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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

Noble. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. It is held in this curve until dry. A piece of plank 12 in. as shown in Fig. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. grasp it and hold the same as a club. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. distant. as shown in Fig. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. --Contributed by J. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. away.Fig. 1. The pieces are then dressed round. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. Fig. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. To throw a boomerang. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. 1. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. wide and 2 ft. 2. long will make six boomerangs. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. Ontario. apart. 1. until it is bound as shown in Fig. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . 2 -. with the hollow side away from you.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. Toronto. 2. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. E.

it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. made of 6-in. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. 6 in. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. dry snow will not pack easily. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. minus the top. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. thick. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. it is not essential to the support of the walls. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. high and 4 or 5 in. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. If the snow is of the right consistency. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. or rather no bottom at all. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. but about 12 in. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. A wall. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. and it may be necessary to use a little water. A very light. and with a movable bottom. which makes the building simpler and easier. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. long. blocks . however. one inside of the circle and the other outside. First. forcing it down closely. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. the block will drop out. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed.

3. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. Fig. It also keeps them out. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. 3 -. D. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. Fig. wide. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. --Contributed by Geo. long and 1 in. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. C. 2. which can be made of wood. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. or an old safe dial will do. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . There is no outward thrust. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. and the young architect can imitate them. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. The piece of wood. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. 2.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. Goodbrod. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. Fig. is 6 or 8 in. a. 1. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. above the ground. which is about 1 ft. 1. A nail. Ore. Union.

and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. Syracuse. as the weight always draws them back to place. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. --Contributed by R. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. If ordinary butts are used. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. says the Sphinx.When taking hot dishes from the stove. one pair of special hinges. S. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. Merrill. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. New York. the box locked .

and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. 2.and the performer steps out in view. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. proceed as follows: First. It remains to bend the flaps. Fig. When the sieve is shaken. If the measuring has been done properly. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. on drawing paper. To make a design similar to the one shown. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. one for each corner. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. smooth surface. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. 3. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. 1. Place the piece in a vise. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Alberta Norrell. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. allowing each coat time to dry. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. as shown. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. Augusta. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. -Contributed by L. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. draw one-half of it. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. about 1-32 of an inch. All . Ga. If they do not. With the metal shears. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Make allowance for flaps on two sides.

If a touch of color is desired.the edges should be left smooth. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. Galbreath. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. causing it to expand. in passing through the lamp. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. To keep the metal from tarnishing. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. from the back end. and in the positions shown in the sketch. used for insulation. as shown at AA. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. is fitted tightly in the third hole. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. R. The current. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . heats the strip of German-silver wire. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. A piece of porcelain tube. C. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. in diameter. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. The common cork. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. should be in the line. B. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. H. about 6 in. 25 gauge German-silver wire. Denver. In boring through rubber corks. of No. long. which is about 6 in. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. if rolled under the shoe sole. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. A resistance. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. --Contributed by R. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. 25 German-silver wire. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. After this has dried. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. Colo. When the current is turned off. cover it with banana-oil lacquer.

with thin strips of wood. Mo. 3. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. 2. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. 1.bottom ring. --Contributed by David Brown. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Purchase two long book straps. Kansas City. between them as shown in Fig. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. leaving a space of 4 in. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. as shown in Fig. . cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Fig. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs.

A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well.. The string is then tied. Two strips of brass. Kane. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. and tack smoothly. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Pa. one weighing 15 lb. A. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb.An ordinary electric bell. in diameter. Doylestown. 4. are mounted on the outside of the box. and a pocket battery. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Syracuse. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. and one weighing 25 lb. just the right weight for a woman to use. 1. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. 1. Fig. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. When the aeroplane tips. C. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. which is the right weight for family use. 2. Morse. These are shown in Fig. 1. as . The folds are made over the string. having a gong 2-1/2 in.. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Fig. 3. Fig. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. long. --Contributed by Katharine D. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. 36 in. to form a handle. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. N. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. --Contributed by James M. Y. B are mounted on the bottom of the box.

Floral Park. 3/32 or 1/4 in. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. --Contributed by Louis J. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. and many fancy knick-knacks. long. AA. if once used. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. The saw. four washers and four square nuts. Y. two 1/8 -in. N. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. bent as shown in Fig. such as brackets. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. 2. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. Day. 2. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. machine screws. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. Frame Made of a Rod . Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. in diameter. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. 1.

if copper or brass. of water. If it colors the metal red. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. be covered the same as the back. of course. An Austrian Top [12] . rounding and smoothing with emery paper. using a swab and an old stiff brush. or silver. the most expensive. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. Apply two coats. Rub off the highlights.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. File these edges. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. though almost any color may be obtained. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. 1 part nitric acid. --Contributed by W. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears.may be made of either brass. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. after breaking up. therefore. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. treat it with color. Michigan. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. green and browns are the most popular. A. as well as brass and copper. allowing each time to dry. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Scranton. as well as the depth of etching desired.. Silver is the most desirable but. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. it has the correct strength. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. Drying will cause this to change to purple. Of the leathers. of water in which dissolve. 1 part sulphuric acid. In the design shown. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. use them in place of the outside nuts. Detroit. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. For etching. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. The buckle is to be purchased. Watch Fob For coloring silver. copper.

F. pass one end through the 1/16-in. 5-1/4 in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. set the top in the 3/4 -in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. --Contributed by J. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. in diameter. Michigan. The handle is a piece of pine. When the shank is covered. Ypsilanti. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. A handle.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. hole. Tholl. wide and 3/4 in. 1-1/4 in. is formed on one end. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. hole in this end for the top. . 3/4 in. Bore a 3/4-in. thick. Parts of the Top To spin the top. long. long. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. A 1/16-in. allowing only 1-1/4 in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown.

Houghton. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Augusta. A. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. . The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. tarts or similar pastry. Alberta Norrell. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. The baking surface. --A. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. For black leathers. Ga. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Mich. having no sides.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. --Contributed by Miss L. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Northville.

A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. two turns will remove the jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. says Studio Light. Stringing Wires [13] A. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . The weight of the broom keeps it in position. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. Mo. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. Centralia. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. the same as shown in the illustration. then solder cover and socket together. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. When you desire to work by white light. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. glass fruit jar.

for loading and development. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. 1-1/4 in. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. square by 62 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. They are fastened. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. and not tip over. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. so it can be folded up. 4 Vertical pieces. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. . The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 1-1/4 in. Janesville. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. square by 12 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. Wis. 4 Braces. 16 Horizontal bars. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out.

-Contributed by Charles Stem. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. and a loop made in the end. Rosenthal. after filling the pail with water. New York. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. The whole. If the loop is tied at the proper place. After rounding the ends of the studs. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. C. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. from scrap material. H. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. O. Phillipsburg. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. The front can be covered . No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. Cincinnati. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. --Contributed by Dr. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water.

Develop them into strong prints. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. If the gate is raised slightly. In my own practice. you are. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. either for contact printing or enlargements. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. thoroughly fix. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. Baltimore. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. FIG. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. by all rules of the game. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. sickly one. By using the following method. Wehr. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. The . --Contributed by Gilbert A. the mouth of which rests against a. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. principally mayonnaise dressing. if you try to tone them afterward. the color will be an undesirable. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. Md. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. The results will be poor. and. 1 FIG.

The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. Iodide of potassium . The blotting paper can .... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. long to admit the angle support. Place the dry print. 2 oz.....bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. Gray. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. San Francisco.. preferably the colored kind. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. When the desired reduction has taken place.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. A good final washing completes the process. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects... 2...... --Contributed by T... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. transfer it to a tray of water... 20 gr.. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. in size... where it will continue to bleach... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain... without previous wetting.... when it starts to bleach....... in this solution.. three times....... 5 by 15 in. It will bleach slowly and evenly.... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder.. With a little practice.. 1 and again as in Fig. L.." Cyanide of potassium . as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. to make it 5 by 5 in. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. 16 oz...... wide and 4 in.. but. Cal. Water .. etc..

Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. --Contributed by J. 20 gauge. Make a design similar to that shown. 3. Monahan. wide.J. Canada. having a width of 2-1/4 in. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Wisconsin. the shaft 1 in. the head of which is 2 in. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Oshkosh. wide below the . Corners complete are shown in Fig. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. --Contributed by L. Wilson Aldred Toronto.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. and a length of 5 in.

Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. 1 Fig. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. For coloring olive green. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. but use a swab on a stick. . Do not put the hands in the solution. deep. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. using a small metal saw. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke.FIG. 2. Trace the design on the metal. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. 1 part nitric acid. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. as shown in Fig. Fig. 1 part sulphuric acid. Apply with a small brush. using carbon paper. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. After the sawing. being held perpendicular to the work. Allow this to dry. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. With the metal shears. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. With files. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. freehand. 4. Make one-half of the design. then put on a second coat. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. 1. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. then coloring. using turpentine. after folding along the center line. Pierce a hole with a small drill. The metal must be held firmly. which gives the outline of the design Fig. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. 3. After this has dried. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. then trace the other half in the usual way.

Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. New York. on a chopping board. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. thick. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. Carl Cramer. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Morse. --Contributed by Katharine D. After the stain has dried. attach brass handles. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. M. Ii is an ordinary staple. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Syracuse. --Contributed by M. East Hartford. . which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. When this is cold.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. --Contributed by H. Burnett. Richmond. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. it does the work rapidly. then stain it a mahogany color. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. Cal. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Conn. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. as shown. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip.

brass. Florida. two enameled. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. L. 53 steel pens. saucers or pans. as shown in Fig. . having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. also locate the drill holes.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. A. some pieces of brass. --Contributed by Mrs. Atwell. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. 1/4 in.. 4. not over 1/4 in. --Contributed by W. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. WARNECKE Procure some brass. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. or tin. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. holes. indicating the depth of the slots. H. one shaft. thick and 4 in. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. square. Fig. thick. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. and several 1/8-in. machine screws. as shown at A. Jaquythe. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Kissimmee. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. Richmond. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. about 3/16 in. Cal. in width at the shank. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. 1.

Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. and pins inserted. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. hole is drilled to run off the water. 1. as shown. with 1/8-in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. hole. thick. There should be a space of 1/16 in. 2. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Bend as shown in Fig. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. Fig. with the face of the disk. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. 6. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. A 3/4-in. If metal dishes. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. These are connected to a 3/8-in. each about 1 in. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. wide and bend as shown in Fig. with a 3/8-in. as shown in Fig. in diameter and 1/32 in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. supply pipe. 5. 3. 2. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. and the ends filed round for the bearings. lead should be run into the segments. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. as in Fig.. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. can be procured. long and 5/16 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. about 1/32 in. Fig. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. hole in the center. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. wide. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. machine screws and nuts. long by 3/4 in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. Fig. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. into the hole. thick. a square shaft used. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. 3. If the shaft is square. brass and bolted to the casing. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. using two nuts on each screw. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. 7. machine screws. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used.

When assembling. screws. from the bottom end of the legs. Fasten with 3/4-in. long. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. three of which are in the basket. Ill. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Canada. Stain the wood before putting in the . Smith. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. --Contributed by F. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. or more in diameter. to make the bottom. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. deep and 1-1/4 in. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. 8-1/2 in. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Now you will have the box in two pieces. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. With a string or tape measure. Be sure to have the cover. Hamilton. The four legs are each 3/4-in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. high and 15 in. La Salle. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. deep over all. --Contributed by S. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. V. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. we will call the basket. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. The lower part. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. square and 30-1/2 in. make these seams come between the two back legs. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Cooke. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. using four to each leg. from the top of the box. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet.

Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Sew on to the covered cardboards.lining. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. sewing on the back side. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. as shown in the sketch. -Contributed by Stanley H. Fig. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Md. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. The side. Cover them with the cretonne. wide and four strips 10 in. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. When making the display. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker.2 Fig. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. The folded part in the center is pasted together. --also the lower edge when necessary. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Baltimore. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. wide. If all the parts are well sandpapered.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Packard. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. 2. you can. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. 1. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Boston. and gather it at that point. Mass. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite.

Crockett. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. 3. Mo. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Orlando Taylor. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. When through using the pad. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. N. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. saving all the solid part. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Gloversville. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. with slight modifications. L. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. --Contributed by H. --Contributed by B. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Y. It is not difficult to . Fig. and. It is cleanly. Cross Timbers. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place.

Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. S. Bourne. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. or if desired. Mass. and secure it in place with glue or paste.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. are shown in the diagram. After this is done. After stirring. and scrape out the rough parts. remove the contents. -Contributed by C. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. If a file is used. Texas. Lowell. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. across the face. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. --Contributed by Edith E. Both of these methods are wasteful. Lane. it should be new and sharp. El Paso.

cooking utensil. Oregon. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. F. The process works well and needs no watching. After several hours' drying. A Postcard Rack [25]. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Ill. Turl. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. --Contributed by Loren Ward. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. Ill. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. --Contributed by Geo. He captured several pounds in a few hours. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. Oak Park. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Des Moines. circled over the funnel and disappeared. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Those having houses . Wheeler. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Greenleaf. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. --Contributed by Marion P. As these were single-faced disk records. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Canton. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. The insects came to the light. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Iowa.

. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. thick. and as they are simple in design. plane and pocket knife. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Only three pieces are required. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. and both exactly alike. by 2 ft. the best material to use being matched boards. Glenbrook. Dobbins. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Conn. Mass.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Both sides can be put together in this way. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. the bottom being 3/8 in. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. boards are preferable. material. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. but for cheapness 3/4 in. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. Lay the floor next. Worcester. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. The single boards can then be fixed.. and the second one for the developing bench. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. 6 in. Rosenberg. will do as well. one on each side of what will be the . --Contributed by Thomas E. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. not even with the boards themselves. --Contributed by Wm. 6 in.

wide. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. 7. 3 and 4. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. 10). 11. It is shown in detail in Fig. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. 6. 6. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. by screwing to the floor. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. below which is fixed the sink. In hinging the door. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. brown wrapping paper. which is fixed on as shown . The developing bench is 18 in. as shown in Figs. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack.. so that the water will drain off into the sink. The roof boards may next be put on. is cut. 9). 2 in section. and act as a trap for the light. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. so that it will fit inside the sink. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. 5. At the top of the doorway. hinged to it. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in.doorway. of the top of the door for the same reason. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. and in the middle an opening. 8. and should be zinc lined. 6 and 9. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. and to the outside board of the sides. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. 9 by 11 in. and the top as at C in the same drawing. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces.. etc. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. the closing side as at B.. nailing them to each other at the ridge. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig.

Details of the Dark Rook .

A circular piece about 2 in. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. and a 3/8-in. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . In use. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. mixing flour and water. as at I. The handle should be at least 12 in. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Pennsylvania. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above.in Fig. Fig. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. Fig. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. Karl Hilbrich. The house will be much strengthened if strips. as shown in Fig. 20. after lining with brown paper. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. and a tank stand on it. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. 15. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. as shown in the sections. 19. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. 13. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. 16. Erie. --Contributed by W. Fig. but not the red glass and frame. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. it is better than anything on the market. as in Fig. or the room may be made with a flat roof. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. hole bored in the center for a handle. as at M. screwing them each way into the boards. which makes it possible to have white light. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. though this is hardly advisable. 13. if desired. 18. 2. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. For beating up an egg in a glass. four coats at first is not too many. these being shown in Fig. 6. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. 14. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. are fastened in the corners inside. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. 17. Fig. preferably maple or ash. 1. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. 16. or red light as at K.

as shown in the sketch. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Schweiger. D. about 3/8 in. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. which. Eureka Springs. Mo. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in.copper should be. Smith. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Kansas City. Mitchell. when put together properly is a puzzle. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. for a handle. L. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Yonkers. To operate. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. G. long. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. --Contributed by L. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. New York. Ark. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. --Contributed by Wm. -Contributed by E.

the rustic work should be varnished. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. especially for filling-in purposes. need them. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. which binds them together. for the moment. . as shown in Fig. 1. After the box is trimmed. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. The corks in use are shown in Fig. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. 3. The design shown in Fig. to make it set level. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. as is usually the case. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. A number of 1/2-in. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. as shown in Fig. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. Having completed the bare box. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. 3. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. 2. holes should be drilled in the bottom. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. the box will require a greater height in front. as well as improve its appearance. If the sill is inclined. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. Each cork is cut as in Fig. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. in order to thoroughly preserve it.

it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. But I have solved the difficulty. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. When the corn is gone cucumbers. and observe results. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. 2. being partly eaten into. 3. Traps do no good. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. etc. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. too dangerous. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. as shown in Fig. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. life in the summer time is a vexation. drilled at right angles. F. share the same fate. . Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. can't use poison. 1. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. it's easy. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. cabbages.. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. 4. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. Each long projection represents a leg.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple.

strips. The solution can be used over and over again. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. . my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. long. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. and made up and kept in large bottles. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. cut some of it off and try again. -. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. If. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. About 9-1/2 ft. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. cut in 1/2-in. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. of No. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. by trial. Iowa. the coil does not heat sufficiently. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush.

and the dog has locked himself in for the night. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Fig 2. Y. but with unsatisfactory results. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. as shown in the sketch. Texas. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. Morse. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. In cleaning silver. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. is a good size--in this compound. --Contributed by Katharine D. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. of whiting and 1/2 oz. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. of gasoline. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. 1) removed. C. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Doylestown. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Dallas. Kane. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. it falls to stop G. --Contributed by James M. and a strip. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. Knives. to cause the door to swing shut. Stir and mix thoroughly. of oleic acid with 1 gal. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. hot-water pot. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. coffee pot. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Do not wash them. N. Pa. forks. . releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Syracuse. D. --Contributed by Victor Labadie.

Sprout. using the paper dry. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. . but unfixed. Fisher. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Pa. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. --Contributed by Oliver S. La. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Waverly. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. later fixed and washed as usual. which is. of course. --Contributed by Theodore L. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. New Orleans. Ill. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. negatives. Harrisburg.

a harmonograph is a good prescription. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. In this uncertainty lies the charm. metal. then . No two hamonograms are exactly alike. To obviate this difficulty. graceful sweep of the long pendulum.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. 1. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Fig. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The harmonograph. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success.

Ingham. in diameter. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. The length of the short pendulum H. Punch a hole. Rosemont. is about right for a 10-ft. A small weight. one-fourth. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. A pedestal. makes respectively 3. --Contributed by Wm. exactly one-third. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. J.. and unless the shorter pendulum is. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. 1. Another weight of about 10 lb. of about 30 or 40 lb. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. R.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. 1. with a nail set or punch. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. provides a means of support for the stylus. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. A weight. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. one-fifth. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. is attached as shown at H. --Contributed by James T.. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. etc. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. A small table or platform. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. G. K. as shown in Fig. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. as long as the other. which can be regulated. Arizona. that is. A length of 7 ft. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. Holes up to 3 in. what is most important. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. ceiling. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. as shown in the lower part of Fig. such as a shoe buttoner. for instance. Chicago. Gaffney. in the center of the circle to be cut. to prevent any side motion. 1-3/4 by 2 in. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. or the lines will overlap and blur. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] .

and proceed as before. and 4 as in Fig. dividing them into quarters. 2. The two key cards are made alike. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. then 3 as in Fig. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. a correspondent of . of course. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. then put 2 at the top. 1. 3. --Contributed by J. -Contributed by W. distributing them over the whole card. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The capacity of the vise. 6. Cruger.H.J. 5. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. N. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. Chicago. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 4. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig.J. Fig. Morey. Fig. Cape May City. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side.

from the top and bottom. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. says Popular Electricity. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Augusta. Wind the successive turns of . wood-screws. --Contributed by L. Cut through the center. Alberta Norrell. of 18-per-cent No. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. sheet of well made asbestos paper. respectively. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. Ga. citrate of iron and ammonia. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. long. 1/2 oz. 22 gauge German-silver wire. acetic acid and 4 oz. drill 15 holes. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. remove the prints. of the uprights. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. the portion of the base under the coil. 30 gr. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. After securing the tint desired. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. To assemble. deep. of ferricyanide of potash. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. After preparing the base and uprights. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. Asbestos board is to be preferred. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. If constructed of the former. of water. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. 6 gauge wires shown. 1/4 in. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place.

Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. cut and dressed 1/2 in. --Contributed by Frederick E. etc. then fasten the upright in place. if one is not a smoker. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. Y. but these are not necessary. N. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. 16 gauge copper wire. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. which. Small knobs may be added if desired. Ward. rivets. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit.. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. square. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. as they are usually thrown away when empty. screws. Ampere. 14 gauge. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . Labels of some kind are needed.

The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. lead. sandpaper or steel wool. tin. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. A. B. especially if a large tub is used. tinner's acid. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. The parts are put together with dowel pins. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. E and F." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. or has become corroded. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. as shown in the sketch. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. it must be ground or filed to a point. If the soldering copper is an old one. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. --C. of glycerine to 16 oz. S. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. Wis. zinc. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. D. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Heat it until hot (not red hot). The material can be of any wood. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. a piece of solder. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. C. particularly so when the iron has once been used. In soldering galvanized iron. California. Jaquythe. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. --Contributed by W. of water. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. Ark. and rub the point of the copper on it. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. . Larson. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. and labeled "Poison. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. galvanized iron. Richmond. Copper. This is considerable annoyance. being careful about the heat. Kenosha. Eureka Springs. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. brass.14 oz. G. --Contributed by A. and one made of poplar finished black.. then to the joint to be soldered.

-Contributed by H. nut. and drill out the threads. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. The disk will come out pan shaped. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. 1. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Y. The punch A. 7/8 in. The dimensions shown in Fig. This completes the die. The covers of the magazines are removed. Troy. a ring may be made from any metal. C. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. in diameter. B. with good results. 2. W. I bind my magazines at home evenings. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Brass rings can be plated when finished. D. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. which gives two bound volumes each year. wide. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . thick and 1-1/4 in. Apart from this. brass and silver. This will leave a clear hole. Take a 3/4-in. Place the band. Fig. Hankin. round iron. Fig. such as copper. N. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. however. Six issues make a well proportioned book. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. in diameter. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. if such metals are in plate or sheet form.

1/8 in. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. Start with the front of the book. 1. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. 1 in Fig. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. is nailed across the top. as shown in Fig. 1. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. threaded double. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. and place them against the strings in the frame. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. 2. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. 1. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. then back through the notch on the right side. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. and a third piece. The covering should be cut out 1 in. size 16 or larger.4. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. The string No. which is fastened the same as the first. After drawing the thread tightly. . 5. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. on all edges except the back. If started with the January or the July issue. The covering can be of cloth. The sections are then prepared for sewing. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. is used for the sewing material. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. deep. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. and then to string No. Five cuts. Place the cardboard covers on the book. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. of the ends extending on each side. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. through the notch on the left side of the string No. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Coarse white thread. 2. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. using . C. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. allowing about 2 in.

The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. College View. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. and mark around each one. Place the cover on the book in the right position. For the blade an old talking-machine . then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. round iron. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Nebr. Tinplate. Encanto.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Divine. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. at opposite sides to each other. on which to hook the blade. and. --Contributed by Clyde E. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Cal.

C. thick. with 10 teeth to the inch.. in order to drill the holes in the ends. E. Miss. Moorhead. and 1/4 in. and another piece (B) 6 in. A. and a long thread plug.. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. bore. F. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Summitville. Then on the board put . On the upper side. long. Hays. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). fuse hole at D. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. and 1/4 in. and file in the teeth. -Contributed by Willard J. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. hydraulic pipe. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Ohio. by 1 in. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Make the blade 12 in. as it is sometimes called. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. at the same end. thick. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. as shown. by 4-1/2 in. or double extra heavy. B. with a steel sleeve.

leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. high around this apparatus. Philadelphia. A lid may be added if desired. If you are going to use a current of low tension. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Boyd. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. 4 jars. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. as from batteries. --Contributed by Chas. and some No. Connect up as shown. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. some sheet copper or brass for plates. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. of wire to each coil. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. using about 8 in. about 5 ft. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . which will hold about 6 or 7 gal.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. of rubber-covered wire. the jars need not be very large. H.

11 in. by 5 in. 2.. beginning at the rear. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. In proportioning them the points A. 4. making them clear those in the front runner. two pieces 30 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. on No. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. Put arm of switch on point No. or source of current. Use no screws on the running surface. and for the rear runners: A. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. long. The current then will flow through the motor. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. sheet brass 1 in. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. by 1 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. by 2 in. wide and 2 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. is used to reduce friction. A 3/4-in. 4 in. 1 and so on for No. by 1-1/4 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft. Fig. 3.. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. An iron washer. The stock required for them is oak. To wire the apparatus. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. 4) of 3/4-in. 2 and 3. 1 on switch. wide. First sandpaper all the wood.. two for each jar. B. . The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. B. by 2 in. See Fig. At the front 24 or 26 in. For the brass trimmings use No. No. gives full current and full speed. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. oak boards. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. 5 on switch.. by 6 in. long. long. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. square by 14 ft. 30 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. steel rod makes a good steering rod. as they "snatch" the ice. For the front runners these measurements are: A. 15-1/2 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. 2 is lower down than in No. thick. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. A variation of 1/16 in. B and C. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 27 B. Their size also depends on the voltage. Construct the auto front (Fig. above the ground. as they are not substantial enough. 7 in.. and plane it on all edges. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard.the way. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. wide by 3/4 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. C. The top disk in jar No. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against.. and bolt through. and four pieces 14 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. & S. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. then apply a coat of thin enamel. are important. by 5 in. 1. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. Z. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. Equip block X with screw eyes. long. 3 in. 2 in. two pieces 34 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. 3 and No. direct to wire across jars. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in.. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. 16-1/2 in. two pieces 14 in. The connection between point No. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. however. C. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. with the cushion about 15 in. 1 is connected to point No. 2. thick. On the door of the auto front put the . long by 22 in. wide and 3/4 in. apart. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. by 1-1/4 in. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. Use no nails. 2. 34 in.

sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. If desired. by 30 in. such as burlap. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. parcels. cutting it out of sheet brass. may be stowed within. brass plated. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. to improve the appearance. fasten a cord through the loop. by 1/2 in. If the expense is greater than one can afford. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. which is somewhat moist. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. The best way is to get some strong. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. long. a brake may be added to the sled. a number of boys may share in the ownership. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Fasten a horn. If desired. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. or with these for $25. etc. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. overshoes. cheap material. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. lunch. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . to the wheel. such as used on automobiles. Then get some upholstery buttons.

Lexington. Leland. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Ill. . --Contributed by Stewart H.tree and bring. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.

a compass. the same diameter as the wheel. which. Draw a circle on paper. sheet metal. The first tooth may now be cut. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. mild steel or iron. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Fig. A small clearance space. so that the center of the blade. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. Fig. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. 4). with twenty-four teeth. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. the cut will be central on the line. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. FC. 3. 1. though more difficult. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. from F to G. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . made from 1/16-in. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. when flat against it. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. With no other tools than a hacksaw. by drawing diameters. This guide should have a beveled edge. Fig. outside diameter and 1/16 in. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. some files. say 1 in. will be over the line FG. London. CD. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. The straight-edge. 2. thick. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. The Model Engineer. First take the case of a small gearwheel. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. E.

Four Photos on One Plate of them. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. B. Then take one outlet wire. 2. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. A bright. 1. either the pencils for arc lamps. electric lamp. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. ground it with a large piece of zinc. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. as shown in Fig. and the other outlet wire. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. No shock will be perceptible. as shown in Fig. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. If there is no faucet in the house. as shown in Fig. 1. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. each in the center. R. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. . or several pieces bound tightly together. some wire and some carbons. transmitter. Focus the camera in the usual manner. hold in one hand. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. Make a hole in the other. B.

by 12 in. B. --Contributed by Geo. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. J. A is a wooden block. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. of course. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Then set the whole core away to dry. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. If desired. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. are also needed. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. Emsworth. One like a loaf of bread. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. serves admirably. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Pa. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. They have screw ends. under the gable. and again wind the wire around it. 36 wire around it. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. or more of the latter has been used. Slattery. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. leaving about 10 in. a transmitter which induces no current is used. at each end for terminals. Ohio. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Several battery cells. and will then burn the string C. by 1 in. and about that size. one at the receiver can hear what is said. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. as shown. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. D D are binding posts for electric wires. Dry batteries are most convenient. as indicated by E E. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. Wrenn. But in this experiment. Ashland. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn.

Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Connect these three to switch. and switch. E. for the . C. connecting lamp receptacles. 12 or No. At one side secure two receptacles. as shown. Ohio. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. in series with bindingpost. B B. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. C. the terminal of the coil. Turn on switch. as shown. From the other set of binding-posts. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Fig. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Place 16-cp. F. These should have hollow ends. Fig. 14 wire. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. while C is open. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. D.wire. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. Jr. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. Newark. run a No. The coil will commence to become warm. D. B B. in parallel. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board.. and one single post switch. until the hand points to zero on the scale. and the lamps. First make a support. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. The oven is now ready to be connected. The apparatus is now ready for operation. 1. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. 2.

The core. drill through the entire case and valve. Fig. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. D. but if for a 4way. Fig. 4 in. 14. 1. 14 wire. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. If for 3-way. is made of wire. long. --Contributed by J. and D. from the lower end. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. To make one. deep. 10 turns to each layer. 1. drill in only to the opening already through. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. inside measurements. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. where A is the homemade ammeter. 4. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. At a point a little above the center. C. 3 amperes. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument.. 1/4 in. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. Fig. 36 magnet wire instead of No. Dussault. thick. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. 5. E. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. A wooden box. B. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. wind with plenty of No. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. to prevent it turning on the axle. It is 1 in. long. This may be made of wood. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. The box is 5-1/2 in. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. a standard ammeter. until the scale is full. wide and 1-3/4 in. After drilling. Mine is wound with two layers of No. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. drill a hole as shown at H. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . remove the valve. Montreal. 5. 6. a battery. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. This is slipped on the pivot.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. 1/2 in.E. 3. 4 amperes. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. 2. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. high. Fig. as shown in the cut. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. is then made and provided with a glass front. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. a variable resistance. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. although copper or steel will do. wide and 1/8 in. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. D. is made of iron.or 4-way valve or cock. long and make a loop. 7. The pointer or hand. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. etc. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. although brass is better.

which is used for reducing the current. and the arc light. high. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. as shown. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. By connecting the motor. E. in thickness . The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. and a metal rod. making two holes about 1/4 in. D. One wire runs to the switch. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. To start the light. B. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. in diameter. F. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. A. This stopper should be pierced. and the other connects with the water rheostat.performing electrical experiments. provided with a rubber stopper. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase.

A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. 2. 2. 1. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. If the interrupter does not work at first. as shown in C. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. as shown in B. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. 1. A. B. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Y. Fig. As there shown. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Fig. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Fig. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. --Contributed by Harold L. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Turn on the current and press the button. Jones. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. To insert the lead plate. Carthage. N. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Fig. If all adjustments are correct. where he is placed in an upright open . long. A piece of wood. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. 1. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Having finished the interrupter.

A. figures and lights. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. from which the gong has been removed. the illusion will be spoiled. light-colored garments. The glass should be the clearest possible. giving a limp. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. and can be bought at Japanese stores. to aid the illusion. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. is constructed as shown in the drawings. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. high. The model. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. especially L. They need to give a fairly strong light. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. and must be thoroughly cleansed. until it is dark there. could expect from a skeleton. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. and wave his arms up and down. should be miniature electric lamps. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. especially the joints and background near A. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. If everything is not black. The skeleton is made of papier maché. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. dressed in brilliant. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. as the entire interior. If it is desired to place the box lower down. by 7-1/2 in. The lights.. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. Its edges should nowhere be visible. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. which can be run by three dry cells. A white shroud is thrown over his body. within the limits of an ordinary room.coffin. should be colored a dull black. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. inside dimensions. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. loosejointed effect. All . with the exception of the glass. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. L and M. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. by 7 in. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall.

--Contributed by Geo. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. Cal. W. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. Two finishing nails were driven in. fat spark. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. square block. If a gradual transformation is desired. San Jose. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. after which it assumes its normal color. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . hole was bored in the center of a 2-in.that is necessary is a two-point switch. placed about a foot apart. as shown in the sketch. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. Fry. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white.

If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. If a lighted match . Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. In Fig. B and C. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. by small pieces of wood. soldered in the top. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. or a solution of sal soda. New York. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. This is a wide-mouth bottle. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. hydrogen gas is generated. -Contributed by Dudley H. F. with two tubes. the remaining space will be filled with air. into the receiver G. 1. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. A (see sketch). In Fig. and should be separated about 1/8 in. as shown. One of these plates is connected to metal top. The plates are separated 6 in. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. Cohen. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. to make it airtight. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates.

If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. should be only 5/16 of an inch. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. A 1/64-in. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. long. copper pipe. A piece of 1/8-in. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. 1/2 in. 1. of No. The distance between the nipple. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. London. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. N. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. copper pipe. A. long. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. by means of the clips. and the ends of the tube. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. Fig. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. A nipple. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. A. P. says the Model Engineer. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. then a suitable burner is necessary. C C. B. is made by drilling a 1/8in. which is plugged up at both ends. from the bottom. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. One row is drilled to come directly on top. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. 1-5/16 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. either by passing a current of electricity around it. which forms the vaporizing coil. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. A. or by direct contact with another magnet. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. as is shown in the illustration. 2 shows the end view. is then coiled around the brass tube. N. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. in diameter and 6 in. A. If desired. 36 insulated wire. Fig.

smoothly. Fig. boards and all. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. A disk of thin sheet-iron. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. larger all around than the book. Fig. longer and 1/4 in. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Cut four pieces of cardboard. 1/4 in. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. leaving the folded edge uncut. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. 2). pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. taking care not to bend the iron. Fig. cut to the size of the pages. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. about 8 or 10 in. 3. duck or linen. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. but if the paper knife cannot be used. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. this makes a much nicer book. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. fold and cut it 1 in. with a fine saw. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. Turn the book over and paste the other side. should be cut to the diameter of the can.lamp cord. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. trim both ends and the front edge. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. 1. at the front and back for fly leaves. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Take two strips of stout cloth. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it.

of tank A is cut a hole. Ont. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. A. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Another tank. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. which will just slip inside the little can. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. Noble. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. Bedford City. deep.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Another can. is made the same depth as B. 4). as shown. C. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. without a head. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Parker. . so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. is turned on it. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. or rather the top now. but its diameter is a little smaller. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Joseph N. pasting them down (Fig. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. A gas cock. B. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Va. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. E. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. H. In the bottom. 18 in. the joint will be gas tight. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. and a little can. is soldered onto tank A. D. is perforated with a number of holes. --Contributed by James E. Toronto. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. in diameter and 30 in. is fitted in it and soldered.

which moves to either right or left. long. by 1/2 in. D. and about 26 in. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. J. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. shows how the connections are to be made. D.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. A A. If the pushbutton A is closed. as shown at C. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. tacks. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. Fig. making the width. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. E. Beverly. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. long. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. and the four diagonal struts. to prevent splitting. The small guards. are shown in detail at H and J. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. basswood or white pine. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. N. when finished. 2. If the back armature. S. and sewed double to give extra strength. should be cut a little too long. The longitudinal corner spines. A. which may be either spruce. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. should be 3/8 in. The wiring diagram. 1. exactly 12 in. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. C. The diagonal struts. -Contributed by H.. with an electric-bell magnet. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. should be 1/4 in. H is a square knot. The bridle knots. B. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. B. The armature. Bott. Fig. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. B. thus adjusting the . fastened in the bottom. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. square by 42 in. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in.

A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. can be made of a wooden . A bowline knot should be tied at J. shift toward F. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. the batteries do not run down for a long time. and if a strong wind is blowing. If the kite is used in a light wind. with gratifying results. Chicago. Clay Center. Harbert. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. D. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. that refuse to slide easily. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Closing either key will operate both sounders. thus shortening G and lengthening F. --Contributed by A. to prevent slipping. --Contributed by Edw. for producing electricity direct from heat. Stoddard. and. as shown. however. Kan. E. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter.lengths of F and G.

The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . or parallel with the compass needle. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. 14 or No. A and B. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. with a pocket compass. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. which conducts the current into the cannon. C. and the current may then be detected by means. to the cannon. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. spark. A. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. The wood screw. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore.. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. in position. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. C. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. E. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. A. 16 single-covered wire. --Contributed by A. placed on top. and also holds the pieces of wood. C. D. by means of machine screws or. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. with a number of nails. F. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. B. Then. Fasten a piece of wood. When the cannon is loaded. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. A.frame. Chicago. E.

H. Ohio. 1. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. within the reach of the magnet. when in position at A'. Fig. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. to receive the screw in the center. screw is bored in the block. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. square and 3/8 in. To unlock the door. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. To lock the door. A hole for a 1/2 in.the current is shut off. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. In Fig. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. where there is a staple. now at A' and S'. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. Chicago. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. requiring a strong magnet. L. --Contributed by Joseph B. Keil. . it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. Big Rapids. B. A. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. Bend the strips BB (Fig. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. with the long arm at L'. A and S. 1. Fig. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Mich. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. press the button. Marion. A and S. in this position the door is locked. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. To reverse. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. but no weights or strings. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. 1. Connect as shown in the illustration.

makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. about 18 in. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. Rand. When the holes are finished and your lines set. When ready for use. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. --Contributed by C. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. pipe with 1-2-in. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. are enameled a jet black.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. long. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. Thread the other end of the pipe. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. and may be made at very slight expense. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. The standard and base. put in the handle. Mass. and if desired the handles may . gas-pipe. West Somerville. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. J. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. hole. or for microscopic work. if enameled white on the concave side. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. and C is a dumbbell. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task.

To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. across. long and 8 in. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. North Easton. 1. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Mass.be covered with leather. as shown at A in the sketch. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. across. inside the pail. B. A. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. 1. with a cover. This peculiar property is also found in ice. E. high by 1 ft.. Fig. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . M. Warren. Make a cylindrical core of wood. 8 in. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Fig. --Contributed by C. which shall project at least 2 in. D.

of fine wire. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. carefully centering it. strip of sheet iron. hotel china. 2 in. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos.mixture of clay. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. if there is to be any glazing done. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. Cover with paper and shellac as before. 3) with false top and bottom. cutting the hole a little smaller. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. 15%. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. if you have the materials. make two wood ends. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. and graphite. The 2 in. After removing all the paper. long. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. say 1/4 in. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln.-G. long over the lid hole as a chimney. Line the pail. passing wire nails through and clinching them. and cut it 3-1/2 in. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. in diameter. sand. wider than the kiln. about 1 in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. in diameter. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. 2.. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. or make one yourself. Set aside for a few days until well dried. bottom and sides. and varnish. 1390°-1410°. diameter. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. W. and on it set the paper wrapped core. but it will burn a great deal of gas. pipe. layer of the clay mixture. the firing should be gradual. to hold the clay mixture. C. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. let this dry thoroughly. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. hard porcelain. 1). should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. projecting from each end (Fig. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. C. Fig. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. L. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. Whatever burner is used. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. This done. and with especial caution the first time. When lighted. It is placed inside the kiln. as dictated by fancy and expense. but will be cheaper in operation. Wind about 1/8 in. pipe 2-ft. Fit all the parts together snugly. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. thick. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. E. 25%. pack this space-top. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. 1330°. thick. which is the hottest part. and 3/4 in. as is shown in the sketch. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. 60%. If the cover of the pail has no rim.. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. such . and your kiln is ready for business. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. 1).. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. full length of iron core. and 3/8 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. After finishing the core. the point of the blue flame. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. C.

Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Chicago. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. around the coil. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. red and black. Washington. diameter. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. D. with a plane. and so on. every alternate card being the same color. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. . A. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. 2. 8 in. The funnel. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black.53 in. 2). and divide it into two piles. R. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. T.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. bind tightly with black silk. and plane off about 1/16 in. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Then take the black cards. as in Fig. the next black. taking care to have the first card red. length of . as shown in the sketch herewith. Take the red cards. leaving long terminals. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. about 1/16 in. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. You can display either color called for. overlaps and rests on the body. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. C. all cards facing the same way. --Contributed by J. and discharges into the tube. 2. procure a new deck. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. as in Fig.. square them up. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. B. C. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. Next restore all the cards to one pack. Then. square them up and place in a vise. Of course. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. C. 1.

and then the frame is ready to assemble.J. It should be placed in an exposed location. of the frame. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. A. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. to form a dovetail joint as shown. E. and this is inexpensive to build. Long Branch. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. All the horizontal pieces. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. stove bolts. The cement. Fig. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. The bottom glass should be a good fit. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. E. To find the fall of snow. C. The upright pieces. stove bolts. angle iron for the frame. B. the same ends will come together again. about 20 in. When the glass is put in the frame a space. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. 1. 1 gill of fine white sand. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. thus making all the holes coincide. B. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. F. through the holes already drilled. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. N.. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. the first thing to decide on is the size. D. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium.C. 1 gill of litharge. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. Drill all the horizontal pieces. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. Let . --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. so that when they are assembled. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. as the difficulties increase with the size. B. A.

and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . and. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. if desired. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. a centerpiece (A. to the door knob. on the door by means of a metal plate. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. D. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. B. Fasten the lever. having a swinging connection at C. Fig. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. A. Aquarium Finished If desired.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium.

when the operator blows in the mouthpiece.. Fig. wide . thus doing away with the spring. AA. Do not fasten these boards now. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. from the outside top of the frame. 1 . E. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. for the top. Fig. A small piece of spring brass. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. F. to keep the frame from spreading. and another. to form the main supports of the frame. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. 3 shows one of the paddles. which is 15 in. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. N. Y. hoping it may solve the same question for them. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. another. --Contributed by Orton E. I referred this question to my husband. 1 is the motor with one side removed. C. B. Fig. Two short boards 1 in. PAUL S. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. To make the frame. Fig. 2 is an end view. 26 in. long. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. showing the paddle-wheel in position. White. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. 1. another. wide by 1 in.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. with a water pressure of 70 lb. screwed to the door frame. Fig. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. several lengths of scantling 3 in. 2 at GG. to form the slanting part. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. They are shown in Fig. D. long. approximately 1 ft. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. 2 ft. 6 in. Buffalo. long. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. Cut two of them 4 ft. Fig. as at E. Cut two pieces 30 in. and Fig. will open the door about 1/2 in. according to the slant given C. long. 1. soldered to the end of the cylinder. but mark their position on the frame.

Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. as shown in Fig. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. after which drill a 5/8 in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. 2) with a 5/8-in. long to the wheel about 8 in. Now block the wheel. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Fig. with the wheel and shaft in place. hole through the exact center of the wheel. take down the crosspieces. Fig. Next secure a 5/8-in. then drill a 3/16-in. 24 in. hole through their sides centrally. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. GG. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. and drill a 1-in. and drill a 1/8-in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. that is.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. remove the cardboard. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Fig. to a full 1/2 in. steel shaft 12 in. holes. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Take the side pieces. Drill 1/8-in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. thick. hole through its center. long and filling it with babbitt metal. and a 1/4 -in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. hole through them. 4. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in.burlap will do -. Make this hole conical. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. thick (HH. in diameter. Tack one side on. Fasten them in their proper position. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. tapering from 3/16 in. iron. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. 2) and another 1 in. These are the paddles. 1. hole to form the bearings. hole from the tops to the 1-in. (I. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. from one end by means of a key. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. iron 3 by 4 in. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. When it has cooled. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. 2) form a substantial base. pipe.along the edges under the zinc to form . This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. by 1-1/2 in.

in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. but as it would have cost several times as much. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. and as near to it as possible. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. Drill a hole through the zinc. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. place the outlet over a drain. If sheet-iron is used. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. light and the plate. If the bearings are now oiled. and leave them for an hour or so. but now I put them in the machine. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. ice-cream freezer. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. It is obvious that. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Raise the window shade half way. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. any window will do. shutting out all light from above and the sides. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. sewing machine. remove any white curtains there may be. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Focus the camera carefully. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. . start the motor. drill press. as shown in the sketch at B. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. Do not stop down the lens. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. says the Photographic Times. as this makes long exposure necessary. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. and the subject may move. Darken the rest of the window.a water-tight joint. Correct exposure depends. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. of course. it would be more durable. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. on the lens. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. or what is called a process plate. The best plate to use is a very slow one.

an empty pill bottle may be used. The current required is very small. The glass tube may be a test tube. as a slight current will answer. With a piece of black paper. or wood. The core C. which is made of iron and cork. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. and a base. A. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. hard rubber. a glass tube. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. by twisting. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. the core is drawn down out of sight. until the core slowly rises. 2. On completing . If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. a core. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. without detail in the face. D. and without fog. 2.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. with binding posts as shown. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. as shown in Fig. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. or an empty developer tube. C. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. or can be taken from an old magnet. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. full of water. B. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong.

the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. water and 3 oz. 1 pt. whale oil. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. white lead. and one not easy to explain. 1. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. This is a mysterious looking instrument. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. 1 lb. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. and make a pinhole in the center. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. finest graphite. and are changed by reversing the rotation. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. is Benham's color top. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. The colors appear different to different people. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. according to his control of the current. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt.

with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. A. In making hydrogen. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. thus partly filling bottles A and C. nearly every time. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. Chicago. before cutting. especially if the deck is a new one. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time.L. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. when the action ceases. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. or three spot. C. fan-like. In prize games. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones.. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. B. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. As this device is easily upset. -Contributed by D. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles.B. deuce. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant.

Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. in length and 3 in. Bently. --Contributed by C. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. W. Make a 10-sided stick. 1. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. S. as shown in Fig. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together.. . 9 in. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Dak. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Fig. long. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. that will fit loosely in the tube A. 10 in. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. J. 3). Detail of Phonograph Horn . Jr. 4. S. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. (Fig. 2. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. 12 in. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 2 is also an enlarged sketch.. Form a cone of heavy paper. long and 3 in. Huron. Detroit. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. --Contributed by F. Fig. in diameter.

C. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. Fig. making it three-ply thick. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. A second piece of silk thread. push back the bolt. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. about the size of a leadpencil. long. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. Cut out paper sections (Fig. on one side and the top. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. Remove the form. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. with a pin driven in each end. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. it is equally easy to block that trick. 6. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. and walk in. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. allowing 1 in. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. A piece of tin.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Fortunately. E. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . A. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. bend it at right angles throughout its length. --Contributed by Reader. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. will cause an increased movement of C. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. but bends toward D. Denver.

B. Minn. Paul. 4 ft. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. long. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. and rest on a brick placed under each end. The reverse switch. Two wood-base switches. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. S. By this arrangement one. long. West St. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire.strip. are 7 ft. will last for several years. The upper switch. is connected each point to a battery. A. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. S S. as shown. B. are made 2 by 4 in. W. --Contributed by J. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. put together as shown in the sketch. Jr. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. posts. The feet. S. while the lower switch. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly .. or left to right. Fremont Hilscher. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. R. The 2 by 4-in.. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor.

Fig. and a cylindrical . The steam chest D. Fig. and the bearing B is fastened by staples.every house. The valve motion is shown in Figs. pulley wheel. with two washers. and in Fig. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. and has two wood blocks. and the crank bearing C. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The piston is made of a stove bolt. which will be described later. 1. either an old sewing-machine wheel. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. and valve crank S. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. thick. 2. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. which is made of tin. H and K. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. 3/8 in. or anything available. cut in half. The hose E connects to the boiler. is an old bicycle pump. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. E. the size of the hole in the bearing B. In Fig. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. 2 and 3. FF. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The base is made of wood.

to receive the connecting rod H. Eustice. powder can. of Cuba. can be an old oil can. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. G. Fig. J. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. and the desired result is obtained. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. and saturated with thick oil. is cut out of tin. Fig. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. using the positive wire as a pen. This is wound with soft string. 4. and a very amusing trick. W. San Jose. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. 1. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. Fry. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. as shown in Fig. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. Schuh and A. The valve crank S. 3. First. at that. . the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. --Contributed by Geo. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. C. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. G. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. The boiler. or galvanized iron. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. This engine was built by W. as it is merely a trick of photography. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. Wis. Cal.piece of hard wood.

but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. B. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. Fig. and Fig. Fig. They may be of any size. 1 by covering up Figs. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. C. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. The smaller wheel. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. and place a bell on the four ends. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. and pass ropes around . Cut half circles out of each stave. 1 will be seen to rotate. diameter.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. to cross in the center. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. Fig. as shown at AA. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. as shown. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. When turning. B.

and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. long. --Contributed by H. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. Mo. procure a wooden spool. produces a higher magnifying power). St. as shown in the illustration. but not on all.M. From a piece of thin .G. which accounts for the sound. from the transmitter. This in turn will act on the transmitter. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. such as clothes lines. and enlarge the bore a little at one end.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. W. A (a short spool. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry.. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. Louis. which allows the use of small sized ropes. To make this lensless microscope.

H. the diameter will appear three times as large. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. by means of brads. C. if the distance is reduced to one-half. which are pieces of hard wood. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. D. A. (The area would appear 64 times as large. and at the center. To use this microscope. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. which costs little or nothing to make. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. Viewed through this microscope. is made of iron. the object should be of a transparent nature.. 2. E. can be made of brass and the armature. as in all microscopes of any power. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. if the distance is reduced to one-third. e. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. An innocent-looking drop of water.. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. The lever. the diameter will appear twice as large. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. or 64 times. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. place a small object on the transparent disk.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. otherwise the image will be blurred. The spring. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. darting across the field in every direction. and so on. D. bent as shown. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. cut out a small disk. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. in which hay has been soaking for several days. is fastened at each end by pins. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. 3. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. i. 1. C. B. Fig.) But an object 3/4-in. The pivot. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. held at arm's length. fastened to a wooden base. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. B. . The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. and look through the hole D. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument.

wide. brass. FF. C. and are connected to the contacts. D. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. 16 in. . binding posts: H spring The stop. 1. long and 14-1/2 in. K. E. wide. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. which are made to receive a pivot. The binding posts. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. 26 wire: E. nail soldered on A. wide. KEY-A. Each side. A. or a single piece. B. coils wound with No. D. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. between the armature and the magnet. wide. brass: E. fastened near the end. 2. The base of the key. wide and about 20 in. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. or taken from a small one-point switch. wood. D. The back. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. AA. connection of D to nail. wood: C. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. wide and set in between sides AA. brass: B. Fig. F. should be about 22 in. long by 16 in. similar to the one used in the sounder. The door. brass or iron soldered to nail. Fig.SOUNDER-A. thick. HH. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. C. 16 in. DD. Cut the top. A switch. K. B. is cut from a board about 36 in. wood: F. long. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. soft iron. in length and 16 in. can be made panel as shown.

with 3/4-in. E. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. Ill. 2 and made from 1/4-in. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. In operation. as shown in the sketch. When the electrical waves strike the needle. cut in them. as shown. Make 12 cleats. AA.. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Garfield. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. long. 13-1/2 in.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. material. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. brads. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings.

C. when used with a motor. Pushing the wire. A fairly stiff spring. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. N. in order to increase the surface. E. pulls down the armature. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. N. and. --Contributed by R. filled with water. F. down into the water increases the surface in contact. will give a greater speed. A (see sketch). when the coil is not provided with a regulator. When the pipe is used. the magnet. and thus decreases the resistance. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. J. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Ridgewood. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. Y. A. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. through which a piece of wire is passed. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. B. A. Fairport. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. The cord is also fastened to a lever. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. --Contributed by John Koehler. Brown.

By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. if desired. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. even those who read this description. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. B. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Gachville. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time.for the secret contact. Of course. N. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Borden. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. --Contributed by Perry A. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door.

The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. Dobson. Jr. 1. The three shelves are cut 25-in. wide.whenever the bell rings. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. With about 9 ft. from the bottom. J. A. long and 5 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Compton. 2. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. From a piece of brass a switch. H. wide. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. as shown in Fig. thick and 12-in. E.. wide. Cal. for 6-in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. as shown in Fig. records. C. Two drawers are fitted in this space. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. apart. Nails for stops are placed at DD. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. The top board is made 28-in. D. C. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. for 10in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. --Contributed by H. N. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. East Orange. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. --Contributed by Dr. wide. in a semicircle 2 in. Washington. Mangold. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Connect switch to post B. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. wide. deep and 3/4 in. long and full 12-in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. records and 5-5/8 in. .

the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. Va. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. as shown by the dotted lines. to which is fastened a cord. 1. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. A. B. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. which in operation is bent. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . closed. E. as shown in Fig. When the cord is passed over pulley C.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Roanoke. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened.

excepting the crank and tubing. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. Fig. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. In these grooves place wheels. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. which should be about 1/2 in. In the sides (Fig. long. as shown in the illustration. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. Now put all these parts together. The crankpin should fit tightly. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. deep. they will bind.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. thick. 1 in. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Notice the break (S) in the track. If the wheels fit too tightly. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. 1. wide. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. 3. thick (A. wide. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. in diameter. Figs. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. These wheels should be 3/4 in. they will let the air through. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. E. in diameter. B. but a larger one could be built in proportion. square and 7/8 in. 1 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. holes (HH. against which the rubber tubing. Bore two 1/4 in. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. in diameter. 3). or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. it too loose. one in each end. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. in diameter. Figs. apart. deep and 1/2 in. through one of these holes. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Put the rubber tube. 5) when they are placed. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. CC. Cut two grooves. E. to turn on pins of stout wire. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. is compressed by wheels. 4 shows the wheel-holder. Do not fasten the sides too . Fig. Fig. D.

1. AA. For ease in handling the pump. costing 10 cents. though a small iron wheel is better. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. of material. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. A in Fig. Cut six pieces. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. beyond each of these two. stands 20 in. iron. --Contributed by Dan H. In the two cross bars 1 in. mark for hole and 3 in.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. AA. Fig. Fig. 2.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. and 3-1/2 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. as shown in Fig. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. from each end. from that mark the next hole. If the motion of the wheels is regular. 1. 1. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. The three legs marked BBB. from each end. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. 1. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. Hubbard. as it gives steadiness to the motion. from the bottom and 2 in. Take the center of the bar. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. from each end. Then turn the crank from left to right. Two feet of 1/4-in. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. because he can . from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. The animal does not fear to enter the box. The screen which is shown in Fig. To use the pump. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. mark again. a platform should be added. B. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. 1. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. Fig. tubing. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. 2. Fig. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. 15 in. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. and are 30 in. is all the expense necessary. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. the pump will give a steady stream. long. the other wheel has reached the bottom. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. and mark for a hole. 17-1/2 in. Kan. Idana. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel.

Place the carbon in the jar. and the solution (Fig. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. long having two thumb screws. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. but if one casts his own zinc. until it is within 3 in. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. dropping. add slowly. When the bichromate has all dissolved.see through it: when he enters. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. 4 oz. To cause a flow of electricity. Philadelphia. . rub the zinc well. giving it a bright. however. or. If the solution touches the zinc. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. It is useful for running induction coils. of the top. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. --Contributed by H. 2). it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. silvery appearance. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. or small electric motors. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. The battery is now ready for use. 1) must be prepared. When through using the battery. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. stirring constantly. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. If it is wet. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Meyer. C. potassium bichromate. The mercury will adhere. and touches the bait the lid is released and. there is too much liquid in the jar. acid 1 part). This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. The truncated. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. of water dissolve 4 oz. 14 copper wire. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. If the battery has been used before. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. some of it should be poured out. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. shuts him in. sulphuric acid. The battery is now complete. Then pour the solution into the battery jar.

RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. however. which opens the door. while the coal door is being opened. i. If. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. pressing the pedal closes the door. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. Madison..Fig. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. the battery circuit. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. the jump-spark coil . The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. After putting in the coal. with slight changes. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. The price of the coil depends upon its size. e. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. Wis. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal.

being a 1-in. as shown in Fig. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. while a 12-in. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. apart. 6. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. made of No. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. diameter. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. 7. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus.described elsewhere in this book. Change the coil described. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. Fig. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. coil. W W. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. in a straight line from top to bottom. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. 5. the full length of the coil. This coil. After winding. . For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. This will make an excellent receiver. 7). while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. as shown in Fig. W W. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. 6. in a partial vacuum. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. and closer for longer distances. 7. which is made of light copper wire. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions.7. Now for the receiving apparatus.

Run a wire from the other binding post. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. at any point to any metal which is grounded. B the bed and C the tailstock. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. being at right angles. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. A.The aerial line. . 90°. to the direction of the current. 1 to 4. 1). are analogous to the flow of induction. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. as it matches the color well. above the ground. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. but simply illustrates the above to show that. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. which will be described later. but it could be run by foot power if desired. For an illustration. only. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. The writer does not claim to be the originator. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. after all. A large cone pulley would then be required. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one.6 stranded. I run my lathe by power. Figs. 90°. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. using an electric motor and countershaft. and hence the aerial line. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. These circles. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. in the air. may be easily made at very little expense. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. No. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. being vertical. where A is the headstock.

This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. but not hot enough to burn it. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. too. pitch and 1/8 in. Fig. one of which is shown in Fig. and it is well to have the shaft hot. After pouring. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. deep. Fig. 4. 4. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. tapered wooden pin. Heat the babbitt well. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. Fig. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. on the under side of the bed. thick. steel tubing about 1/8 in. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. 5. The bolts B (Fig. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . To make these bearings. The bearing is then ready to be poured. and Fig. just touching the shaft. If the bearing has been properly made. which are let into holes FIG. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. The headstock. 5. 2 and 3. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. 6. 6 Headstock Details D. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. Fig. and runs in babbitt bearings. which pass through a piece of wood. A. B.

Oak Park. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. A. If not perfectly true. FIG. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. embedded in the wood. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. of the walk . which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. Ill. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. N.other machines. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. If one has a wooden walk. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. Newark. lock nut. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. they may be turned up after assembling. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. Take up about 5 ft. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. This prevents corrosion. and a 1/2-in. the alarm is easy to fix up. The tail stock (Fig. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. B.J. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. so I had to buy one. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in.7 Details of Tailstock pipe.

When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Connect up an electric bell. Do not touch the work with the hands again. 2). To avoid touching it. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. water. Minn. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. leaving a clear solution. hang the articles on the wires. (A.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. so that they will not touch. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. silver or other metal. Minneapolis. add potassium cyanide again. --Contributed by R. to remove all traces of grease. clean the articles thoroughly. of water. before dipping them in the potash solution. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Finally. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. to roughen the surface slightly. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Fig. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Then make the solution . S. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. save when a weight is on the trap. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Jackson. and the alarm is complete.

