bottom. 1. the box will require a greater height in front. for the moment. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. The corks in use are shown in Fig. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. in order to thoroughly preserve it. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. need them. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. the rustic work should be varnished. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. 3.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. as well as improve its appearance. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. A number of 1/2-in. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. 2. to make it set level. The design shown in Fig. . The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. as shown in Fig. 3. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. After the box is trimmed. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. as is usually the case. especially for filling-in purposes. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. Each cork is cut as in Fig. If the sill is inclined. Having completed the bare box. as shown in Fig. which binds them together.

When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Traps do no good. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. etc. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. But I have solved the difficulty. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. and observe results. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. can't use poison. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. 4. life in the summer time is a vexation. being partly eaten into. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. cabbages. as shown in Fig. it's easy. When the corn is gone cucumbers. Each long projection represents a leg. share the same fate. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. drilled at right angles. . F. too dangerous. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. 1.. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. 3. 2.

More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. -. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. cut in 1/2-in. of No. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. long. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. the coil does not heat sufficiently. About 9-1/2 ft. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. . Iowa. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. If. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. by trial. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. and made up and kept in large bottles. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The solution can be used over and over again. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. cut some of it off and try again. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. strips.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do.

as shown in the sketch. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. hot-water pot. it falls to stop G. . Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. to cause the door to swing shut. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. N. C. coffee pot. is a good size--in this compound. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. forks. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. and a strip. --Contributed by James M. Syracuse. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Fig 2. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Dallas. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Doylestown. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. --Contributed by Katharine D. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Knives.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Y. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. of gasoline. Morse. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Stir and mix thoroughly. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Pa. In cleaning silver. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Texas. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. Kane. 1) removed. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. D. but with unsatisfactory results. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Do not wash them. --Contributed by Victor Labadie.

New Orleans. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. La. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. which is. later fixed and washed as usual. Pa. but unfixed. negatives. Waverly. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Ill. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. --Contributed by Oliver S. Fisher. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Theodore L. using the paper dry. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. Harrisburg. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. . of course. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Sprout.

Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. a harmonograph is a good prescription. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. metal. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The harmonograph. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. 1. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. No two hamonograms are exactly alike.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. In this uncertainty lies the charm. To obviate this difficulty. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. Fig. then . Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy.

Arizona. as long as the other. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. as shown in Fig.. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. what is most important. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. --Contributed by Wm. or the lines will overlap and blur. of about 30 or 40 lb. 1.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. A pedestal. Rosemont. 1-3/4 by 2 in. A weight. J. for instance. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. which can be regulated. R. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. Chicago. in diameter. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work.. Holes up to 3 in. makes respectively 3. one-fourth. The length of the short pendulum H. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. and unless the shorter pendulum is. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. 1. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. one-fifth. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. with a nail set or punch. ceiling. provides a means of support for the stylus. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. is attached as shown at H. G. in the center of the circle to be cut. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. that is. A small weight. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. Gaffney. exactly one-third. Another weight of about 10 lb. is about right for a 10-ft. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. K. Ingham. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. Punch a hole. --Contributed by James T. to prevent any side motion. etc. such as a shoe buttoner. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. A small table or platform. as shown in the lower part of Fig. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. A length of 7 ft. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table.

depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. one for the sender and one for the receiver. 1. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Cruger. 4.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 3. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. and proceed as before. dividing them into quarters. and 4 as in Fig. Morey. of course. The two key cards are made alike.J. distributing them over the whole card. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. N. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Cape May City.J. then 3 as in Fig. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. Chicago. 5. 2. Fig. -Contributed by W. then put 2 at the top. --Contributed by J. 6. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. Fig. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. a correspondent of . The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card.H. The capacity of the vise.

the portion of the base under the coil. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. After preparing the base and uprights. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Augusta. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. respectively. of the uprights.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. 1/2 oz. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. Asbestos board is to be preferred. deep. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. 22 gauge German-silver wire. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. 30 gr. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. Wind the successive turns of . After securing the tint desired. Ga. remove the prints. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. To assemble. of ferricyanide of potash. from the top and bottom. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. says Popular Electricity. acetic acid and 4 oz. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. 1/4 in. sheet of well made asbestos paper. 6 gauge wires shown. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. long. Alberta Norrell. Cut through the center. drill 15 holes. --Contributed by L. of water. If constructed of the former. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. citrate of iron and ammonia. of 18-per-cent No. wood-screws.

The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. square. Small knobs may be added if desired. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. N. --Contributed by Frederick E. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. Ampere. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. screws. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Y. The case may be made of 1/2-in. rivets.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. Ward. which. but these are not necessary. then fasten the upright in place. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. as they are usually thrown away when empty. Labels of some kind are needed. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . 14 gauge. etc.. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. 16 gauge copper wire. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. cut and dressed 1/2 in. if one is not a smoker.

Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all.14 oz. Ark. and one made of poplar finished black. Heat it until hot (not red hot). Eureka Springs. and rub the point of the copper on it. G. tinner's acid. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. of water. brass. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. D. B. as shown in the sketch. Richmond. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. lead. of glycerine to 16 oz. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. particularly so when the iron has once been used. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. Kenosha. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary.." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. --C. . --Contributed by W. Larson. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. --Contributed by A. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. Wis. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. This is considerable annoyance. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. galvanized iron. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. Copper. If the soldering copper is an old one. especially if a large tub is used. S. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. In soldering galvanized iron. and labeled "Poison. E and F. sandpaper or steel wool. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. being careful about the heat. the pure muriatic acid should be used. A. then to the joint to be soldered. The material can be of any wood. Jaquythe. zinc. C. or has become corroded. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. it must be ground or filed to a point. The parts are put together with dowel pins. tin. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. California. a piece of solder. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job.

a ring may be made from any metal. wide.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. 1. thick and 1-1/4 in. in diameter. Fig. The disk will come out pan shaped. brass and silver. in diameter. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. such as copper. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . I bind my magazines at home evenings. Troy. Fig. Brass rings can be plated when finished. Y. Take a 3/4-in. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. This completes the die. D. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. 7/8 in. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. nut. however. The dimensions shown in Fig. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. N. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. 2. -Contributed by H. round iron. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. This will leave a clear hole. The punch A. and drill out the threads. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. W. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. with good results. The covers of the magazines are removed. Six issues make a well proportioned book. B. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. C. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Place the band. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Hankin. which gives two bound volumes each year. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Apart from this.

After drawing the thread tightly. and then to string No. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. through the notch on the left side of the string No. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. The string No. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. is nailed across the top. of the ends extending on each side. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. and place them against the strings in the frame. 5. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. The sections are then prepared for sewing. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. deep. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. C. Start with the front of the book. and a third piece. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. 1 in Fig. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. 1. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. using . longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. Coarse white thread. If started with the January or the July issue. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. size 16 or larger. 2. 1. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. which is fastened the same as the first. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. The covering can be of cloth. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. 2. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. Five cuts. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick.4. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. on all edges except the back. . Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Place the cardboard covers on the book. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. 1/8 in. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. then back through the notch on the right side. is used for the sewing material. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. The covering should be cut out 1 in. threaded double. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. allowing about 2 in. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. 1. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back.

zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Divine. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. round iron. For the blade an old talking-machine . Nebr. --Contributed by Clyde E. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. and. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. at opposite sides to each other. Place the cover on the book in the right position. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. on which to hook the blade. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Encanto.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Cal. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Tinplate. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. College View. and mark around each one. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal.

in order to drill the holes in the ends. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. On the upper side. Miss. as it is sometimes called. bore. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. E. or double extra heavy. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. with 10 teeth to the inch. B.. Ohio. fuse hole at D. Moorhead. by 4-1/2 in. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Then on the board put .Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Hays. Summitville. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. at the same end.. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. and 1/4 in. by 1 in. C. and another piece (B) 6 in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. F. and file in the teeth. thick. long. -Contributed by Willard J. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. thick. with a steel sleeve. as shown. hydraulic pipe. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). Make the blade 12 in. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. A. and a long thread plug. and 1/4 in.

Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. of wire to each coil. and some No. Philadelphia. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . --Contributed by Chas. Boyd. about 5 ft. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. the jars need not be very large. high around this apparatus. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Connect up as shown. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. H. of rubber-covered wire. using about 8 in. A lid may be added if desired. as from batteries. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. 4 jars.

. by 1-1/4 in. square by 14 ft. 2. are important. wide and 2 in. as they are not substantial enough. and four pieces 14 in. two pieces 34 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. 11 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. and plane it on all edges. 3 and No. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. 4) of 3/4-in. oak boards. and for the rear runners: A. with the cushion about 15 in. 2 is lower down than in No. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. C. wide and 3/4 in. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in.. Construct the auto front (Fig. 3. long. then apply a coat of thin enamel. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. 30 in. .. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. by 5 in. apart. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. 2. 2. by 2 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. thick. two for each jar. B. by 1-1/4 in. by 6 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. The current then will flow through the motor. by 2 in. For the steel runners use 3/8 in.. A variation of 1/16 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. 1 and so on for No. wide. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. 27 B. 2 in.the way. The stock required for them is oak. wide by 3/4 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. At the front 24 or 26 in.. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. See Fig. 1 on switch.. 7 in. 5 on switch. 16-1/2 in. The connection between point No. long. No. two pieces 30 in. 34 in. two pieces 14 in. To wire the apparatus. above the ground. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. is used to reduce friction. 4 in. 15-1/2 in. long by 22 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 2 and 3. sheet brass 1 in. Put arm of switch on point No. C. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. long. as they "snatch" the ice. The top disk in jar No. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. 1 is connected to point No. making them clear those in the front runner. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. In proportioning them the points A. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. On the door of the auto front put the . Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. 3 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. The sled completed should be 15 ft. thick. however. Use no nails. Their size also depends on the voltage. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. First sandpaper all the wood. Fig. A 3/4-in. long. B. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. For the brass trimmings use No. beginning at the rear. Use no screws on the running surface. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. by 1 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. or source of current. The illustration shows how to shape it. 4. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. on No. Z. & S. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. gives full current and full speed. B and C.. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. 1. by 5 in. An iron washer. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. and bolt through. direct to wire across jars. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance.

and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. such as used on automobiles. If desired. to improve the appearance. If the expense is greater than one can afford. such as burlap. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. Then get some upholstery buttons. brass plated. which is somewhat moist. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. parcels. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. may be stowed within. long. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. If desired. a number of boys may share in the ownership. overshoes. by 30 in. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. cutting it out of sheet brass.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . or with these for $25. to the wheel. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. a brake may be added to the sled. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. fasten a cord through the loop. by 1/2 in. Fasten a horn. The best way is to get some strong. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. lunch. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. etc. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. cheap material. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Then put a leather covering over the burlap.

--Contributed by Stewart H. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Leland.tree and bring. . Ill. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Lexington. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long.

some files. 2. mild steel or iron. a compass. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. 1. with twenty-four teeth. E. the cut will be central on the line. made from 1/16-in. thick. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. The straight-edge. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. Fig. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. Draw a circle on paper. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. First take the case of a small gearwheel. by drawing diameters. This guide should have a beveled edge. will be over the line FG. A small clearance space. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. London. Fig. With no other tools than a hacksaw. outside diameter and 1/16 in. FC. so that the center of the blade. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. 4). the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. CD. which. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. The first tooth may now be cut. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . 3. Fig. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. from F to G. the same diameter as the wheel. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. sheet metal. though more difficult. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. The Model Engineer. say 1 in. when flat against it.

To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. transmitter. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. ground it with a large piece of zinc. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. as shown in Fig. either the pencils for arc lamps. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. electric lamp. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. B. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. each in the center. some wire and some carbons. 1. No shock will be perceptible. or several pieces bound tightly together. B. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. 1. and the other outlet wire. as shown in Fig. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. as shown in Fig. .Four Photos on One Plate of them. Make a hole in the other. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. If there is no faucet in the house. hold in one hand. Focus the camera in the usual manner. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. 2. A bright. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. R. Then take one outlet wire. place the prepared slide with the corner cut.

which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Then set the whole core away to dry. Emsworth. Pa. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. and about that size. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. D D are binding posts for electric wires. One like a loaf of bread. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. They have screw ends. Several battery cells. or more of the latter has been used. Slattery. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. are also needed. 36 wire around it. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Dry batteries are most convenient. and will then burn the string C. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. a transmitter which induces no current is used. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Wrenn. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. by 1 in. If desired. But in this experiment. --Contributed by Geo.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. by 12 in. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. under the gable. leaving about 10 in. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. B. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. as shown. Ashland. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. as indicated by E E. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. and again wind the wire around it. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. J. serves admirably. of course. one at the receiver can hear what is said. at each end for terminals. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. A is a wooden block. Ohio.

C. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. D.wire. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. 1. connecting lamp receptacles. until the hand points to zero on the scale. while C is open. C. 12 or No. E. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. in series with bindingpost. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. The apparatus is now ready for operation. and switch. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. and one single post switch. These should have hollow ends. Fig. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. D. Jr. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. in parallel. run a No. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. and the lamps. At one side secure two receptacles. From the other set of binding-posts. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. Fig. B B. Place 16-cp. 14 wire. as shown. B B. the terminal of the coil. for the . as shown. The coil will commence to become warm. First make a support. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. F. Newark. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer.. The oven is now ready to be connected. Ohio. Connect these three to switch. 2. Turn on switch.

A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. aluminum being preferable for this purpose.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. 3 amperes. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. a standard ammeter. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. although copper or steel will do. 5. Dussault. as shown in the cut. 4. Fig.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. is made of wire. long. is made of iron. D. 3. 1/2 in. --Contributed by J. A wooden box. 14 wire. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. 36 magnet wire instead of No. Fig.E. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. to prevent it turning on the axle. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. This may be made of wood. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . To make one. Mine is wound with two layers of No. remove the valve. wind with plenty of No. E. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. B. 6. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. drill in only to the opening already through. If for 3-way. The core. wide and 1/8 in. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. deep. 2. where A is the homemade ammeter. 1. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. 1. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. 14. long and make a loop. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. It is 1 in. 7. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. long. until the scale is full. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. Fig. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. After drilling. wide and 1-3/4 in. inside measurements. a battery. high. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. 1/4 in. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. Montreal. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. D. etc. drill through the entire case and valve. 4 in. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. The pointer or hand. but if for a 4way. is then made and provided with a glass front. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. a variable resistance..or 4-way valve or cock. although brass is better. 4 amperes. 10 turns to each layer. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. At a point a little above the center. and D. This is slipped on the pivot. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. drill a hole as shown at H. The box is 5-1/2 in. thick. C. from the lower end. Fig. 5.

In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. and the arc light. as shown. This stopper should be pierced. making two holes about 1/4 in. provided with a rubber stopper. and the other connects with the water rheostat. F. A. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. high. By connecting the motor. To start the light. in thickness . E. B. which is used for reducing the current.performing electrical experiments. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. in diameter. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. One wire runs to the switch. D. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. and a metal rod. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole.

A. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. 2. as shown in B. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Fig. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. A piece of wood. long. --Contributed by Harold L. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. If the interrupter does not work at first. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. If all adjustments are correct. Having finished the interrupter. Jones.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. 1. Turn on the current and press the button. 1. Carthage. To insert the lead plate. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Fig. As there shown. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Fig. where he is placed in an upright open . Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. 1. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. 2. Fig. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Y. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. N. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. B. as shown in C. Having fixed the lead plate in position. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side.

A white shroud is thrown over his body.. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. with the exception of the glass. loosejointed effect. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. and must be thoroughly cleansed. especially L. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The lights. is constructed as shown in the drawings. and can be bought at Japanese stores. until it is dark there. light-colored garments. If it is desired to place the box lower down. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. which can be run by three dry cells. as the entire interior. Its edges should nowhere be visible. by 7 in. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. If everything is not black. should be colored a dull black. The model. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. inside dimensions. within the limits of an ordinary room. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. especially the joints and background near A. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. high. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. from which the gong has been removed. should be miniature electric lamps. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. by 7-1/2 in. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. and wave his arms up and down. A. giving a limp. could expect from a skeleton. to aid the illusion. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass.coffin. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. All . The glass should be the clearest possible. L and M. the illusion will be spoiled. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. figures and lights. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. dressed in brilliant. The skeleton is made of papier maché. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. They need to give a fairly strong light.

and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. If a gradual transformation is desired. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. fat spark. as shown in the sketch. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. --Contributed by Geo. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. Fry. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. San Jose. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in.that is necessary is a two-point switch. after which it assumes its normal color. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. placed about a foot apart. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. square block. W. Cal. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Two finishing nails were driven in.

and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. or a solution of sal soda. This is a wide-mouth bottle. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. A (see sketch). If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. and should be separated about 1/8 in. In Fig. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. into the receiver G. 1. The plates are separated 6 in. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. F. -Contributed by Dudley H. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. New York. B and C. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. In Fig. to make it airtight. by small pieces of wood. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. the remaining space will be filled with air. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. hydrogen gas is generated. soldered in the top. One of these plates is connected to metal top. If a lighted match . as shown. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. with two tubes. Cohen. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface.

One row is drilled to come directly on top. copper pipe. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. which forms the vaporizing coil. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . N. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. A. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. 2 shows the end view. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. Fig. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. copper pipe. long. B. A 1/64-in. A. either by passing a current of electricity around it. N. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. C C. London. of No. as is shown in the illustration.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. and the ends of the tube. A. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. A. from the bottom. which is plugged up at both ends. or by direct contact with another magnet. then a suitable burner is necessary. 1. A nipple. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. The distance between the nipple. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. is made by drilling a 1/8in. is then coiled around the brass tube. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. Fig. 36 insulated wire. long. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. P. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. If desired. should be only 5/16 of an inch. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. 1-5/16 in. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. 1/2 in. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. by means of the clips. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. in diameter and 6 in. says the Model Engineer. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. A piece of 1/8-in.

smoothing and creasing as shown at A. 3. at the front and back for fly leaves. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. larger all around than the book. but if the paper knife cannot be used. A disk of thin sheet-iron. duck or linen. fold and cut it 1 in. Fig. Turn the book over and paste the other side. should be cut to the diameter of the can. trim both ends and the front edge. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . 1. Cut four pieces of cardboard. with a fine saw. cut to the size of the pages. about 8 or 10 in. taking care not to bend the iron. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. longer and 1/4 in. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. 2). 1/4 in. this makes a much nicer book. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. boards and all. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. leaving the folded edge uncut. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Take two strips of stout cloth. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. smoothly. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Fig.lamp cord. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Fig.

This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. deep. is fitted in it and soldered. but its diameter is a little smaller. This will cause some air to be enclosed. 18 in. the joint will be gas tight. H. 4). in diameter and 30 in. B. Another tank. Noble. or rather the top now. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. is perforated with a number of holes. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. is soldered onto tank A. D. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. A gas cock. is made the same depth as B. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by James E. of tank A is cut a hole. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. is turned on it. C. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Bedford City. Toronto. E. In the bottom. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. pasting them down (Fig. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. as shown. Va. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. --Contributed by Joseph N. and a little can.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. which will just slip inside the little can. Another can. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Ont. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Parker. A. . without a head. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas.

and the four diagonal struts. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. S. Beverly. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. tacks. are shown in detail at H and J. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. and about 26 in. making the width. when finished. C. should be 1/4 in. which moves to either right or left. 2. square by 42 in. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. N. If the pushbutton A is closed. E. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. The wiring diagram. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. should be cut a little too long. Bott. exactly 12 in. should be 3/8 in. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. If the back armature. fastened in the bottom. long. B. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. to prevent splitting. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. The diagonal struts. The bridle knots. J. which may be either spruce. by 1/2 in. Fig. basswood or white pine. B. Fig. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. A A. D. B. with an electric-bell magnet. H is a square knot. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. The small guards. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. A. and sewed double to give extra strength. long. D. The armature. 1. -Contributed by H. thus adjusting the .. as shown at C. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. shows how the connections are to be made. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. The longitudinal corner spines.

Kan. to prevent slipping. and. Closing either key will operate both sounders. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Chicago. --Contributed by A. E. can be made of a wooden . for producing electricity direct from heat. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. however.lengths of F and G. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. thus shortening G and lengthening F. shift toward F. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Clay Center. that refuse to slide easily. and if a strong wind is blowing. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. D. A bowline knot should be tied at J. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Stoddard. as shown. --Contributed by Edw. with gratifying results. If the kite is used in a light wind. Harbert. the batteries do not run down for a long time. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery.

of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. The wood screw. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . or parallel with the compass needle. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. which conducts the current into the cannon. A. A and B. spark. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. with a pocket compass. --Contributed by A. Fasten a piece of wood. 14 or No. C. with a number of nails. B. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. C. and the current may then be detected by means. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. E. A. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. C. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. A. in position. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. Then. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current.. by means of machine screws or. Chicago. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. to the cannon.frame. F. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. E. and also holds the pieces of wood. placed on top. When the cannon is loaded. 16 single-covered wire. D.

Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. To reverse. H. Keil. square and 3/8 in. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. A hole for a 1/2 in. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Big Rapids. with the long arm at L'. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. screw is bored in the block. B. now at A' and S'. --Contributed by Joseph B. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. A and S. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. press the button. in this position the door is locked. when in position at A'. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Mich. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Connect as shown in the illustration. To unlock the door. Marion. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. --Contributed by Henry Peck. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. requiring a strong magnet.the current is shut off. . L. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Fig. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. A. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 1. 1. To lock the door. but no weights or strings. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. 1. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. where there is a staple. within the reach of the magnet. Fig. Bend the strips BB (Fig. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. to receive the screw in the center. A and S. Chicago. In Fig. Ohio.

The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. When ready for use. are enameled a jet black. hole. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. --Contributed by C. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. and if desired the handles may .Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. about 18 in. and may be made at very slight expense. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. if enameled white on the concave side. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. and C is a dumbbell. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. gas-pipe. When the holes are finished and your lines set. long. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. The standard and base. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. pipe with 1-2-in. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. or for microscopic work. Rand. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. West Somerville. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. Thread the other end of the pipe. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. J. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. put in the handle. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. Mass. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in.

1. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Make a cylindrical core of wood. A. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. B. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. E. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. D. across. which shall project at least 2 in. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. Mass. with a cover. This peculiar property is also found in ice. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. --Contributed by C. 8 in.be covered with leather. high by 1 ft. North Easton. Fig. Warren. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. long and 8 in. as shown at A in the sketch. Fig. inside the pail. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. 1. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1.. across. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. M. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln .

and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. as dictated by fancy and expense. L. or make one yourself. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. C. 15%. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. which is the hottest part. cutting the hole a little smaller. The 2 in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. 25%. and varnish.mixture of clay. long. thick. and your kiln is ready for business. 3) with false top and bottom. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. 2 in. and graphite. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. projecting from each end (Fig. C. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. Cover with paper and shellac as before. such . bottom and sides. the point of the blue flame. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. When lighted. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. pack this space-top.. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. carefully centering it. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. 1390°-1410°. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. about 1 in. W. hotel china. 2. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. and with especial caution the first time. After finishing the core. the firing should be gradual. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. 60%. of fine wire. diameter. It is placed inside the kiln. C. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. thick. but will be cheaper in operation. Whatever burner is used. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. sand. if there is to be any glazing done. Fit all the parts together snugly. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. and on it set the paper wrapped core. wider than the kiln. but it will burn a great deal of gas. Line the pail. 1). and 3/4 in. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. Wind about 1/8 in. This done. long over the lid hole as a chimney.-G. pipe. 1). Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. full length of iron core. If the cover of the pail has no rim. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. and 3/8 in. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. strip of sheet iron. 1330°. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. to hold the clay mixture.. as is shown in the sketch. layer of the clay mixture. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. hard porcelain. if you have the materials. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. After removing all the paper. E. let this dry thoroughly. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. Fig. in diameter. make two wood ends. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. Set aside for a few days until well dried. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in.. and cut it 3-1/2 in. pipe 2-ft. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. say 1/4 in. in diameter.

T. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. Then take the black cards. with a plane. 2). about 1/16 in. 2. bind tightly with black silk. C. Washington. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. leaving long terminals. as in Fig. R. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. 8 in.. A. overlaps and rests on the body. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. --Contributed by J. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. Take the red cards. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. as shown in the sketch herewith. 1. C. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. taking care to have the first card red. as in Fig. square them up and place in a vise. and plane off about 1/16 in. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. diameter. all cards facing the same way.53 in. D. 2. and divide it into two piles. red and black. length of . . and discharges into the tube. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. procure a new deck. Then. and so on.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. The funnel. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. C. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. every alternate card being the same color. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. the next black. around the coil. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Of course. B. You can display either color called for. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. Chicago. square them up.

and then the frame is ready to assemble. so that when they are assembled. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. All the horizontal pieces. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. The bottom glass should be a good fit. through the holes already drilled. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. It should be placed in an exposed location. A. angle iron for the frame. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. and this is inexpensive to build. To find the fall of snow. the first thing to decide on is the size. thus making all the holes coincide. 1 gill of fine white sand. B. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. E.C.J. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. 1 gill of litharge. The cement. 1. A. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. E. The upright pieces. C. stove bolts. to form a dovetail joint as shown. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. Long Branch. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson.. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. stove bolts. the same ends will come together again. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. Fig. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. N. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. D. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. F. Let . pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. B. Drill all the horizontal pieces. as the difficulties increase with the size. of the frame. about 20 in. B. When the glass is put in the frame a space. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement.

and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . if desired. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. on the door by means of a metal plate. A. and. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. to the door knob. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. B. a centerpiece (A. Fig. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. Fasten the lever.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. D. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Aquarium Finished If desired. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. having a swinging connection at C. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish.

2 at GG. I referred this question to my husband. They are shown in Fig. which is 15 in. Two short boards 1 in. Fig. 1 is the motor with one side removed.. from the outside top of the frame. 26 in. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. another. 6 in. will open the door about 1/2 in. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. --Contributed by Orton E. Fig. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. screwed to the door frame. 3 shows one of the paddles. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. Fig. 1. C. soldered to the end of the cylinder. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Cut two pieces 30 in. B. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. N. 2 ft. another. and another. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. long. according to the slant given C. Buffalo. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. A small piece of spring brass. for the top. Cut two of them 4 ft. Fig. and Fig. F. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. PAUL S. approximately 1 ft. wide by 1 in. Fig. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. Y. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. E. 1. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. White. with a water pressure of 70 lb. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. long. wide . the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. as at E. to keep the frame from spreading. long. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. several lengths of scantling 3 in. thus doing away with the spring.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. to form the slanting part. Do not fasten these boards now. 1 . 2 is an end view. showing the paddle-wheel in position. to form the main supports of the frame. but mark their position on the frame. To make the frame. D. AA. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. Fig. long.

2) form a substantial base. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. iron 3 by 4 in. 1. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. as shown in Fig. thick (HH. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. 24 in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. hole from the tops to the 1-in. after which drill a 5/8 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. take down the crosspieces. These are the paddles. Now block the wheel. Fig. Tack one side on. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. that is. steel shaft 12 in. holes. to a full 1/2 in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. When it has cooled. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. long to the wheel about 8 in. hole through them. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in.along the edges under the zinc to form . after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. 4. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. pipe. Fig. (I.burlap will do -. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. in diameter. by 1-1/2 in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. then drill a 3/16-in. and drill a 1/8-in. iron. hole through the exact center of the wheel. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. hole to form the bearings. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. Take the side pieces. Next secure a 5/8-in. from one end by means of a key. GG. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. remove the cardboard. thick. Fig. tapering from 3/16 in. Drill 1/8-in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. 2) with a 5/8-in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Fasten them in their proper position. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. and drill a 1-in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. 2) and another 1 in. Make this hole conical. hole through their sides centrally. hole through its center. with the wheel and shaft in place. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. and a 1/4 -in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig.

and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. any window will do. as this makes long exposure necessary. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Drill a hole through the zinc. ice-cream freezer. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. place the outlet over a drain. Correct exposure depends. and the subject may move. but now I put them in the machine. If sheet-iron is used. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. The best plate to use is a very slow one. drill press.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. It is obvious that. light and the plate. shutting out all light from above and the sides. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. or what is called a process plate. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. of course. says the Photographic Times. . but as it would have cost several times as much. and leave them for an hour or so.a water-tight joint. as shown in the sketch at B. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. on the lens. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. and as near to it as possible. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Focus the camera carefully. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. remove any white curtains there may be. sewing machine. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. it would be more durable. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Darken the rest of the window. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. Raise the window shade half way. start the motor. If the bearings are now oiled. Do not stop down the lens.

as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. With a piece of black paper. a glass tube. 2. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. which is made of iron and cork. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. an empty pill bottle may be used. or can be taken from an old magnet. The current required is very small. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. the core is drawn down out of sight. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. by twisting. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. On completing . This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. 2. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. until the core slowly rises. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. and a base. a core. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. with binding posts as shown. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. or wood. hard rubber. B. D. or an empty developer tube. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. full of water. The core C. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. without detail in the face. and without fog. The glass tube may be a test tube. C. as shown in Fig.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. as a slight current will answer. A.

Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. 1. white lead.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. 1 lb. 1 pt. and one not easy to explain. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. finest graphite. and are changed by reversing the rotation. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. according to his control of the current. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. The colors appear different to different people. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . water and 3 oz. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. and make a pinhole in the center. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. This is a mysterious looking instrument. is Benham's color top. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. whale oil.

C. fan-like. In making hydrogen. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B.B. B. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. especially if the deck is a new one. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. In prize games. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. nearly every time. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. or three spot. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. before cutting. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. Chicago. deuce. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. As this device is easily upset. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. thus partly filling bottles A and C. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. -Contributed by D. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. when the action ceases. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken.. A. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base.L. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water.

Detail of Phonograph Horn . 1. S. Bently. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Jr. in length and 3 in. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. J. Form a cone of heavy paper. 10 in. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Detroit. Dak. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together.. 12 in. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. . as shown in Fig. S. long and 3 in. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. 9 in. Huron. 4. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. 3). and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. long. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in.. Fig. Make a 10-sided stick. in diameter. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. --Contributed by C. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. W. (Fig. Fig.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 2. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. --Contributed by F. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. that will fit loosely in the tube A. 2 is also an enlarged sketch.

trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. A second piece of silk thread. Denver. with a pin driven in each end. on one side and the top. it is equally easy to block that trick. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. allowing 1 in. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. but bends toward D. Fortunately. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. push back the bolt. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. making it three-ply thick. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. Remove the form. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. bend it at right angles throughout its length. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. Cut out paper sections (Fig. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . about the size of a leadpencil. C. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. and walk in. E. A. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. --Contributed by Reader. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. Fig. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. will cause an increased movement of C. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. long. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. 6. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. A piece of tin. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze.

Paul. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . The reverse switch. B. while the lower switch. are 7 ft. long. Minn. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine.. S. By this arrangement one. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. B. S S. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. West St. The feet. are made 2 by 4 in. --Contributed by J. A. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. R. is connected each point to a battery. posts. The 2 by 4-in. long. or left to right. Jr. S. Two wood-base switches.strip. 4 ft. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. W. Fremont Hilscher. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. The upper switch. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. and rest on a brick placed under each end. put together as shown in the sketch. will last for several years. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached.. as shown.

Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. Fig. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. H and K. and in Fig. and the crank bearing C. cut in half. The steam chest D. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. Fig.every house. thick. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. FF. is an old bicycle pump. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. and has two wood blocks. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. 2 and 3. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The piston is made of a stove bolt. with two washers. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The hose E connects to the boiler. which will be described later. 2. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. either an old sewing-machine wheel. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. and a cylindrical . the size of the hole in the bearing B. and valve crank S. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. In Fig. 3/8 in. which is made of tin. or anything available. 1. The valve motion is shown in Figs. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The base is made of wood. pulley wheel. E.

Eustice. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. San Jose. and a very amusing trick. Cal. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Wis. as it is merely a trick of photography. or galvanized iron. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. 4. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. using the positive wire as a pen. as shown in Fig. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. and the desired result is obtained. C. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Fig. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. This is wound with soft string. to receive the connecting rod H. and saturated with thick oil. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. at that. First. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. . The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. W. 1. J. Fig. The valve crank S. can be an old oil can. is cut out of tin. G. The boiler. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. powder can. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. of Cuba. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. G. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. Fry. 3. --Contributed by Geo. This engine was built by W.piece of hard wood. Schuh and A.

B. Fig. C. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. diameter. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. B. Fig. as shown. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. The smaller wheel. and pass ropes around . 1 will be seen to rotate. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. as shown at AA. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. They may be of any size. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Fig. and place a bell on the four ends. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. 1 by covering up Figs. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. to cross in the center. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. and Fig. When turning. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Cut half circles out of each stave. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. considering the nature of the material employed in making it.

Louis. but not on all.M. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. W. Mo. say 1/2 or 3/4 in.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. from the transmitter. A (a short spool. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. which allows the use of small sized ropes. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. as shown in the illustration. procure a wooden spool.. such as clothes lines. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. produces a higher magnifying power).G. St. From a piece of thin . Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. which accounts for the sound. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. --Contributed by H. This in turn will act on the transmitter. long. To make this lensless microscope.

B. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. bent as shown. fastened to a wooden base. the diameter will appear three times as large. darting across the field in every direction. if the distance is reduced to one-half. which are pieces of hard wood. 2. i. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. and at the center. e. which costs little or nothing to make.) But an object 3/4-in. cut out a small disk. 1. Viewed through this microscope. An innocent-looking drop of water. The pivot. E. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. D. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. if the distance is reduced to one-third. C. To use this microscope.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. place a small object on the transparent disk. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. held at arm's length. B. as in all microscopes of any power. D. which may be moistened to make the object adhere.. the object should be of a transparent nature. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. The spring. the diameter will appear twice as large. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. is made of iron. . by means of brads. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. and so on. can be made of brass and the armature. is fastened at each end by pins. 3. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. H. Fig.. C. or 64 times. A. in which hay has been soaking for several days. (The area would appear 64 times as large. and look through the hole D. The lever. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. otherwise the image will be blurred.

C. long and 14-1/2 in. wide. The binding posts are like those of the sounder.SOUNDER-A. DD. brass. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. F. nail soldered on A. long. The binding posts. similar to the one used in the sounder. brass: E. brass: B. coils wound with No. 26 wire: E. wide and about 20 in. C. The back. is cut from a board about 36 in. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. AA. D. wide. The base of the key. wood: C. D. Fig. B. wood: F. or taken from a small one-point switch. K. A. thick. . fastened near the end. K. Fig. in length and 16 in. which are made to receive a pivot. KEY-A. FF. HH. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. The door. and are connected to the contacts. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. or a single piece. wood. B. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. binding posts: H spring The stop. wide. 2. 16 in. A switch. 16 in. wide. Cut the top. D. can be made panel as shown. between the armature and the magnet. Each side. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. should be about 22 in. wide and set in between sides AA. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. brass or iron soldered to nail. E. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. 1. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. long by 16 in. soft iron. connection of D to nail.

as shown. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. Ill. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. 2 and made from 1/4-in. cut in them. Garfield. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. brads. AA. When the electrical waves strike the needle. material. long. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings.. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. 13-1/2 in. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. E. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. Make 12 cleats. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. In operation. with 3/4-in.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. as shown in the sketch.

Y. A fairly stiff spring. and.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. C. --Contributed by R. Brown. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. --Contributed by John Koehler. A (see sketch). N. B. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. down into the water increases the surface in contact. pulls down the armature. When the pipe is used. in order to increase the surface. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . when used with a motor. J. Pushing the wire. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. the magnet. N. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. A. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. and thus decreases the resistance. will give a greater speed. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. E. Ridgewood. A. Fairport. filled with water. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. F. through which a piece of wire is passed. The cord is also fastened to a lever. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock.

for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Of course. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. N. if desired. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. Gachville. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. --Contributed by Perry A. Borden.for the secret contact. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. B. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. even those who read this description.

records and 5-5/8 in. N. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. apart. wide.whenever the bell rings.. Cal. where the other end of wire is fastened. records. --Contributed by H. 1. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. 2. C. H. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. Compton. J. from the bottom. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. Jr. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. wide. D. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. With about 9 ft. A. wide. E. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. The top board is made 28-in. From a piece of brass a switch. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. East Orange. wide. Washington. thick and 12-in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. Dobson. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. . Mangold. as shown in Fig. for 6-in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. --Contributed by Dr. wide. in a semicircle 2 in. C. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. for 10in. long and full 12-in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. long and 5 in. deep and 3/4 in. Connect switch to post B.

depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . B. E. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. closed. A. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. 1. Roanoke. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. which in operation is bent. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. When the cord is passed over pulley C.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. as shown in Fig. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. as shown by the dotted lines. Va. to which is fastened a cord.

wide and a little less than 7/8 in. E. If the wheels fit too tightly. in diameter. D. apart. excepting the crank and tubing. deep and 1/2 in. wide. 5) when they are placed. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Bore two 1/4 in. is compressed by wheels. 3. in diameter. holes (HH. The crankpin should fit tightly. Fig. 1 in. in diameter. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. they will bind. B. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. Do not fasten the sides too . Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. Figs. square and 7/8 in. Fig. deep. 1 in. thick (A. Figs. long. thick. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. in diameter. Notice the break (S) in the track. Now put all these parts together. Fig. Put the rubber tube. to turn on pins of stout wire. 4 shows the wheel-holder.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. Cut two grooves. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. against which the rubber tubing. it too loose. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. wide. through one of these holes. CC. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. which should be about 1/2 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. one in each end. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. they will let the air through. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. 1. In the sides (Fig. but a larger one could be built in proportion. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. as shown in the illustration. 3). In these grooves place wheels. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. E.

is all the expense necessary. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. 15 in. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. Fig. 1. AA. In the two cross bars 1 in. Hubbard. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. 2. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. stands 20 in. iron. of material. mark again. from each end. from each end. and mark for a hole. beyond each of these two. though a small iron wheel is better. the other wheel has reached the bottom. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. 1. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. If the motion of the wheels is regular. --Contributed by Dan H. Idana. long.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. from each end. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. 1. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. 1. and 3-1/2 in. To use the pump. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. Fig. from the bottom and 2 in. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. 17-1/2 in. For ease in handling the pump. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. the pump will give a steady stream. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. and are 30 in. costing 10 cents. Cut six pieces. AA. a platform should be added. from that mark the next hole. 1. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. Take the center of the bar. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. The animal does not fear to enter the box.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. A in Fig. mark for hole and 3 in. B. Fig. Then turn the crank from left to right. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. The screen which is shown in Fig. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. as shown in Fig. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. as it gives steadiness to the motion. because he can . Fig. tubing. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. Two feet of 1/4-in. The three legs marked BBB. Kan. 2.

This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. When the bichromate has all dissolved. or small electric motors. The battery is now ready for use. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. potassium bichromate. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. 2). Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. sulphuric acid. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. The truncated. Philadelphia. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. C. dropping. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. some of it should be poured out. If it is wet. --Contributed by H. When through using the battery. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. If the battery has been used before. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. . or. there is too much liquid in the jar. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. 4 oz. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. The mercury will adhere. 1) must be prepared. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. rub the zinc well. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. but if one casts his own zinc. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. The battery is now complete. acid 1 part). of water dissolve 4 oz. stirring constantly. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. Meyer. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. It is useful for running induction coils. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. and touches the bait the lid is released and. Place the carbon in the jar. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. silvery appearance. until it is within 3 in. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. giving it a bright. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. If the solution touches the zinc.see through it: when he enters. and the solution (Fig. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. 14 copper wire. shuts him in. however. long having two thumb screws. of the top. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. To cause a flow of electricity. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. add slowly.

and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. while the coal door is being opened. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. The price of the coil depends upon its size. the jump-spark coil . which opens the door. If. i. however.Fig. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. e.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. After putting in the coal.. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. with slight changes. Madison. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. pressing the pedal closes the door. the battery circuit. Wis. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W.

coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. Now for the receiving apparatus. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp.7. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. W W. 7. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. made of No. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. . Change the coil described. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. the full length of the coil. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. while a 12-in. 5. in a straight line from top to bottom. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile.described elsewhere in this book. 7). 6. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. coil. which is made of light copper wire. being a 1-in. This coil. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. apart. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. W W. as shown in Fig. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. After winding. and closer for longer distances. 6. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. Fig. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. in a partial vacuum. 7. This will make an excellent receiver. as shown in Fig. diameter.

only. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. No. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). 90°. as it matches the color well. using an electric motor and countershaft. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. I run my lathe by power. A large cone pulley would then be required. . These circles. in the air. 1 to 4. which will be described later. The writer does not claim to be the originator. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. 90°. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. being vertical. Figs. being at right angles. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. may be easily made at very little expense. where A is the headstock. above the ground. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. after all. B the bed and C the tailstock. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. but it could be run by foot power if desired. and hence the aerial line. at any point to any metal which is grounded. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface.The aerial line. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. A. 1). to the direction of the current. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. but simply illustrates the above to show that. Run a wire from the other binding post. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. are analogous to the flow of induction.6 stranded. For an illustration.

To make these bearings. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. and runs in babbitt bearings. and Fig. thick. The bolts B (Fig. B. The headstock. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. Heat the babbitt well. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. After pouring. Fig. 6. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. deep. which pass through a piece of wood. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. 6 Headstock Details D. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. steel tubing about 1/8 in. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. 2 and 3.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. Fig. too. pitch and 1/8 in. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. tapered wooden pin. 5. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. but not hot enough to burn it. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. The bearing is then ready to be poured. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. which are let into holes FIG. one of which is shown in Fig. A. Fig. and it is well to have the shaft hot. 4. just touching the shaft. 5. on the under side of the bed. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. If the bearing has been properly made. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. Fig. 4. The shaft is made of 3/4-in.

which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. This prevents corrosion. A. If not perfectly true. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. If one has a wooden walk. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. lock nut. Newark. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. so I had to buy one. of the walk . the alarm is easy to fix up. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. Oak Park. they may be turned up after assembling. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary.other machines. embedded in the wood. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. and a 1/2-in. Take up about 5 ft.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. FIG. B. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. The tail stock (Fig. N.J. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. Ill. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig.

S. water. To avoid touching it. before dipping them in the potash solution. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Connect up an electric bell. so that they will not touch. and the alarm is complete. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Finally. Fig. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Minn. hang the articles on the wires. to remove all traces of grease. (A. Jackson. add potassium cyanide again. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. --Contributed by R. of water. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Then make the solution . save when a weight is on the trap. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. to roughen the surface slightly. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. clean the articles thoroughly. silver or other metal. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. 2). about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Minneapolis. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. leaving a clear solution. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution.

pewter. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. Make a somewhat larger block (E. --Model Engineer. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. I. and then treated as copper. 1 in. Fig. To provide the keyhole.5 to 4 volts. if one does not possess a buffing machine. an old electric bell or buzzer. 1). Fig. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. Fig. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. also. If more solution is required. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. 3) strikes the bent wire L. light strokes. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. With an electric pressure of 3. 3. thick by 3 in. B should be of the same wood. A (Fig. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. 18 wire. If accumulators are used. German silver. long. with the pivot 2 in. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. with water. piece of broomstick. about 25 ft. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. will serve for the key. which is held by catch B. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. saw a piece of wood. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. A 1/4 in. The wooden block C. when the point of the key touches the tin. In rigging it to a sliding door. Before silver plating. 10 in. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. Having finished washing the precipitate. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Fig. make a key and keyhole. nickel and such metals. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. as at F. This solution. zinc. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. When all this is set up. The wooden catch. 3) directly over the hole. On brass. lead. 1 not only unlocks. Repeat six times. with water. Can be made of a 2-in. hole in its center. 1). will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. copper. which is advised. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. use 2 volts for large articles. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt.up to 2 qt. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. 1. long. a hand scratch brush is good. silver can be plated direct. square. shaking. of water. must be about 1 in. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. Where Bunsen cells are used. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. from the lower end. such metals as iron. which . but opens the door. of clothesline rope and some No. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. as shown in Fig. Then. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. and 4 volts for very small ones. Screw the two blocks together. a circuit is completed. and the larger part (F. Take quick. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator.

. Receiving the bowl again. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. and finally lined inside with black cloth. and black art reigns supreme. the requisites are a large soap box. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. Next. 2. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. sides and end. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. H. H. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. 3. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. shows catch B. he tosses it into the cave. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. the illumination in front must be arranged. Fig. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. Next. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. Fig. 0. In front of you. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. Fig. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. The magician stands in front of this. B. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. to throw the light toward the audience. One end is removed. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. between the parlor and the room back of it. is the cut through which the rope runs. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. Klipstein. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. Heavy metal objects. 2. or cave. .rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. in his shirt sleeves. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. 1. On either side of the box. New Jersey. He removes the bowl from the black box. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. such as forks. some black cloth. cut in one side. One thing changes to another and back again. Thus. one-third of the length from the remaining end. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. although a little more trouble. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. which unlocks the door. spoons and jackknives. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. enlarged. 1. floor. Fig. he points with one finger to the box. top. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. the box should be painted black both inside and out. no painting inside is required. with a switch as in Fig. and a slit. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. East Orange. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. H. heighten the illusion. so much the better. 116 Prospect St. some black paint. The box must be altered first. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. surrounding a perfectly black space. The interior must be a dead black. and plenty of candles. a few simple tools. --Contributed by E. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. To prepare such a magic cave. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). with the lights turned low. and hands its contents round to the audience. half way from open end to closed end. Objects appear and disappear. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. should be cut a hole.

if. of course. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. only he. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. you must have an assistant. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. the room where the cave is should be dark. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. into the eyes of him who looks. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. his confederate behind inserts his hand. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. The exhibitor should be . Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. one on each side of the box. which are let down through the slit in the top. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. which can be made to dance either by strings. Consequently. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. in which are oranges and apples. is on a table) so much the better. and pours them from the bag into a dish. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. The illusion. and several black drop curtains. as presented by Hermann. was identical with this. a screen must be used. and if portieres are impossible. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. The audience room should have only low lights. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. But illusions suggest themselves. of course.Finally. had a big stage. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain.

square. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . making contact with them as shown at y. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. held down by another disk F (Fig. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled.a boy who can talk. A. and c2 to the zinc. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. c3. and c4 + electricity. FIG. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. with three brass strips. On the disk G are two brass strips. or b2. making contact with them. 2. b3. A represents a pine board 4 in. and c1 – electricity. as shown in Fig. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. 2. when handle K is turned to one side. b1. if you turn handle K to the right. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. f2. d. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. b2. or binding posts. About the center piece H moves a disk. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. respectively.. by means of two wood screws. at L. b2. respectively.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. held down on it by two terminals. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. terminal c3 will show . suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. 1. 2). so arranged that. c4. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. c1. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. terminal c3 will show +. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. e1 and e2. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). Finally. Then. their one end just slips under the strips b1. 1. held down on disk F by two other terminals. b3. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. c2. Fig. vice versa. by 4 in. respectively. and a common screw.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. is shown in the diagram.

from five batteries. 1. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. from three batteries. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). when on No. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. Tuttle. 4. .. B is a onepoint switch. Ohio. --Contributed by Eugene F. Jr. 5. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. Newark. from four batteries. you have the current of one battery. E. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Joerin. and when on No. and C and C1 are binding posts. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. 3. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. When switch B is closed and A is on No. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. when on No. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. -Contributed by A. when A is on No. jump spark coil.

then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. When you do not have a graduate at hand. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. A. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. which may be a button or other small object. P. Handy Electric Alarm .. New Orleans. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. La. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. mark. as shown in the sketch. and supporting the small weight. over the bent portion of the rule. mark. rule. A. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of Burlington. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. traveled by the thread. The device thus arranged. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. Thus. and placed on the windowsill of the car. is the device of H. Wis. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. per second. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. E. Redmond. A. B. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. so one can see the time. per second for each second.

I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. Then if a mishap comes. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. wrapping the wire around the can several times. soldered to the alarm winder. . Crafton. Instead. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. for a wetting is the inevitable result. B. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. but may be closed at F any time desired. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. Lane. When the alarm goes off. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. --C. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. Pa.which has a piece of metal. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. S. --Contributed by Gordon T. and with the same result. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. which illuminates the face of the clock. C. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs.

The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. The first thing to make is a molding bench. when it is being prepared. A. --Contributed by A. New York City. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. as shown in Fig. engines. models and miniature objects. BE.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. 1. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. AA. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. which may. whence it is soon tracked into the house. as shown. With the easily made devices about to be described. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. and many other interesting and useful articles. battery zincs. Macey. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. If there is no foundry Fig. bearings. Two cleats. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. 1 . binding posts. ornaments of various kinds. C. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. and duplicates of all these. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. small machinery parts. cannons. L. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. It is possible to make molds without a bench. but it is a mistake to try to do this. as the sand is sure to get on the floor.

will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use." or lower part. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. will be required. DD. which can be either aluminum. 2 . and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. the "cope. F. CC. H. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. is nailed to each end of the cope. 1. high. previous to sawing. but this operation will be described more fully later on. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. and the lower pieces. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. The dowels. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. J. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. 1. E. CC. try using sand from other sources. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. is about the right mesh. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. and the "drag. II . are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. white metal. by 8 in. A wedge-shaped piece. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold.near at hand. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. and a sieve. by 6 in. A slight shake of the bag Fig. as shown. If desired the sieve may be homemade. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. makes a very good sieve. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. A A. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. G. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag.How to Make a Mold [96] . is shown more clearly in Fig. If the box is not very strong. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. 2. The rammer. Fig. is filled with coal dust. say 12 in. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. as shown. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. which should be nailed in. is made of wood. which can be made of a knitted stocking. The flask. a little larger than the outside of the flask. An old teaspoon. Fig. The cloth bag. D. and this." or upper half. It is made of wood and is in two halves. and saw it in half longitudinally. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal.

but care should be taken not to get it too wet. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. where they can watch the molders at work. and scatter about 1/16 in. and if water is added. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. turn the drag other side up. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. and thus judge for himself. It is then rammed again as before. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. as shown at D. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. and then more sand is added until Fig." in position. and by grasping with both hands." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. the surface of the sand at . An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. as shown at E. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. The sand is then ready for molding. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. In finishing the ramming. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. in order to remove the lumps. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. as shown at C. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. After ramming. or "cope. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. or "drag. as described. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. as shown. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. as it is much easier to learn by observation. Place another cover board on top.

in diameter. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. This is done with a spoon. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. to give the air a chance to escape. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. deep. . as shown at H. as shown at G. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. it shows that the sand is too wet. as shown in the sketch. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. wide and about 1/4 in. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. in order to prevent overheating. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold." or pouring-hole. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. place the cope back on the drag. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. as shown at J. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. Fig. The "sprue. as shown at F. and then pour. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. as shown at H.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. after being poured. After drawing the pattern. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs.E should be covered with coal-dust. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. is next cut. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. thus holding the crucible securely. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. thus making a dirty casting. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. Place a brick or other flat. III. made out of steel rod.