Having finished washing the precipitate. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. but opens the door. 1). This solution. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. 3. as at F. In rigging it to a sliding door. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. of clothesline rope and some No. Screw the two blocks together. which is held by catch B. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. when the point of the key touches the tin. must be about 1 in. 1 not only unlocks. square. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. shaking. with water. such metals as iron. saw a piece of wood. Fig. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. thick by 3 in. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. from the lower end. a circuit is completed. as shown in Fig. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. silver can be plated direct. I. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. When all this is set up. On brass. Can be made of a 2-in. To provide the keyhole. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. 18 wire. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. German silver. Then. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. A (Fig. 10 in. Before silver plating.5 to 4 volts. 3) strikes the bent wire L. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. long. piece of broomstick. The wooden catch. nickel and such metals. make a key and keyhole. Fig. --Model Engineer. 1 in. light strokes. Repeat six times. 3) directly over the hole. Make a somewhat larger block (E. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. and then treated as copper. a hand scratch brush is good. A 1/4 in. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. Where Bunsen cells are used. lead. With an electric pressure of 3. Take quick. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. if one does not possess a buffing machine. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. with water. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. If accumulators are used. zinc. an old electric bell or buzzer. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. If more solution is required. 1). also. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. which is advised. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. with the pivot 2 in. B should be of the same wood. about 25 ft. use 2 volts for large articles. of water. long. will serve for the key. and the larger part (F. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole.up to 2 qt. The wooden block C. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. hole in its center. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. pewter. Fig. Fig. copper. which . 1. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. and 4 volts for very small ones.

The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. top. --Contributed by E. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. one-third of the length from the remaining end.. to throw the light toward the audience. is the cut through which the rope runs. One end is removed. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. H. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. Fig. the box should be painted black both inside and out. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. he points with one finger to the box. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. One thing changes to another and back again. The box must be altered first. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. 1. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. no painting inside is required. between the parlor and the room back of it. some black paint. Fig. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. sides and end. the illumination in front must be arranged. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. such as forks. Next. East Orange. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. which unlocks the door. Receiving the bowl again. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. floor. He removes the bowl from the black box. shows catch B. 0. Fig. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. or cave. spoons and jackknives. B. H. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. Thus. To prepare such a magic cave. The magician stands in front of this. 2. 116 Prospect St. enlarged. and finally lined inside with black cloth. with a switch as in Fig. and a slit. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. half way from open end to closed end. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. In front of you. surrounding a perfectly black space. although a little more trouble. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. H. New Jersey. 2. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. he tosses it into the cave. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. should be cut a hole. The interior must be a dead black. 1. Objects appear and disappear. some black cloth. heighten the illusion. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. cut in one side. and black art reigns supreme. and plenty of candles. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. the requisites are a large soap box. in his shirt sleeves. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. a few simple tools.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. so much the better. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. with the lights turned low. . and hands its contents round to the audience. 3. Next. Klipstein. On either side of the box. Fig. Heavy metal objects. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well.

But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. into the eyes of him who looks. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. which are let down through the slit in the top. was identical with this. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. The illusion. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. had a big stage. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. a screen must be used.Finally. you must have an assistant. the room where the cave is should be dark. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. The audience room should have only low lights. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. The exhibitor should be . of course. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. which can be made to dance either by strings. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. But illusions suggest themselves. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. Consequently. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. and several black drop curtains. if. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. is on a table) so much the better. only he. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. in which are oranges and apples. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. one on each side of the box. and if portieres are impossible. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. and pours them from the bag into a dish. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. his confederate behind inserts his hand. of course. as presented by Hermann.

On the disk G are two brass strips. as shown in Fig. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. respectively. making contact with them as shown at y. Fig. terminal c3 will show +. b1. f2.a boy who can talk. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. respectively. so arranged that. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). 2. d. b2. e1 and e2. square. c2. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. 2). and c2 to the zinc. A. Finally. with three brass strips. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. and c4 + electricity. or binding posts. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. FIG. their one end just slips under the strips b1. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. at L. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. c1. b3. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. and a common screw. held down on it by two terminals. if you turn handle K to the right. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. and c1 – electricity. 1. 1. held down on disk F by two other terminals. 2. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery.. or b2. About the center piece H moves a disk. when handle K is turned to one side. held down by another disk F (Fig. Then. respectively. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. c3. c4. A represents a pine board 4 in. is shown in the diagram. terminal c3 will show . b3. by 4 in. making contact with them. vice versa. b2. by means of two wood screws.

--Contributed by Eugene F. when on No. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . thus making the message audible in the receiver. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. when A is on No. when on No. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. B is a onepoint switch.. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. you have the current of one battery. from five batteries. When switch B is closed and A is on No. .in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. Joerin. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. 3. Jr. E. -Contributed by A. Newark. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. and C and C1 are binding posts. Ohio. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). from four batteries. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. 5. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. from three batteries. 4. jump spark coil. and when on No. 1. and then hold the receiver to your ear. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Tuttle.

. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. Handy Electric Alarm . If the thread is tied at the 17-in. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. rule. which may be a button or other small object. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. Thus. A. New Orleans. Redmond. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. and supporting the small weight. A. Wis. as shown in the sketch. so one can see the time. of Burlington. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. When you do not have a graduate at hand. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. mark. La. traveled by the thread. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. A. per second. per second for each second. mark. and placed on the windowsill of the car. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. P. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. B. is the device of H. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. The device thus arranged. over the bent portion of the rule. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. E.

I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. --C. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. B. Instead. Then if a mishap comes. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. . do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. --Contributed by Gordon T. Lane. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. and with the same result. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. for a wetting is the inevitable result. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. C. Crafton. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. When the alarm goes off. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. wrapping the wire around the can several times. but may be closed at F any time desired. soldered to the alarm winder. Pa.which has a piece of metal. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. S. which illuminates the face of the clock.

The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. --Contributed by A. and duplicates of all these. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. battery zincs. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. New York City. 1 . to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. and many other interesting and useful articles. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. as shown in Fig. whence it is soon tracked into the house. binding posts. The first thing to make is a molding bench. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. BE. when it is being prepared. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. If there is no foundry Fig. engines. AA. ornaments of various kinds. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. as shown. Macey. but it is a mistake to try to do this. cannons. which may. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. It is possible to make molds without a bench. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. C.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . With the easily made devices about to be described. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. A. 1. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. L. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. models and miniature objects. bearings. small machinery parts. Two cleats.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required.

will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. and saw it in half longitudinally. 2. and this. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. D. A slight shake of the bag Fig. previous to sawing. Fig. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. An old teaspoon. makes a very good sieve. white metal. is filled with coal dust. and a sieve.near at hand. J. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. II . G. as shown. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. by 6 in. If desired the sieve may be homemade. F. E. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. say 12 in. If the box is not very strong. as shown. A wedge-shaped piece. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. It is made of wood and is in two halves. The rammer. DD. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. which should be nailed in. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. The cloth bag.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. will be required. is shown more clearly in Fig.How to Make a Mold [96] . 1. A A. is about the right mesh. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. CC. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. and the lower pieces. CC. the "cope. a little larger than the outside of the flask. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. which can be either aluminum. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. and the "drag. high. H. by 8 in. is nailed to each end of the cope. The dowels. 1. but this operation will be described more fully later on. which can be made of a knitted stocking." or lower part. is made of wood. 2 . thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. Fig. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. try using sand from other sources." or upper half. The flask. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated.

it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. as described. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft.Having finished making the flask and other equipment." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. as shown at D. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. as shown at C. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. In finishing the ramming. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. or "drag. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. turn the drag other side up. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. and scatter about 1/16 in. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. It is then rammed again as before. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. the surface of the sand at . either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. and if water is added. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. as shown. and thus judge for himself. and by grasping with both hands. or "cope. as shown at E. After ramming. The sand is then ready for molding. in order to remove the lumps." in position. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. Place another cover board on top. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. and then more sand is added until Fig. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. where they can watch the molders at work. as it is much easier to learn by observation.

as shown at G. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. and then pour.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. to give the air a chance to escape. thus making a dirty casting. After drawing the pattern. deep. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. Fig. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. as shown at F. as shown at H.E should be covered with coal-dust. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. as shown in the sketch. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. in order to prevent overheating. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. as shown at J. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. in diameter. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. after being poured. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. as shown at H. place the cope back on the drag. thus holding the crucible securely. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. is next cut. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. . heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. This is done with a spoon. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. III. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. Place a brick or other flat." or pouring-hole. made out of steel rod. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. The "sprue. wide and about 1/4 in. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. it shows that the sand is too wet.

babbitt. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. white metal and other scrap available. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. --Contributed by Harold S. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. or from any adjacent pair of cells. may be used in either direction. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. although somewhat expensive. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. battery zincs. is very desirable. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. 15% lead. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. and. In my own case I used four batteries. but any reasonable number may be used. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. Referring to the figure. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. and the casting is then ready for finishing. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. Although the effect in the illustration . the following device will be found most convenient. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. Minneapolis. used only for zinc. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. If a good furnace is available. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. Morton. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength.

but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. Make one of these pieces for each arm. Put a sharp needle point. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. 2. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . as shown in the illustration. By replacing the oars with paddles. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. which will be sufficient to hold it. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. connected by cords to the rudder. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. Fig.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. Then walk down among the audience. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. A. B. shaft made. To make it take a sheet-iron band. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. --Contributed by Draughtsman. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. may be made of hardwood. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. The bearings. Then replace the table. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. 3/4 in. backward. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. as shown at A. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. Chicago. outward. B. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. If desired. The brass rings also appear distorted.

D. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. The covers. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. Fig. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. A. E. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. as shown in Fig. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. or the paint will come off. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. being simply finely divided ice. when it will again return to its original state. but when in motion. Snow. 1. as shown in Fig. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. 2. and a weight. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. It may seem strange that ice . either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. In the same way. If babbitt is used. or under pressure. If galvanized iron is used. spoiling its appearance. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps.melted babbitt. 3. 2 and 3. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. 1. should be made of wood. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. W. A block of ice. 1. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. C. The hubs. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs.

in. by 1/4. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. by 1/2 in. --Contributed by Gordon T. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. square. and assume the shape shown at B.. but by placing it between books. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. Pressing either push button. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. brass. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in.should flow like water. Pa. thus giving a high resistance contact. whenever there is any connection made at all. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. by 5 in. no matter how slow the motion may be. as per sketch. The rate of flow is often very slow. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. it will gradually change from the original shape A. but. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. by 2 in. Crafton. P. or supporting it in some similar way. sometimes only one or two feet a day. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. as shown on page 65. B. Lane. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. which resembles ice in this respect. using a closed circuit or gravity battery.

The parts are: A. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. as shown. furnace. A is the circuit breaker. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. E. H. draft chain. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. horizontal lever. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. and five dry batteries. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. D. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. --Contributed by A. the induction coil. Wilkinsburg. draft. Indianapolis. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. and C. alarm clock. J. In the wiring diagram. B. B. pulleys. F. cord. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. weight.thumb screws. vertical lever. G. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. I. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. about the size used for automobiles. C. Pa. Ward. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. wooden supports.000 ft. as shown. the battery. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. G. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. K . The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. The success depends upon a slow current. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two.

as well as the bottom. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. Mich. where house plants are kept in the home. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. The frame (Fig. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . Artistic Window Boxes The top. which will provide a fine place for the plants. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. will fit nicely in them. material framed together as shown in Fig. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. 2 are dressed to the right angle. Kalamazoo. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. 3. such as used for a storm window.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open.

1.. i. Canada. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. S. The 1/2-cp. Thus. 1 each complete with base. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. by connecting them in series. It must be remembered. W. a cork and a needle. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. N. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. This is more economical than dry cells. and a suitable source of power. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. in diameter. for some time very satisfactorily. e. as if drawn upon for its total output. and the instrument will then be complete. Push the needle into the cork. and cost 27 cents FIG. where they are glad to have them taken away. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. Grant. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. this must be done with very great caution. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. and will give the . By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. However. one can regulate the batteries as required. as indicated by Fig. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in.. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. which sells for 25 cents. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. so as to increase the current. A certain number of these. but maintain the voltage constant. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. can be connected up in series. after a rest. --Contributed by Wm. in this connection. However. 1 cp. multiples of series of three. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel.. since a battery is the most popular source of power. is something that will interest the average American boy. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. Halifax. in any system of lamps. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series.

especially those of low internal resistance. making. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. or 22 lights. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. if wound for 6 volts. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. 11 series. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. lamps. and running the series in parallel. which is the same as that of one battery. where the water pressure is the greatest. double insulated wire wherever needed. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. and then lead No. and for Christmas trees. 3. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. .. Fig. If wound for 10 volts. 1-cp. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. generates the power for the lights. Chicago. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. Thus. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. In conclusion. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. So. each. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and diffused light in a room. to secure light by this method. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. although the first cost is greater. for display of show cases. These will give 3 cp. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. FIG. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. lamps. we simply turn on the water. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. 18 B & S. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. 2 shows the scheme. by the proper combination of these. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. as in Fig.proper voltage. Thus. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. according to the water pressure obtainable. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. However. lamp.

Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. thus reversing the machine. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. B. outside points of switch. BB. or from one pattern. DD. --Contributed by Leonard E. a bait of meat. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. After I connected up my induction coil. . This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by F. Emig. Cal. Plymouth. simply change the switch. switch. bars of pole-changing switch. AA. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. are cut just alike. A. Parker. A indicates the ground. field of motor. To reverse the motor. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. and the sides. B. brushes of motor. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. and C. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. Ind. CC. Santa Clara. center points of switch. we were not bothered with them. or a tempting bone.

Minn. a piece of string. one cell being sufficient. a hammer. The button can be hidden. If it is not. 903 Vine St. merely push the button E. W.. San Jose. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. The experiment works best . and a table or bench. To unlock the door. Melchior. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. Fry. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. which is in the door. as it is the key to the lock. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. Cal. Hutchinson. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. -Contributed by Claude B. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. A. When the circuit is broken a weight.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. attached to the end of the armature B. thus locking the door. or would remain locked.

run through a pulley.Contributed by F. the key turns. releasing the weight. Madison. where it will remain suspended as shown. P. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Brockville. 3. Porto Rico. W. Culebra. C. -. I. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. as shown in Fig. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. --Contributed by Geo. 1). the current flows with the small arrows. Ontario. forming a loop. 18 Gorham St. D. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Wis. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. which pulls the draft open. Canada. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. 4). Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. A. 3. . --Contributed by Edward Whitney. attached at the other end. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. the stick falls away.. 2. Crawford Curry. in the ceiling and has a window weight. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. When the alarm rings in the early morning. Tie the ends of the string together. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Schmidt.

grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Camden. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. and then to the receiver. First. 6 in. Use a barrel to work on. The cut shows the arrangement. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. or from a bed of flowers. --Contributed by Wm. N. R. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. Jr. and the other to the battery. The apparatus is not difficult to construct.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. made with his own hands. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and . and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. which fasten to the horn. including the mouthpiece. running one direct to the receiver. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. get two pieces of plate glass. Farley. J. thence to a switch. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. D. thick. Connect two wires to the transmitter. S. and break the corners off to make them round.. square and 1 in. J. or tree. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver.

and the under glass or tool convex. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. Use a binger to spread it on with. with 1/4-in. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. A.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. while walking around the barrel. or it will not polish evenly. and is ready for polishing. and spread on the glass. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. wide around the convex glass or tool. 2. and label. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. When done the glass should be semitransparent. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out.. set the speculum against the wall. melt 1 lb. by the side of the lamp. wet till soft like paint. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Fig.. the coarse grinding must be continued. a round 4-in. and a large lamp. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. then 8 minutes. When dry. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. Have ready six large dishes. unless a longer focal length is wanted. in length. as in Fig. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. also rotate the glass. of water. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. twice the focal length away. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. or less. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. 2. Then warm and press again with the speculum. with pitch. In a dark room. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. so the light . which is necessary to make it grind evenly. When polishing the speculum. Fasten. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. then take 2 lb. Fig. 1. L. wetting it to the consistency of cream. spaces. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. using straight strokes 2 in.

fill the dish with distilled water. When the focus is found. long to the back of the speculum. with distilled water. touched with rouge. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. also how the rays R from a star . cement a strip of board 8 in. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. Then add 1 oz. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center.. face down.. and pour the rest into the empty dish. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) ….100 gr. 4 oz. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes.. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). 2. The knife should not be more than 6 in. the speculum is ready to be silvered. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade.. Then add solution B. 25 gr. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. the speculum will show some dark rings. Two glass or earthenware dishes. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube.……………. With pitch. then ammonia until bath is clear. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. The polishing and testing done. longer strokes. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. Fig. that was set aside. if a hill in the center.. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. Place the speculum S. as in K. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. 2. 840 gr. 4 oz.. 100 gr. Silver nitrate ……………………………. If not.……………………………….Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Solution D: Sugar loaf . When dry.. Nitric acid .. Place the speculum. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. Fig. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. Now add enough of the solution A. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.…………………………….. must be procured.. Fig. from the lamp. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. deep. or hills. 39 gr.

. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. with an outlay of only a few dollars. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Place over lens. About 20. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. slightly wider than the lens mount. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it.John E. Mellish. The flatter they are the less they will distort. two glass prisms. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Then I made the one described. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. . Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. Make the tube I of sheet iron. My telescope is 64 in. using strawboard and black paper. long and cost me just $15. deg. Thus an excellent 6-in. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. cover with paper and cloth. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. and proceed as for any picture. which proves to be easy of execution. stop down well after focusing. is a satisfactory angle. telescope can be made at home. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford.

and reflect through the negative. Boody. complete the arrangement. The paper is exposed. The rays of the clear. Fig. To unlock. add the plaster gradually to the water. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Ill. Zimmerman. B. instead of the contrary. 1. then add a little sulphate of potash. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. as shown in Fig. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. through the lens of the camera and on the board. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. or powdered alum. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. push the button D. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. Do not stir it. A. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. unobstructed light strike the mirror. D. 2. . -Contributed by A. but will not preserve its hardening. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. says the Master Painter. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A.

Fasten on the switch lever. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. 2.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. but will remain suspended without any visible support. use a string. 2. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. To reverse. so that it can rotate about these points. 3. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. as shown in the sketch. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Fig. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 1). This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. as at A and B. as in Fig. Then blow through the spool. throw . also provide them with a handle.

Push one end of the tire into the hole. carbons. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. C C. -Contributed by Morris L. Go McVicker. the armature. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. A is the electricbell magnet. and rub dry with linen cloth. B. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Geo. Tex. --Contributed by R. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. In the sketch. D. North Bend. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. San Marcos. binding posts. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. wash in running water. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. rinse in alcohol. Take out. Thomas. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Tex. although this is not necessary. Levy. carbon sockets. L. and E E. Neb. . San Antonio.

By means of two or more layers of No. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. Bell. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Brooklyn. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. wound evenly about this core. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. 14 or No. --Contributed by Joseph B. 16 magnet wire.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. 36 magnet wire. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. long or more.

This makes a condenser which may be folded. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. The primary is made of fine annealed No. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. In shaping the condenser. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. 2 yd. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. diameter. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. long and 5 in. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. The condenser is next wrapped . a box like that shown in Fig. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. and finally the fourth strip of paper. and the results are often unsatisfactory. wide. in diameter. 4. the entire core may be purchased readymade. with room also for a small condenser. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. When cut and laid in one continuous length. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. about 6 in. in length. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. No. which is an important factor of the coil. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. 1. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. one piece of the paper is laid down. A 7/8-in. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. then the strip of tin-foil. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. but if it is not convenient to do this work. as the maker prefers. Beginning half an inch from one end. long and 2-5/8 in. at a time.which would be better to buy ready-made. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. The following method of completing a 1-in. or 8 in. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. coil illustrates the general details of the work. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. making two layers. which is desirable. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. as shown in Fig. hole is bored in the center of one end. After the core wires are bundled.

ready for assembling. C. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. G. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. 3. Fig. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips.) The wiring diagram. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. the letters indicate as follows: A. wide. by 12 in. and the other sheet. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types.. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. F. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. I. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. D. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. and one from battery. open switch C. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. B. forms the other pole or terminal. which allows wiring at the back. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. E. go. A. round so that the inside . long to key. V-shaped copper strip. The alarm key will turn and drop down. one from bell. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. lines H. 4 in. spark. B. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. whole length. long and 12 in. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. bell. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. shelf for clock. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. flange turned on one side. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. which is insulated from the first.securely with bands of paper or tape. to the door. switch. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. copper lever with 1-in. battery . shows how the connections are made.

Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. says the Model Engineer. If desired for use immediately. This is for blowing. Line the furnace. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. of blue stone. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. The circuit should also have a high resistance. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. and the battery is ready for use. but add 5 or 6 oz. That is what they are for. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. but with the circuit. London.. do not shortcircuit. and then rivet the seam. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. from the bottom. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. of zinc sulphate. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. instead of close to it.diameter is 7 in. . Use a glass or metal shade. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. 2 in. Short-circuit for three hours.

To operate the trick. If too low. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Ohio. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. below the bottom of the zinc. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. for some it will turn one way. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. grip the stick firmly in one hand. changes white phosphorus to yellow. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction.. This type of battery will give about 0. the second finger along the side. porcelain and paper. and then. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions." which created much merriment. as in the other movement. herein I describe a much better trick. square and about 9 in. long. Outside of the scientific side involved. If any or your audience presume to dispute. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. g. or think they can do the same let them try it. for others the opposite way. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. 2. affects . imparting to them a violet tinge. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. At least it is amusing. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. oxygen to ozone. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. and therein is the trick. while for others it will not revolve at all. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Enlarge the hole slightly. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. 1. but the thing would not move at all. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood.9 of a volt. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. thus producing two different vibrations. Try it and see. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated.

if possible. a short-focus lens. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. an old tripod screw. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. a means for holding it vertical. but this is less satisfactory. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. says the Photographic Times. chemicals. but not essential. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. insects. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. and one of them is photomicrography. To the front board is attached a box. earth. however. but small flowers. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. and. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters.

and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. CD.--Contributed by George C. in Cu. which is 15 ft. 268 17 lb. 179 11 lb. Fig. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 697 44 lb. 1. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. A line. in diameter. 65 4 lb. 7-1/2 in. and a line. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 5 in. Mass. 10 ft 523 33 lb. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 7-1/2 in. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Cap. long and 3 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. Madison. balloon. or 3 ft. 8 ft. 11 ft. If the balloon is 10 ft. 5 ft. The following table will give the size. 9 ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 12 ft. 6 ft. 381 24 lb. Boston. AB. Divide one-quarter of the circle . or 31 ft.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 113 7 lb. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 7 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. wide from which to cut a pattern. 905 57 lb. while it is not so with the quill. Ft Lifting Power.

and after marked is cut the same shape and size. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. 70 thread. keeping the marked part on the outside. using a fine needle and No.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. The pattern is now cut. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. Procure 1 gal. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The amounts necessary for a 10- . The cloth segments are sewed together. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. of the very best heavy body. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. 3. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. cutting all four quarters at the same time. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. of beeswax and boil well together. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. Repeat this operation four times. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. and so on. 4. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. on the curved line from B to C. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. making a double seam as shown in Fig. 2.

a clean white rag. of iron borings and 125 lb. Fill the other barrel. . which may sound rather absurd. B. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. with 3/4in. 5. . When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. leaving the hand quite clean. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. The outlet. should not enter into the water over 8 in. pipe. this should be repeated frequently. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. After washing a part.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. 150 gr. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. ft. until no more dirt is seen. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. of gas in one hour. A. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. Water 1 oz. 5 . Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. A. About 15 lb. balloon are 125 lb. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. B. it is not fit to use. above the level of the water in barrel A. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. with the iron borings. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. ]. With a little care and patience and using some benzine.. to the bag. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. using a fine brush. if it is good it will dry off. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces.ft. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. as shown in Fig. In the barrel. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. A. All FIG. but if any grease remains on the hand. C. of iron. with water 2 in. by fixing. of water will make 4 cu. B. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. 1 lb. When the clock has dried.Green Iron ammonium citrate . When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. or a fan. of sulphuric acid. The 3/4-in. oil the spindle holes carefully. C. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. Vegetable oils should never be used. or dusting with a dry brush. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. 1 lb. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. capacity and connect them.

but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. and a vigorous negative must be used. . When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. dry atmosphere will give best results. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. and keep in the dark until used. . Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. at the time of employment. A longer exposure will be necessary. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. The miniature 16 cp. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. A cold. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. of the cell is connected to a ground wire.Water 1 oz. The negative pole. says the Moving Picture World. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Dry in the dark. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. fix in hypo. Exposure. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. of any make. This aerial collector can be made in . Dry the plates in the dark. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. to avoid blackened skin. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. toning first if desired. or zinc. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. 20 to 30 minutes. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. or carbon. The positive pole.000 ft. Port Melbourne. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Printing is done in the sun.. or battery.

This will complete the receiving station. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. will soon become dry and useless. forming a cup of the pipe. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. 5 in. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. making a ground with one wire. in diameter. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. when left exposed to the air. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. The storage cell. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. lead pipe. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. as described below. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. long. lay a needle. both positive and negative. If the waves strike across the needle. As the telephone offers a high resistance. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight.various ways. the resistance is less. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. and as less current will flow the short way. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. If the wave ceases. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. holes . a positive and a negative. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. and have the other connected with another aerial line. which will cause the clickings that can be heard.

says the Pathfinder. does not need to be watertight. This box can be square. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. except for about 1 in. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. namely: a square hole. of course. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. one to the positive. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. When mixing the acid and water. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. or tube C. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency.as possible. or tube B. and the other to the negative. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. on each end. a round one. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. This. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. B. This support or block. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. Two binding-posts should be attached. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. The other plate is connected to the zinc. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. by soldering the joint. an oblong one and a triangular one. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. D.

C. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. 2.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. Ill. as it is not readily overturned. C. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. and match them together. all around the edge. 2. leaving about 1/16 in. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. deep and 4 ft. as shown in Fig. The third piece of brass. 1. were fitted by this one plug. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. wide. This punt. as shown in Fig. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. 3. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. about 20 in. in place on the wood. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. wide. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. is built 15 ft. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. A and B. Chicago. long. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. Only galvanized nails should be used. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. . A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. 1. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. thick cut two pieces alike. and has plenty of good seating capacity. back and under. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in.

thick and 3-1/2 in. A. is cut 1 in. Tacoma.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. B. Wash.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. square (Fig 2). As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. In Fig. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. gas pipe. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. A piece of 1/4-in.

The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . H. which can be developed in the usual manner. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. Wagner.--Contributed by Charles H. which the writer has made. In designing. and to consume. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. says the Model Engineer." has no connection with the outside circuit. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. no more current than a 16-cp. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. with the exception of insulated wire. lamp. The winding of the armature. or "rotor. without auxiliary phase. may be of interest to some of our readers. no special materials could be obtained.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. if possible. it had to be borne in mind that.

3. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. C. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. After assembling a second time. were then drilled and 1/4-in. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. 2. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. in diameter were drilled in the corners. or "stator. as shown in Fig. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. 5. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. while the beginnings . it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. no steel being obtainable. The stator is wound full with No. Unfortunately. and filled with rivets. holes. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. and all sparking is avoided. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. A. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. being used. They are not particularly accurate as it is. 1. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. 4." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. about 2-1/2 lb. wrought iron. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. with the dotted line. thick. Holes 5-32 in. this little machine is not self-starting. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. also varnished before they were put in. B. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. to be filed out after they are placed together.the field-magnet. bolts put in and tightened up. as shown in Fig. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch.

it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. This type of motor has drawbacks. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. If too late for alcohol to be of use. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. Jr. and the other by reduction in the camera. N. it would be very simple to build. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. 2. In making slides by contact. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. Newark. as a means of illustrating songs. and all wound in the same direction. The lantern slide is a glass plate. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. and would not easily get out of order. film to film. as shown in Fig.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. No starting resistance is needed. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. and as the motor runs at constant speed. as before stated. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. if applied immediately. The image should . Fold the paper on the long dotted line. McKinney. and especially of colored ones. One is by contact. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. and as each layer of wire was wound. a regulating resistance is not needed. J. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. E. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. 1. The rotor is wound with No. having no commutator or brushes. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. which will make it appear as shown in Fig.. 3-Contributed by C. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover.

In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. If the exposure has been correct. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. Select a room with one window. a little extra work will be necessary. Being unbreakable. as shown in Fig. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. These can be purchased from any photo material store. except that the binding is different.appear in. if possible. they are much used by travelers. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. B. about a minute. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. 4. to use a plain fixing bath. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Draw lines with a pencil. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. also. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. 5. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. 1. over the mat. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. 3. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. 2. and development should be over in three or four minutes. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. and then a plain glass. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . Fig. A. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. the formulas being found in each package of plates. C. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. as shown in Fig. It is best. D.

The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. 16 in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. A piece of canvas. as shown in Fig. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. from the center of this dot draw a star. Hastings. as shown at B. 1. 1. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. from the ends. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. known as rods and cones. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. holes bored in the end pieces. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . while the dot will be in front of the other. as shown at A. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. 2. These longer pieces can be made square. long. in diameter and 20 in. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. long. If the star is in front of the left eye. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. Fig. is to be used for the seat. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. Vt. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. long. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Corinth. in diameter and 40 in. or other stout cloth. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. Fig. from the end piece of the chair. wide and 50 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together.

as shown in Fig. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. J. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye.-Contributed by P. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. 1. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. made from an ordinary sash cord. as well as to operate other household machines. . per square inch. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. Auburn. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. as shown in Fig. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. in thickness and 10 in. O'Gara. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A disk 1 in. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. A belt. Cal.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. 2. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose.

to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. Put the bolt in the hole. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. long. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. direction. fairly accurate.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. A simple. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. says the Scientific American. The part of a rotation of the bolt. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. to the top of the bench. square for a support. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. and the construction is complete. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. wide. 3/4 in. . then removing the object. with as fine a thread as possible. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. or inconvenient to measure. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Bore a 1/4-in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. will be the thickness of the object. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. Cut out a piece from the block combination. thick and 2-1/2 in. it serves a very useful purpose. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. leaving it shaped like a bench. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. screwing it through the nut. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads.

Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. globe that has been thrown away as useless. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. bolt in each hole. long. Bore a 3/4-in. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. piece of wood 12 ft. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Place a 3/4-in. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. beyond the end of the wood. The wheel should be open . A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. which show up fine at night. long is used for the center pole. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Oal. Santa Maria. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. material 12 ft. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground.

made of the same material. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. thick. Tex. L. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. in diameter. The coil. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. H and J. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. from the ends. wide and 1/8 in. O. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. Fort Worth. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. to be operated by the magnet coil. A piece of brass 2 in. at the top and 4 in. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. A cross bar. long. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. C. long. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. A. at the bottom. P. C. The boards may be nailed or bolted. Graham. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in.Side and Top View or have spokes. B.-Contributed by A. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. and the lower part 61/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. 1/2 in. thick is used for the armature. is soldered. which should be 1/4 in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. from the top end. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. of the ends with boards. square and 3 or 4 in. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. long. and on its lower end a socket. pieces used for the spokes. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. The spool . long. thick. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in.

long. This is a very neat trick if performed right. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. Randolph. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. A. or a water rheostat heretofore described. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. When you slide the pencil along the casing. 2. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. making a hole just a little larger than the rod.J. B.000 for irrigation work. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. 1. Mass. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. C. This tie can be used on grain sacks. The armature. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. . and in numerous other like instances.000. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil.E. --Contributed by Arthur D. Bradlev.is about 2-1/2 in. is drilled. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. 2 the hat hanging on it. S. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. At the bottom end of the frame. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. S. and directly centering the holes H and J. do it without any apparent effort. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. that holds the lower carbon. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. for insulating the brass ferrule. R.--A. A soft piece of iron. F. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. and place it against a door or window casing. one without either rubber or metal end. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. by soldering. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. D and E. which may be had by using German silver wire. then with a firm.

After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The vibrator B. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. in diameter. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. mixed with water to form a paste. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. for the primary. about 1/8 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. about 1 in. for the secondary. is connected to a flash lamp battery. C. about 3/16 in. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. in diameter and 1/16 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. from the core and directly opposite. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. F.500 turns of No. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. Fig. 2. long and 1 in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. About 70 turns of No. The core of the coil. 1. Experiment with Heat [134] . cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. A. long. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. B. leaving the projections as shown. The vibrator. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. hole in the center. The coil ends are made from cardboard. Fig. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. S. wide. with a 3/16-in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. in diameter and 2 in. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. thick. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. for adjustment. is constructed in the usual manner. D. The switch. and then 1. S. 1. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. in diameter. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections.

the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. board. The tin is 4 in. was to be secured by only three brass screws. 1. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. lighted. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. 16 in. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. in an ordinary water glass. and the same distance inside of the new board. 2 to fit the two holes. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. and then well clinched.Place a small piece of paper. long and when placed over the board. 1. which is only 3/8-in. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. wide. with which to operate the dial. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. The hasp. as shown in the sketch. The knob on the dial extends out too far. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. which seemed to be insufficient. Fig. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. it laps down about 8 in. . as shown. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. thick on the inside. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. between the boards. The three screws were then put in the hasp. which is cut with two holes. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. The lock. brass plate.

and the back left dark. If the box is made large enough. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. black color. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. square and 10-1/2 in. the glass. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. or in the larger size mentioned. one in each division. When making of wood. which completely divides the box into two parts. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. clear glass as shown. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. square and 8-1/2 in. any article placed therein will be reflected in. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. but when the front part is illuminated. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. not shiny. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. When the rear part is illuminated. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. high for use in window displays.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp.

or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. . Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. When there is no electric current available. as shown at A in the sketch. into the other. alternately. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. long and 1 ft. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. as it appears.. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. above the top of the tank. a tank 2 ft. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. as shown in the sketch. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. wide will be about the right size. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. When using as a window display. and with the proper illumination one is changed.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

each. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. however. This precipitate is then washed. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. high. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. A small platform. and 6 ft. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. O. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. and a solution of iron sulphate added. and a door in front. This hole must be continued . hole bored the full length through the center. The pieces can then be taken out. long. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. wide. wide. Iron sulphate. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. 5 ft. gauge for depth. The 13-in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. and boring two holes with a 1-in. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. one for each side. radius. or ferrous sulphate. is the green vitriol. then use a red-hot iron to finish. Columbus. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. from the ground. hole. Shape the under sides first. 6 in. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. is built on the front. using a 3/4-in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. 2 ft. bore from each end. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. under sides together. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. with a length of 13 in. 1 in. long. bit. lines gauged on each side of each. square and 40 in. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. If a planing mill is near. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. two pieces 1-1/8 in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. Three windows are provided. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. square. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. but with a length of 12 in. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. as shown. thick and 3 in.

at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. The sketch shows one method of attaching.through the pieces forming the base. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. if shade is purchased. For art-glass the metal panels are . apply two coats of wax. hole in each block. Saw the two blocks apart. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. A better way." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Electric globes--two. thick and 3 in. three or four may be attached as shown. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. If the parts are to be riveted. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. When the filler has hardened. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. When this is dry. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. square and drawing a diagonal on each.

METAL SHADE . such as copper.Construction of Shade .The Completed Lamp cut out. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. as brass. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.

This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. Figure 1 shows the side. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. as shown in the sketch. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. as in ordinary devices. The arms holding the glass.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. the other. and Fig. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. one way and 1/2 in. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. the object and the background. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . 2 the front view of this stand. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch.

as shown in the sketch. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. and swinging freely. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. thus forming a 1/4-in. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . uncork and recork again. outside diameter. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. An ordinary pocket compass.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Before mounting the ring on the base. in diameter. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. If the light becomes dim. long. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. wide and 11 in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. as shown in the cut. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. pointing north and south. Cut another circular piece 11 in. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. about 1-1/4 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. in diameter for a base. Put the ring in place on the base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. wide and 6-5/16 in. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. and an inside diameter of 9 in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. thick 5/8-in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. as it is very poisonous. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard.

3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.600 .cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils.182 .289 . B. 1 oz. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.088 . and north of the Ohio river. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . to which a wire has been soldered for connections.865 1.500 . An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. in diameter and 8 in.715 . black oxide of copper. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. and mirrors. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. of the top. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. Corresponding mirrors. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. Place on top the so- . The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. AA. The results given should be multiplied by 1. EE. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. are mounted on a base. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. above the half can. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. from the second to the third. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. into these cylinders. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.420 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. CC.

if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. little crystals forming in the liquid. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. says Metal Worker. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. then they will not rust fast. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. which otherwise remains clear. In Fig. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. 62 gr. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. slender bottle. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Colo. 31 gr. Put the solution in a long. always remove the oil with a siphon. When renewing.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. alcohol. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. University Park. of pulverized campor. the threads should be painted with pure white lead.

The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. Solder in the side of the box . A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. --Contributed by C. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. will allow the magnet to point north and south. Attach to the wires. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. If zinc and carbon are used. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If zinc and copper are used. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. Lloyd Enos. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. floating on a solution. A paper-fastener box. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. in diameter will serve very well for the box A.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. If two of them are floating on the same solution. This is used in place of the spoon. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. about 1-1/4 in. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. on the under side of the cork. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box.

long. is made from a piece of No. Wind evenly about 2 oz. away. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. B. To this standard solder the supporting wire. If the hose is not a tight fit. and on the other around the glass tube. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. The bottom of the box. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. piece of 1/4-in. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. brass tubing. of No.in. stained and varnished. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. and then solder on the cover. one on each side of the board. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. Rhamstine. G--No. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. A circular piece of cardboard. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. C. can be made of oak. E. . bind with a short piece of fine copper wire.Contributed by J.in. D. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. or made with a little black paint. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. C. 14 wire will do. to it.not shorter than 18 in. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. hole. Use a board 1/2. 1-1/4 in. A. long that has about 1/4-in. F. as shown in Fig. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. H.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. C. thick. The standard. 1/2. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. 10 wire about 10 in. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. The spring should be about 1 in. Thos. D. of wire on each end extending from the coil. Take a small piece of soft iron. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. D. 3 in. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. glass tubing . B. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. wide and 6 in. The base. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Put ends. Bore holes for binding-posts. A. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way.1-in. long. 1. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. E. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft.

3-in. 3. two pieces 2 ft. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. Wis. making a support as shown in Fig. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. Cuba. long are used for the legs. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. The iron plunger. . 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges.of the coil. Milwaukee. about 1 in. 3 in. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. four hinges. Teasdale. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. Y. J. in diameter. Smith. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. of 8-oz. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. long. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. D. long. long. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. 5. When the glass becomes soft. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work.--Contributed by R. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. of mercury will be sufficient.--Contributed by Edward M. 2. E.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. long. N. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. canvas. as shown in Fig. of No. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. is drawn nearer to the coil. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. 1. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. About 1-1/2 lb. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. from the right hand. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. long.

holding in the left hand. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Break off the piece of glass. 2. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. Take 1/2 in. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle.. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. 5. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. 4. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. leaving 8 in. long. expelling all the air.. Can. The tube now must be filled completely. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. thus leaving a. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. small aperture in the long tube. 3. --Contributed by David A. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. of vacuum at the top. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. Keys. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. Fig. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. 6. Measure 8 in. This tube as described will be 8 in. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. Toronto.

3 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. thick. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. and 1/4 in. 4. thick. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. thick. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. and the single projection 3/4 in. material 2 in. wide and 5 ft. 3. FIG. 7. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. Four blocks 1/4 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. from the end of same. thick. Fig. 2. wide and 3 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. long. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. 3 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. joint be accurately put together. The large pulley is about 14 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 1 in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. but yellow pine is the best. long. wide and 5 ft. 9 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. as shown in Fig. wide and 12 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. 4 in. thick. long. cut in the shape shown in Fig. says a correspondent of Camera Craft.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. 5. 1 in. 6. This forms a slot. wide and 5 ft. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. These are bent and nailed. in diameter. 1. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. wood screws. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. as in Fig. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the .6 -. as shown in Fig. with each projection 3-in. long.

Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. first removing the crank. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Water 1 oz. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Welsh. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. . by 1-in. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. says Photography. --Contributed by C. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. R. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Kan.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Manhattan. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. above the runner level. attach runners and use it on the ice.

When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. and very much cheaper. The print is washed. Leominster. from an ordinary clamp skate. Mass. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. . 3. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. of water. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. Treasdale. also. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. This is done with a camel's hair brush. 2. --Contributed by Wallace C. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. Newton. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Printing is carried rather far. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. --Contributed by Edward M. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. as shown in Fig. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. as shown in Fig. 1. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. 1 oz.

as shown in the sketch. Fig. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. too. The swing door B. from one end. and to the bottom. say. long. extending the width of the box. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. high. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. Take two glass tubes. causing the door to swing back and up. 1. fasten a 2-in. Church. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. which represents the back side of the door. hole. --Contributed by H. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. Place a 10-in. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. 1. Then. F. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. 1-1/2 ft. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. The thread is broken off at the . Alexandria. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. 2. with about 1/8-in. and 3 ft. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. wide. high for rabbits. wide and 4 in. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. 1 ft.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Fig. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. A. square piece. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. about 10 in. Va. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. and bend them as shown in the sketch.

Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Cut an opening in the other piece. wide. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. Chicago. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. 1 in.proper place to make a small hole. wide. Out two rectangular holes. shorter at each end. in size. camera and wish to use some 4. but cut it 1/4 in. Paste a piece of strong black paper. C. 10 in. Take two pieces of pasteboard. as shown in Fig. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. wide and 5 in. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. from the edge on each side of these openings. Crilly. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. 1. Fig. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. inside of the opening. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. Jr. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. shorter. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. A and B. long. says Camera Craft. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. B. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. plates. 3.by 5-in. This opening. D.. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Fig. . being 1/8 in. in size. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. 2. horses and dogs. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. say 8 in. to be used as a driving pulley. and exactly 5 by 7 in. and go in the holder in the same way. -Contributed by William M. long. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. trolley cars. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool.by 7-in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. high and 12 in. automobiles. black surfaced if possible.

" The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. making a . The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. if it has previously been magnetized. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. in diameter. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. into which the dog is harnessed. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. long and 6 in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. wide will be required. The needle will then point north and south. A cell of this kind can easily be made.. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it.in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in.

supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T.watertight receptacle. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. A is a block of l-in. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. says Electrician and Mechanic. File the rods to remove the copper plate. B is a base of 1 in. of the top. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. for a connection. one that will hold about 1 qt. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. pine. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. This makes the wire smooth. 1 lb. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. with narrow flanges. . zinc oxide. 1/4 lb. of rosin and 2 oz. Place the pan on the stove. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. fodder. Form a 1/2-in. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. of water. leaving about 1/2-in. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. and a notch between the base and the pan. sal ammoniac. fuel and packing purposes. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. beeswax melted together. short time. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. when the paraffin is melted. in which P is the pan. pull out the wire as needed. of the plate at one end. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. under the spool in the paraffin. filter. 3/4 lb. long which are copper plated. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Do not paint any surface. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. plaster of paris. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. in diameter and 6 in. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. only the joints. F is a spool. Pack the paste in. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick.in. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H.

To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and therein is the trick." which created much merriment. and one friend tells me that they were . 2. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. long. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. and then. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and he finally. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. If any of your audience presume to dispute. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Enlarge the hole slightly. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. or think they can do the same. for others the opposite way. but the thing would not move at all. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. thus producing two different vibrations. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. Toledo. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge.. let them try it. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Ohio.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. for some it will turn one way. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. square and about 9 in. g. from vexation. Try it and see. while for others it will not revolve at all. At least it is amusing. as in the other movement. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. by the Hindoos in India. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. grip the stick firmly in one hand.

and this was confirmed by the following experiments. The experiments were as follows: 1. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. A square stick with notches on edge is best. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole.100 r. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. gave the best results. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. and. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. the rotation may be obtained. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. Thus a circular or . but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. If the pressure was upon an edge. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. 3. 5. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. by means of a center punch. secondly. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. m. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. 7. p. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. 6. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. and I think the results may be of interest. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. rotation was obtained.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. no rotation resulted. 4. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. 2. Speeds between 700 and 1. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. To operate.

and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Washington. D. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. or greasy. is driven violently away. Sloan.. --Contributed by G. Ph. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). and the height of the fall about 6 in. a piece of wire and a candle.D. A. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Minn. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. so far as can be seen from the photographs. it will be clockwise. as shown. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. --Contributed by M." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. forming a handle for carrying. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Duluth. at first. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. the upper portion is. A wire is tied around the can. unwetted by the liquid. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. G. Lloyd. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News.. and the resultant "basket splash. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. . C. if the pressure is from the left. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . as shown in Fig. as shown. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. in diameter. 1. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. thick and 1 in. long. hole drilled in the center." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. flange and a 1/4-in. Each wheel is 1/4 in. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. with a 1/16-in. axle.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. about 2-5/8 in. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop.

2. 2. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. Texas. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. The first piece. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. San Antonio. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. 4. with cardboard 3 in. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. and the locomotive is ready for running. Fig. The current. long. A trolley. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. 3. each in its proper place. as shown in Fig. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. The motor is now bolted. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. lamp in series with the coil. is made from a piece of clock spring. or main part of the frame. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. holes 1 in.50. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. is made from brass. which must be 110 volt alternating current. wide and 16 in. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. are shown in Fig. If the ends are to be soldered. as shown in Fig. put together complete. Fuller. 3/4 in. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch.brass. 3. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. 6. This will save buying a track. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. The parts. wood. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. of No. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. bottom side up. 1 from 1/4-in. bent as shown. --Contributed by Maurice E. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. Fig. 5. These ends are fastened together.

and holes drilled in them. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. and as this end .slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. then continue to tighten much more. The quarter will not go all the way down. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. When cold treat the other end in the same way. 3. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. 1. Fig. Cincinnati. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. as shown in Fig. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. the length of a paper clip. Fig 1. but do not heat the center. 2. O. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. as shown in Fig. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief.

The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. or apparent security of the knot. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. has finished a cut for a tooth. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. When the trick is to be performed. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. In the sketch. and adjusted . One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. or should the lathe head be raised. 2 and 1 respectively. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. A pair of centers are fitted. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. When the cutter A.

Y. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . tea cosey. note book. (5.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). at the same time striking light. Brooklyn. such as brass or marble. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. swing lathe. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. (3. --Contributed by Howard S. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. --Contributed by Samuel C. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Bunker. The frame holding the mandrel. In this manner gears 3 in. if four parts are to be alike. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. (6. holding it in place with the left hand. Second row: -Two book marks. Make free-hand one quarter of the design.) Make on paper the design wanted. (2. and a nut pick. (1. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. lady's card case. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Fig.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. coin purse. lady's belt bag. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in.to run true. long. 1. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. blotter back.) Place the paper design on the leather and. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. trace the outline. above the surface. Fold over along these center lines. if but two parts.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. book mark. gentleman's card case or bill book. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. twisted around itself and soldered. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. or one-half of the design. watch fob ready for fastenings. about 1-1/2 in. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. (4. draw center lines across the required space. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. Bott. dividing it into as many parts as desired. An ordinary machine will do. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. 2. tea cosey. When connecting to batteries. N. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated.

How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose. Secure . and an ordinary bottle.

through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. and push it through a cork..C. B. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. and bore a hole through the center. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. The electrodes are made . from Key West. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. Thrust a pin. C. where it condenses. A. If the needle is not horizontal. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. D. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. Florida. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. into which fit a small piece of tube. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. a distance of 900 miles.

and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. 16 piano wire. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. 1-1/2 in. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. lengths and splice them. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. thick. 2. thick. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. thick. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. square and 8 ft long. Four long beams 3/4 in. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. long. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. If 20-ft. 2 arm sticks 1 in. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. long. wide and 4 ft. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. and also to keep it steady in its flight. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. wide and 4 ft. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. long for the body of the operator. long. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. lumber cannot be procured. several strips 1/2 in. Powell. as shown in Fig. 1. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. use 10-ft. Connect as shown in the illustration. 1. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. 1/2. wide and 20 ft. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The operator can then land safely and . 1-1/4 in. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. thick. 12 uprights 1/2 in. wide and 4 ft long.in. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. which is tacked to the front edge. 3. wide and 3 ft. D. as shown in Fig. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. both laterally and longitudinally. wide and 3 ft. To make a glide. All wiring is done with No. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. 2. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. free from knots. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. long. slacken speed and settle. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. as shown in Fig. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. 1. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. take the glider to the top of a hill. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. or flying-machine. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. long.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. thick. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. C. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. --Contributed by Edwin L. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. Washington. using a high resistance receiver. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. 3/4 in. apart and extend 1 ft. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. by 3/4 in. 2 in.

gently on his feet. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Glides are always made against the wind. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Of course. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Great care should be . but this must be found by experience. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps.

--Contributed by L. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player.exercised in making landings. as shown in Fig. M. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. a creature of Greek mythology. 2. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. half man and half horse. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. When heated a little. Olson. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. Bellingham. which causes the dip in the line. 1. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips.

When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. long. will complete the material list. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. The light from the . Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. of small rubber tubing. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. in diameter. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. about the size of door screen wire. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. about the size of stove pipe wire. While at the drug store get 3 ft. 14 in. at the other. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. making it 2-1/2 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. square. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. long and about 3/8 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. this will cost about 15 cents. a piece of brass or steel wire. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. outside the box.

M. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. 1. . Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. --Photo by M. O. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. as shown in Fig. 2. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. while others will fail time after time. If done properly the card will flyaway.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. as shown in the sketch. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. Dayton. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. as shown in Fig.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Hunting. This is very simple when you know how.

and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl." or the Chinese students' favorite game. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. hold the lump over the flame. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. closing both hands quickly. then put it on the hatpin head. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. When the desired shape has been obtained. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. as shown. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. Cool in water and dry. as described. as before. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. place the other two. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. This game is played by five persons.

passing through neutralizing brushes. distribute electric charges . Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. or more in width. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. these sectors. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera.

in diameter. turned wood pieces. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. RR. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. the side pieces being 24 in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. 1 in. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. 4. 3. D. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. The two pieces. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. and 4 in. and pins inserted and soldered. The drive wheels. at the other. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. free from wrinkles. to which insulating handles . and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. in diameter. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. as shown in Fig. are made from 7/8-in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. in diameter. after they are mounted. long. in diameter. as shown in Fig. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. GG. These pins. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. Fig. brass tubing and the discharging rods. from about 1/4-in. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. in diameter. wide at one end. long and the shank 4 in. The plates are trued up. Two solid glass rods. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. C C. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. 3. and of a uniform thickness. 1. long and the standards 3 in. The collectors are made. material 7 in. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. or teeth. and the outer end 11/2 in. long. 3/4 in. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. Two pieces of 1-in. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The plates. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. are made from solid. in diameter. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. in diameter and 15 in. 1-1/2 in. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. 2. The fork part is 6 in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. wide. Fig. and this should be done before cutting the circle. EE. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame.

Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. in diameter. one having a 2-in. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water.are attached. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall.. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. ball and the other one 3/4 in. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. long. D. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . Colorado City. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. Lloyd Enos. KK. --Contributed by C. wide and 22 ft. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. Colo. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. which are bent as shown. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. 12 ft. and the work was done by themselves. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete.

pens . Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. bit. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. using a 1-in. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. yet such a thing can be done. string together. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. as at A. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. the boards are then put in a vise as shown.is a good one. The key will drop from the string. and bore a hole 1/2 in. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. deep. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall.

then the other side. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. inside the first on all. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. sharp division between background and design. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. using a nail filed to chisel edge. above the work and striking it with the hammer. 4. stamp the background promiscuously. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. They are easily made. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. 3. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. Inside this oblong. 8. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. 23 gauge.. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. When the stamping is completed. inside the second on all. 6. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. 9. etc. above the metal. they make attractive little pieces to have about. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. This is to make a clean. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. also trace the decorative design. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. The second oblong was 3/4 in. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. very rapid progress can be made. and the third one 1/4 in. extra metal on each of the four sides. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. flat and round-nosed pliers. slim screw. Proceed as follows: 1. Draw one-half the design free hand. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. about 3/4-in. etc. unless it would be the metal shears. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. 5. Use . 7. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. Raise the ends.and pencils. file.. two spikes. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. or cigar ashes. 2. Having determined the size of the tray. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in.

You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. second fingers. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. 7. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. The eyes. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 8. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. third fingers. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. 9. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. 10. first fingers.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 6. In the first numbering. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. and fourth fingers. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. and the effect will be most pleasing. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C.

... Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. which would be 16. or the product of 6 times 6. there are no fingers above. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. 11. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. At a glance you see four tens or 40. etc. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. 600. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. and the six lower fingers as six tens. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. the product of 12 times 12. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. above 20 times 20. or numbers above 10. or the product of 8 times 9. but being simple it saves time and trouble.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. above 15 times 15 it is 200. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. first fingers. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. or 80. etc. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. thumbs. 2 times 2 equals 4. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. or 60. 12. as high as you want to go. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. which would be 70. Two times one are two. 25 times 25. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. if we wish. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. which tens are added. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. renumber your fingers. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. etc. Let us multiply 12 by 12. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. In the second numbering. viz. 400. Put your thumbs together.. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. Still.

and so on. For example. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. 2. lastly. The inversion and reversion did not take place. etc. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. thirties. or what. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution.. twenties. 3. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. first finger 17. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. not rotation. And the lump sum to add. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. the lump sum to add. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. 21. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. as one might suppose. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. 7. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. however. first fingers 22. about a vertical axis. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. when he removes his spectacles. 75 and 85. It takes place also. the value which the upper fingers have. whether the one described in second or third numbering. forties. Take For example 18 times 18. thumbs. 8. being 80). whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. the revolution seems to reverse. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. Proceed as in the second lumbering. the inversion takes place against his will. which is the half-way point between the two fives. adding 400 instead of 100.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. For figures ending in 6. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. further. the value of the upper fingers being 20. in the case of a nearsighted person. and. . beginning the thumbs with 16. or from above or from below. any two figures between 45 and 55. at the will of the observer. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow.

but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. as . the other appearance asserts itself. The ports were not easy to make. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. when he knows which direction is right. A flat slide valve was used. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. sometimes the point towards him. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. Looking at it in semidarkness. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. and putting a cork on the point. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. tee.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette.

Fasten the block solidly. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. pipe. and make in one end a hollow. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. The tools are simple and can be made easily. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. about 2 in. deep. If nothing better is at hand. across and 1/2 in. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. . H. The steam chest is round. across the head.. bottom side up. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. Beating copper tends to harden it and. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. if continued too long without proper treatment. Ill. apart. -Contributed by W. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. in diameter. secure a piece of No.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. Springfield. saw off a section of a broom handle. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. inexpensive. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. pipe 10 in. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. Kutscher. Next take a block of wood. The eccentric is constructed of washers. While this engine does not give much power. such as is shown in the illustration. it is easily built. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. as in a vise.

sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. and. --Contributed by W. Camden. S. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. To produce color effects on copper. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. Hay. the other to the left. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. To overcome this hardness. as it softens the metal. This process is called annealing. C. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. O. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated.will cause the metal to break. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. especially when the object is near to the observer. Vinegar.

one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. and lies to the right on the picture. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. not two mounted side by side. The further apart the pictures are. while both eyes together see a white background. It is just as though they were not there. . The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. with the stereograph. because. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. and without any picture. the left eye sees through a blue screen. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. they must be a very trifle apart. in the proper choice of colors. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. that for the right. would serve the same purpose. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. it. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. In order to make them appear before the card. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. orange. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. from the stereograph. diameter. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. only the orange rays may pass through. the further from the card will the composite image appear. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. But they seem black. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. although they pass through the screen. disappears fully.stereoscope. So with the stereograph. because of the rays coming from them. The red portions of the picture are not seen. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. however. the one for the left eye being blue. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. as for instance red and green.

This should only be bored about half way through the block. 12 gauge wire. Place a NO. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. wireless. A No. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. or the middle of the bottle. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. San Francisco. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. 1/4 in. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. thick. etc. in diameter. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. long and a hole drilled in each end. wide and 1 in.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. The weight of the air in round . The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Cal. in the shape of a crank. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in.

long. thick. the instrument. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. wide and 40 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. high. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. But if a standard barometer is not available. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. square. square. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. internal diameter and about 34 in.6) 1 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. will calibrate itself. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. 30 in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. a bottle 1 in. the contrary.. but before attempting to put in the mercury. long. high. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. if accurately constructed. inside diameter and 2 in. In general. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. if you choose. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury.numbers is 15 lb. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. 34 ft. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. or a column of mercury (density 13. and a slow fall. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. a glass tube 1/8 in. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. or. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. The 4 in. . Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. high. pine 3 in. long. Before fastening the scale. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. wide and 4 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube.

wide and 10 in. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. 2. Mark out seven 1-in. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. a cover from a baking powder can will do. and place them as shown in Fig. 5. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. long. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. which is slipped quickly over the end. Procure a metal can cover. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. 3. thick. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. 1. 6 and 7. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Number the pieces 1.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. the size of the outside of the bottle.

6 over No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. shaped like Fig.-Contributed by W.J. 6. 3 to the center. Move 3-Move No. Move 9-Jump No. 6. This can be done on a checker board. 7's place. Woolson. N. To make such a tent. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 7-Jump No. Move 4-Jump No. l over No. using checkers for men. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 7 over No. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 5's place. 3. 1. 2's place. Make 22 sections. Move 14-Jump No. 3 into No. Move 12-Jump No. 2 . which is the very best material for the purpose. 2 over No. 3. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 5's place. Move 15-Move No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Move ll-Jump No. 1. Cape May Point. 2. 6 in. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 2-Jump No. 2 over No. 3 over No. 6 to No. as shown in Fig. Move 6-Move No. 2. 6 into No. 7. 5 over No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. L. Move 10-Move No. Move 8-Jump No. procure unbleached tent duck. 1 into No. 5 over No. 2's place. 7 over No. 1 to No. 5. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. each 10 ft. 3. Move 13-Move No. in diameter. Move 5-Jump No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. long and 2 ft.

long and 4 in. Fig. 2 in. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. --Contributed by G. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. In raising the tent. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. diameter. long. 2. made in two sections. from the top. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. will do. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. These are ventilators. to a smooth board of soft wood. Use blocks. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. leaving the rest for an opening. 6-in. 3 in. about 9 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. 5. Fig. high. Punch holes in the brass in . Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides.J. Emsworth. fill with canvas edging. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Have the tent pole 3 in. wide at the bottom. wide by 12 in. as in Fig. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Nail a thin sheet of brass.in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. added. 9 by 12 in. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. in diameter. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. wide at the bottom. round galvanized iron. After transferring the design to the brass. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in.. As shown in the sketch. Pa. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 6. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. 5) stuck in the ground. Tress. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas.

--Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. When the edges are brought together by bending. apart. . the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. around the outside of the pattern. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. The pattern is traced as before. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty.the spaces around the outlined figures. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. but before punching the holes. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. bend into shape. Corr. excepting the 1/4-in. It will not. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. Chicago. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. When all the holes are punched. cut out the brass on the outside lines. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone.

E. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. allowing 2 ft. A cast-iron ring. or. partially filled with cream. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. better still.. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Que. Stevens. If a wheel is selected. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Mayger. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Dunham. These pipes are . G. between which is placed the fruit jar.however. pipe. --Contributed by H. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. or center on which the frame swings. pipe is used for the hub. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. Badger. Oregon. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. or less. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. --Contributed by Geo. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. A 6-in.