In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. may be used in either direction. If a good furnace is available. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. although somewhat expensive. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. babbitt. Referring to the figure. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. battery zincs. Minneapolis. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. In my own case I used four batteries. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. is very desirable. used only for zinc. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. the following device will be found most convenient. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. white metal and other scrap available. and. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. Although the effect in the illustration . In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. and the casting is then ready for finishing. 15% lead.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. or from any adjacent pair of cells. but any reasonable number may be used. --Contributed by Harold S. Morton.

backward. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. A. Then replace the table. The brass rings also appear distorted. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. which will be sufficient to hold it. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. --Contributed by Draughtsman. Put a sharp needle point. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. 3/4 in. Chicago. as shown in the illustration. Then walk down among the audience. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. The bearings. Fig. shaft made. To make it take a sheet-iron band.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. may be made of hardwood. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. By replacing the oars with paddles. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. Make one of these pieces for each arm. If desired. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. B. outward. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. B. 2. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. connected by cords to the rudder. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. as shown at A. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks.

melted babbitt. D. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. or the paint will come off. 1. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. E. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. W. 1. It may seem strange that ice . such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. Fig. being simply finely divided ice. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. If babbitt is used. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. when it will again return to its original state. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. but when in motion. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. If galvanized iron is used. The covers. 3. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. as shown in Fig. The hubs. spoiling its appearance. A block of ice. A. 1. as shown in Fig. C. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. 2 and 3. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. 2. should be made of wood. and a weight. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. Snow. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. In the same way. or under pressure. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed.

by 5 in. but. Lane. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. brass. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. whenever there is any connection made at all. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. P. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. no matter how slow the motion may be. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. --Contributed by Gordon T. Pa. Crafton. and assume the shape shown at B. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. as per sketch. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. B. thus giving a high resistance contact. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. which resembles ice in this respect. or supporting it in some similar way. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. sometimes only one or two feet a day. by 2 in.. Pressing either push button. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. but by placing it between books. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. as shown on page 65. The rate of flow is often very slow. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. by 1/4. square.should flow like water. in. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. by 1/2 in. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. it will gradually change from the original shape A.

--Contributed by Coulson Glick. vertical lever. B. pulleys. the induction coil. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. draft. G. G. Wilkinsburg. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. wooden supports. as shown. The parts are: A. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. E. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. draft chain. F. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. weight. furnace. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. The success depends upon a slow current. the battery. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. --Contributed by A. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. H. J. Ward. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. B. In the wiring diagram. as shown.000 ft. Indianapolis. A is the circuit breaker. K . D. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. and five dry batteries. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. I. cord. Pa. C. alarm clock. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer.thumb screws. about the size used for automobiles. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. horizontal lever. and C.

the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. material framed together as shown in Fig. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. 3. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. as well as the bottom. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. 2 are dressed to the right angle. where house plants are kept in the home. Kalamazoo. such as used for a storm window. Artistic Window Boxes The top. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. The frame (Fig. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. will fit nicely in them. which will provide a fine place for the plants. Mich. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. -Contributed by Gordon Davis.

and the instrument will then be complete. multiples of series of three. one can regulate the batteries as required. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. so as to increase the current. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts.. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. and will give the . 1 cp. is something that will interest the average American boy. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. Grant. S. and cost 27 cents FIG. However. can be connected up in series. in this connection. as indicated by Fig. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. after a rest. 1.. for some time very satisfactorily. but maintain the voltage constant. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. Push the needle into the cork. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. and a suitable source of power. this must be done with very great caution. Halifax. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. as if drawn upon for its total output. 1 each complete with base. However. where they are glad to have them taken away. a cork and a needle. W. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high.. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. in diameter. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. This is more economical than dry cells. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. N. --Contributed by Wm. A certain number of these. since a battery is the most popular source of power. It must be remembered. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. in any system of lamps. e. The 1/2-cp. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. by connecting them in series. Canada. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. which sells for 25 cents. Thus. i. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series.

making. lamp. and diffused light in a room. as in Fig. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. 2 shows the scheme. FIG. by the proper combination of these.proper voltage. for display of show cases. So. which is the same as that of one battery. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. generates the power for the lights. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. Thus. to secure light by this method. where the water pressure is the greatest. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. . or 1-1/4 cents per hour. and then lead No. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and running the series in parallel. or 22 lights. each. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. These will give 3 cp. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. according to the water pressure obtainable. Thus. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. we simply turn on the water. If wound for 10 volts. although the first cost is greater. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. and for Christmas trees.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. 11 series. if wound for 6 volts. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. double insulated wire wherever needed. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. Fig. lamps. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. 1-cp. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. especially those of low internal resistance. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. 18 B & S. In conclusion. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet.. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. 3. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. lamps. However. Chicago.

bars of pole-changing switch. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Plymouth. To reverse the motor. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. a bait of meat. A. After I connected up my induction coil. Emig. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. BB. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. or from one pattern. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Santa Clara. --Contributed by Leonard E. DD. and C. Ind. CC. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. switch. and the sides. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. Cal. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. outside points of switch. thus reversing the machine. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. brushes of motor. B. AA. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. --Contributed by F. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. A indicates the ground. center points of switch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. are cut just alike. simply change the switch. or a tempting bone. as shown in the sketch. we were not bothered with them. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. field of motor. B. Parker. .

An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. and a table or bench. a piece of string. Hutchinson. The button can be hidden.. If it is not. 903 Vine St. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. To unlock the door. attached to the end of the armature B. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. merely push the button E. or would remain locked. When the circuit is broken a weight. as it is the key to the lock. which is in the door. San Jose. Melchior. thus locking the door. The experiment works best . All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. A. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. a hammer. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. Cal. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Minn. -Contributed by Claude B. W. Fry. one cell being sufficient.

D. forming a loop. Schmidt. which pulls the draft open. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. --Contributed by Geo. in the ceiling and has a window weight. the current flows with the small arrows. run through a pulley. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. A. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. 3. Tie the ends of the string together. the key turns. Ontario. On another block of wood fasten two wires. W. . When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Canada. 3. the stick falls away. P. -.Contributed by F. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord..An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. 18 Gorham St. Wis. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Porto Rico. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Madison. Brockville. where it will remain suspended as shown. C. releasing the weight. 2. as shown in Fig. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Culebra. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Crawford Curry. 4). is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. attached at the other end. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. I. 1). and pass this around the hammer handle and rule.

and the other to the battery. thick. Camden. which fasten to the horn. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. thence to a switch. square and 1 in. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. and then to the receiver. including the mouthpiece. running one direct to the receiver. D. and . and break the corners off to make them round. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. N. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. 6 in.. Use a barrel to work on. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. --Contributed by Wm. J. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. First. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. S. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. made with his own hands. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. get two pieces of plate glass. J.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. or tree. Farley. The cut shows the arrangement. or from a bed of flowers. R. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. Connect two wires to the transmitter. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. Jr.

with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. Fig. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. 2. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. with 1/4-in. twice the focal length away. wide around the convex glass or tool. and the under glass or tool convex. the coarse grinding must be continued. wet till soft like paint. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. then 8 minutes. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. while walking around the barrel. as in Fig. A. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. Fig. In a dark room. with pitch. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. and a large lamp. of water. and spread on the glass. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. Have ready six large dishes. Use a binger to spread it on with. also rotate the glass. or less. 1. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. then take 2 lb. When done the glass should be semitransparent.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. 2. using straight strokes 2 in. unless a longer focal length is wanted. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. L. wetting it to the consistency of cream. spaces. When dry.. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. and label. by the side of the lamp. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. a round 4-in. Then warm and press again with the speculum. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper.. When polishing the speculum. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. melt 1 lb. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. in length. Fasten. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. set the speculum against the wall. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. and is ready for polishing. or it will not polish evenly. so the light . it should be tested with the knife-edge test. 30 minutes and 90 minutes.

4 oz. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. fill the dish with distilled water. Now add enough of the solution A.. cement a strip of board 8 in. 2. 840 gr. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. deep. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. with distilled water. touched with rouge. also how the rays R from a star . If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Place the speculum S. longer strokes. Silver nitrate ……………………………. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. When the focus is found.. that was set aside. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. as in K. If not. 2. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. Then add solution B. The polishing and testing done. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in.………………………………. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Two glass or earthenware dishes.. and pour the rest into the empty dish. Nitric acid . Fig. must be procured. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. long to the back of the speculum. 25 gr.100 gr. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside.…………………………….. Alcohol (Pure) …………….. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass.. With pitch. 100 gr. from the lamp. 39 gr. the speculum will show some dark rings. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. Then add 1 oz. When dry. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Solution D: Sugar loaf . if a hill in the center. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency.. Fig. Fig. 4 oz. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water.……………. then ammonia until bath is clear. The knife should not be more than 6 in. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp.. or hills. face down. Place the speculum.. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole.. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. the speculum is ready to be silvered.

A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. slightly wider than the lens mount. Make the tube I of sheet iron. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. The flatter they are the less they will distort. is a satisfactory angle. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. long and cost me just $15. two glass prisms. About 20. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. telescope can be made at home. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Place over lens.John E. with an outlay of only a few dollars. using strawboard and black paper. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. Mellish. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. . Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. cover with paper and cloth. deg.. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. Then I made the one described. Thus an excellent 6-in. My telescope is 64 in. stop down well after focusing. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. which proves to be easy of execution. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. and proceed as for any picture. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it.

1. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. Fig. A. instead of the contrary. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. D. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. complete the arrangement. says the Master Painter. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. as shown in Fig. To unlock. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. and reflect through the negative. then add a little sulphate of potash. unobstructed light strike the mirror. 2. Zimmerman. -Contributed by A. but will not preserve its hardening. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. B. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. Do not stir it. Boody. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. . with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. The rays of the clear. through the lens of the camera and on the board. The paper is exposed. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Ill. push the button D. or powdered alum. add the plaster gradually to the water. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose.

Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 3. To reverse. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. throw . but will remain suspended without any visible support. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. 2. so that it can rotate about these points. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. as shown in the sketch. Fasten on the switch lever.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Fig. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. also provide them with a handle. as at A and B. use a string. as in Fig. Then blow through the spool. 2. 1). A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore.

Take out. and rub dry with linen cloth. San Antonio.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. as shown in the sketch. . and E E. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. carbon sockets. --Contributed by Geo. although this is not necessary. C C. the armature. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. binding posts. Tex. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. North Bend. --Contributed by R. Go McVicker. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. A is the electricbell magnet. In the sketch. Neb. Levy. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. -Contributed by Morris L. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. San Marcos. Push one end of the tire into the hole. L. Tex. carbons. Thomas. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. wash in running water. D. B. rinse in alcohol.

Divested of nearly all technical phrases. --Contributed by Joseph B. wound evenly about this core. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. 14 or No.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. By means of two or more layers of No. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Brooklyn. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. long or more. 16 magnet wire. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Bell. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. 36 magnet wire. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory.

through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. as the maker prefers. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. as shown in Fig. and the results are often unsatisfactory. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. making two layers. at a time. which is an important factor of the coil. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. a box like that shown in Fig. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. in length. coil illustrates the general details of the work. After the core wires are bundled. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. one piece of the paper is laid down. diameter. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. Beginning half an inch from one end. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. the entire core may be purchased readymade. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. about 6 in. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. but if it is not convenient to do this work. or 8 in. in diameter. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. In shaping the condenser. long and 5 in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. A 7/8-in. The condenser is next wrapped . No. 2 yd. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. 1. which is desirable. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. and finally the fourth strip of paper. The following method of completing a 1-in. long and 2-5/8 in. then the strip of tin-foil. 4. with room also for a small condenser. This makes a condenser which may be folded. The primary is made of fine annealed No. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. When cut and laid in one continuous length.which would be better to buy ready-made. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. hole is bored in the center of one end. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. wide. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case.

Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. switch. battery . one from bell. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. F. wide. copper lever with 1-in. the letters indicate as follows: A. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. go. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection.. whole length. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. round so that the inside . ready for assembling. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. bell. lines H. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. I. V-shaped copper strip. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. C. Fig. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E.securely with bands of paper or tape. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. flange turned on one side. shelf for clock. long and 12 in. shows how the connections are made. and one from battery. 3. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. 4 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. which allows wiring at the back. open switch C. which is insulated from the first. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. The alarm key will turn and drop down. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips.) The wiring diagram. G. B. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. B. forms the other pole or terminal. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. to the door. by 12 in. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. long to key. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. A. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. D. spark. E. and the other sheet.

of blue stone. but with the circuit. instead of close to it. of zinc sulphate. 2 in. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. says the Model Engineer. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. That is what they are for. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. Use a glass or metal shade. do not shortcircuit. and then rivet the seam.. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Line the furnace. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. This is for blowing. Short-circuit for three hours. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. from the bottom. and the battery is ready for use.diameter is 7 in. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. If desired for use immediately. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. . It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. London. but add 5 or 6 oz.

Make a hole through the center or this one arm. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Enlarge the hole slightly. If any or your audience presume to dispute. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. g. long. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. herein I describe a much better trick. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. porcelain and paper.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. for some it will turn one way. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. or think they can do the same let them try it. thus producing two different vibrations. imparting to them a violet tinge. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes.9 of a volt. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Try it and see. the second finger along the side. Outside of the scientific side involved. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. grip the stick firmly in one hand. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. To operate the trick. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo.. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. If too low. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. 2. but the thing would not move at all. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. square and about 9 in." which created much merriment. and then. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Ohio. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. affects . thus making the arm revolve in one direction. This type of battery will give about 0. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. At least it is amusing. changes white phosphorus to yellow. while for others it will not revolve at all. 1. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and therein is the trick. for others the opposite way. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. below the bottom of the zinc. oxygen to ozone. as in the other movement.

focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. but small flowers. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. a short-focus lens. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. earth. but not essential. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. if possible. and one of them is photomicrography. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. To the front board is attached a box. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. but this is less satisfactory. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . and. insects. a means for holding it vertical. however. an old tripod screw. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. says the Photographic Times. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. chemicals. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in.

12 ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 7-1/2 in. Fig. while it is not so with the quill. 113 7 lb. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. or 31 ft. Cap. CD. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 905 57 lb. 7-1/2 in. 11 ft. A line. 1. 268 17 lb. 10 ft 523 33 lb. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 697 44 lb. 65 4 lb. or 3 ft. 381 24 lb. Boston. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 8 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. long and 3 ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 5 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. The following table will give the size. and a line. in diameter. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. If the balloon is 10 ft. which is 15 ft. 6 ft. 9 ft. 5 in. Divide one-quarter of the circle . and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. Madison. Ft Lifting Power. 7 ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 179 11 lb. balloon.--Contributed by George C. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. Mass. AB. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. in Cu.

The pattern is now cut. 3. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. 70 thread. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. 4. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. making a double seam as shown in Fig. of beeswax and boil well together. cutting all four quarters at the same time. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. The amounts necessary for a 10- . 2. on the curved line from B to C. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. keeping the marked part on the outside. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. and so on. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. Procure 1 gal. using a fine needle and No. of the very best heavy body. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. Repeat this operation four times. The cloth segments are sewed together. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times.

This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. A. with water 2 in. ]. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. balloon are 125 lb. Vegetable oils should never be used. above the level of the water in barrel A. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. capacity and connect them. 5. B. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. Fill the other barrel. After washing a part. with 3/4in. a clean white rag. but if any grease remains on the hand. it is not fit to use. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. this should be repeated frequently. of water will make 4 cu.Green Iron ammonium citrate . with the iron borings. oil the spindle holes carefully. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. 150 gr. 1 lb. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. When the clock has dried. All FIG. leaving the hand quite clean. using a fine brush. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. pipe. The outlet. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. Water 1 oz. to the bag. should not enter into the water over 8 in. B. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. . C. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. as shown in Fig. of iron borings and 125 lb. if it is good it will dry off. 1 lb. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured.ft. which may sound rather absurd. About 15 lb. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. of gas in one hour. 5 . You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. A. by fixing. of iron.. C. . place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. B. or a fan. of sulphuric acid. or dusting with a dry brush. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. ft. A. In the barrel.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. The 3/4-in. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. until no more dirt is seen.

Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. at the time of employment. says the Moving Picture World. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. . or battery. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Dry the plates in the dark. Port Melbourne. Printing is done in the sun. or zinc. of any make. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. A longer exposure will be necessary. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. of the cell is connected to the aerial line.. .Water 1 oz. Exposure. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. or carbon. A cold. This aerial collector can be made in . toning first if desired. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. fix in hypo. and keep in the dark until used. and a vigorous negative must be used. to avoid blackened skin. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. The negative pole. keeping the fingers out of the solution. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. The miniature 16 cp. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. The positive pole. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell.000 ft. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Dry in the dark. 20 to 30 minutes. dry atmosphere will give best results.

it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. holes . long. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. As the telephone offers a high resistance. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. will soon become dry and useless. The storage cell. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. a positive and a negative. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. If the wave ceases. and as less current will flow the short way. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. and have the other connected with another aerial line. in diameter. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. 5 in. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. both positive and negative. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. making a ground with one wire. the resistance is less. lead pipe. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid.various ways. as described below. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. This will complete the receiving station. when left exposed to the air. forming a cup of the pipe. If the waves strike across the needle. lay a needle.

Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. says the Pathfinder. and the other to the negative. Two binding-posts should be attached. by soldering the joint. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed.as possible. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. of course. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. a round one. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. B. an oblong one and a triangular one. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. When mixing the acid and water. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. except for about 1 in. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. one to the positive. or tube C. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. This support or block. This box can be square. on each end. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. The other plate is connected to the zinc. or tube B. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. namely: a square hole. does not need to be watertight. This. D. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current.

wide. leaving about 1/16 in.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. 3. 2. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. wide. Ill. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. about 20 in. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. deep and 4 ft. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. C. were fitted by this one plug. This punt. all around the edge. 2. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The third piece of brass. 1. back and under. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. 1. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. A and B. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. . --Contributed by Edwin Walker. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. as shown in Fig. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. Chicago. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. as it is not readily overturned. thick cut two pieces alike. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. and has plenty of good seating capacity. and match them together. long. in place on the wood. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. is built 15 ft. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. Only galvanized nails should be used. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. C.

A. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. is cut 1 in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. gas pipe. Wash. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. square (Fig 2). with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. thick and 3-1/2 in.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. In Fig. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. Tacoma. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. A piece of 1/4-in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. B.

Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. may be of interest to some of our readers. no special materials could be obtained. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C.--Contributed by Charles H." has no connection with the outside circuit. and to consume. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. it had to be borne in mind that. with the exception of insulated wire. or "rotor. The winding of the armature. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. Wagner. if possible. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of .The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. says the Model Engineer. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. H. without auxiliary phase. lamp. no more current than a 16-cp. In designing. which the writer has made. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. which can be developed in the usual manner.

The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. 1. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. 5. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. this little machine is not self-starting. wrought iron. and filled with rivets. holes. as shown in Fig. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. as shown in Fig. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference.the field-magnet. 4. being used. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. and all sparking is avoided. Holes 5-32 in. while the beginnings . which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. thick. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. C. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. with the dotted line. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. A. also varnished before they were put in. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. no steel being obtainable. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. They are not particularly accurate as it is. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. B. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. about 2-1/2 lb. to be filed out after they are placed together. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. in diameter were drilled in the corners. After assembling a second time. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. bolts put in and tightened up. 2. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. The stator is wound full with No. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. or "stator. Unfortunately. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. 3. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. were then drilled and 1/4-in. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire.

A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. If too late for alcohol to be of use. and the other by reduction in the camera. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. and as each layer of wire was wound. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. One is by contact. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. 2. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. The rotor is wound with No. a regulating resistance is not needed. and as the motor runs at constant speed. In making slides by contact. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. The image should . N. as before stated. J. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. having no commutator or brushes. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. E. film to film. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. if applied immediately. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. This type of motor has drawbacks. No starting resistance is needed. and would not easily get out of order. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. 1. McKinney. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. Newark. as shown in Fig. and especially of colored ones. The lantern slide is a glass plate. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations.. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. and all wound in the same direction. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. 3-Contributed by C. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. Jr. it would be very simple to build.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. as a means of illustrating songs. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open.

5. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. B. D. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. and development should be over in three or four minutes. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. Being unbreakable. If the exposure has been correct. to use a plain fixing bath. A. Draw lines with a pencil. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. about a minute. 2. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. It is best. These can be purchased from any photo material store. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. 1. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. they are much used by travelers. Select a room with one window. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. as shown in Fig. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. 3. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. except that the binding is different. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. C. 4. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. as shown in Fig. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. also. and then a plain glass. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. if possible. a little extra work will be necessary. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. the formulas being found in each package of plates. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. Fig. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots.appear in. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. over the mat.

16 in. as shown in Fig. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. 1. If the star is in front of the left eye. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. in diameter and 20 in. as shown at A. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Fig. Hastings. Corinth. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. known as rods and cones. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. long. while the dot will be in front of the other. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. long. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. from the center of this dot draw a star. holes bored in the end pieces. Fig. 1. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. wide and 50 in. is to be used for the seat. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. A piece of canvas. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. or other stout cloth. as shown at B. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. in diameter and 40 in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. These longer pieces can be made square. 2. from the end piece of the chair. Vt. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. long. from the ends. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in.

Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. 2. allowing the shaft to project through the holes.-Contributed by P. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. made from an ordinary sash cord. as well as to operate other household machines. 1.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. A belt. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. per square inch. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. in thickness and 10 in. . They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. J. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. as shown in Fig. Cal. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. Auburn. as shown in Fig. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. O'Gara. A disk 1 in. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion.

Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. leaving it shaped like a bench. long. Bore a 1/4-in. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. direction. with as fine a thread as possible. A simple. will be the thickness of the object. square for a support. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and the construction is complete. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Put the bolt in the hole. it serves a very useful purpose. 3/4 in. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. Cut out a piece from the block combination. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. . to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. screwing it through the nut. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. fairly accurate.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. divided by the number of threads to the inch. to the top of the bench. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. thick and 2-1/2 in. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. says the Scientific American. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. The part of a rotation of the bolt. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. wide. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. or inconvenient to measure. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. then removing the object.

The wheel should be open . bolt in each hole. long. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. which show up fine at night. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. material 12 ft.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Oal. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Santa Maria. beyond the end of the wood. long is used for the center pole. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Bore a 3/4-in. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. piece of wood 12 ft. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Place a 3/4-in. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in.

from the ends. to be operated by the magnet coil. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. B. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. H and J. long. and the lower part 61/2 in. long. P. A piece of brass 2 in. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. long. made of the same material.-Contributed by A. thick.Side and Top View or have spokes. wide and 1/8 in. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. pieces used for the spokes. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. Fort Worth. wide and 1/8 in. O. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. C. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. which should be 1/4 in. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. Graham. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. of the ends with boards. at the top and 4 in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. Tex. The spool . square and 3 or 4 in. is soldered. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. The coil. thick is used for the armature. and on its lower end a socket. from the top end. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. A. 1/2 in. C. L. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. The boards may be nailed or bolted. at the bottom. thick. A cross bar. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. in diameter. long.

1. and in numerous other like instances.E. This tie can be used on grain sacks. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame.000 for irrigation work. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. --Contributed by Arthur D. Mass. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. long. which may be had by using German silver wire. by soldering. and directly centering the holes H and J. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. 2 the hat hanging on it. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L.is about 2-1/2 in. B. and place it against a door or window casing. At the bottom end of the frame. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. or a water rheostat heretofore described. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. is drilled. . as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied.000. S. A soft piece of iron. D and E. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. one without either rubber or metal end. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. When you slide the pencil along the casing. Randolph. R. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. C. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post.--A. F. A. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. then with a firm. The armature. S. This is a very neat trick if performed right. that holds the lower carbon. Bradlev. 2. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. for insulating the brass ferrule.J. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. do it without any apparent effort.

How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. about 1 in. C. long and 1 in. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. about 3/16 in. 1. for the primary. hole in the center. in diameter. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. The core of the coil. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. S. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. F. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. may be made from a 3/8-in. S. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. A. for adjustment. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. Fig. B. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. about 1/8 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . so the coils of wire will hold them in place.500 turns of No. in diameter and 1/16 in. for the secondary. is constructed in the usual manner. The vibrator.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. 1. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. D. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. wide. Fig. leaving the projections as shown. is connected to a flash lamp battery. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The vibrator B. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The switch. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. mixed with water to form a paste. and then 1. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. 2. About 70 turns of No. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. in diameter and 2 in. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. from the core and directly opposite. in diameter. with a 3/16-in. thick. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. long.

brass plate. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. board. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. 16 in. lighted. with which to operate the dial. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. was to be secured by only three brass screws. 1. in an ordinary water glass. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. wide. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. 2 to fit the two holes. which seemed to be insufficient. it laps down about 8 in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. 1. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. Fig. and then well clinched. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. which is cut with two holes. long and when placed over the board. The hasp. between the boards. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. thick on the inside. The lock. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. The three screws were then put in the hasp. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. which is only 3/8-in. The knob on the dial extends out too far. and the same distance inside of the new board.Place a small piece of paper. . as shown. The tin is 4 in. as shown in the sketch. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate.

If the box is made large enough. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. the glass. but when the front part is illuminated. any article placed therein will be reflected in. high for use in window displays. square and 8-1/2 in. When making of wood. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. clear glass as shown. and the back left dark. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. black color. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. square and 10-1/2 in. or in the larger size mentioned. one in each division. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. not shiny. When the rear part is illuminated. which completely divides the box into two parts.

as shown in the sketch. wide will be about the right size. . place the goods in one part and the price in the other. into the other. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. When using as a window display.. When there is no electric current available. alternately. as shown at A in the sketch. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. long and 1 ft. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. above the top of the tank. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. a tank 2 ft. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. and with the proper illumination one is changed. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. as it appears.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. Instead of changing the current operated by hand.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. Three windows are provided. If a planing mill is near. and boring two holes with a 1-in. however. is built on the front. Iron sulphate. 1 in. This hole must be continued . long. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. A small platform. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. The 13-in. gauge for depth. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. and a solution of iron sulphate added. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. one for each side. square. from the ground. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. as shown. lines gauged on each side of each.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. each. bore from each end. and a door in front. radius. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. using a 3/4-in. 2 ft. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. then use a red-hot iron to finish. Shape the under sides first. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. under sides together. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. wide. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. but with a length of 12 in. is the green vitriol. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. and 6 ft. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. 6 in. thick and 3 in. wide. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. The pieces can then be taken out. This precipitate is then washed. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. O. Columbus. two pieces 1-1/8 in. hole bored the full length through the center. or ferrous sulphate. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. bit. hole. 5 ft. square and 40 in. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. with a length of 13 in. long. high. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces.

When the filler has hardened. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. apply two coats of wax. If the parts are to be riveted. The sketch shows one method of attaching. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit.through the pieces forming the base. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. When this is dry. three or four may be attached as shown. Saw the two blocks apart. hole in each block. A better way. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. thick and 3 in. For art-glass the metal panels are . if shade is purchased. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Directions will be found on the filler cans." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Electric globes--two. square and drawing a diagonal on each. No lap is needed when joints are soldered.

The Completed Lamp cut out. as brass. METAL SHADE .Construction of Shade . Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. such as copper. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.

This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. as shown in the sketch. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. one way and 1/2 in. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. the object and the background. as in ordinary devices. and Fig. the other. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. 2 the front view of this stand. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. Figure 1 shows the side. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The arms holding the glass. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired.

is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. If the light becomes dim. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. thick 5/8-in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. as shown in the cut. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. thus forming a 1/4-in. as shown in the sketch. uncork and recork again. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. channel in the circumference of the ring.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Cut another circular piece 11 in. about 1-1/4 in. Put the ring in place on the base. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. in diameter. in diameter for a base. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. and an inside diameter of 9 in. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. as it is very poisonous. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. pointing north and south. and swinging freely. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. An ordinary pocket compass. outside diameter. wide and 6-5/16 in. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Before mounting the ring on the base. wide and 11 in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. long. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in.

Corresponding mirrors. 1 oz. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. into these cylinders.088 . Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. Place on top the so- .3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. and mirrors. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. of the top. EE.715 .600 . in diameter and 8 in.289 . The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. AA. above the half can. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. black oxide of copper. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.420 . Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. B. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. The results given should be multiplied by 1. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. and north of the Ohio river.182 . from the second to the third. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. are mounted on a base. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. CC. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.500 . are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders.865 1. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.

of pulverized nitrate of potassium. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. University Park. always remove the oil with a siphon. When renewing. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. 31 gr. then they will not rust fast. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. Colo. of pulverized campor. alcohol. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. slender bottle. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . which otherwise remains clear. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. says Metal Worker. In Fig. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. 62 gr. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. little crystals forming in the liquid. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. Put the solution in a long. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. the wheel will revolve in one direction.

about 1-1/4 in.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. If two of them are floating on the same solution. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. on the under side of the cork. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. If zinc and copper are used. If zinc and carbon are used. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. A paper-fastener box. will allow the magnet to point north and south. This is used in place of the spoon. Lloyd Enos. Attach to the wires. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. floating on a solution. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. --Contributed by C. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. Solder in the side of the box .

long. brass tubing. as shown in Fig.1-in. hole. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. Bore holes for binding-posts. 1/2. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. Wind evenly about 2 oz. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. long that has about 1/4-in. The standard. . 10 wire about 10 in. E. of wire on each end extending from the coil. C. and on the other around the glass tube. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. or made with a little black paint. B. Rhamstine. and then solder on the cover. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. wide and 6 in. can be made of oak. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. If the hose is not a tight fit. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. To this standard solder the supporting wire. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. glass tubing . D. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. F. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. The spring should be about 1 in. away. of No.Contributed by J. to it. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube.in. 1-1/4 in. long. Use a board 1/2. is made from a piece of No. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. 3 in.in. Thos. piece of 1/4-in. Take a small piece of soft iron. D. B. thick. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. Put ends. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . A circular piece of cardboard. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. H. A.not shorter than 18 in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. 1. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. C. E. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. 14 wire will do. A. D. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. C. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. The bottom of the box. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. The base. stained and varnished. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. one on each side of the board. G--No. wide and 2-1/2 in. Secure a piece of 1/4-in.

. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. Wis. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. 2.--Contributed by Edward M. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. long.of the coil. canvas.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. from the right hand. in diameter. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. 5. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. making a support as shown in Fig. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. 3. four hinges. Milwaukee. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. Teasdale. Y. E. 3 in. two pieces 2 ft. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. long. of No. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. When the glass becomes soft. D. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. long are used for the legs. of mercury will be sufficient. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. is drawn nearer to the coil. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig.--Contributed by R. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. 3-in. About 1-1/2 lb. 1. Cuba. J. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. Smith. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. about 1 in. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. of 8-oz. The iron plunger. as shown in Fig. long. long. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long. N. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. two pieces 2-1/2 ft.

5. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. 3. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel.. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. 2. --Contributed by David A. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. holding in the left hand. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. long. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. Break off the piece of glass. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Can. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. This tube as described will be 8 in. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. The tube now must be filled completely. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Take 1/2 in. Fig. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. leaving 8 in. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. Measure 8 in. 4. Toronto. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. thus leaving a.. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. expelling all the air. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. of vacuum at the top. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. small aperture in the long tube. Keys. 6. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode.

These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. 4. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. 9 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. 7. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. joint be accurately put together. from the end of same. Four blocks 1/4 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. as in Fig. 1. but yellow pine is the best. wide and 12 in. with each projection 3-in. material 2 in. wide and 5 ft. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 5. thick. long. wide and 5 ft. A crosspiece 3/4-in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. as shown in Fig. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. These are bent and nailed. and the single projection 3/4 in. wood screws. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. 1 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. 4 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. long. wide and 5 ft. long. 3 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. thick. 1 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. The large pulley is about 14 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. long. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. 3 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. as shown in Fig. 6. Fig. wide and 3 in. 3. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. FIG.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. 2.6 -. thick. in diameter. and 1/4 in. thick. This forms a slot. thick. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the .

The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. . The runners can be made from 1/4-in. R. Manhattan. Kan. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. attach runners and use it on the ice. Welsh. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. above the runner level. Water 1 oz.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. by 1-in. --Contributed by C. says Photography. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. first removing the crank.

After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. 1. Leominster. The print is washed. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Mass. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. . and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Printing is carried rather far. This is done with a camel's hair brush. as shown in Fig. and very much cheaper. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. as shown in Fig. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. 2. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. of water. Treasdale. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. also. from an ordinary clamp skate.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. --Contributed by Wallace C. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Newton. 3. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. 1 oz. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. --Contributed by Edward M. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased.

board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. A. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. and bend them as shown in the sketch. say. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. 1-1/2 ft. 1. long. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. hole. square piece. about 10 in. Va. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. high. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. and to the bottom. 1 ft. wide. and 3 ft. extending the width of the box. with about 1/8-in. 1. --Contributed by H. Alexandria. high for rabbits. fasten a 2-in. Take two glass tubes. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. F. too. which represents the back side of the door. 2. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. from one end. Fig. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. The thread is broken off at the . is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. Then. Church. The swing door B. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. as shown in the sketch.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. causing the door to swing back and up. Fig. Place a 10-in. wide and 4 in. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap.

will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. in size. plates. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. say 8 in. as shown in Fig. says Camera Craft. camera and wish to use some 4. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. and exactly 5 by 7 in. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Fig. 1. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. inside of the opening. Cut an opening in the other piece. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. high and 12 in. long. D. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in.by 7-in. -Contributed by William M. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. wide. long. in size. to be used as a driving pulley. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. Jr. 3. Chicago. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. Fig. Out two rectangular holes. 1 in. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. trolley cars. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. wide. This opening. 10 in. Crilly.proper place to make a small hole. B. 2. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. being 1/8 in.by 5-in. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. wide and 5 in. shorter. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. A and B. . from the edge on each side of these openings. and go in the holder in the same way. shorter at each end. C. black surfaced if possible. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. but cut it 1/4 in. automobiles. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. making the appearance of the ordinary stage.. horses and dogs.

The needle will then point north and south. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. A cell of this kind can easily be made.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. wide will be required. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. in diameter.in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. if it has previously been magnetized. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon.. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. into which the dog is harnessed. long and 6 in. making a . A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles.

with narrow flanges. of water. pull out the wire as needed. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. File the rods to remove the copper plate. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. Pack the paste in. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. filter. and a notch between the base and the pan. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. beeswax melted together. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. . of the plate at one end. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. This makes the wire smooth. says Electrician and Mechanic. for a connection. 1/4 lb.in. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. when the paraffin is melted. 1 lb. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. leaving about 1/2-in. zinc oxide. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base.watertight receptacle. fuel and packing purposes. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. pine. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Do not paint any surface. 3/4 lb. A is a block of l-in. long which are copper plated. in diameter and 6 in. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. short time. sal ammoniac. only the joints. of rosin and 2 oz. plaster of paris. of the top. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. one that will hold about 1 qt. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. Place the pan on the stove. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. under the spool in the paraffin. F is a spool. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. Form a 1/2-in. B is a base of 1 in. fodder. in which P is the pan. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. The details of the construction are given in the diagram.

and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. 2. g. but the thing would not move at all.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm.. as in the other movement. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. for others the opposite way. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. and then. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Toledo. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. or think they can do the same. and he finally. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. let them try it. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. for some it will turn one way. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. long. Try it and see. grip the stick firmly in one hand. thus producing two different vibrations. while for others it will not revolve at all. and one friend tells me that they were . from vexation. At least it is amusing. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. and therein is the trick. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. square and about 9 in. Enlarge the hole slightly. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Ohio. by the Hindoos in India." which created much merriment.

the rotation may be obtained. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. 4. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. Thus a circular or . The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. m. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. Speeds between 700 and 1. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. no rotation resulted. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. 2. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. and. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. 7. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. 5. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. If the pressure was upon an edge. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. 6. and I think the results may be of interest. The experiments were as follows: 1. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. p. 3. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape.100 r. To operate. secondly. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. by means of a center punch. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. gave the best results. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. rotation was obtained.

If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. and the resultant "basket splash." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. . the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. if the pressure is from the left. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. and the height of the fall about 6 in.D. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. at first. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. Lloyd. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. so far as can be seen from the photographs. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. A wire is tied around the can. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. Sloan. A. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Minn. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. --Contributed by G. Washington.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. as shown. C. a piece of wire and a candle. G. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. Duluth. D. --Contributed by M. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. or greasy. forming a handle for carrying.. the upper portion is. unwetted by the liquid.. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. Ph. it will be clockwise. is driven violently away.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

as shown in Fig.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. thick and 1 in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. hole drilled in the center. with a 1/16-in. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. 1. in diameter. as shown. Each wheel is 1/4 in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. long. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . about 2-5/8 in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. flange and a 1/4-in. axle. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person.

put together complete. as shown in Fig. 5.50. holes 1 in. The parts. of No. 2. A trolley. as shown in Fig. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. 3/4 in. lamp in series with the coil. The motor is now bolted. wood. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. Texas. The first piece. wide and 16 in. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. The current. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. These ends are fastened together. which must be 110 volt alternating current. 2. 1 from 1/4-in. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. are shown in Fig. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. is made from a piece of clock spring. San Antonio. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. bent as shown. Fig. with cardboard 3 in. If the ends are to be soldered. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . The other two pieces are 1/2-in. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. Fig. and the locomotive is ready for running. 3. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. long. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. Fuller. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. --Contributed by Maurice E. each in its proper place. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point.brass. 3. is made from brass. This will save buying a track. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. bottom side up. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. 4. 6. or main part of the frame.

Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Cincinnati. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. the length of a paper clip. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. 2. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Fig 1. and as this end . O. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. 1. and holes drilled in them. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. When cold treat the other end in the same way. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. then continue to tighten much more. The quarter will not go all the way down.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. but do not heat the center. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Fig. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. 3. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble.

belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. or should the lathe head be raised. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. In the sketch. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. When the trick is to be performed. 2 and 1 respectively. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. and adjusted . a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. or apparent security of the knot. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. has finished a cut for a tooth. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. When the cutter A. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. A pair of centers are fitted. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel.

such as brass or marble. When connecting to batteries. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. (4.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. Bott. note book.) Make on paper the design wanted. swing lathe. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). The frame holding the mandrel. and a nut pick.to run true. 2. (3. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. N. at the same time striking light. Bunker. coin purse. 1.) Place the paper design on the leather and.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. above the surface. (2. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . Fig. blotter back. (5. In this manner gears 3 in. watch fob ready for fastenings. (1. twisted around itself and soldered. tea cosey. lady's belt bag.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. gentleman's card case or bill book. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. (6. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. trace the outline. draw center lines across the required space. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. or one-half of the design. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. long. lady's card case. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Second row: -Two book marks. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Make free-hand one quarter of the design.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Fold over along these center lines. holding it in place with the left hand. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. book mark. about 1-1/2 in. tea cosey. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. if four parts are to be alike. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. --Contributed by Samuel C. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. dividing it into as many parts as desired. if but two parts. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Brooklyn. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. An ordinary machine will do. --Contributed by Howard S. Y.

Secure . some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. and bore a hole through the center. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. a distance of 900 miles. into which fit a small piece of tube. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle..Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes.C. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. If the needle is not horizontal. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. B. C. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. Thrust a pin. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. and push it through a cork. D. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. The electrodes are made . and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. A. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. where it condenses. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. Florida. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. from Key West.

Four long beams 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. both laterally and longitudinally. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. long. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. as shown in Fig. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. 2 arm sticks 1 in. use 10-ft. lumber cannot be procured. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. The operator can then land safely and . and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. 2. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. Connect as shown in the illustration. long for the body of the operator. which is tacked to the front edge. C. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane.in. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. long. by 3/4 in. long. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. --Contributed by Edwin L. and also to keep it steady in its flight. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. Washington. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. 16 piano wire. long. 3/4 in. 1. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. 1. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. All wiring is done with No. wide and 3 ft. thick. 1-1/4 in. 2. lengths and splice them. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. thick. take the glider to the top of a hill. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. thick. free from knots. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. thick. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. 1. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. or flying-machine. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. 3. To make a glide. square and 8 ft long. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. apart and extend 1 ft. If 20-ft. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. wide and 4 ft. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. as shown in Fig. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. several strips 1/2 in. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. wide and 4 ft long. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. 2 in. thick. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. Powell. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. long. slacken speed and settle. wide and 4 ft. using a high resistance receiver. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. wide and 20 ft. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. D. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. 1/2. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. 12 uprights 1/2 in. 1-1/2 in.

Glides are always made against the wind. Great care should be .gently on his feet. Of course. but this must be found by experience. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes.

a creature of Greek mythology. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. half man and half horse. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Olson. --Contributed by L. as shown in Fig. Bellingham. 2. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. M. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. 1. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. When heated a little. which causes the dip in the line. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes.exercised in making landings. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place.

a piece of brass or steel wire. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. in diameter. The light from the . To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. at the other. about the size of stove pipe wire. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. long. square. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. making it 2-1/2 in. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. of small rubber tubing. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. long and about 3/8 in. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. about the size of door screen wire. this will cost about 15 cents. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. outside the box. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. 14 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. will complete the material list. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball.

Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. Dayton. This is very simple when you know how.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. 2. as shown in Fig. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. . --Photo by M. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. O. as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. M. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. 1. If done properly the card will flyaway.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. while others will fail time after time. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Hunting. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end.

Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. as shown. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. Cool in water and dry. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. This game is played by five persons. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. as described. closing both hands quickly. place the other two. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. as before. then put it on the hatpin head. When the desired shape has been obtained. hold the lump over the flame. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick." or the Chinese students' favorite game. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. If a certain color is to be more prominent. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin.

A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. passing through neutralizing brushes. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. these sectors. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. distribute electric charges . or more in width. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held.

Fig. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. Fig. long. and 4 in. wide at one end. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. Two solid glass rods. in diameter. 1 in. The drive wheels. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. turned wood pieces. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. The collectors are made. C C. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. to which insulating handles . GG. RR. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. long. as shown in Fig. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. and this should be done before cutting the circle. The plates. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. 1-1/2 in. and of a uniform thickness. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. after they are mounted. Two pieces of 1-in. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. as shown in Fig. wide. are made from solid. These pins. in diameter. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. in diameter. and pins inserted and soldered. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. D. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. material 7 in. 3. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. 3. brass tubing and the discharging rods. the side pieces being 24 in. 3/4 in. in diameter and 15 in. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. in diameter. from about 1/4-in. The two pieces. are made from 7/8-in. EE. long and the standards 3 in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. long and the shank 4 in. in diameter. or teeth. 4. in diameter. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. and the outer end 11/2 in. 2. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. 1. at the other. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. The fork part is 6 in. The plates are trued up. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. free from wrinkles.

Colorado City. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. KK. Lloyd Enos. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. Colo. which are bent as shown. and the work was done by themselves. D. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods.are attached. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. in diameter. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. one having a 2-in. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. ball and the other one 3/4 in. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . --Contributed by C. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. long. wide and 22 ft. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results.. 12 ft.

All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. and bore a hole 1/2 in. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. bit. using a 1-in. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. The key will drop from the string. pens . the boards are then put in a vise as shown. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. string together. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded.is a good one. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. as at A. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. yet such a thing can be done. They can be used to keep pins and needles. deep.

If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. file. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. When the stamping is completed. sharp division between background and design. etc. 7. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. This is to make a clean. or cigar ashes. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. 23 gauge.. very rapid progress can be made. inside the second on all. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. stamp the background promiscuously. Having determined the size of the tray. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. Raise the ends. 4. they make attractive little pieces to have about. using a nail filed to chisel edge. Inside this oblong. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 6. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 5.and pencils. and the third one 1/4 in. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. 9. above the metal. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. extra metal on each of the four sides. about 3/4-in. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Use .. 3. 8. etc. Draw one-half the design free hand. then the other side. flat and round-nosed pliers. 2. inside the first on all. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. The second oblong was 3/4 in. slim screw. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. They are easily made. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. above the work and striking it with the hammer. also trace the decorative design. Proceed as follows: 1. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. unless it would be the metal shears. two spikes.

On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . and the effect will be most pleasing. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. 7. second fingers. 10. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. In the first numbering. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. 9. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. 6. The eyes. third fingers. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. first fingers. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. and fourth fingers. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 8. Bradley All machinists use mathematics.

Let us multiply 12 by 12. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. Put your thumbs together. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. 12. viz. the product of 12 times 12. Still. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. or the product of 6 times 6. which would be 70. or the product of 8 times 9. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. renumber your fingers. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. but being simple it saves time and trouble. etc. In the second numbering. or numbers above 10. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. 25 times 25. thumbs. or 60. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. Two times one are two. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. above 15 times 15 it is 200. 400. if we wish. or 80. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. which tens are added. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. 2 times 2 equals 4. 600.. as high as you want to go. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. which would be 16.. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. and the six lower fingers as six tens. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. first fingers. 11. . above 20 times 20.. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. etc. etc. there are no fingers above. At a glance you see four tens or 40.

about a vertical axis. or from above or from below. Take For example 18 times 18. It takes place also. at the will of the observer. For figures ending in 6. Proceed as in the second lumbering. the lump sum to add. first finger 17. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. and. forties. as one might suppose. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. however. first fingers 22. lastly. 8. which is the half-way point between the two fives. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. and so on. . whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. 7. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. 75 and 85. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the value which the upper fingers have. any two figures between 45 and 55. whether the one described in second or third numbering. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. in the case of a nearsighted person. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. etc. beginning the thumbs with 16. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. 3. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. further. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. The inversion and reversion did not take place.. twenties. not rotation. For example. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. thirties. or what. being 80). In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. when he removes his spectacles. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. the inversion takes place against his will. 2. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. the revolution seems to reverse. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. 21. adding 400 instead of 100.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. And the lump sum to add. thumbs.

as .Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. the other appearance asserts itself. A flat slide valve was used. tee. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. Looking at it in semidarkness. and putting a cork on the point. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. The ports were not easy to make. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. sometimes the point towards him. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. when he knows which direction is right. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina.

round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. pipe 10 in. deep. Kutscher. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. . While this engine does not give much power. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. The steam chest is round. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. and make in one end a hollow. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. across and 1/2 in. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. If nothing better is at hand. as in a vise. The tools are simple and can be made easily. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. H. The eccentric is constructed of washers. inexpensive. it is easily built. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. -Contributed by W. in diameter. Fasten the block solidly. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. Beating copper tends to harden it and. saw off a section of a broom handle. apart. pipe. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. secure a piece of No. about 2 in. across the head. if continued too long without proper treatment. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. Springfield. bottom side up. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Ill. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Next take a block of wood. such as is shown in the illustration. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in..

In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. Hay. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Camden. --Contributed by W. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. as it softens the metal.will cause the metal to break. Vinegar. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. especially when the object is near to the observer. S. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. To overcome this hardness. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. O. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. C. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. the other to the left. This process is called annealing. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. To produce color effects on copper. and.

Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms.stereoscope. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. the further from the card will the composite image appear. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. only the orange rays may pass through. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. that for the right. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. . the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The further apart the pictures are. as for instance red and green. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. although they pass through the screen. diameter. orange. and lies to the right on the picture. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. because of the rays coming from them. the left eye sees through a blue screen. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. however. In order to make them appear before the card. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. and without any picture. because. the one for the left eye being blue. So with the stereograph. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. with the stereograph. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. not two mounted side by side. The red portions of the picture are not seen. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. they must be a very trifle apart. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. disappears fully. while both eyes together see a white background. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. would serve the same purpose. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. It is just as though they were not there. But they seem black. in the proper choice of colors. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. it. from the stereograph. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture.

How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. A No.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. 12 gauge wire. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. in diameter. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. long and a hole drilled in each end. or the middle of the bottle. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. in the shape of a crank. This should only be bored about half way through the block. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. wireless. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. San Francisco. Cal. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. etc. thick. 1/4 in. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. Place a NO. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. The weight of the air in round . The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. wide and 1 in. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire.

Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. high. pine 3 in. Before fastening the scale. Only redistilled mercury should be used. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. and a slow fall. square. a bottle 1 in. square. thick. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. high. will calibrate itself. but before attempting to put in the mercury. high.numbers is 15 lb. are marked off and divided into sixteenths.6) 1 in. the instrument. In general. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. long. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. 30 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. if you choose. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. or a column of mercury (density 13. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. long. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. long. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. or. wide and 40 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. wide and 4 in. inside diameter and 2 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. . the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. a glass tube 1/8 in. The 4 in. if accurately constructed. But if a standard barometer is not available. 34 ft. internal diameter and about 34 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled.. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. the contrary.