The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe clamps. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. An extra wheel 18 in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket.

Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. which was placed in an upright position. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. 1. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The performer. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. and dropped on the table. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. while doing this. and the guide withdrawn. 3. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box.

Denver. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. and second. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. 1. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. it requires no expensive condensing lens. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. in a half circle. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. D. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. in diameter on another piece of tin. Mo. -Contributed by C. F. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. St. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Colo. --Contributed by H. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Louis. first. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. 2. Harkins. White. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. The box can be made of selected oak or .make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera.

is made from a board 4-1/2 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box.mahogany. and 2 in. The door covering this hole in the back. wide by 5 in. focal length. from each end of the outside of the box. as shown in Fig. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. wide and 5 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. 1. AA. long. 5-1/2 in. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. high and 11 in. but not tight. and. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. wide and 6-1/2 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. wide. Two or three holes about 1 in. long. If a camera lens is used. 2. wide and 6-1/2 in. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. This will be 3/4 in. high and must . which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. An open space 4 in. from each end. long and should be placed vertically. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. fit into the runners. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. 3-1/2 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing.

--Contributed by Chas. calling that knuckle January. This process is rather a difficult one. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Ohio. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days.. and extending the whole height of the lantern. calling this February. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. Bradley. 1. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. June and November. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. the article may be propped up . until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. West Toledo. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. then the second knuckle will be March. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. provided it is airtight. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. April. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. as it requires an airtight case. C.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct." etc. and so on.

or suspended by a string. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. 1 and 2. but waxed. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. and the lead 24 sq. in. . Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier.with small sticks. Pour in a little turpentine. fruit jars are required. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. giving it an occasional stir. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. Y. in. one of lead and one of aluminum. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. and set aside for half a day. taking care to have all the edges closed. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. 1. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. --Contributed by J. In both Fig. Crawford. The top of a table will do. Schenectady. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. 2. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. running small motors and lighting small lamps. In each place two electrodes. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. H. N. the lid or cover closed.

Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. He. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . This trick is very simple. he throws the other. You have an understanding with some one in the company. After a few seconds' time. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. O. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. you remove the glass. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. as well as others. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture.. as you have held it all the time. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. which you warm with your hands. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. Cleveland.

one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. in diameter in the center. near a partition or curtain.-Contributed by E. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Pull the ends quickly. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. . J. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. but by being careful at shores. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. put it under the glass. on a table. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Victor. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Colo.take the handiest one. if any snags are encountered. Crocker. but in making one. Be sure that this is the right one. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top.

Both ends are mortised. wide. 2 and braced with an iron band. from the stern. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. of 1-1/2-yd. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. 1 piece. 8 yd. as illustrated in the engraving. 1/4 in. by 16 ft. square by 16 ft. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. from each end to 1 in. by 2 in. long. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. by 15 ft. wide unbleached muslin. 1/8 in.. Fig. by 2 in. by 12 in. and fastened with screws. of 1-yd. 1 in. screws and cleats. 14 rib bands. 9 ft. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown.. 50 ft. by 10 ft. 8 in. 1. are as follows: 1 keelson. drilled and fastened with screws. and. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . one 6 in. and the other 12 in. by 8 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 2 in. for cockpit frame. long. is 14 ft. 3 in. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. thick and 3/4 in. clear pine. and is removed after the ribs are in place. for the stern piece. for the bow. 7 ft. Paint. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. from the bow and the large one. 3 and 4. for center deck braces. apart. long. at the ends. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. wide and 12 ft. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. wide 12-oz. 11 yd. by 16 ft. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 1 in. selected pine. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. The keelson. ducking. long. 1 in. 1 piece. 2 gunwales. 1 mast. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 3 in. wide and 12 ft. 1 in. 4 outwales. of rope.

also. 1 in.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. The 11-yd. long is well soaked in water. 1/4 in. gunwales and keelson. 3-1/2 ft. This block. Figs. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. They are 1 in. 5. 1 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. wide. screws. 7 and 8. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. thick and 12 in. long. 6. is cut to fit under the top boards. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. 6 and 7. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. corner braces. apart. A piece of oak. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. wide. wood screws. Before making the deck. Fig. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. thick 1-1/2 in. Fig. doubled. The block is fastened to the keelson. thick. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. long. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. A block of pine. 4 in. wide and 14 in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. 6 in. A 6-in. thick. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. a piece 1/4 in. and fastened to them with bolts. long. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. in diameter through the block. length of canvas is cut in the center. is a cube having sides 6 in. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. A seam should be made along the center piece. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. 9. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. wide and 24 in. . with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. wide and 3 ft. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. Braces. thick and 1/2 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. These are put in 6 in. The deck is not so hard to do. The trimming is wood. from the bow.

Several coats of good paint complete the boat. wide. apart in the muslin. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. . The sail is a triangle. in diameter and 10 ft. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. are used for the boom and gaff. at the other. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. Tronnes. The house will accommodate 20 families. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. is 6 in. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. each 1 in. 12. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. wide at one end and 12 in. A strip 1 in. Wilmette. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. 11. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. long. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The keel. long. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. E. thick by 2 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The mast has two side and one front stay. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. 10 with a movable handle. Ill. Fig.

4. wide and 30 in. Ill. 2-1/2 in. long and five 1/2-in. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. flat on one side. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. Take this and fold it over . five 1/2-in. and the other 18 in. about 5/16 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. 1 yd. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. thick. long. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. Fig. --Contributed by O. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. one 11-1/2 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. Cut the maple.into two 14-in. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Bevel both sides of the pieces. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 2 in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. 2-1/2 in. flat headed screws. long. 2. 1. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. wide. 5. thick. square. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. with the ends and the other side rounding. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. and 3 ft. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Tronnes. long. 3. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. wide and 2 ft. wide. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. flat-headed screws. E. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. thick. Wilmette. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces.

about 3/8 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. 3/8 in. E. wide and 5 in. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. long. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. the top and bottom. leaving a small opening at one corner. thick. pieces 2-5/8 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. C. long. Cut another piece of board. is set. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. 2 and 3. wide and 3 ft. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. About 1/2 in. Fig. Louis. C. 6-1/2 in. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. but can be governed by circumstances. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. then centered. The sides are 3-1/4 in. this square box is well sandpapered. wide and 2-3/4 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. 3-1/4 in. soaked with water and blown up. Bliss. long. If carefully and neatly made. long. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. 3 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. as well as the edges around the opening. are rounded. 5 from 1/16-in. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. long. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. D. A. The bag is then turned inside out. and take care that the pieces are all square. thick and 3 in. of each end unwound for connections. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. long. wide and 6-1/2 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. St. and make a turn in each end of the wires. F. The front. wide and 2-1/2 in. wide . Mo. wide and 4-1/2 in. 1-1/4 in. square. B. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. A. Another piece. After the glue. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. 1. long. square. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. thick. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. --Contributed by W. long. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. Glue a three cornered piece. When the glue is set. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. forming an eye for a screw. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. wide and 6-3/4 in.once. the mechanical parts can be put together. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. and the four outside edges. Make a double stitch all around the edge. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. Wind three layers of about No. Figs.

This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. 4. Another strip of tin. Chapman. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips.A. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath.R. 5-1/2 in.S. C. in diameter. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. showing a greater defection of the pointer. thick. and fasten in place. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. and as the part Fig. so it will just clear the tin. When the current flows through the coil. long. The resistance is now adjusted to show . The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. 5. 4 is not movable. 1/4 in. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. from one end. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. board. wide and 9 in. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. The end of the polar axis B. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. the part carrying the pointer moves away. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. 1/16 in. --Contributed by George Heimroth. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. hole is fastened to the pointer. The stronger the current. 4. long. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. long. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. R. A pointer 12 in. The base is a board 5 in. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass.and 2-5/8 in. Richmond Hill. Place the tin. Austwick Hall. bored in the back. Fig. from the spindle. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. G. I. F. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. Like poles repel each other. and the farther apart they will be forced. These wires should be about 1 in. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. the same size as the first. Fig. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. that has the end turned with a shoulder. Yorkshire. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. wide and 2-1/2 in. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. W. L. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H.

Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. 1881. and vice . A. shows mean siderial. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. The following formula will show how this may be found. thus: 9 hr. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. 10 min. say Venus at the date of observation. at 9 hr. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. 30 min. M. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. 10 min.

Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. or. New Haven. owing to the low internal resistance.m. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Conn. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. --Contributed by Robert W. . or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Hall. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection.f. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. and then verify its correctness by measurement. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. if one of these cannot be had. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid.

it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. long. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. Fig. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. as shown in the accompanying picture. leaves or bark. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. When the follower is screwed down. after scraping away the greater part of the coals.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. 1. put the fish among the ashes. and heap the glowing coals on top. 1-3/4 in. arsenic to every 20 lb. The boring bar. 3/8 in. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. especially for cooking fish. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. cover up with the same. inside diameter and about 5 in. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . Wet paper will answer. Then. of alum and 4 oz. thick. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. fresh grass.

thick. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. and threaded on both ends. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. pipe. when they were turned in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. pipe. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. fastened with a pin. about 1/2 in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off.

Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. 5. bent in the shape of a U. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. 2. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. Iowa. as the one illustrated herewith. thick and 3 in. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine.valve stems. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. Clermont. If the valve keeps dripping. 4. but never one which required so little material. the float is too high. The rough frame. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. wide. Fig. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. 30 in. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. square iron. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. however. A 1-in. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. a jump spark would be much better. and which gave such satisfactory results. It . This plate also supports the rocker arms. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. then it should be ground to a fit. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. labor and time. long. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. 3. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. Fig. Fig. was then finished on an emery wheel.

long is the pivot. hole bored in the post. A malleable iron bolt. This makes an easy adjustment. timber." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. Nieman. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. with no trees or buildings in the way. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft." little and big. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. 12 ft. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. for the "motive power" to grasp. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. from the center. in diameter and 15 in. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . so it must be strong enough. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. butting against short stakes. As there is no bracing. and a little junk. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. long. The crosspiece is 2 in. completes the merry-go-round. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. in fact. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. A 3/4 -in. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. W. extending above. If it is to be used for adults. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. square. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. no matter what your age or size may be. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. Use a heavy washer at the head. The seats are regular swing boards. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. being held in position by spikes as shown. long. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. square and 5 ft. in the ground with 8 ft. 3/4 in. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. It looks like a toy. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. long. set 3 ft. rope is not too heavy. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. and. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. --Contributed by C. strengthened by a piece 4 in. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. from all over the neighborhood. The illustration largely explains itself. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. square and 2 ft. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. strong clear material only should be employed.

Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. 2. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. one for the backbone and one for the bow.2 emery. These ends are placed about 14 in. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. and sent to earth. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. 1. away. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. Having placed the backbone in position. The backbone is flat. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. A reel is next made. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. light and strong. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. a wreck. The bow is now bent. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. and 18 in. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. then it is securely fastened. To wind the string upon the reel. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. Both have large reels full of . The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. 4.the fingers. if nothing better is at hand. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. square. long. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. 1/4 by 3/32 in.

he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. N. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. he pays out a large amount of string. Brooklyn. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Moody. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Bunker. C. the balance. or glass-covered string. Mass. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. --Contributed' by Harry S. If the second kite is close enough. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Newburyport.-Contributed by S. Y.string. common packing thread. The handle end is held down with a staple. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. First. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. often several hundred yards of it. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line.

length of 2-in. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. then a dust protector. such as mill men use. If the table is round. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. make the pad as shown in the illustration. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. then draw the string up tight. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Cut four pieces of canton flannel. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. --Contributed by Earl R. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Corinth. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. square (Fig. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Vt. Hastings. lengths (Fig. must be attached to a 3-ft. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. each the size of half the table top.

Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. Moisten the . This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. and E to G. Wharton.-Contributed by H. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. E. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. Calif. Use a smooth. 6-1/4 in. from E to F. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Oakland.. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. trace the design carefully on the leather. 16-1/4 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. hard pencil. G to H. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. 17-1/2 in.. . which spoils the leather effect. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern..Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side.9-1/4 in. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. from C to D. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. 2-1/4 in.

lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. H-B. and E-G. wide. and corresponding lines on the other side. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. about 1/8 in. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. G-J. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. and lace through the holes. Cut it the same size as the bag. with the rounded sides of the tools. Now cut narrow thongs. is taken off at a time. Trace the openings for the handles. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. place both together and with a leather punch. apart. also lines A-G. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. I made this motor . if not more than 1 in. get something with which to make a lining. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. To complete the bag.

both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. B. Calif. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. as shown in Fig. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base.M. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. 2-1/4 in. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. each being a half circle. D. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. of No. in length. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. --Contributed by J.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. . 1. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. Shannon. 24 gauge magnet wire. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. Pasadena. long. 1. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. 2. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. iron. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig.

This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. and the gores cut from these. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . near the center. are the best kind to make. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. high. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. pasted in alternately. balloon should be about 8 ft. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. from the bottom end. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The gores for a 6-ft. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The widest part of each gore is 16 in.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. 1.

Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. leaving the solution on over night. B. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. A. so it will hang as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. somewhat larger in size. E. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. If the gores have been put together right. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. 1. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. The boat soon attains considerable speed. 3. coming through the small pipe A. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. In removing grease from wood. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . in diameter. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. using about 1/2-in. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. Staunton. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. leaving a long wake behind. --Contributed by R. The steam.widest point. After washing. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. These are to hold the wick ball. after which the paint will adhere permanently. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. Fig. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. 2. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. As the boat is driven forward by this force. lap on the edges. 4. as shown in Fig. saturating it thoroughly. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. In starting the balloon on its flight. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. 5. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface.

high and 8 in. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The blocks are about 6 in. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . long. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. if you have several copies of the photograph. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. wide by 6 in. Second. Third. in bowling form. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. In using either of the two methods described. apart on these lines. There are three ways of doing this: First. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. 1. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. long and each provided with a handle. as is shown in Fig.

Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. being careful not to dent the metal. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. not pointed down at the road at an angle. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. N. Rinse the plate in cold water. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . thick. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint.Fig. Y. Fig. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Albany. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. 2. --Contributed by John A. Hellwig. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque.

The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. B. S. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. 1 Fig. and. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. is fastened to a common camera tripod. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. Break off the frame.upon any particular object. In Fig. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. long for the base. With this device. Corner irons. CC. wide and 8 in. A. 6 in. thick. are screwed to the circular piece. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. 2 the front view. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Richmond. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. through which passes the set screw S. --Contributed by R. and Fig. 5 in. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. which is 4 in. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. with a set screw. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. in diameter. A. These corner irons are also screwed to. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. A circular piece of wood. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. and not produce the right sound. Va. Paine. wide and of any desired height.

Ill. La Salle. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. S. Lake Preston. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. D. I made a wheel 26 in. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. This horn. as only the can is visible. thus producing sound waves. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. This will make a very compact electric horn. Kidder. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. -1. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. . and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. in diameter of some 1-in. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. pine boards. R. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on.

How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . 2. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. the same thickness as the coins. 1. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. square. B. thick and 12 in. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. The frame is made of a heavy card. 1. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. --Contributed by C. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Doylestown. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Fig. Ghent.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Kane. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Purdy. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. O. A. --Contributed by James R. If there is a large collection of coins. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C.

and then glued together as indicated. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Smith. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. Canada. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting.J. --Contributed by August T. Milwaukee. melted and applied with a brush. border all around. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. a hammer or mallet. into which to place the screws . and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. several large nails. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. --Contributed by R. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. thick. --Contributed by J. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry.E. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. for after the slides have been shown a few times.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. plus a 3/8-in. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. It will hold 4 oz. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. Wis. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. The material required is a sheet of No. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Toronto. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. cut and grooved. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. Noble. though not absolutely necessary. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. A lead pencil. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. they become uninteresting. of developer. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. A rivet punch is desirable. Cal. If desired. One Cloud. Neyer.

With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Remove the screws.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. screws placed about 1 in. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Take the nail. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. never upon the metal directly. There are several ways of working up the design. and file it to a chisel edge. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. both outline and decoration. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. using 1/2-in. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. draw one part. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. like the one shown.

square and 181/2 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. each 1 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. long. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. long. The pedal. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. and two lengths. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. Rivet the band to the holder. 2. long. as shown in Fig. Provide four lengths for the legs. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. for the lower rails. . Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. two lengths. in the other. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. 3/4 in. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. Do not bend it over or flatten it. using a 1/2in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. square. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. being ball bearing. 3. 1. l-1/8 in. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces.wall. of 11-in. About 1/2 yd. square and 11 in. for the top. up from the lower end.

as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. having quite a length of threads. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . --Contributed by John Shahan. --Contributed by W. F. Quackenbush.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. New York City. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. Ala. Attalla. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way.

The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. Purchase a 1/2-in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. Assemble as shown in the sketch. long. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. and two holes in the other. long. the end of the other piece is folded over. D. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. from the end. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. Two pieces of felt. each 1-1/4 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. Ironwood. college or lodge colors. making a lap of about 1 in. initial. wide and 4-1/4 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. something that is carbonated. one about 1 in.. from one end. wide and 8-1/4 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. and 3/8 in. using class. --Contributed by C. The desired emblem. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . and the other 2-3/4 in. long. Luther. in depth. Mich.

An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Ind. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. if desired by the operator. or more in height. --Contributed by John H. Indianapolis. Punch two holes A. Schatz. as shown at B. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. 2. 1/4 in. which can be procured from a plumber. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. in diameter and 2 in. in the cover and the bottom. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. and the cork will be driven out. from the center and opposite each other. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. A piece of lead. as shown in the sketch. or a pasteboard box. 1. Fig. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. about 2 in. This method allows a wide range of designs.

Fig. as shown in Fig. and the ends of the bands looped over them. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. 1. When the can is rolled away from you. 5. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. are turned up as in Fig. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. putting in the design. A piece of thick glass. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. allowing the two ends to be free.Rolling Can Toy lead. Columbus. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. 3. The pieces of tin between the holes A. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. it winds up the rubber band. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. 4. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. metal. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. or marble will serve. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. on both top and bottom. . O.

3 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. New York City. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. After this has been done. wide and 20 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. or more thick on each side. mark over the design. A pencil may be used the first time over. long and bored a 1/2-in. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . from each end. hole through it. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. Next place the leather on the glass. face up. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. 1 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. If it is desired to "line" the inside. I secured a board 3/4 in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. thick. The edges should be about 1/8 in. thicker than the pinion. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. and. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. deep in its face.

2 side rails. Brooklyn. thick top board. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Cut the 2-in. pieces for the vise slides. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Y. Rice. 1 top board. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 3 by 3 by 36. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. N. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 1. --Contributed by A. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. Syracuse. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1 piece for clamp. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. much of the hard labor will be saved. 1 piece for clamp. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 2 crosspieces. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Fig. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. lag screws as shown. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1 screw block. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 1 top board. Now fit up the two clamps. 1 piece. M. 2. New York. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 2 end rails. in diameter. 1 back board. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side.in the board into the bench top. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Make the lower frame first. 4 guides. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown.