Number the pieces 1.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. wide and 10 in. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. and place them as shown in Fig. 5. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. Mark out seven 1-in. 1. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . long. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. thick. 6 and 7. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. Procure a metal can cover. 3. 2. which is slipped quickly over the end. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. a cover from a baking powder can will do. the size of the outside of the bottle. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed.

To make such a tent. 7's place. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 6 over No. 3. 6 to No. Move 12-Jump No. 5's place. each 10 ft. l over No. Move 8-Jump No. 6. Make 22 sections.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Move 2-Jump No. 7. Move ll-Jump No. 6 into No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 3 into No. using checkers for men. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 6 in. N. 1 into No. L. 2. Move 6-Move No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 14-Jump No. procure unbleached tent duck. 2 over No. Move 5-Jump No. 5's place. 1 to No. 3 to the center. 3 over No. 5 over No. 6. in diameter. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. which is the very best material for the purpose. Move 15-Move No. Cape May Point. 2's place. 2 over No. Move 7-Jump No. 1. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 3. shaped like Fig. 5 over No. 1. 3. Move 10-Move No. 5. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. long and 2 ft. 2 . 7 over No. Move 9-Jump No. Move 3-Move No.J. 2. This can be done on a checker board.-Contributed by W. 7 over No. Move 13-Move No. 2's place. Move 4-Jump No. Woolson. as shown in Fig.

Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in.J. long and 4 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 5) stuck in the ground. Tress. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. high. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Use blocks. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. In raising the tent. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Fig. 5. will do. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. round galvanized iron. wide by 12 in. Punch holes in the brass in . leaving the rest for an opening. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. 6. Emsworth. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. made in two sections. 6-in. wide at the bottom. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Nail a thin sheet of brass. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. wide at the bottom. in diameter. to a smooth board of soft wood. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. about 9 in. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. from the top. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. 2. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. 9 by 12 in. After transferring the design to the brass. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. long. as in Fig. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas.in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. As shown in the sketch. 2 in. Pa. 3 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. --Contributed by G. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. diameter. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. fill with canvas edging. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. added. Have the tent pole 3 in. Fig. These are ventilators.. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in.

fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. When all the holes are punched. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. excepting the 1/4-in. around the outside of the pattern. . apart. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. It will not. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. bend into shape. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. Corr. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. When the edges are brought together by bending. The pattern is traced as before.the spaces around the outlined figures. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. cut out the brass on the outside lines. but before punching the holes. Chicago.

The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. partially filled with cream. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. pipe. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. G. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. Badger. A cast-iron ring. A 6-in. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. pipe is used for the hub. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. between which is placed the fruit jar. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Que. Stevens. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. Mayger. or center on which the frame swings. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. These pipes are . or less. E.however. --Contributed by H. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Oregon. If a wheel is selected. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Dunham. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in.. or. better still. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. --Contributed by Geo. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. allowing 2 ft.

A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. Four braces made from 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. bent to the desired circle. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe clamps. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. pipe. An extra wheel 18 in.

which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The performer. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. as shown in Fig. 3. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. while doing this. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. which was placed in an upright position. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. and dropped on the table. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. and the guide withdrawn. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. 1. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand.

and second. St. Denver. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. White. 2. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Harkins. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. --Contributed by H. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. F. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. -Contributed by C. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. in a half circle. Colo. The box can be made of selected oak or . in diameter on another piece of tin. it requires no expensive condensing lens. Mo. first. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. D. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Louis. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. 1. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen.

long. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. If a camera lens is used. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. high and must . from each end. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. An open space 4 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. AA. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. fit into the runners. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. 2. represented by the dotted line in Fig. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. from each end of the outside of the box. wide and 5 in. focal length. wide and 6-1/2 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. and.mahogany. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. wide by 5 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. wide. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. and 2 in. 5-1/2 in. long and should be placed vertically. 1. high and 11 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. as shown in Fig. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. 3-1/2 in. but not tight. This will be 3/4 in. long.

but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Bradley. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. C. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. and so on. 1. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. the article may be propped up . West Toledo. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. then the second knuckle will be March. June and November. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. April. This process is rather a difficult one. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. --Contributed by Chas.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. calling this February. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September.. provided it is airtight." etc. calling that knuckle January. Ohio. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. and extending the whole height of the lantern. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. as it requires an airtight case.

The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. fruit jars are required. the lid or cover closed. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. and set aside for half a day. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. 1 and 2. running small motors and lighting small lamps. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. taking care to have all the edges closed. 2. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. in. Crawford. one of lead and one of aluminum. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. The top of a table will do. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. in. In each place two electrodes. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. H. Pour in a little turpentine. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. or suspended by a string. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. 1. In both Fig. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. N. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. Schenectady. . The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. but waxed. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. Y. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. --Contributed by J.with small sticks. and the lead 24 sq. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. giving it an occasional stir.

You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. You have an understanding with some one in the company. he throws the other. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. He. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts.. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. After a few seconds' time. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . O. as you have held it all the time. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. which you warm with your hands. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. as well as others. This trick is very simple. Cleveland. you remove the glass. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture.

but in making one. Crocker. if any snags are encountered.take the handiest one. Pull the ends quickly. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. put it under the glass. Colo. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Victor. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. J. in diameter in the center. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. on a table. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. but by being careful at shores. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. so it will appear to be a part of the table top.-Contributed by E. . Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. near a partition or curtain. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Be sure that this is the right one. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward.

1 piece for forms and bow pieces. The keelson. 3 in. from the bow and the large one. 9 ft. 14 rib bands.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 2 and braced with an iron band. wide. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. by 10 ft. for the stern piece. from the stern. 4 outwales. Fig. by 12 in. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . the smaller is placed 3 ft.. 2 gunwales. screws and cleats. Both ends are mortised. wide and 12 ft. wide and 12 ft. 1 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. clear pine. long. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. long. 50 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. Paint. wide 12-oz. long. by 8 in. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. by 2 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 1/4 in. 11 yd. selected pine. long. one 6 in. 1 in. 7 ft. is 14 ft. thick and 3/4 in. by 16 ft. are as follows: 1 keelson. for center deck braces. 8 in. from each end to 1 in.. by 15 ft. ducking. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. and fastened with screws. 1/8 in. of rope. 1 piece. apart. square by 16 ft. for the bow. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 8 yd. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 3 and 4. by 2 in. by 16 ft. 1 in. 1 mast. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. of 1-1/2-yd. 3 in. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 2 in. of 1-yd. at the ends. wide unbleached muslin. as illustrated in the engraving. for cockpit frame. and the other 12 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. and. 1 piece. 1 in. 1. drilled and fastened with screws.

doubled. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. and fastened to them with bolts. wide and 3 ft. 9. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. Fig. This block. wide and 14 in. Figs. Fig. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. is cut to fit under the top boards. long. thick 1-1/2 in. also. 6. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. long. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. 1 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. A block of pine. apart. wide. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. long. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. thick. A 6-in. 3-1/2 ft. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. corner braces. The trimming is wood.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. wide and 24 in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. Before making the deck. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. The deck is not so hard to do. A piece of oak. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. 6 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. length of canvas is cut in the center. 7 and 8. 1 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. wide. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. 1/4 in. gunwales and keelson. The block is fastened to the keelson. in diameter through the block. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. long is well soaked in water. The 11-yd. screws. . The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. They are 1 in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. These are put in 6 in. a piece 1/4 in. is a cube having sides 6 in. wood screws. 6 and 7. thick and 12 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. thick. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. from the bow. Braces. 4 in. 5. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. thick and 1/2 in.

wide. are used for the boom and gaff. 12.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. apart in the muslin. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. at the other. wide at one end and 12 in. Tronnes. in diameter and 10 ft. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The keel. --Contributed by O. A strip 1 in. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. . Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The mast has two side and one front stay. Ill. Fig. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. each 1 in. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. long. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. thick by 2 in. The sail is a triangle. long. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. is 6 in. Wilmette. 11. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. 10 with a movable handle. The house will accommodate 20 families. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. E. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel.

1. long. square. 1 yd. flat-headed screws. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. 3. and 3 ft. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Bevel both sides of the pieces. and the other 18 in. flat on one side. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. thick. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. Fig. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. as shown in Fig. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. five 1/2-in. wide. thick. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. 2-1/2 in. 5. Wilmette.into two 14-in. --Contributed by O. long. flat headed screws. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. thick. Take this and fold it over . 2-1/2 in. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. E. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. about 5/16 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. long. 4. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. one 11-1/2 in. Cut the maple. 2.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Tronnes. with the ends and the other side rounding. wide. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. wide and 2 ft. wide and 30 in. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. Ill. 2 in. long and five 1/2-in.

thick and 3 in. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. wide and 6-3/4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. 6-1/2 in. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. 3/8 in. long. then centered. Make a double stitch all around the edge. 2 and 3. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. 3 in. wide and 5 in. and the four outside edges. --Contributed by W. long. F. Cut another piece of board. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. St. E. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. pieces 2-5/8 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. long. Fig. The bag is then turned inside out. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. B. Another piece. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. 5 from 1/16-in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. Mo. the mechanical parts can be put together. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. C. forming an eye for a screw. 1-1/4 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. Bliss. and take care that the pieces are all square. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. Wind three layers of about No. Louis. wide and 3 ft. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. about 3/8 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. After the glue. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. A. The sides are 3-1/4 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. are rounded. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. square. is set. Glue a three cornered piece. 3-1/4 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. thick. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. long. A. The front. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. but can be governed by circumstances. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. thick. of each end unwound for connections. long. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. long. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. If carefully and neatly made. long. D. Figs. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. this square box is well sandpapered. C. the top and bottom. long. as well as the edges around the opening. soaked with water and blown up. and make a turn in each end of the wires. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. When the glue is set. wide and 2-3/4 in. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. square. 1. About 1/2 in. wide .once. wide and 4-1/2 in.

and as the part Fig. A pointer 12 in. F. G. --Contributed by George Heimroth.A. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. Fig. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. These wires should be about 1 in. The stronger the current. R. 5-1/2 in. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. Chapman. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. C. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. Yorkshire. thick. long.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. 4. Richmond Hill. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. that has the end turned with a shoulder. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. long. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. 4. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. wide and 9 in. board. 1/16 in. in diameter. A brass tube having a 1/4-in.S. and fasten in place. wide and 2-1/2 in. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. showing a greater defection of the pointer. Place the tin. The instrument is now ready for calibrating.and 2-5/8 in. L. The end of the polar axis B. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. the same size as the first.R. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. bored in the back. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The resistance is now adjusted to show . In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The base is a board 5 in. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. When the current flows through the coil. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. W. hole is fastened to the pointer. Austwick Hall. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. Another strip of tin. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. and the farther apart they will be forced. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. from the spindle. I. 4 is not movable. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. Like poles repel each other. Fig. so it will just clear the tin. from one end. 5. the part carrying the pointer moves away. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. long. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. 1/4 in.

at 9 hr. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. 30 min. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. shows mean siderial. 10 min. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. thus: 9 hr. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. 10 min. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. and vice . A. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. 1881. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. say Venus at the date of observation. The following formula will show how this may be found. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. M.

New Haven. owing to the low internal resistance. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. if one of these cannot be had.m. Hall. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Robert W. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. . Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Conn. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. or. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid.f. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess.

Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. as shown in the accompanying picture. 1-3/4 in.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. arsenic to every 20 lb. cover up with the same. leaves or bark. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. and heap the glowing coals on top. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. 3/8 in. Fig. long. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. When the follower is screwed down. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Wet paper will answer. 1. especially for cooking fish. inside diameter and about 5 in. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. thick. fresh grass. of alum and 4 oz. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Then. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. The boring bar. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. put the fish among the ashes. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand.

When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. pipe. and threaded on both ends. fastened with a pin. thick. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . when they were turned in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. about 1/2 in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. pipe.

2. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. 30 in. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. A 1-in. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. bent in the shape of a U. 3. Fig. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. This plate also supports the rocker arms. Clermont. 5. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. long. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. wide. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. and which gave such satisfactory results. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. square iron. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. the float is too high. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. Fig. was then finished on an emery wheel. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. thick and 3 in. Fig. a jump spark would be much better. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. If the valve keeps dripping.valve stems. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Iowa. labor and time. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. 4. however. as the one illustrated herewith. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. but never one which required so little material. It . The rough frame. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. then it should be ground to a fit.

strengthened by a piece 4 in. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. for the "motive power" to grasp. set 3 ft. If it is to be used for adults. extending above. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. timber. square and 2 ft. --Contributed by C. in the ground with 8 ft. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. hole bored in the post. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. It looks like a toy. being held in position by spikes as shown. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. As there is no bracing. rope is not too heavy.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. in fact. 12 ft. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. long. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. long. from the center. The seats are regular swing boards. and. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. with no trees or buildings in the way. This makes an easy adjustment. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. long is the pivot. from all over the neighborhood. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. strong clear material only should be employed. The crosspiece is 2 in. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. W. A 3/4 -in. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. square and 5 ft. in diameter and 15 in. butting against short stakes. Nieman. Use a heavy washer at the head. so it must be strong enough. square. 3/4 in. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. completes the merry-go-round." little and big. and a little junk. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. long. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. A malleable iron bolt. The illustration largely explains itself. no matter what your age or size may be. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. On this depends the safety of the contrivance.

To wind the string upon the reel. 1. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The bow is now bent. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. 1/4 by 3/32 in. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. and 18 in. Having placed the backbone in position. and sent to earth. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other.the fingers. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. A reel is next made. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. light and strong. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. then it is securely fastened. 2. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. Both have large reels full of . These ends are placed about 14 in. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. long. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig.2 emery. away. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. one for the backbone and one for the bow.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. if nothing better is at hand. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The backbone is flat. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. a wreck. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. 4. square. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. as shown in Fig.

Bunker. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. The handle end is held down with a staple. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Moody. N. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Brooklyn. --Contributed' by Harry S. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. First. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. common packing thread. he pays out a large amount of string. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Y. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string.string. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . C. often several hundred yards of it.-Contributed by S. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. the balance. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. or glass-covered string. Mass. Newburyport. If the second kite is close enough. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it.

Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. length of 2-in. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. then a dust protector. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. such as mill men use. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. square (Fig. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. each the size of half the table top. If the table is round. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. then draw the string up tight. Vt. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . must be attached to a 3-ft. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Hastings. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. --Contributed by Earl R. lengths (Fig. Corinth. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in.

17-1/2 in.-Contributed by H. Oakland. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. from C to D. from E to F. and E to G. which spoils the leather effect. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. hard pencil. G to H.. Wharton. Use a smooth. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. . Calif. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag.. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad.9-1/4 in. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. 2-1/4 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. E. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. Moisten the . 6-1/4 in. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. trace the design carefully on the leather. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. 16-1/4 in..

place both together and with a leather punch. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. and corresponding lines on the other side. Now cut narrow thongs. G-J. with the rounded sides of the tools. wide. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. about 1/8 in. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Trace the openings for the handles.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. To complete the bag. apart. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. and lace through the holes. and E-G. if not more than 1 in. get something with which to make a lining. Cut it the same size as the bag. I made this motor . H-B. also lines A-G. is taken off at a time. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag.

iron. in length. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. D. long. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. 1. Pasadena. --Contributed by J. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. of No. Shannon. 2-1/4 in.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. as shown in Fig. each being a half circle. B. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. 2. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. 1. Calif. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. 24 gauge magnet wire. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. . both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts.M.

are the best kind to make. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. from the bottom end. balloon should be about 8 ft. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. The gores for a 6-ft. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . high. and the gores cut from these. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. near the center. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. 1. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. pasted in alternately. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig.

In starting the balloon on its flight. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. in diameter. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. 3. lap on the edges. As the boat is driven forward by this force. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. so it will hang as shown in Fig. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. 5. 1. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. leaving a long wake behind. coming through the small pipe A. A. These are to hold the wick ball. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. B. saturating it thoroughly. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. somewhat larger in size. The boat soon attains considerable speed. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. 2. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. If the gores have been put together right. using about 1/2-in. after which the paint will adhere permanently.widest point. E. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . After washing. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. Staunton. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. leaving the solution on over night. In removing grease from wood. 4. --Contributed by R. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. Fig. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. The steam.

1. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The blocks are about 6 in. wide by 6 in. as is shown in Fig. high and 8 in. if you have several copies of the photograph. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. There are three ways of doing this: First. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. long. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. In using either of the two methods described. Third. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. Second. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. in bowling form. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. apart on these lines.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. long and each provided with a handle.

If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Hellwig. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Y. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Fig. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. thick. 2. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. --Contributed by John A. N. Albany. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. being careful not to dent the metal.Fig. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Rinse the plate in cold water. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque.

in diameter. Richmond. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. With this device. A. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. S. Break off the frame. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. A circular piece of wood. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Va. thick. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. 2 the front view. 6 in. with a set screw. 1 Fig. Paine. B. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. In Fig. are screwed to the circular piece. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. A. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Corner irons. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. --Contributed by R. wide and of any desired height. and Fig.upon any particular object. is fastened to a common camera tripod. long for the base. through which passes the set screw S. 5 in. These corner irons are also screwed to. wide and 8 in. which is 4 in. CC. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. and not produce the right sound. and.

S. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. in diameter of some 1-in. R. La Salle. . it can be mounted on the inside of the can. thus producing sound waves. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. as only the can is visible. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. pine boards. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Lake Preston. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. D. Ill. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. -1. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. This horn. Kidder. I made a wheel 26 in. This will make a very compact electric horn.

How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . 1. 2. If there is a large collection of coins. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. the same thickness as the coins. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. thick and 12 in. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Purdy. O. Ghent. --Contributed by C. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Kane. The frame is made of a heavy card. If the collection consists of only a few coins. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. 1. Doylestown. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Fig.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. A. --Contributed by James R. B. square.

Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. --Contributed by J. though not absolutely necessary. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Neyer. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. A rivet punch is desirable. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. The material required is a sheet of No. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. One Cloud. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. for after the slides have been shown a few times.J. plus a 3/8-in. several large nails. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Toronto. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. a hammer or mallet. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. thick. they become uninteresting. Cal. --Contributed by August T. Noble. --Contributed by R. If desired. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. It will hold 4 oz. and then glued together as indicated.E. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Milwaukee. melted and applied with a brush. Smith.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. cut and grooved. Canada. Wis. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. A lead pencil. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. border all around. of developer. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. into which to place the screws . Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch.

screws placed about 1 in. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. never upon the metal directly. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. and file it to a chisel edge. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. both outline and decoration. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. draw one part. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. using 1/2-in. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Remove the screws. like the one shown. Take the nail. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. There are several ways of working up the design. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the .

wall. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. long. . one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. 1. square. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. using a 1/2in. of 11-in. square and 11 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. long. Rivet the band to the holder. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. up from the lower end. l-1/8 in. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. Do not bend it over or flatten it. 3/4 in. Provide four lengths for the legs. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. square and 181/2 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. for the top. About 1/2 yd. The pedal. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. being ball bearing. for the lower rails. each 1 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. and two lengths. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. two lengths. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. 2. 3. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. in the other. as shown in Fig. long.

It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. --Contributed by W. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. having quite a length of threads. New York City. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. --Contributed by John Shahan. F. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. Attalla. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Ala. Quackenbush. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut.

The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. Two pieces of felt. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. Purchase a 1/2-in. something that is carbonated.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. making a lap of about 1 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. wide and 8-1/4 in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. and 3/8 in. Mich. and the other 2-3/4 in. one about 1 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. from the end. from one end. The desired emblem. D. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. Ironwood. each 1-1/4 in. long. the end of the other piece is folded over. wide and 4-1/4 in. and two holes in the other.. --Contributed by C. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. long. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . Luther. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. Assemble as shown in the sketch. long. initial. college or lodge colors. stitched on both edges for appearance. using class. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. in depth. of sal-soda in one pailful of water.

Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. and the cork will be driven out. in the cover and the bottom. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. 2. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . A piece of lead. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. --Contributed by John H. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Punch two holes A. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. which can be procured from a plumber. 1. Fig. or a pasteboard box. or more in height. Schatz.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. if desired by the operator. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Indianapolis. 1/4 in. as shown at B. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. about 2 in. in diameter and 2 in. from the center and opposite each other. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. as shown in the sketch. This method allows a wide range of designs. Ind.

When the can is rolled away from you. The pieces of tin between the holes A. and the ends of the bands looped over them. are turned up as in Fig. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. Fig. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. 5. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. 3. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. O. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. putting in the design. metal. on both top and bottom.Rolling Can Toy lead. Columbus. 4. 1. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. as shown in Fig. or marble will serve. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. . How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. A piece of thick glass. allowing the two ends to be free. it winds up the rubber band.

and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. and. I secured a board 3/4 in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. New York City. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. Next place the leather on the glass. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. face up. hole through it. After this has been done.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. or more thick on each side. thicker than the pinion. wide and 20 in. A pencil may be used the first time over. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. 3 in. thick. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. deep in its face. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. 1 in. long and bored a 1/2-in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. The edges should be about 1/8 in. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. from each end. mark over the design. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced.

2 side rails. 1 piece for clamp. Make the lower frame first. 1 by 9 by 80 in. pieces for the vise slides. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Now fit up the two clamps. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 1 top board. 3 by 3 by 20 in. Fig. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Y. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. thick top board. 2. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. M. Rice. New York. much of the hard labor will be saved. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1 top board. --Contributed by A. 1. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. N. 4 guides. lag screws as shown. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 1 screw block. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 2 end rails. 2 crosspieces. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with .in the board into the bench top. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 1 piece for clamp. 1 back board. 1 piece. in diameter. Cut the 2-in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 3 by 3 by 36. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Syracuse. Brooklyn. and fit it in place for the side vise. 2 by 2 by 18 in. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in.

. 1 claw hammer. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. in diameter. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 pair dividers. as well as the pattern maker. 1 set gimlets. 1 compass saw. 1 countersink. 1 monkey wrench. 1 bench plane or jointer. rule. 1 cross cut saw. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. Only the long run. 1 marking gauge. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 pair pliers. 1 wood scraper. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. . it can be easily found when wanted. 1 rip saw. The bench is now complete. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood.screws. 1 set chisels. The amateur workman. 1 jack plane or smoother. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 2 screwdrivers. 3 and 6 in. 24 in. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 pocket level. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop.. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 24 in. 1 nail set.. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 2-ft.

---Contributed by James M. 1 oilstone. Fig. Fig. 1. but will not make . No. being softer. 2 and 00 sandpaper. will be easier to work. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. try square. 3. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. The calf skin. 2. Fig. Fig. will sink into the handle as shown at D.1. 1. Pa. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump.1 6-in. Doylestown. becomes like A. Kane. after constant use. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. the projecting point A. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C.

the same method of treatment is used. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. If cow hide is preferred. water or heat will not affect. and the length 6-5/8 in. when dry. lay the design on the face. secure a piece of modeling calf. but a V-shaped nut pick. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. such as copper or brass. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. Two pieces will be required of this size. which steam. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. New York City. Turn the leather. If calf skin is to be used. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall.as rigid a case as the cow skin. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Having prepared the two sides. cover it completely with water enamel and. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. then prepare the leather. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. . First draw the design on paper. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. After the outlines are traced. -Contributed by Julia A. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. White. will do just as well. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. The form can be made of a stick of wood. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background.

Maine. Cal. --Contributed by Chas. Cobb. --Contributed by W. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. A. Portland. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. C. Jaquythe. --Contributed by Chester L. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. Richmond. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. . as shown in the sketch. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. New York City. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Herrman.

Wright. an inverted stewpan. Conn. Cambridge. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. This was very difficult. --Contributed by Geo. --Contributed by Wm. B. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. A thick piece of tin. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in.. Mass. Roberts. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. or anyone that can shape tin and solder.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. . The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. for instance. Middletown. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. was marked out as shown. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly.

pulverized and applied. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. If the article is highly polished. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. When dry. then immerse the print in it and squeegee.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. which has been tried out several times with success. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. The next morning there was no trace of oil.. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. Herbert. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Chicago. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. Bone. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. and quite new. but only an odor which soon vanished. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. Ind. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. --Contributed by C. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. . Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. --Contributed by Paul Keller. such as chair seats. well calcined and powdered. face down. Illinois. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. If any traces of the grease are left. so some bones were quickly calcined. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. There was no quicklime to be had. of boiling water. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. Indianapolis. used as part of furniture. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. F. apply powdered calcined magnesia. on a clear piece of glass. L. and the grease will disappear. A beautifully bound book. as shown. but not running over.

says Scientific American. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. This coaster is simple and easy to make. If properly adjusted. wide and 12 in. thick. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. --Contributed by Geo. high and are bolted to a block of wood. long.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. soft steel with the opening 6 in.. The pieces marked S are single. Howe.. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. Tarrytown. New York. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. 6 in. A. set and thumbscrews. deep and 5 in. 2 in. the pieces .

A sharp knife. Their size depends on the plate used. E. The seat is a board. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. albums and the like. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. says Camera Craft. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. no doubt. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. to the underside of which is a block. for sending to friends. If the letters are all cut the same height. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. they will look remarkably uniform.

trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. The puzzle is to get . the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. pasting the prints on some thin card. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. after. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. using care to get it in the right position. for example. mount them on short pieces of corks. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. photographing them down to the desired size. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. So made. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. In cutting out an 0. So arranged. and. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background.

with the longest end outside. so they will lie horizontal. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. of its top. squeezes along past the center of the tube. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand.-Contributed by I. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. snow or anything to hide it. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. He smells the bait. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in.J. Old-Time Magic . N.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. hung on pivots. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. A hole 6 or 7 in. says the American Thresherman. Bayley. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand .Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. Cape May Point. long that will just fit are set in. G.

How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. then expose again. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Pawtucket. E. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Press the hands together. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Szerlip.faced up. Rhode Island. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. or rub the hands a little before doing so. --Contributed by Charles Graham. --Contributed by L. Y. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. then spread the string. Parker. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Pocatello. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Brooklyn. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. --Contributed by L. N. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Idaho.

or a complete suit of armor. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. full size. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. in building up his work from the illustrations. narrower. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. long. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. dark red. they will look very much like the genuine article. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. if any.Genuine antique swords and armor. end of the blade. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in.. The pieces. using a straightedge and a pencil. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. whether he requires a single sword only. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. The handle is next made. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. 3 Fig. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. When the whole is quite dry. wipe the blade . 2 Fig. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. wide and 2 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. says the English Mechanic. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Glue the other side of the blade. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. near the point end. in width. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. or green oil paint.. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. 1 Fig. The blade should be about 27 in. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. thick. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. 1. and if carefully made. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. 4 on the blade. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. When the glue is thoroughly dry.

The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. The length of the handle. and 3 in. 3. This sword is about 68 in. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. should be about 9 in. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia.. In the finished piece. shows only two sides. 3. long. In making. 1. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. allowing for a good hold with both hands. 1. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. the length of the blade 28 in. preferably of contrasting colors. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. 1. 1. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. in diameter. square and of any length desired. follow the directions as for Fig. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. take two pieces of wood. 2. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. in the widest part at the lower end.. as it is . 4. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. the other two are identical. of course. 1/8 in. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. thick and 5 in. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. Fig. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. the other is flat or half-round. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. Both edges of the blade are sharp. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. the illustration. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. 2. the other is flat or halfround. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. about 1-1/2 in. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. In making this scimitar. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig.with light strokes up and down several times. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig.

The thinness of the plank. --Contributed by Katharine D. A piece of mild steel. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. or an insecure fastening. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Franklin. Morse. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Syracuse. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. as shown in the sketch. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. and if so. Y. each about 1 ft. at the lower end. It is made of a plank. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Doctors probed for the button without success. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. square. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. 2 in. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. however. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. piping and jackets by hard water. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. as there was some at hand. On each edge of the board. and. N. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. in an attempt to remove it. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Both can be made easily. --Contributed by John Blake. about 3/8 in. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. long. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. as can the pitch bed or block. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. A cold . Mass.

on the pitch. 5 lb. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. When this has been done. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. 18 gauge. When the desired form has been obtained. 5 lb. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. using a small metal saw. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. To put it in another way. secure a piece of brass of about No. Trim up the edges and file them . plaster of Paris. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. The metal will probably be warped somewhat.. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. design down. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. To remedy this.. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. tallow. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. a file to reduce the ends to shape.

1 ft. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. or fraction of a horsepower. This in turn divided by 33. make an unusual show window attraction. Fig. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. per minute. Fill the 3-in. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. space between the vessels with water. and hang a bird swing. 30 ft. in one minute or 550 lb. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. 1) and the other 12 in. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. lb. lb. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Before giving the description. per second.000 lb. over the smaller vessel. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. in diameter (Fig. in diameter (Fig. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. but not to stop it.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. and still revolve. using powdered pumice with lye. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. A. or 550 ft. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. That is lifting 33. --Contributed by Harold H.000 ft. Cutter. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Clean the metal thoroughly. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. to keep it from floating. 3. in one second. one 18 in. The smaller is placed within the larger. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. 1 ft. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. in the center. . 2). Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do.smooth.

How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. Campbell. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. F. N. Diameter 12 in. Brooklyn. or on a pedestal.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. 1 Fig. Mass. The effect is surprising. Y. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use.3 Fig. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. --Contributed.18 in. 2 Fig. Somerville. --Contributed by J. Diameter Fig. by L. Szerlip. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two.

This compound is impervious to water. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. away from the edge. with the pliers. which may be of wood or tin. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. is. as a rule. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. unsatisfactory. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. with other defects. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. and then. Do not be content merely to bend them over. which. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. and cut out the shape with the shears. In riveting. often render it useless after a few months service. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. and the clay . after which it is ready for use. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. using any of the common metal polishes. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. to keep the metal from tarnishing. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. the same as removing writing from a slate. Polish both of these pieces.copper of No. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Rivet the cup to the base. keeping the center high. then by drawing a straightedge over it. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown.

1. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. in diameter and 5 in. Dunlop. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Scotland. --Contributed by John T. Houghton. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. -Contributed by Thos. Grand Rapids. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. --Contributed by A. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. as shown in Fig. It is made of a glass tube. Shettleston. Mich. DeLoof. the device will work for an indefinite time. . Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly.can be pressed back and leveled. 3/4 in. long. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. A. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Northville. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. 2. Mich.

will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. As the handle is to . This sword is 4 ft. London. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. put up as ornaments. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. stilettos and battle-axes. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. 1. long with the crossguard and blade of steel.1 FIG.FIG. in width and 2 in. long. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords.

The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. When the glue is thoroughly dry. 6. This axe is made similar to the one . steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. is shown in Fig. narrower. string. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. the upper part iron or steel. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. glue and put it in place. very broad. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. 9.represent copper. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. with both edges of the blade sharp. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. long. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. A German poniard is shown in Fig. in length. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. the same as used on the end of the handle. wood with a keyhole saw. which is about 2-1/2 ft. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. In Fig. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. When the whole is quite dry. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. Three large. This stiletto has a wood handle. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. The handle is of wood. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. These must be cut from pieces of wood. A German stiletto. This weapon is about 1 ft. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. 4. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. The lower half of the handle is of wood. with wire or string' bound handle. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. 8. The ball is made as described in Fig. in length. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. In Fig. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. Both handle and axe are of steel. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. one about 1/2 in. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. 7. sharp edges on both sides. The sword shown in Fig. with both edges sharp. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The crossbar and blade are steel. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. firmly glued on. This sword is about 4 ft. in width. paint it a dark brown or black. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. then glued on the blade as shown. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. This weapon is also about 1 ft. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. In Fig. 3 is shown a claymore. 20 spike. 5. 11 were used. studded with brass or steel nails. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. When dry. small rope and round-headed nails. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. long with a dark handle of wood. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. the axe is of steel. sometimes called cuirass breakers. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape.

high. 10. so the contents cannot be seen. When wrapped all the way around.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. Chicago. . This will make a very good flexible belt. together as shown in Fig. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. such as braided fishline. W. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. will pull where other belts slip. the ends are tied and cut off. Old-Time Magic .described in Fig. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. --Contributed by E. 2. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. Davis.

3 show the position of the wires and flowers. Bridgeton. To make the flowers grow in an instant. in a few seconds' time. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth.J. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. causing the flowers to grow. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. an acid. some of the liquid. There will be no change in color. Macdonald. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. These wires are put in the jar. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Before the performance. Oakland. 2. or using small wedges of wood. S. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. apparently. held in the right hand. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . The dotted lines in Fig. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. filled with water. four glass tumblers. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. with the circle centrally located. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. about one-third the way down from the top. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. --Contributed by A. 1 and put together as in Fig. N. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. As zinc is much lighter than iron. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Calif. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks.

When many slides are to be masked. which are numbered for convenience in working. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. 4 for width and No. not only because of the fact just mentioned. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. unless some special device is used. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. --Contributed by W. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. This outlines the desired opening.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. says a correspondent of Photo Era. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. practical and costs nothing. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. and equally worthy of individual treatment. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. A. and kept ready for use at any time. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Richmond. Jaquythe. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. Cal. If the size wanted is No. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. 2 for height.

16 gauge. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. and the extreme length 7 in. paint the design. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. and do not inhale the fumes. is about right for the No. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. but they can be easily revived. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. too. the paper is folded along the center line. or a pair of old tongs. about half and half. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. The one shown is merely suggestive. the margin and the entire back of the metal. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. With a stick. possibly. may be changed. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. Draw a design. The decoration. or. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. Secure a sheet of No. not the water into the acid. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. using the carbon paper. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. This done. which is dangerous. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. a little less acid than water. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. When etched to the desired depth. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid.

as in Fig. 3. in diameter and 1/4 in. 0 indicates the batteries. so that when it is pressed down. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. 2. Fig. about 3 ft. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. 3/8 in. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. When the button S is pressed. Paint the table any color desired. about 1 in. and bore two holes. Fig. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. A. as shown in Fig. 2. 24 parts water. wide. or more wide. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. 4. J is another wire attached in the same way. Fig. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. 2. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. 5. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. the bell will ring. attached to a post at each end. about 2-1/2 in. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. thick. as at H. wide and of the same length as the table. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. long and 1 ft. C and D. 5. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. It may be either nailed or screwed down. to the table. and about 2-1/2 ft. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. about 8 in. . Nail a board. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. through it. repeat as many times as is necessary. with the wires underneath. Fig. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Fig. long. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. Cut out a piece of tin. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. high. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 1. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. it will touch post F. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. The connections are simple: I. as shown in the illustration. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. Then get two posts.

the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. These rings can be carved out. After the glue is dry. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. but they are somewhat difficult to make. A wood peg about 2 in. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. thick. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. The entire weapon. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. is to appear as steel. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The circle is marked out with a compass.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. This weapon is about 22 in. 1.. long. such as . An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. handle and all. The imitation articles are made of wood. 2. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike.Imitation Arms and Armor . It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. says the English Mechanic. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. the wood peg inserted in one of them. long serves as the dowel.

A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The upper half of the handle is steel. If such a tool is not at hand. the hammer and spike. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The axe is shown in steel. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. The spikes are cut out of wood. used at the end of the fifteenth century. studded with large brass or steel nails. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. All of these axes are about the same length. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. Its length is about 3 ft. covered with red velvet. flowers. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. This weapon is about 22 in. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. or the amateur cannot use it well. The handle is of wood. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The handle is of steel imitation. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. as described in Fig. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. 8. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. also. The lower half of the handle is wood. 2. with a sharp carving tool. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. etc. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. . The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. long. 5. is shown in Fig. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. as before mentioned. leaves. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The entire handle should be made of one piece. 3. sharp-pointed and coneshaped.ornamental scrolls. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. as shown. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. 6.

The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 4). The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 1. a three-base hit. as in Fig. 2. The knife falling on its side (Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 7) calls for one out. Chicago. 5. and so on for nine innings. as shown in Fig. the knife resting on its back. . A foul ball is indicated by Fig.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. then the other plays. 6. 3. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. Each person plays until three outs have been made. calls for a home run. Fig.

Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. 1. Somerville. of water for an hour or two.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. hypo to 1 pt.-Contributed by J. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. It may be found that the negative is not colored. as shown in Fig. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. If it is spotted at all. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. one of them burning . When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. 2. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. of the rope and holds it. F. This he does. 3. with the rope laced in the cloth. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. while the committee is tying him up. as shown in Fig. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. Campbell. Mass.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Old-Time Magic .

A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. with which he is going to light the other candle. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. Ky. thick. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. . Lebanon. showing that there is nothing between them. Brown. Ky. bolt. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. of sugar. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Drill Gauge screw.Contributed by Andrew G. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. invisible to them (the audience). A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. --Contributed by L. of turpentine. the other without a light. Thome. of plumbago. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Evans. 3/4 in. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. and. New York City. He then walks over to the other candle. The magician walks over to the burning candle. Louisville. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. 4 oz. etc. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way.. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs.brightly. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. --Contributed by C. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. shades the light for a few seconds. thus causing it to light. 4 oz. of water and 1 oz. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. B.

long. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. thick. In making up the solution. for the material. which will give a strong. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. diameter. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. but is not so good.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. N. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. --Contributed by C. H. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. steady current. or blotting paper. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. Do not add water to the acid. Y. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. 5 in. about 5 in. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . To make the porous cell. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Pulteney. Its current strength is about one volt. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. into a tube of several thicknesses. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. Denniston. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use.

The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The .station. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. but somewhat lighter. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. a positive adjustment was provided. After much experimentation with bearings. thus saving much work in fitting up joints.) may be obtained. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. one drawing them together. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. while the other end is attached by two screws. the other holding them apart. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. steel. One hole was bored as well as possible. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. steel. To insure this. carrying the hour circle at one end. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. As to thickness. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. long with a bearing at each end. steel. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. Finally. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces.

since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum.. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. in each direction from two points 180 deg. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously." When this is done. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. Point it approximately to the north star. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. subtract 24. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. It is. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. save the one in the pipe. is provided with this adjustment. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. Each shaft. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. excepting those on the declination axis. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. Instead. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. Set the declination circle to its reading. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted..axis is adjusted by turning these screws. apart. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. To locate a known star on the map. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The aperture should be 1/4 in. turn the pointer to the star. All these adjustments. and if it is not again directed to the same point. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. When properly set it will describe a great circle. To find a star in the heavens. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so." Only a rough setting is necessary. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. If the result is more than 24 hours. Declination is read directly. are tightened. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The pole is 1 deg. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. 45 min. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. need not be changed. The pointer is directed to Alpha. All set screws. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. Cassiopiae. once carefully made. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. and 15 min.

a great effect will be produced. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. is the real cannon ball. If this will be too transparent. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. is folded several times. The dance will begin.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. 3 or 4 in. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. Plain City. cannon balls. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. as shown in the sketch. -Contributed by Ray E. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. long. The ball is found to be the genuine article. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. add a little more benzole. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. which is the one examined. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. Ohio. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. New Orleans. benzole. La. the others . and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. then add 1 2-3 dr. of ether. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Strosnider. taking care not to add too much. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. In reality the first ball. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes..

San Francisco. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. 1). To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Fig. etc. Cal. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it.. Campbell. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. small brooches. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Return the card to the pack. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Somerville. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. In boxes having a sliding cover. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Wis. --Contributed by J. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Milwaukee. F. taps. without taking up any great amount of space. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. 2. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Mass. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band.

This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. round pieces 2-1/4 in.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. slides and extra brushes. as shown in the illustration. prints. Hartford. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. Connecticut. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. from the bottom of the box. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. thus giving ample store room for colors. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. . At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. This box has done good service. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Beller. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time.

Mass. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. Fill the upper tub. West Lynn. with well packed horse manure. costing 5 cents. tacking the gauze well at the corners. O.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. -Contributed by C. or placed against a wall. 2). as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. When the ends are turned under. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. will answer the purpose. holes in the bottom of one. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. 1). .I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. FIG. Darke. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. about threefourths full.

often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. M.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. cutting the cane between the holes. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. If plugs are found in any of the holes. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. Chicago. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. when they are raised from the pan. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. they should be knocked out. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. and each bundle contains . After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. --Contributed by L. If the following directions are carried out. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. Eifel. oil or other fluid. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. if this is not available. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or.

In addition to the cane. and. 1. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. after having been pulled tight. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. a square pointed wedge. as shown in Fig. put about 3 or 4 in. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. held there by inserting another plug.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. it should be held by a plug. as it must be removed again. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. then across and down. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. No plugs .

as for example.15 in. Michigan. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. Fig. Even with this lubrication. D. but the most common. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. as it always equals the latitude of the place. trim off the surplus rosin. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. and for 1° it would be . the height of the line BC. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. When cool. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. Fig. called the gnomon. 1 lat. using the same holes as for the first layer. Detroit. The style or gnomon. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. It consists of a flat circular table.2 in. it is 4. No weaving has been done up to this time. 5. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair.= 4. for 2°. 40°. 42° is 4. Patrick. is the horizontal dial. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. stretch the third one. Their difference is . It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. 1. the next smallest.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. and the one we shall describe in this article. we have 4. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. 41°-30'. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . -Contributed by E. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. 1. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. lat. If handled with a little care. 3. and for lat. the height of which is taken from table No.2+.15+. 5 in. as shown in Fig. There are several different designs of sundials. 4. R. as the height of the line BC for lat. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. During the weaving. 3. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. --Contributed by M. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig.5 in. If you have a table of natural functions. 41 °-30'.42 in. All added to the lesser or 40°. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. After completing the second layer. 1.075 in. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. is the base (5 in. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. From table No. W. as shown in Fig.075 in. in this case) times the . This will make three layers. or the style. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations.3 in. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired.

tangent of the degree of latitude.76 1. 2. long. Table NO.49 30 .07 4.27 2.02 1.03 3. Draw the line AD.39 .57 1. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. if of metal. 2. Fig. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.42 45 .50 26° 2.87 1.23 6.85 35 . for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. gives the 6 o'clock points. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. Chords in inches for a 10 in.81 4. according to the size of the dial.59 2.20 60° 8.77 2. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . Its thickness.66 1. or more. 2 for given latitudes. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. and for this size dial (10 in.88 36° 3.32 6.55 30° 2.33 . .16 40 . A line EF drawn through the points A and C.99 2. Draw two semi-circles.93 6.93 2.55 5.82 3. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.37 5. or if of stone.55 4.56 .41 38° 3.10 6.91 58° 8.16 1.40 34° 3.82 5.94 1.28 . To layout the hour circle. circle Sundial.37 54° 6.46 .83 27° 2.97 5 7 4.89 50° 5.63 56° 7.40 1. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.38 . and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.14 5.12 52° 6. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.66 latitude.85 1.11 3. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.55 46° 5.06 2. an inch or two.42 .82 2.26 4.96 32° 3.68 5-30 6-30 5.46 3. with a radius of 5 in. base.19 1.00 40° 4.30 1. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. and perpendicular to the base or style.29 4-30 7-30 3.33 42° 4.87 4.57 3.30 2. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.66 48° 5. For latitudes not given. which will represent the base in length and thickness. using the points A and C as centers.49 3.79 4.42 1. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.18 28° 2.44 44° 4. and intersecting the semicircles. 1.64 4 8 3.

98 4.89 3. The + means that the clock is faster. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . June 15. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.71 2.49 3. This correction can be added to the values in table No. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. will enable one to set the dial. 3.68 3. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. if west. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. Each weapon is cut from wood.06 2.30 2. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.01 1. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.21 2. April 16..87 6. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. An ordinary compass.72 5.34 5. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.49 5.57 1. it will be faster.63 1.from Sundial lime. E. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.37 2. says the English Mechanic. Mitchell. Sioux City. 25. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. 2 and Dec.means that the dial is faster than the sun.82 3.46 5.10 4.50 55 . Sept.08 1. Iowa. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.24 5. 3. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. As they are the genuine reproductions. and for the difference between standard and local time. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.52 Table No. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. each article can be labelled with the name.add those marked + subtract those Marked . --Contributed by J. and the . adding to each piece interest and value.53 1. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. 900 Chicago.14 1.19 2. Sun time to local mean time.50 . which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. after allowing for the declination. London.54 60 . then the watch is slower.77 3. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.79 6.46 4. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.12 5.60 4.93 6.

brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. . 1. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. long from the point where it is attached to the handle.. Glaive and Voulge brass nails.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. Partisan. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. 3. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. the length of which is about 5 ft. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. When putting on the tinfoil. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.

An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. about 4 in. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. sharp on the outer edges. The extreme length is 9 ft.which is square. 6 ft. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. used about the seventeenth century. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. the holes being about 1/4 in. A gisarm or glaive. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. long with a round staff or handle. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. is shown in Fig. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. long.. 7. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. 8. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. It is about 6 ft. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. . which are a part of the axe. long. long with a round wooden handle. 5. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The edges are sharp. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. in diameter. The spear is steel. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. This weapon is about 6 ft. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. press it well into the carved depressions.

5. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. B. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. They can be made of various materials. Ohio. Loudonville. the cross cords. Substances such as straw. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance.-Contributed by R. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. This is important to secure neatness. H. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. 2 and 3. The twisted cross cords should . the most durable being bamboo. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. In Figs. are less durable and will quickly show wear. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. 4. or in holes punched in a leather strap. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. are put in place. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. 1. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. apart. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. as shown in Fig. Workman. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Cut all the cords the same length.

We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. This was turned over the top of the other can. 3 in. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. wide. -Contributed by Geo. Lockport. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. as shown at B.be of such material. La. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. shaped as shown at C. New Orleans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. for a length extending from a point 2 in. The first design shown is for using bamboo. A slit was cut in the bottom. Harrer. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. Four V-shaped notches were cut. To remedy this. of the bottom. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. below the top to within 1/4 in. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. in which was placed a piece of glass. M. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. New York. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. bamboo or rolled paper. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place.

H. Pasadena. Sanford. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. N. wide. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. Y. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. about 1/16 in. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. Maywood. Ill. This plank. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. It would be well to polish the brass at first. --Contributed by Chas.tape from sticking to the carpet. Shay. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. Schaffner. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. turned over but not fastened. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. --Contributed by W. Cal. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . giving the appearance of hammered brass. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. After this is finished. Newburgh. and two along the side for attaching the staff. do not throw away the gloves. --Contributed by Joseph H. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. the brass is loosened from the block. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. This should be done gradually.

Richmond. in diameter. Unlike most clocks. --E. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Cal. bent as shown. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. K. A. the pendulum swings . Jaquythe. Oak Park. -Contributed by W. Marshall. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Ill. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water.

The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. only have the opposite side up. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. and the other two 2-5/8 in. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. about 6 in. A. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. Now place the board to be joined. long and at each side of this. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. high. by 1-5/16 in. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Metzech. C. Fasten another board. says the Scientific American. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. high. to the first one with screws or glue. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. in diameter. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. 3/4 in. are secured in the base bar. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Secure a board. Chicago. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. 7-1/2 in.. on the board B. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. such as this one. bearing on the latter. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. The construction is very simple. bar. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. In using this method. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. 6 in. wide. about 12 in. --Contributed by V. thick. wide that is perfectly flat. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. is an electromagnet. . If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. the center one being 2-3/4 in. away. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. B. high and 1/4 in. Two uprights. 5/16 in. high.

The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Fig. long. 1. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. 1. --Contributed by Elmer A. wide and 5 in. Vanderslice. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. as shown at A. whose dimensions are given in Fig. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. 2. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. is fastened in the hole A. or more. . The trigger. Pa. A rectangular hole 3/16 in.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. 3. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Fig. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. Phoenixville. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. square. by driving a pin through the wood. 4. wide and 1 in. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. from one end. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. 1. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. plates should be made 8 in. square inside.

Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 2 parts of whiting. which allows 1/4 in. -Contributed by J. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan.A. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Ohio. Simonis. as shown in the illustration. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. if only two bands are put in the . when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. by weight. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. one-half the length of the side pieces. square. 5 parts of black filler. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. Fostoria.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks.

1. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. and it may be made as a model or full sized. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. Mass. Michigan. A mirror. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. is necessary. as shown in Fig. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. Shaw. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. which may be either of ground or plain glass. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. DeLoof. place tracing paper on its surface. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. deep. Dartmouth. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. wide and about 1 ft. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. --Contributed by Thos. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. is set at an angle of 45 deg. In use. in the opposite end of the box. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. It must be kept moist and well . keeps the strong light out when sketching. London. Grand Rapids. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. 8 in. G. and the picture can be drawn as described. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. A piece of metal. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. A double convex lens. In constructing helmets. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. If a plain glass is used.lower strings. -Contributed by Abner B. long. says the English Mechanic. II. preferably copper. No.

This being done. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. All being ready. as shown in Fig. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. will be necessary. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. and over the crest on top. 2. 1. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. shown in Fig. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. and left over night to soak. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. a few clay-modeling tools. joined closely together. on which to place the clay. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. 3. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. brown. Scraps of thin.kneaded. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. the clay model oiled. After the clay model is finished. and the deft use of the fingers. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. take. or some thin glue. and continue until the clay is completely covered. as in bas-relief. 1. with a keyhole saw. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The clay.

should be modeled and made in one piece. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. one for each side. or. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . The band is decorated with brass studs. In Fig. the piecing could not be detected. 1. The center of the ear guards are perforated. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. with the exception of the vizor. This contrivance should be made of wood. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. and the ear guards in two pieces. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders.as possible. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. --Contributed by Paul Keller. a few lines running down. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. 9. the skullcap. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. will make it look neat. They are all covered with tinfoil. Indiana. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. owing to the clay being oiled. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. square in shape. and so on. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. When the helmet is off the model. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. 7. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. Before taking it off the model. When perfectly dry. The whole helmet. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 5. a crest on top. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. Indianapolis. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. then another coating of glue. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. When dry. as seen in the other part of the sketch. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. which should be no difficult matter. In Fig. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. as shown: in the design.

one oblong piece of wood. the fuse block. Fig. and two large 3in. as shown in Fig. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. 12 in. which can be bought from a local druggist. The plate. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. GG. to receive screws for holding it to the base. for connections. 4. as shown in Fig. long. each 4-1/2 in. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. AA. AA. about 1/4 in. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. if this cannot be obtained. as it stands a higher temperature. If a neat appearance is desired. of mineral wool. 3 in. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. JJ. above the collar. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. one glass tube. The two holes. 4. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. when they are placed in opposite positions. Fig. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. 2. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. screws. Fig. If asbestos is used. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. or. if the measurements are correct. German-silver wire is better. about 80 ft. Fig. long. 4. 3. 1. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. The reverse side of the base. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. of the top. 2. Fig. 1. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. high. The mineral wool. should extend about 1/4 in. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes.same size. 1. Fig. AA. 1. is then packed down inside the collar. A round collar of galvanized iron. 4. are allowed to project about 1 in. of No. long. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. Fig. 2. The holes B and C are about 3 in. 4. until it is within 1 in. Fig. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. in diameter and 9 in. also the switch B and the fuse block C. one small switch. 1. E and F. is shown in Fig. 4 lb. This will allow the plate. Fig. of fire clay. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. 1 in. with slits cut for the wires. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. thick sheet asbestos. and. 4. Fig. and C. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. Fig. 22 gauge resistance wire. Fig. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. about 1 lb. the holes leading to the switch. two ordinary binding posts. Fig. one fuse block. as shown in Fig. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. thick. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . This will make an open space between the plates. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. wide and 15 in. 4. 1. FF.

apart. If this is the case. The clay. allowing a space between each turn. 4. Cover over about 1 in. When this is done. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. more wire should be added. Catherines. using care not to get it too wet. steam will form when the current is applied. and pressed into it. then. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. St. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. It should not be set on end. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. above the rim. If it is not thoroughly dry. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. will slip and come in contact with each other. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. This point marks the proper length to cut it. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. so that the circuit will not become broken. --Contributed by R. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Richmond. Cnonyn. as the turns of the wires. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. When the tile is in place. While the clay is damp. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. 2. causing a short circuit. This completes the stove. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. KK. A. Next. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. it leaves a gate for the metal. when heated. --Contributed by W. Can. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Jaquythe. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. H. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. when cool. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. Fig. Fig. deep. As these connections cannot be soldered. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. Cal. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. It should not be left heated in this condition. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. II. Cut a 1/2-in. A file can be used to remove any rough places. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration.

but 12 by 24 in. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. is large enough. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. as shown. says the Photographic Times. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. Ky.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. square material in any size. and the prints will dry rapidly. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. constructed of 3/4-in. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Thorne. the pie will be damaged. Louisville. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Then clip a little off the . and the frame set near a window. --Contributed by Andrew G.

long. 1. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. for the crank. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. as shown. each 1/2 in. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. high. An offset is bent in the center. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. 2. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. Fig. Le Mars. The connecting rod E. thick. 1. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. at GG. 14 in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The driving arm D. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. long. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. Two supports. Iowa. 2-1/2 in. 1 and 3. 22 gauge magnet wire. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. Fig. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. 1/2 in. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. in diameter. W. As the shaft revolves. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. The board can be raised to place . which gives the shaft a half turn. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. thick and 3 in. which are fastened to the base. each 1 in.Paper Funnel point. 1. Fig. high. open out. -Contributed by S. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. 1. wide. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. in diameter and about 4 in. Figs. allowing each end to project for connections. long. The upright B. wide and 7 in. wide and 3 in. 1/2 in. The connections are made as shown in Fig. long. 4 in. high. thick and 3 in. thereby saving time and washing. A 1/8-in. causing a break in the current. 3. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. slip on two cardboard washers. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. Herron.

In designing the roost. Stecher. on a board. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. Mass. Place the pot. --Contributed by William F. making a framework suitable for a roost. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. . The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. One or more pots may be used. in height. as shown in the sketch.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. 3 in. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Dorchester. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. bottom side up.

and give it time to dry. shelves. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. The materials required are rope or. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. 1. etc. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired.. adopt the method described. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The bottom part of the sketch.. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. when combined. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. that it is heated. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. F. as shown in Fig. ordinary glue. will produce the pattern desired. without any corresponding benefit. Wind the . F. if it is other than straight lines. Fig. windows. 1. preferably. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. odd corners. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. in diameter. paraffin and paint or varnish. grills and gratings for doors.

2. N. Lockport. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . -Contributed by Geo. M. six designs are shown. Y.Fig. Fig. cut and glue them together. Harrer. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer.

when it will be observed that any organic matter. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. and the sides do not cover the jaws. chips of iron rust.. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. London. will be retained by the cotton. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in.. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. which was used in front of a horse's head. says the English Mechanic. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. but no farther. etc.. 1. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. This piece of horse armor. As the . The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. etc.

The armor is now removed from the model. except the thumb and fingers. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. the same as in Fig. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. This will make the model light and easy to move around. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. All being ready. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. An arrangement is shown in Fig. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. This triangularshaped support. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. 4. the rougher the better. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. This being done. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. In Fig. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. which is separate. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. as the surface will hold the clay. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. and will require less clay. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. with the exception of the thumb shield. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. 2. 6 and 7. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. which can be made in any size. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 8. as shown in the sketch. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. but for . then another coat of glue. This can be made in one piece. and therefore it is not described. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. and the clay model oiled. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. but the back is not necessary. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. 2. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs.

Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Buxton. --Contributed by John G. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. . the foils will not move. La Rue. cut into the shape shown in Fig. but 3-1/2 in. When locating the place for the screw eyes. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. A piece of board. two in each jaw. in depth. are better shown in Fig. two for the jaws and one a wedge. running down the plate. Y. Goshen. 9. will be about right. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. --Contributed by Ralph L. and the instrument is ready for use. Redondo Beach. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. wide and 1/2 in. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. are glued to it. 1/2 in. Calif. the top of the rod. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. 2. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. The two pieces of foil. the two pieces of foil will draw together. N. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. long. fastened to the rod. each about 1/4 in. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. If it does not hold a charge. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed.

long. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. M. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. --Contributed by Mrs. as this will cut under the water without splashing. is made of a 1/4-in. At a point 6 in. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. about 15 in. hole bored through it. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. silvered. pine board. Corsicana. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. as indicated in the . Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. 2-1/2 in. enameled or otherwise decorated. When a fish is hooked. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. Bryan. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. from the smaller end. The can may be bronzed. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. as shown in the illustration. Texas. A. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up.

The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. When it has dried over night. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. put a coat or two of wax and polish . The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. A good size is 5 in.Match Holder accompanying sketch. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. 22 is plenty heavy enough. If soft wood. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. punch the holes. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. using a piece of carbon paper. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Polish the metal. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. then with a nail. and trace upon it the design and outline. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. Any kind of wood will do. Having completed the drawing. wide by 6 in. as shown. thick. using powdered pumice and lye. 3/8 or 1/4 in. long over all. such as basswood or pine was used. Basswood or butternut. will do as well as the more expensive woods. or even pine. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. take a piece of thin wood. Next prepare the metal holder.

This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. If carving is contemplated. can be made on the same standards. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. the whole being finished in linseed oil. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. --Contributed by W. each 1 in. Two wire nails. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Richmond. Instead of the usual two short ropes. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. 1/2 in. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. is used for the base of this instrument. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. . long. of pure olive oil. If one has some insight in carving.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. It is useful for photographers. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Jaquythe. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. Cal. are used for the cores of the magnets. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. thick. 2 in. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. wide and 5 in. A. long.

A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. about No. A piece of tin. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. Lynas. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. cut in the shape of the letter T. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. 3. . 25 gauge. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. similar to that used in electric bells. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. H. A rubber band. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. cloth or baize to represent the legs. leaving about 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. except that for the legs. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. 1. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. the paper covering put on. About 1 in. as shown by the dotted lines. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. when the key is pushed down. London. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. acts as a spring to keep the key open. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. says the English Mechanic. in the shape shown in the sketch. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. then covered with red. --Contributed by W. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. All of the parts for the armor have been described.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. at A.

apart. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. and eight small holes. make the same series of eight small holes and. In one end of the piece. one to another . 3 in. Secure two strips of wood. drill six 1/4-in. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. completes the equipment. long. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. Instead of using brass headed nails. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. or ordinary plaster laths will do. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Cut them to a length or 40 in. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. 1 and drill a 1/4in. 2. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. A 1/4-in. By moving the position of the bolt from. can be made in a few minutes' time.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. Take the piece shown in Fig.. hole in the center. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. The two pieces are bolted together. flat headed carriage bolt. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. in the other end. Fig. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. about 1 in. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. 1 in. These can be purchased at a stationery store. apart. holes. says Camera Craft. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. for the sake of lightness. at each end. not too tight. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. Silver paper will do very well. So set up.

of the ends remain unwoven. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. doubled and run through the web of A. then B over C and the end stuck under A. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. the one marked A. A round fob is made in a similar way. Then take B and lay it over A. 4. 2. in Fig. A is the first string and B is the second. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. 1. long. taking the same start as for the square fob. D over A and C. In this sketch.of the larger holes in the strip. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. and the one beneath C. lay Cover B and the one under D. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. 2. and lay it over the one to the right. for instance. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. Then draw all four ends up snugly. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. Fig. but instead of reversing . Start with one end. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. C over D and B. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. 2. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. as in portraiture and the like. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in.

especially if silk strings are used. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Monroeville. the design of which is shown herewith. as at A in Fig. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. Other designs can be made in the same manner. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. over the one to its right. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down .Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. 3. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. 5. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. as in making the square fob. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. A loop. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. Rupp. long. --Contributed by John P. 1-1/2 in. is left out at the center before starting on one side. always lap one string. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. is to be made of leather. Ohio. The round fob is shown in Fig. as B. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat.

outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Any smooth piece of steel. filling them with wax. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. Northville. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. . and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. Mich. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. door facing or door panel. beeswax or paraffin. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. it can be easily renewed. When the supply of wax is exhausted.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. -Contributed by A. such as a nut pick. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. pressing it against the wood. A. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. using the reverse side. Houghton. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat.

Ill. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. but any kind that will not stick may be used. J. --Contributed by O. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. . Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. and about 12 in. Enough plaster should. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. apart and driven in only part way. place it face down in the dish. The tacks should be about 1 in. Fold together on lines C. N. says Photographic Times. E and F. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. D. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. thick. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Y. those on matte paper will work best. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. it is best to leave a plain white margin.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. and after wetting. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Select the print you wish to mount. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. leaving about 1/4 in. Petersburg. although tin ones can be used with good success. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. remaining above the surface of the board. long. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. New York. if blueprints are used. Thompson. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver.

violets. One of the . Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. will be rendered perfectly white. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. etc.. bell flowers. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. Lower into the test tube a wire. without mixing the solutions. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. as shown at the left in the sketch. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. roses. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. as shown in the right of the sketch. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. filling the same about onehalf full.

When soldering these parts together. but which will not wobble loose. to keep the core from coming off in turning. long. shading. not too tightly. Fig. is about 2-1/2 in. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in.. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. as shown in the sketch. long and made of wood. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. as shown. A rod that will fit the brass tube. and at the larger end. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. about 1/8s in. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. Millstown. The first point should be ground blunt. The sound box. The tin horn can be easily made. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. L.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. or delicate tints of the egg. should be soldered to the box. 1-7/8 in. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. --Contributed by L. 2. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The diaphragm. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. thick. Shabino. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. 3. in diameter and 1 in. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. turned a little tapering. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. made of heavy tin. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. South Dakota. 1.

Ill. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Gold. E. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. put a board on top. wondering what it was. Victor. says the Iowa Homestead. Chicago. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Jr. and. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. mice in the bottom. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass.Contributed by E. Colo.

Can. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Buffalo. Y. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Pereira. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. N. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. . A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Ottawa.

on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. as shown. a piece of tin. Grand Rapids. cut round. Mich. by means of a flatheaded tack. Richmond. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. as it can be made quickly in any size. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. through which several holes have been punched. longer than the length of the can. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. De Loof. Put a small nail 2 in. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. A. above the end of the dasher. --Contributed by Thos. Cal. and at one end of the stick fasten. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe. This cart has no axle. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels.

2 in. New Orleans. Kane. 2. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. Pa. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. long. deep and 3 in. The baseboard and top are separable. Fig. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. Notches 1/8 in. were below the level of the bullseye. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. apart. --Contributed by James M. 2. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. 1. wide and 3 ft. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. wide and 1/8 in. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. 1-1/2 in. 2. thick. of course. A wedge-shaped piece of . --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. wide. I reversed a door gong. Doylestown. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. board.1. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. as shown. La.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. cut in the center of the rounding edge. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. 1 ft. wide and as long as the box. The candles. 1/4 in. screwed it on the inside of a store box. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly.

the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. 3. the blade is put back into the groove . --Contributed by G. The block can also be used as a paperweight. scissors. Cover the block with rubber. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. by cutting away the ends. Worcester. stone or wood. wide into each side of the casing. it can be removed without marring the casing. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Needles. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. can be picked up without any trouble.Book Back Holders metal. After the glue has dried. Mass. This device is very convenient for invalids. etc. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. the shelf could not be put on the window. when placed as in Fig. take two pieces of hard wood. After completing the handle. 1. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. dressing one surface of each piece. When not in use. to prevent its scratching the desk top. wide rubber bands or felt. as shown in Fig. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. will. West Union. For the handle. Wood. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. Ia. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon.. the reason being that if both were solid. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. A.

A notch is cut in one side. Hutchins. Mass. Malden. 1 in. as shown in Fig.and sharpened to a cutting edge. square and 4 in. long. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. S. 2. --Contributed by Maud McKee. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Jacobs. Ohio. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. If desired. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Each one is made of a hardwood block. --Contributed by H. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. as shown in Fig. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. 1. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Cleveland. thus carrying the car up the incline. A. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. -Contributed by W. Erie. . to fit a mortise cut in the bench. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Pa.

will be needed. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. The letters can be put on afterward. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen.J. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. One sheet of metal. and an awl and hammer. .The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. Prepare a design for the front. Cape May Point. 6 by 9-1/2 in. a board on which to work it. If one such as is shown is to be used. This will insure having all parts alike. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing.. N.

or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. Remove the metal. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. in the waste metal. So impressive are the results. that can be worked in your own parlor. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. mandolin or guitar. as shown. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. 2 parts white vitriol. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color." In all appearance. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. 1/4 part. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. The stick may be placed by the side of. which is desirable.Fasten the metal to the board. to right angles. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. says Master Painter. varnish. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. 1 part. behind or through the center of a table leg. a violin. turpentine. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. If any polishing is required. On the back. One coat will do. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. placed on a table. or. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. but weird and distant. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. The music will not sound natural. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. . paste the paper design right on the metal. only the marginal line is to be pierced. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. if desired. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. 3/4 part. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. flat brush. applied by means of a brush.

The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. 2. With proper tools this is easy. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. Two pairs of feet. wide. long and measuring 26 in. 3. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. and is easy to construct. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. says Work. is bent square so as to form two uprights. are shaped as shown in Fig. each 28 in. round-head machine screws. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. it might be difficult. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. across the top. long and spread about 8 in. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. long. thick by 1/2 in. The longest piece. square bar iron. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. . which should be about 5-1/2 ft. apart. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. without them. each 6 in. London. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer.

Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. 4. 7. special flux purchased for this purpose. lead. better still. After the glass is cut. B. as shown in Fig. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. D. 5. The brads are then removed. or. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. While the piece of lead D. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. 6. Fig. in the grooves of the borders. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. C. using rosin as a flux. and the base border. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. on it as shown. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. A. After the joints are soldered. cut a long piece of lead. The glass. is held by the brads.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. Place the corner piece of glass. the latter being tapped to . Fig. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. 5. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. The design is formed in the lead.

hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. 8. in diameter and about 9 in. one on each side and central with the hole. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. and two wood blocks. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. Make three washers 3-in. holes through their centers. as shown in Fig. The center pin is 3/4-in. plank about 12 ft. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. long. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. square and of the length given in the drawing. bolt. rocker bolt. thick and drill 3/4-in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. then drill a 3/4-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Camden. Fasten the plates to the block B. rounded at the top as shown.the base of the clip. --Contributed by W. then flatten its end on the under side. in diameter and 1/4 in. long. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Jr. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. and round the corners of one end for a ring. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. N. plates. bolt. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. This . A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts.. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. wood screws in each washer. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Bore a 3/4-in. Bore a 5/8-in. H. long. Secure a post. This ring can be made of 1-in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Two styles of hand holds are shown. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Dreier. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. A and B. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. not less than 4 in. J.

The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. square by 5 ft. 1-1/4in. screws. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 4 in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 4 pieces. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. chestnut or ash. 1/2 in. of 1/4-in. To substitute small. shanks. 2 by 4 in. bit. 3 in. long. long. straight-grained hickory. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. long. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. boards along the side of each from end to end. The four 7-in. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. 2-1/2 in. bolts and rope. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. New Orleans. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. La. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 16 screws. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. can make a first class gymnasium. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 4 pieces. horse and rings. in diameter and 7 in. from one edge. 4 in. 3/4 by 3 in. maple. long. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 1. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. apart for a distance of 3 ft. by 6-1/2 ft. by 2 ft. 50 ft. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. long. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two.will make an excellent cover for a pot. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 4 filler pieces. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. long and 1 piece. 9 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. hickory. because it will not stand the weather. 7 in. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. If trees are convenient. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. square by 9-1/2 ft. by 3 ft. 1 by 7 in. long. and some one can swing an axe.

These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar.bored. so the 1/2-in. Bore a 9/16-in. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. apart. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. 2. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. deep and remove all loose dirt. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats.. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. boards coincide. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. apart. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. from the end. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. piece of wood. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. 8 in. each 3 ft. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place.. at each end. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel.

the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. not much to look at in daytime. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. . after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. and then passes in a curve across the base. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. just visible against the dark evening sky. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. the effect is very striking. not even the tumbler. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. it is taken to the edge of the foot. it follows the edge for about 1 in. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. passing through a screweye at either end. about 100 ft. When the interest of the crowd.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. And all he used was a black thread. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. was at its height. in an endless belt. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. If the tumbler is rotated.. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. and materially heightened the illusion. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. but most deceptive at dusk. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. which at once gathered. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. apart. He stretched the thread between two buildings. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. W. and ascends the stem. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others." which skimmed along the distant horizon. disappearing only to reappear again.

beginning at a point 9 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 2 cross braces. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 2 by 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. To make the apparatus. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. by 2 ft. long. 2 in. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. A wire about No. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 2 by 4 in. The cork will come out easily. 4 wood screws. 8 bolts. from either side of the center. long. square and 6 ft. by 7 ft. 2 base pieces. by 3 ft. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. and turned in a spiral D. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. Fig. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. long and 1 doz. 6 in. 7 in. so the point will be on top. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 4 in. 1. large spikes. 4 knee braces. 8 in. long. by 10 ft. long. 4 in. 2 by 3 in. wide and 1 in. New Orleans. long. 8 in. 8 in. long. long. long. square and 51/2 ft. 4 bolts. 2 by 4 in. preferably cedar. 2 side braces. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. Chisel out two notches 4 in. Bevel the ends of . La. deep.

jellies. ( To be Continued. as shown in the diagram. save the bars. using four of the 7-in bolts. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. A. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. screws. except the bars. so the bolts in both will not meet. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. Jaquythe. leaving the strainer always in position. etc. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. equipped with a strainer. of 7 ft. Richmond. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. These will allow the ladle to be turned. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. which face each other.. . and countersinking the heads. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. After the trenches are dug. If using mill-cut lumber. The wood so treated will last for years. A large sized ladle. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr.the knee braces. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. but even unpainted they are very durable. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. additional long. Cal. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. Two endpieces must be made. leave it undressed. --Contributed by W. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft.

it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. In order to accomplish this experiment. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. milling machine.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. of sufficient 1ength. drill press or planer. or various cutting compounds of oil. Oil. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. . thus holding the pail as shown. it is necessary to place a stick. which seems impossible. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. partly a barrier for jumps. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. A.

stud cut rounding on one edge. is a good length. from each end. long. 1 cross brace. The round part of this log must be planed. 2 by 4 in. wood yard or from the woods. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the .. by 3 ft. projections and splinters. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. These are well nailed in place. These are placed 18 in. beginning 1-1/2 in. 4 knee braces. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. Hand holds must be provided next. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. square by 5-1/2 ft. 4 in. 3 in. 2 by 4 in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. and free from knots. 7 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. bolts. long. long. in the ground. long. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. in diameter--the larger the better. bolt. long. 4 in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. 2 adjusting pieces. long. 2 by 4 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. apart in a central position on the horse. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. by 3 ft. bolts. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces.. Procure from a saw mill. The material required is as follows: Two posts. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. 4-1/2 in. to fasten the knee braces at the top.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. 2 bases. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. apart. but 5 ft. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. ten 1/2-in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. square by 5 ft. 4 in. long. by 3 ft. 1 in. To construct. two 1/2-in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. long. bolts.

Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces.horse top. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. such as a dent. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Cal. Such a hand sled can be made in a . over and around.--Contributed by W. Also. Richmond. then bending to the shape desired. no one is responsible but himself. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Jaquythe. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. it is caused by an overloaded shell. pipe and fittings. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. A. but nevertheless. it is caused by some obstruction. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. water. snow. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. etc. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel.

. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. 1/4 or 3/16 in. at E and F. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Toronto. will give the length. These. thick. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Joerin. 1. --Contributed by J. which. Noble. The end elevation. France. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. --Contributed by Arthur E.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. when complete. is much better than a wood sled. are all the tools necessary. Ontario. when straightened out. W. --Contributed by James E. Vener. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Boston. Paris. then run a string over each part. 2. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Mass. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. in width and 1/32 in. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water.

The method shown in Figs. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. 4. and the latter will take on a bright luster. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. AA and BB. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. 3. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. . After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. nor that which is partly oxidized. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. It is best to use soft water. are nailed. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges.

2. Broad lines can be made. class ice-yacht. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. as shown in Fig. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 4. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 8 and 9. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. or various rulings may be made. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. as shown in Fig. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 1). Percy Ashley in Rudder. 3. . 2. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The materials used are: backbone. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. or unequal widths as in Fig. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. about 30 in. 1-Details of Lathe sort. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. pins to keep them from turning.Fig. The point should extend about 11/2 in. a larger size of pipe should be used. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. 1. long. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. It can be made longer or shorter. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. Both the lower . joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. pipe. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. a tee and a forging. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. bent and drilled as shown. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The headstock is made of two tees. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. out from the collar. but if it is made much longer.

long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. Fruitvale. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. M. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Indiana. 2. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Boissevain.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Laporte. --Contributed by W. W. a straight line should be scratched Fig. UpDeGraff. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. and will answer for a great variety of work. 1. Cal. --Contributed by M. as shown in Fig. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. or a key can be used as well. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. --Contributed by W. 2. To do this. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. Man. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. a corresponding line made on this. as shown in Fig. . 2. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. thick as desired. 3/4 or 1 in. Musgrove. Held. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. else taper turning will result. It is about 1 in. but also their insulating properties.

--Contributed by E. To obviate this. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Ft. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. J. as shown. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . Cline. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. long. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. The handle is of pine about 18 in. Smith. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. In use. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Ark. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn.

take . the drill does not need the tool. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. After being entered. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. La. if this method is followed: First. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. on starting the lathe. centering is just one operation too many. which should be backed out of contact. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. New Orleans. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. This prevents the drill from wobbling. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Colo. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. and when once in true up to its size. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. --Contributed by Walter W. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. face off the end of the piece. Denver. White.

a long piece of glass tubing. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. The handkerchief rod. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. all the better. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. by applying caustic soda or . says the Sphinx. a bout 1/2 in. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. vanishing wand. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. after being shown empty. It can be used in a great number of tricks. as shown in D. shorter t h a n the wand. After the wand is removed. The glass tube B.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. is put into the paper tube A. In doing this. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. and this given to someone to hold. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. the cap is placed over the paper tube. and can be varied to suit the performer. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. unknown to the spectators. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. shown at C.

with the back side rounding. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. The sides. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Cut a piece of hard wood. across the front and back to strengthen them. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. and glue it to the neck at F. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. preferably hard maple. square and 1-7/8 in. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. As the cement softens. The brace at D is 1 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 1. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. can be made by the home mechanic. Glue the neck to the box. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 1/4 in. This dimension and those for the frets . 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 2 Sides. 1 End. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. and if care is taken in selecting the material. 1 Neck.potash around the edges of the letters. long. End. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. Glue strips of soft wood. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. 1 Bottom. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. thick. by 14 by 17 in. 3/16. as shown by K. cut to any shape desired. With care and patience. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine.

The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Stoddard. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. in diameter. Frary. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. O. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. but it is not. toward each end. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Norwalk. long is used for a keel. 3/16 in. and beveled . This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. H. -Contributed by J. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat.should be made accurately. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. or backbone. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. thick and about 1 ft. A board 1 in. 1) on which to stretch the paper. When it is completed you will have a canoe. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat.Pa. Carbondale. Six holes. --Contributed by Chas. wide and 11-1/2 ft. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. E. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store.

Shape these as shown by A. For the ribs near the middle of the boat.) in notches. Fig. Fig. the loose strips of ash (b. Fig. 1. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. . in thickness and should be cut. as shown in Fig. procure at a carriage factory. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. or similar material. 2). Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. Osiers probably make the best ribs. long. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. 3). Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. wide by 26 in. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. as before described. Fig. The cross-boards (B. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. 3/8 in. and so. 3. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. two strips of wood (b. Fig. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. in such cases. thick. 1 and 2. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. Fig. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. 3. Fig. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. b. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. such as is used for making chairbottoms. such as hazel or birch. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. which are easily made of long. and are not fastened. apart. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. Fig. a. as they are apt to do. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. b. with long stout screws. two twigs may be used to make one rib. buy some split cane or rattan. slender switches of osier willow. 2. are next put in. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 3). because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. as shown in Fig. when made of green elm. and notched at the end to receive them (B. b. but twigs of some other trees. For the gunwales (a. long are required. some tight strips of ash. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. 2). twigs 5 or 6 ft. C. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. 4. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. C. probably.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. and. These are better. Fig. thick. or other place. The ribs. 13 in. B. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. will answer nearly as well. by means of a string or wire. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. Green wood is preferable. In drying. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in.. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. 4). the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. but before doing this. Any tough. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws.

The paper is then trimmed. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. of very strong wrapping-paper. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. It should be smooth on the surface. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. and as soon as that has soaked in. and steady in the water. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. if it has been properly constructed of good material. If not. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. however. and light oars. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. but with less turpentine. tacking it to the bottom-board. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. Being made in long rolls. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Then take some of the split rattan and. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. You may put in . after wetting it. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. When thoroughly dry. and very tough. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. It should be drawn tight along the edges. B. When the paper is dry. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. preferably iron. and held in place by means of small clamps. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. Fig. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. wide. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. but neither stiff nor very thick. If the paper be 1 yd. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. 5).

) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. and if driven as shown in the cut. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. We procured a box and made a frame. to fit it easily. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. 5. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. Fig. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. Drive the lower nail first. fore and aft. 1. 5). and make a movable seat (A. 1 and the end in . Fig. they will support very heavy weights. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. Fig. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. 2. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig.

is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. This way has its drawbacks. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. and the result is. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. 5. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. Pittsburg. Close the other end with the same operation. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. Pa. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. 3. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. being softer where the flame has been applied. this makes the tube airtight. and the glass.Fig. 4. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. A good way to handle this work. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. This is an easy . then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed.

way to make a thermometer tube. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. then reverse. metal shears. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. Seventh. Sixth. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . or six arms. Give the metal a circular motion. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. four. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. above the work and striking it with the hammer. The candle holders may have two. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. very rapid progress can be made. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. thin screw. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. flat and round-nosed pliers. with a piece of carbon paper. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. fourth. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. second. After the bulb is formed. fifth. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. above the metal. file. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. three. third. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Oswald. -Contributed by A. extra metal all around. also trace the decorative design. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. rivet punch. 23 gauge. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating.

How To Make a Hectograph [326] . these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Small copper rivets are used. drip cup. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. Metal polish of any kind will do. and holder. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Having pierced the bracket.

The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. using a steel pen. thus it was utilized. Shiloh. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. N. is a broomstick. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. hammer. Heat 6-1/2 oz. alcohol 2 parts. and brace and bit were the tools used. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. deep. F. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. and it will be ready for future use. Fifty. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. The boom. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. if it has not absorbed too much ink. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Soak 1 oz. Twenty cents was all I spent. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. all the rest I found. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. A saw. J. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. and add the gelatine. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. sugar 1 part. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. smooth it down and then remove as before. I steer with the front wheel. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. the stick at the bottom of the sail. and in a week . winding the ends where they came together with wire. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. Mother let me have a sheet. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. and other things as they were needed. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. glycerine 4 parts. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. except they had wheels instead of runners. and water 24 parts. when it will be ready for use. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. The gaff. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. on a water bath.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.

the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. at a distance of 24 ft. thick. 3. or a lens of 12-in. and the lens slide. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer.. slide to about 6 ft. wire brads. long. A table. at a point 1 in. are . The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. Fig. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. above the center. high. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. but if such a box is not found. This ring is made up from two rings. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. about 2 ft. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. provided the material is of metal. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. 8 in. The slide support. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. describe a 9-in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. well seasoned pine. and. or glue. focus enlarging a 3-in. A and B. The board is centered both ways. G. wide. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. 1/2 to 3/4 in. 1. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. and a projecting lens 2 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. wide and 15 in. and 14 in. DD. If a small saw is used. H. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. and the work carefully done. E. as desired. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping.

Paul. E. should the glass happen to upset. St. JJ. P. Small strips of tin. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. B. The arrangement is quite safe as. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. the water at once extinguishes the flame. apply two coats of shellac varnish. and when the right position is found for each. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. of safe. placed on the water. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides.-Contributed by G. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. light burning oil. A sheet . the strips II serving as guides. but not long enough. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. To reach the water.constructed to slip easily on the table. Minn.

Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. by 12 ft.. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. Y. Fig. 3 in. then the corners on one end are doubled over. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. I ordered a canvas bag. 2. 9 in. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. N.H. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. --Contributed by J. to cover the mattresses. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 4. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 3. If one of these clips is not at hand. 1. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Schenectady. from a tent company. Crawford. 3. 12 ft. form a piece of wire in the same shape. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it.

The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. A rubber band. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. for amperes and the other post. Do not use too strong a rubber. 2. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. 3/4 in. D. to the coil of small wire for volts. as shown in Fig. 1/2 in. 2. 2. in the center coil. so as to form two oblong boxes. Attach a piece of steel rod. long and 3/16 in. 1/2 in. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Fold two strips of light cardboard. 3/4 in. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. through which the indicator works.each edge. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. To calibrate the instrument. Pa. 3 to swing freely on the tack. long. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. wide. insulating them from the case with cardboard. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. A Film Washing Trough [331] . An arc is cut in the paper. apart. Fasten the wire with gummed label. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. 1. V. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. Teasdale. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. open on the edges. --Contributed by Walter W. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Fig. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. holes in the edge. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. C. Colo. and insert two binding-posts. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. Warren. thick. 1. Fig. --Contributed by Edward M. drill two 3/16 in. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. White. Denver. first mark the binding-post A. to keep it from unwinding. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig.

Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Dayton. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. as shown. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Hunting. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. with the large hole up. M. --Contributed by M. Wood Burning [331] . Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. O. Cut a 1/4-in. Place this can on one end of the trough. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet.

Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. mouth downward. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. then into this bottle place. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.

--Contributed by Fred W. --Contributed by John Shahan. as shown in the sketch. many puzzling effects may be obtained. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. 3/4 in. wide and 4 in. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. 1. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. Upper Troy.Y. Auburn. N. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. long. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. provided the bottle is wide. If the cork is adjusted properly. but not very thick. 2. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. If the small bottle used is opaque. This will make a very pretty ornament. Whitehouse. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. Ala. thick. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Place the small bottle in as before.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle.

as shown in Fig. --Contributed by D. The shaft C. On a 1000-ft. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. If a transmitter is used. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. was keyed to shaft C. 1. thick. 1. pulley F. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. long. line. A staple. which gave considerable power for its size. Fig. The wire L was put . which extended to the ground. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. which was nailed to the face plate. Fig. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. Its smaller parts. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. B. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. which was 6 in. even in a light breeze. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. The 21/2-in. thick. sugar pine on account of its softness. W. The bearing blocks were 3 in. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Fig. Milter. by the method shown in Fig. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. 2. I.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. thick and 3 in. G. pulley. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. 3. K. 1. in diameter and 1 in. iron rod. was 1/4in. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. to the shaft. 1. 1 in. wide. 2 ft. Fig. such as blades and pulleys. Both bearings were made in this manner. or ordinary telephone transmitters. 1. were constructed of 1-in. Fig. 4. high without the upper half.

Cut another piece of tin 3 in. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. 6. G. To make the key. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. The other lid. was 2 ft. long and bend it as . a 1/2-in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. when the windmill needed oiling. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. If you have no bell. hole was bored for it. wide and 1 in. top down also. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. This board was 12 in. Fig. 1) 4 in. The bed plate D. To lessen the friction here. 1. was tacked. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. This completes the receiver or sounder. pine 18 by 12 in. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. long and bend it as shown at A. washers were placed under pulley F. cut out another piece of tin (X. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. Fig. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Fig. and was cut the shape shown. 1. through the latter. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. long and 1/2 in. 5. 6. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. long and 3 in. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Two washers were placed on shaft C. 25 ft. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. as. Fig. square to the board P at the top of the tower. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. in diameter. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. hole for the shaft G was in the center. in the center of the board P. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. 3 in. for instance. so that the 1/4-in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. H. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. 1. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. with all parts in place. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. 2. 1. This fan was made of 1/4-in. 0. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. providing one has a few old materials on hand. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. There a 1/4-in. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. with brass headed furniture tacks. long. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. long. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. Fig. Fig. strips. apart in the tower. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. R. The power was put to various uses. across the thin edge of a board. The smaller one. Fig.

shown. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. although it can be made with but two. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. The rear barrels are. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Going back to Fig. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. as shown at Water. causing a buzzing sound. leaving the other wire as it is. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. at the front. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. as indicated. after the manner of bicycle wheels. When tired of this instrument. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. By adjusting the coils. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. and. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. fitted with paddles as at M. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. like many another device boys make. 1. 2. Before tacking it to the board. Now. Thus a center drive is made. -Contributed by John R. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. using cleats to hold the board frame. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. McConnell.

Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. or even a little houseboat. which will give any amount of pleasure. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. If the journals thus made are well oiled. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. There is no danger. there will not be much friction. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. To propel it. copper piping and brass tubing for base. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. The speed is slow at first.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. 1. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. as shown in Fig. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. 3. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. feet on the pedals. can be built. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink.

trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Fig. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Place one brass ring in cylinder. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. 1. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. Shape small blocks of boxwood. 2. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. Fig. Fig. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. B. Fig. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Turn a small circle of wood.of pleasure for a little work. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. C. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. 2. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. If magnifying glass cannot be had. A. 1. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. 1. and so creating a false circuit. or it may be put to other uses if desired. D. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. then the glass disc and then the other ring. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. 2. If it is desired to make the light very complete. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions.

S. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. C. Pa. copper tubing. H. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. C. or 1/4in. switch. E. long. near the bed. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. D. set alarm key as shown in diagram. key of alarm clock. some glue will secure them. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . --Contributed by C. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. Ogden. bell.india rubber tubing. 5-1/4 by 10 in. such as is used for cycle valves. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. Utah. X. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. brass strip. bracket. wire from light to switch. To throw on light throw levers to the left. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. When alarm goes off. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . T. To operate this. Chatland. after two turns have been made on the key. dry batteries. if too small. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. by having the switch on the baseboard. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. wire from batteries to switch. shelf. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. while lying in bed. wide and 1/16 in. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. B. thick. after setting alarm. Throw lever off from the right to center. To get the cylinder into its carriage. long. 3/8 in. G. Swissvale. 4 in. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. In placing clock on shelf. --Contributed by Geo. Brinkerhoff. The parts indicated are as follows: A. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. J. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. I. wire from bell to switch. which stops bell ringing. and pulled tight.. 4-1/2 in. F. contact post. brass rod.

being careful not to get the sand in it. a bed warmer. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Make the spindle as in Fig. 3. All that is required is a tin covering. gives the heater a more finished appearance. Minn. Fig. which can be made of an old can. about 3-1/2 in. S. 4 in. 1. Make a shoulder. Lanesboro. from one end. as at A. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Pull out the nail and stick. 2. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. will do the heating. --Contributed by Chas. as at A. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. wide. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. as . Fig. place stick and all in a pail of sand. long. as at B. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. as in Fig. 1/4 in. This is to form the fuse hole. about 6 in. for instance. making it as true and smooth as possible. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Having finished this. Chapman. letting it extend 3/4 in. in diameter. in diameter. beyond the end of the spindle. A flannel bag. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. 2.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. 1. Fig.

good straight-grained pine will do. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. ash. will be sufficient to make the trigger. or hickory. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 3/8 in. 11/2 in. 6 in. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. 1 in. 1. this is to keep the edges from splitting. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. thick. A piece of oak. 5/8 in. thick. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. --Contributed by Arthur E. The material must be 1-1/2 in. The illustration shows how this is done. Joerin. but if this wood cannot be procured. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. wide and 6 ft. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . A piece of tin. deep. long. long. wide and 3/8 in. spring and arrows. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. wide and 3 ft. thick. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. long.

as shown in Fig. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. Fig. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. wide at each end. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. or through the necessity of. thick. 6. 9. 7. from the opposite end. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. in diameter. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. When the trigger is pulled. Such a temporary safe light may be . The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. it lifts the spring up. E. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. better still. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. 8. A spring. 4. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. Fig. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. which is 1/4 in. To throw the arrow. To shoot the crossbow. Trownes. place the arrow in the groove. and one for the trigger 12 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. 2. Fig. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. having the latter swing quite freely. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. 3. The bow is not fastened in the stock. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. The stick for the bow. Wilmette. from the end of the stock. The trigger. Ill.

it is the easiest camp to make. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. The hinged cover E. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. respectively. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Remove the bottom of the box. making lighting and trimming convenient. By chopping the trunk almost through.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. since the flame of the candle is above A. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. C. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. and replace as shown at B. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. from the ground. says Photo Era. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Moreover. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. from the ground. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. The cut should be about 5 ft. This lamp is safe. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. make the frame of the wigwam. and nail it in position as shown at A. apart. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. the bark lean-to is a . and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Remove one end. is used as a door.

and cedar. and when the camp is pitched. long. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. a 2-in. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Where bark is used. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. and split the tops with an ax. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. will dry flat. long and 1-1/2 in. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. wide and 6 ft. . shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. For a foot in the middle of the stick. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. make the best kind of a camp bed. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. piled 2 or 3 ft. Tongs are very useful in camp. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. A piece of elm or hickory. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. 3 ft. are a convenient size for camp construction. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. Sheets of bark. long and 2 or 3 ft. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. In the early summer. 6 ft. makes a good pair of tongs. For a permanent camp. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. deep and covered with blankets. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. spruce. nails are necessary to hold it in place. thick. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. wide. selecting a site for a camp. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas.

or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. . A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. hinges. and affording accommodation for several persons. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.

wide. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. to another . The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. I drove a small cork. A. Fig. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. B. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. changing the water both morning and night. --Contributed by James M. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. B. Kane. the interior can. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. Pa. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. about 4 in. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. deep and 4 in. 1. and provide a cover or door.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Doylestown..

and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. if necessary. C. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. limit. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. which project inside and outside of the tube. for instance. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. 4 and 5). the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. The diagram. until. such as ether. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. Fig.glass tube. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. fused into one side. 2. E. The current is thus compelled. 2. for instance. This makes . The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. to pass through an increasing resistance. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. 3. a liquid.

to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. 1. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. in diameter. 4-1/2 in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. thick. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. brass. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. After cleaning them with the solution. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. screws. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. to allow for finishing. These holes are for the bearing studs. or even 1/16 in. on a lathe. A 5/8in. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. which will make it uniform in size. brass or iron. cannot be used so often. A. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. and for the outside of the frame. when several pieces are placed together. 2. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. is composed of wrought sheet iron. but merely discolored. making it 1/16 in. they will make a frame 3/4 in. thick. The bearing studs are now made. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. therefore. 3. clamp the template. as shown in Fig. tap. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. Alpena. Before removing the field from the lathe. assemble and rivet them solidly. bent at right angles as shown. After the template is marked out. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. hole is . between centers. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. set at 1/8 in. 3-3/8 in. Then the field can be finished to these marks. drill the four rivet holes. If the thickness is sufficient. as shown in the left-hand sketch. When the frame is finished so far. two holes. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. Fig. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. in diameter. Fig. or pattern. by turning the lathe with the hand. Michigan. thicker. mark off a space. larger than the dimensions given. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. 3-3/8 in. which may be of any thickness so that.

The shaft of the armature. Fig. into which a piece of 5/8-in. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. brass rod is inserted. When the bearings are located. file them out to make the proper adjustment. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. solder them to the supports. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel .The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. or otherwise finished. and build up the solder well. is turned up from machine steel. soldered into place. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. 4. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point.

to allow for finishing to size. and held with a setscrew. hole and tap it for a pin. thick. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. The pins are made of brass. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. thick. as shown in Fig. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. as shown in Fig. 6. brass rod. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. The sides are also faced off and finished. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. 3/4 in. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. 8. wide. After the pieces are cut out. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. 1/8 in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. When annealed. Procure 12 strips of mica. Armature-Ring Core. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. 3/4 in. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 3. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. thick. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 6. washers. 3. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. by 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. inside diameter. After they . Make the core 3/4 in. wide. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. threaded. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. or segments. then drill a 1/8-in. 7. being formed for the ends. Find the centers of each segment at one end. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. 5. Rivet them together. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. deep and 7/16 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. 9. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. as shown in Fig. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. When this is accomplished. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. as shown m Fig. as shown in Fig. and then they are soaked in warm water. thick are cut like the pattern. thick and 1/4 in. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in.. holes through them for rivets. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 1-1/8 in. sheet fiber.

In starting to wind. they are glued to the core insulation. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. This winding is for a series motor. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. of the wire. To connect the wires. being required. 8 in. yet it shows a series of . which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. thick. sheet fiber. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. about 100 ft. 1. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. The field is wound with No. shown at B. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. All connections should be securely soldered. or side. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on.have dried. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. by bending the end around one of the projections. shown at A. When the glue is set. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. 1. of No. until the 12 slots are filled. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. The two ends are joined at B. Fig. The source of current is connected to the terminals. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. and wind on four layers. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. Run one end of the field wire. which will take 50 ft. 6 in. are soldered together. and bring the end of the wire out at B. wide and 1 in. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. the two ends of the wire. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. 5. After one coil. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. The winding is started at A. sheet fiber. long. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. after the motor is on the stand. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Fig. of the end to protrude. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown.

put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. or. A 1/2-in. and one. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. is fastened to the metallic body. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. as in the case of a spiral. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. Nine wires run from the timer. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. which serves as the ground wire. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. one from each of the eight contacts.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. still more simply. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses.

one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. 45 deg. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill.The Wind Vane. It should be . This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. of the dial. thus giving 16 different directions. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. Covering these is a thin. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. 6 in. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. Without this attachment. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. long. circle. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. board.

The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. To work these outlines. however. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. making it heavy or light. will answer the purpose just as well. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. Place the leather on some level. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. according to who is going to use it. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. thus making a universal joint. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. 14 by 18 in. also a piece of new carpet. if not too high. called a chip carving knife. is most satisfactory. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. . The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. Before tacking the fourth side. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long.about 6 ft. Cut 3-in. -Contributed by James L. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. Y. Blackmer. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. will be sufficient. N. will be enough for the two sides. high. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. Fill the box with any handy ballast. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. or. and about 6 in. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Buffalo. and securely nail on the top of the box. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. To make it. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. long to give the best results. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. though a special knife.

Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. A good leather paste will be required. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. An ordinary sewing-machine .Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown.

Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. N. and tie them together securely at the bottom. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. temporary lameness. Syracuse. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Morse. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. of common salt and 10 lb. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. a needle and some feathers. can be thrown away when no longer needed. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. away from it. or a hip that has been wrenched. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. of water. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. rather than the smooth side. Y. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time.will do if a good stout needle is used. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. If a fire breaks out. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. square and tying a piece of . of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. B. --Contributed by Katharine D. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used.

laying poisoned meat and meal. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. and a coil of wire. high. commonly called tintype tin.J. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. The coil is 1 in. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. Hellwig. Wis. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. Y. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. Ashland. as shown. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. N. One end is removed entirely. The diaphragm C. 1/8 in. board all around the bottom on the inside. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. letting it go at arm's length. and tacked it to the boards. The end is filed to an edge. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. etc. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. and the receiver is ready for use. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. long. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. which is the essential part of the instrument. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. Paterson. The strings should be about 15 in. A small wooden or fiber end. but not sharp. The body of the receiver. A. B. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. deep. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. There is a 1-in. G. --Contributed by John A. wide and 1/16 in. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. wound on the head end. is cut on the wood. thus helping the rats to enter. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. F. made up of four layers of No. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. . This not only keeps the rats out. N.. setting traps. the corners being wired. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. Albany.string to each corner. --Contributed by J. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. Gordon Dempsey. cut to the length of the spool. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. long. E.

to . The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. A single line will be sufficient.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. better still. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. a piece of small wire. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. The vase is to have three supports. begin with the smallest scrolls. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. wide. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. To clean small articles. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. gold. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. Take a piece of string or. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. and bend each strip in shape. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper.

Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. . from C to D. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Work down the outside line of the design. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. from the lines EF on the piece. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. 6-3/8 in. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B.which the supports are fastened with rivets. wide when stitching up the purse. sharp pencil. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. and does not require coloring. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned.. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. through which to slip the fly AGH. as shown in the sketch. from E to F. About 1 in. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. 3-1/2 in. thus raising it. 3-1/4 in. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. using a duller point of the tool. Fold the leather on the line EF.. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. After taking off the pattern. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. 4-1/4 in. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Trace also the line around the purse.

place it on one of the square pieces of wood. 1. as well as useful. and cut out a wheel. Now take another piece of wood. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. and a model for speed and power. and cut it out as shown in Fig. deep. When it is finished. thick. and the projections B. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. being cast in wooden molds. 3. b.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. It can be made without the use of a lathe. and. 1/2 in. and tack the other piece slightly. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. the "open" side. Then nail the wheel down firmly. 1 was cut. then nail it. with the largest side down. It is neat and efficient.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. This also should be slightly beveled. with pins or small nails. and which will be very interesting. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. around the wheel. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. following the dotted lines. as shown in Fig. deep. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. Fit this to the two . with a compass saw. leaving the lug a. Make the lug 1/4 in. with the open side down. then place the square piece out of which Fig. long. First. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. 2. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. square. Cut off six pieces 12 in. by 12 ft. all the way around.

and clean all the shavings out of it. then bolt it together. as shown by the black dots in Fig. holes through it. bolts. After it is finished.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. deep. in the center of it. Now take another of the 12-in. hole bored through its center. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. hole 1/4 in. as shown by the . one of which should have a 3/8-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. Now put mold No. place it between two of the 12-in. and bore six 1/4-in. and boring a 3/8-in.pieces just finished. hole entirely through at the same place. slightly beveled. and lay it away to dry. Take the mold apart. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 4. square pieces of wood. 1. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. square pieces of wood.

and connect to the boiler. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. so that it will turn easily. This is mold No. over the defective part. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings.black dots in Fig. 4. from the one end. lay it on a level place. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. b. 1. Pour metal into mold No. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench.1. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. take an ordinary brace. and the other in the base. Then bolt the castings together. true it up with a square. B. This is for a shaft. Put this together in mold No. put the top of the brace through this hole. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. This is the same as Fig.2. only the one is left-handed. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. long. 5. drill in it. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and two 1/4-in. screw down. one in the projections. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. the other right-handed. Let it stand for half an hour. d. and 3/8-in. 6. holes at d. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and pouring metal in to fill it up.2. holes. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. and drill it entirely through. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. long. Fig. 6. and lay it away to dry. until it is full. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Now take mold No. After it is fitted in. and the exhaust hole in projection b. see that the bolts are all tight. place it under the drill.1. and pour babbitt metal into it. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. A piece of mild steel 5 in. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. in diameter must now be obtained. fasten a 3/8-in. Commencing 1-1/2 in.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Now cut out one of the 12-in. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. Using the Brace . one in the lug. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. as shown in illustration. and bore three 1/4-in. where the casting did not fill out. wide and 16 in. instead of the right-handed piece. and run in babbitt metal again. place the entire machine in a vise. and drill them in the same manner. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting.

Your turbine engine is now ready for work. turn the wheel to the shape desired. will do good service. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing.. long. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. and the other 8 ft. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. piece and at right angles to it. while it is running at full speed. and if instructions have been carefully followed. one 6 ft. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and. and with three small screw holes around the edge. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. Then take a knife or a chisel. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Plan of Ice Boat . At each end of the 6ft. with a boss and a set screw. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate.

and about 8 in. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. leaving 1 ft. long. Make your runners as long as possible. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. The tiller. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. in diameter at the base. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. 1. piece and at right angles to it. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. projecting as in Fig. at the butt and 1 in. should be of hardwood. bolt the 8-ft. 2 by 3 in. at the end. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. Run the seam on a machine. in the top before the skate is put on. as the runners were fastened. Over the middle of the 6-ft. which may come in handy in heavy winds. in diameter in the center. plank nail 8-in. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. long and 2-1/2 in. Fig. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. 3. so much the better will be your boat. To