2 screwdrivers. in diameter. The amateur workman. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 countersink.. 1 pair dividers. rule. 1 compass saw. 1 brace and set of bits. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 set chisels. 1 2-ft. 24 in. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. The bench is now complete. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. They can be purchased at a hardware store. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood.. 1 cross cut saw. Only the long run. 1 marking gauge. 1 pair pliers. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 set gimlets. 24 in. 1 nail set. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 jack plane or smoother. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 claw hammer. 1 wood scraper.. as well as the pattern maker. 1 bench plane or jointer. . 1 monkey wrench. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 pocket level. 1 rip saw. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 3 and 6 in.screws. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise.

but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. being softer. Fig. Fig. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 1 oilstone. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. becomes like A. The calf skin. Pa. but will not make . Doylestown. 1. 2. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Kane. 1. Fig. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. after constant use. the projecting point A.1 6-in. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. try square. 3. will be easier to work. Fig. 2 and 00 sandpaper. ---Contributed by James M.1. No.

which steam. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. the same method of treatment is used. The form can be made of a stick of wood. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. then prepare the leather. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Two pieces will be required of this size. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. First draw the design on paper. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. but a V-shaped nut pick. such as copper or brass. If cow hide is preferred. After the outlines are traced. New York City. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. will do just as well. cover it completely with water enamel and. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. Having prepared the two sides. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. and the length 6-5/8 in. If calf skin is to be used. . and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. when dry. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. Turn the leather. White. lay the design on the face.as rigid a case as the cow skin. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. secure a piece of modeling calf. -Contributed by Julia A. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. water or heat will not affect.

Richmond. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Cal. New York City. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. C. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. as shown in the sketch. Jaquythe. --Contributed by Chas. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Herrman. --Contributed by Chester L. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Portland. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Maine. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. . A. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. --Contributed by W. Cobb.

B. Wright. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. --Contributed by Wm. Middletown. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Mass. This was very difficult. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller.. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Roberts. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Conn. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. Cambridge. --Contributed by Geo. A thick piece of tin. for instance. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. .Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. was marked out as shown. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. an inverted stewpan.

The next morning there was no trace of oil. but only an odor which soon vanished. and the grease will disappear. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. F. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. on a clear piece of glass. Bone. --Contributed by Paul Keller. pulverized and applied. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. face down. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. of boiling water. Ind. apply powdered calcined magnesia. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. --Contributed by C. so some bones were quickly calcined. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. Herbert. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Illinois. If any traces of the grease are left. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. . Chicago. but not running over. When dry. well calcined and powdered. If the article is highly polished. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle.. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. such as chair seats. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. A beautifully bound book. as shown. which has been tried out several times with success. L. Indianapolis. and quite new. There was no quicklime to be had. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. used as part of furniture. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper.

How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. long. The pieces marked S are single. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. If properly adjusted. 2 in. Howe. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel..Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. thick. deep and 5 in. wide and 12 in. the pieces . The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. --Contributed by Geo. soft steel with the opening 6 in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. A.. high and are bolted to a block of wood. set and thumbscrews. New York. This coaster is simple and easy to make. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. says Scientific American. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. Tarrytown. 6 in.

The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. The seat is a board. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. A sharp knife. they will look remarkably uniform. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. to the underside of which is a block. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. If the letters are all cut the same height. albums and the like. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. E. no doubt. for sending to friends. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. says Camera Craft. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Their size depends on the plate used. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months.

A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. pasting the prints on some thin card. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. The puzzle is to get . each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. after. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. using care to get it in the right position. and.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. photographing them down to the desired size. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. So made. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. for example. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. In cutting out an 0. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. So arranged. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. mount them on short pieces of corks.

A hole 6 or 7 in.J.-Contributed by I. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. snow or anything to hide it. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. so they will lie horizontal. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. hung on pivots. long that will just fit are set in. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. G. with the longest end outside.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. He smells the bait. Cape May Point. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. says the American Thresherman. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. of its top. Old-Time Magic . Bayley. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. N. squeezes along past the center of the tube. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row.

The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. --Contributed by Charles Graham. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Idaho. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. then spread the string. Szerlip. N. then expose again. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Y. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. --Contributed by L. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Brooklyn. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Parker. Rhode Island. Pawtucket. Press the hands together.faced up. --Contributed by L. E. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Pocatello.

Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. using a straightedge and a pencil. and if carefully made. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. long. 2 Fig. The pieces. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. tapering down to 1-1/2 in.Genuine antique swords and armor. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. they will look very much like the genuine article. full size.. The blade should be about 27 in. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The handle is next made. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. or a complete suit of armor. wide and 2 in. end of the blade.. 4 on the blade. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. if any. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. When the whole is quite dry. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. Glue the other side of the blade. When the glue is thoroughly dry. 1. in width. 1 Fig. wipe the blade . The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. narrower. near the point end. thick. dark red. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. in building up his work from the illustrations. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. says the English Mechanic. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. 3 Fig. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. or green oil paint. whether he requires a single sword only. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in.

In making. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. of course. 1/8 in. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. 2. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. as it is . the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. Fig. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. Both edges of the blade are sharp. thick and 5 in. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. 2. the other is flat or halfround. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. 4.. square and of any length desired. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. 1. and 3 in. take two pieces of wood. in diameter.. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. about 1-1/2 in. in the widest part at the lower end. the illustration. preferably of contrasting colors. 1. The length of the handle. In the finished piece. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. 3. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. In making this scimitar. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. This sword is about 68 in. allowing for a good hold with both hands. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. follow the directions as for Fig. 3. the other is flat or half-round. long. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. shows only two sides. the other two are identical. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. should be about 9 in. the length of the blade 28 in.with light strokes up and down several times. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. 1. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. not for use only in cases of tableaux. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 1.

took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Syracuse. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. long. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Both can be made easily. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. --Contributed by John Blake. Y. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. as there was some at hand. Doctors probed for the button without success.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. and. N. A piece of mild steel. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Franklin. A cold . Mass. as can the pitch bed or block. square. piping and jackets by hard water. and if so. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. each about 1 ft. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. On each edge of the board. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Morse. at the lower end. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. It is made of a plank. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. about 3/8 in. --Contributed by Katharine D. however. or an insecure fastening. 2 in. The thinness of the plank. in an attempt to remove it. as shown in the sketch.

turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. using a small metal saw. To remedy this. on the pitch. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. When the desired form has been obtained. a file to reduce the ends to shape. 18 gauge. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. To put it in another way. tallow. secure a piece of brass of about No. The illustration shows an iron receptacle.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length.. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. When this has been done. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. design down. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. 5 lb. 5 lb. Trim up the edges and file them .. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. plaster of Paris.

Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Cutter. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. A. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. which divided by 1/6 gives 180.000 ft. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine.smooth. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. 1) and the other 12 in. over the smaller vessel. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. living together in what seems like one receptacle. 1 ft. lb. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Clean the metal thoroughly. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. 3.000 lb. 1 ft. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. This in turn divided by 33. make an unusual show window attraction. Fig. in one minute or 550 lb. per minute. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Fill the 3-in. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. in diameter (Fig. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. 30 ft. or fraction of a horsepower. or 550 ft. in one second. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Before giving the description. The smaller is placed within the larger. in diameter (Fig. and hang a bird swing. one 18 in. per second. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. and still revolve. to keep it from floating. in the center.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. but not to stop it. using powdered pumice with lye. . 2). space between the vessels with water. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. --Contributed by Harold H. lb. That is lifting 33.

or on a pedestal. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Brooklyn.18 in. 1 Fig. --Contributed by J.3 Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Y. --Contributed. Somerville. Szerlip. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. F. by L. Diameter 12 in. Mass.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Campbell. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . N. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. 2 Fig. Diameter Fig. The effect is surprising.

then by drawing a straightedge over it. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. and the clay . and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Rivet the cup to the base. with the pliers. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. is. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. In riveting. which may be of wood or tin. Polish both of these pieces. Do not be content merely to bend them over. This compound is impervious to water. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished.copper of No. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. away from the edge. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. unsatisfactory. which. the same as removing writing from a slate. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. with other defects. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. using any of the common metal polishes. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. and cut out the shape with the shears. to keep the metal from tarnishing. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. often render it useless after a few months service. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. after which it is ready for use. and then. as a rule. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. keeping the center high.

The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. -Contributed by Thos. Grand Rapids. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. DeLoof. Scotland. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. Mich. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. It is made of a glass tube.can be pressed back and leveled. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Houghton. Northville. . 2. long. --Contributed by John T. 1. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Mich. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. A. the device will work for an indefinite time. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. in diameter and 5 in. Shettleston. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. Dunlop. --Contributed by A. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop.

long with the crossguard and blade of steel. As the handle is to . thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. London. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.FIG. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. stilettos and battle-axes. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. in width and 2 in.1 FIG. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. 1. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. This sword is 4 ft. put up as ornaments. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. long. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color.

The sword shown in Fig. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. sharp edges on both sides. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. A German poniard is shown in Fig. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. firmly glued on. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. sometimes called cuirass breakers. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. one about 1/2 in. In Fig. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. string. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. in width. long with a dark handle of wood. 6. In Fig. in length. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. with wire or string' bound handle. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. the upper part iron or steel. These must be cut from pieces of wood. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. very broad. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. In Fig. wood with a keyhole saw. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. 20 spike. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. When the whole is quite dry. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. in length. 3 is shown a claymore. Cut two strips of tinfoil. small rope and round-headed nails. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. A German stiletto. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. When dry. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. Both handle and axe are of steel. paint it a dark brown or black. 4. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. with both edges sharp. narrower. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. When the glue is thoroughly dry. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. 5. glue and put it in place. the axe is of steel. 11 were used. long. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. The crossbar and blade are steel. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade.represent copper. This weapon is about 1 ft. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. This stiletto has a wood handle. 9. which is about 2-1/2 ft. then glued on the blade as shown. The handle is of wood. 7. The lower half of the handle is of wood. studded with brass or steel nails. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. This weapon is also about 1 ft. the same as used on the end of the handle. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. 8. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. with both edges of the blade sharp. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. This axe is made similar to the one . This sword is about 4 ft. Three large. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. The ball is made as described in Fig.

Chicago. --Contributed by E.described in Fig. This will make a very good flexible belt. Davis. W. . If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. together as shown in Fig. will pull where other belts slip. Old-Time Magic . high. so the contents cannot be seen. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. 10. such as braided fishline. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. When wrapped all the way around. 2. the ends are tied and cut off.

Oakland. Calif. held in the right hand. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. with the circle centrally located. 1 and put together as in Fig. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. 2. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. in a few seconds' time. some of the liquid. or using small wedges of wood. As zinc is much lighter than iron. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. about one-third the way down from the top. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. an acid. filled with water. There will be no change in color. Bridgeton. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. S. apparently. causing the flowers to grow. The dotted lines in Fig. Macdonald. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. These wires are put in the jar. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. To make the flowers grow in an instant. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. --Contributed by A. Before the performance. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . four glass tumblers. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. N. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat.J. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary.

but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. not only because of the fact just mentioned. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . A. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Cal. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. says a correspondent of Photo Era. unless some special device is used. When many slides are to be masked. and equally worthy of individual treatment. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. practical and costs nothing. Jaquythe. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. This outlines the desired opening. 4 for width and No. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. --Contributed by W. and kept ready for use at any time. Richmond.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. which are numbered for convenience in working. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. 2 for height. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. If the size wanted is No.

remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. is about right for the No. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. or a pair of old tongs. too. Draw a design. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. Secure a sheet of No. This done. which is dangerous. paint the design. When etched to the desired depth. a little less acid than water. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. about half and half. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. may be changed. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. and do not inhale the fumes. and the extreme length 7 in. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. using the carbon paper. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. but they can be easily revived. With a stick. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. 16 gauge. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. not the water into the acid. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. The decoration. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . or. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. possibly. the paper is folded along the center line. the margin and the entire back of the metal. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. The one shown is merely suggestive. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in.

apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. and bore two holes. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. it will touch post F. long. 5. A. 5. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. 3. Fig. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. or more wide. C and D. Nail a board. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. as at H. long and 1 ft. Fig. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. J is another wire attached in the same way. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. The connections are simple: I. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. about 1 in. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. thick. 2. wide and of the same length as the table. attached to a post at each end.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. the bell will ring. through it. Fig. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. about 3 ft. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. wide. 3/8 in. 2. Fig. It may be either nailed or screwed down. . so that when it is pressed down. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. 2. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. Cut out a piece of tin. 1. in diameter and 1/4 in. repeat as many times as is necessary. to the table. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. high. Paint the table any color desired. about 2-1/2 in. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. and about 2-1/2 ft. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. When the button S is pressed. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. 0 indicates the batteries. with the wires underneath. Fig. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 4. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. 24 parts water. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. as shown in the illustration. as in Fig. as shown in Fig. about 8 in. Then get two posts.

handle and all. The entire weapon. the wood peg inserted in one of them.Imitation Arms and Armor . A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. This weapon is about 22 in. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. 2. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. The imitation articles are made of wood. After the glue is dry. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. These rings can be carved out. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. thick. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. The circle is marked out with a compass. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. long serves as the dowel. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. but they are somewhat difficult to make. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. 1. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. A wood peg about 2 in. long. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth.. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. is to appear as steel. such as . says the English Mechanic.

sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. 8. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. If such a tool is not at hand. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The handle is of wood. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. The axe is shown in steel. This weapon is about 22 in. 2. etc. The entire handle should be made of one piece. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. 3. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. or the amateur cannot use it well. Its length is about 3 ft. studded with large brass or steel nails. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. also. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The upper half of the handle is steel. The lower half of the handle is wood. 5. the hammer and spike. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. as shown. is shown in Fig. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The handle is of steel imitation. leaves. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. covered with red velvet. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. long. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. . Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. as described in Fig. All of these axes are about the same length. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. flowers. The spikes are cut out of wood. with a sharp carving tool. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel.ornamental scrolls. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. used at the end of the fifteenth century. as before mentioned. 6. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel.

--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The knife falling on its side (Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 1. Fig. and so on for nine innings. calls for a home run. the knife resting on its back. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. a three-base hit. as in Fig. 6. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. 3. then the other plays. as shown in Fig. Each person plays until three outs have been made. 4). Chicago. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 7) calls for one out. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. 2. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. 5. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. .

Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. If it is spotted at all. Old-Time Magic . as shown in Fig. of the rope and holds it. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. one of them burning . Somerville. while the committee is tying him up. hypo to 1 pt.-Contributed by J. 2. Mass. of water for an hour or two. This he does. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. F. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. It may be found that the negative is not colored. 1. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. with the rope laced in the cloth. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. as shown in Fig. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Campbell. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. 3. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make.

Lebanon. of sugar. New York City. 3/4 in. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. of plumbago. 4 oz. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush.. Evans. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. shades the light for a few seconds. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. 4 oz. Drill Gauge screw. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger.brightly. --Contributed by L. and. thus causing it to light. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. thick. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. Ky. The magician walks over to the burning candle. --Contributed by C. . bolt. Louisville. the other without a light. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. invisible to them (the audience). you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. B. of turpentine. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. etc. Thome.Contributed by Andrew G. Brown. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. showing that there is nothing between them. with which he is going to light the other candle. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. of water and 1 oz. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. Ky. He then walks over to the other candle. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands.

amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. but is not so good. Its current strength is about one volt. In making up the solution. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. H. --Contributed by C. about 5 in. To make the porous cell. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Pulteney. for the material. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. long. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. diameter. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Denniston. into a tube of several thicknesses. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. steady current. Y. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. which will give a strong. 5 in. N. thick. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. or blotting paper. Do not add water to the acid. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup.

The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. the other holding them apart. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. steel. After much experimentation with bearings. but somewhat lighter. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. steel. Finally. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. a positive adjustment was provided. carrying the hour circle at one end. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground.) may be obtained. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. long with a bearing at each end. As to thickness. while the other end is attached by two screws. The . and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. one drawing them together. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. To insure this. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. One hole was bored as well as possible. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame.station. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. steel. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces.

To locate a known star on the map. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. All these adjustments. The pole is 1 deg. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. Cassiopiae. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration.. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. turn the pointer to the star.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. and 15 min. and if it is not again directed to the same point. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. Instead. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end." Only a rough setting is necessary. are tightened. Point it approximately to the north star. excepting those on the declination axis. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. is provided with this adjustment.. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. save the one in the pipe. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. All set screws. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. in each direction from two points 180 deg. If the result is more than 24 hours. 45 min. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . need not be changed. Set the declination circle to its reading. To find a star in the heavens. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. Each shaft. When properly set it will describe a great circle. Declination is read directly. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. apart. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. The aperture should be 1/4 in. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. subtract 24. once carefully made. It is." When this is done. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit.

taking care not to add too much. add a little more benzole.. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. then add 1 2-3 dr. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. -Contributed by Ray E. 3 or 4 in. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. a great effect will be produced. of ether. which is the one examined. La.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. New Orleans. Plain City. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. is the real cannon ball. In reality the first ball. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. benzole. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. The dance will begin. The ball is found to be the genuine article. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. the others . If this will be too transparent. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. as shown in the sketch. long. Strosnider. is folded several times. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. cannon balls. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. Ohio.

Milwaukee. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Wis. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Cal. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. without taking up any great amount of space. Campbell. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. Fig. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. In boxes having a sliding cover.. small brooches. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. --Contributed by J. F. Mass. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. 1). Somerville. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. as shown in the illustration. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. San Francisco. 2. Return the card to the pack. taps. etc.

slides and extra brushes. thus giving ample store room for colors. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. This box has done good service. Hartford. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. as shown in the illustration. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. .The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. prints. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Beller. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. from the bottom of the box. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. round pieces 2-1/4 in. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Connecticut. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require.

Darke. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. 2). This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. . When the ends are turned under. holes in the bottom of one. FIG. will answer the purpose. West Lynn. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. 1). with well packed horse manure. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. costing 5 cents. or placed against a wall. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. Fill the upper tub.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. tacking the gauze well at the corners. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. Mass. O. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. -Contributed by C. about threefourths full.

Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. if this is not available. when they are raised from the pan. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. --Contributed by L. and each bundle contains . oil or other fluid. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. Chicago. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. cutting the cane between the holes. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. M. If plugs are found in any of the holes. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. If the following directions are carried out. Eifel. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. they should be knocked out. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position.

No plugs . Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. after having been pulled tight. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. 1. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. as shown in Fig. then across and down. held there by inserting another plug. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. a square pointed wedge. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. put about 3 or 4 in. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. and. In addition to the cane. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. it should be held by a plug. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. as it must be removed again.

is the horizontal dial.075 in. Michigan. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. the next smallest. After completing the second layer. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. is the base (5 in. or the style.42 in. for 2°. All added to the lesser or 40°. 1. D. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving.15+. 3. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. 1 lat. lat. it is 4.3 in. trim off the surplus rosin. 1. No weaving has been done up to this time. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. stretch the third one. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. we have 4. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. Detroit. R. Their difference is . the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. 40°. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. After finishing this fourth layer of strands.2+. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. but the most common. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. It consists of a flat circular table. 41°-30'. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. 3. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. called the gnomon. as it always equals the latitude of the place. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. the height of the line BC. 41 °-30'. as shown in Fig. Patrick. Even with this lubrication. If you have a table of natural functions. W. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day.2 in. 42° is 4. and for 1° it would be . From table No. 5.15 in. Fig. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. 4. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. 5 in. as for example. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. --Contributed by M.5 in. as shown in Fig. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. as the height of the line BC for lat. There are several different designs of sundials. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. using the same holes as for the first layer. Fig. 1. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. the height of which is taken from table No. During the weaving.075 in. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. and the one we shall describe in this article. and for lat. in this case) times the . -Contributed by E. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. If handled with a little care. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. When cool. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. This will make three layers. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude.= 4. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. The style or gnomon.

06 2.37 54° 6.16 1. or more.55 30° 2. using the points A and C as centers. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.49 3. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .96 32° 3. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. Table NO.19 1. and for this size dial (10 in.tangent of the degree of latitude.29 4-30 7-30 3.42 1. gives the 6 o'clock points. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.99 2.66 48° 5.16 40 .93 6.57 3. and intersecting the semicircles.66 latitude. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.94 1.50 26° 2.46 3.97 5 7 4.87 1.87 4. To layout the hour circle. 2 for given latitudes.26 4. long. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.81 4.82 2.57 1.59 2. or if of stone.55 4.91 58° 8.39 . For latitudes not given.20 60° 8. Its thickness.64 4 8 3.44 44° 4.49 30 .42 45 . 1. circle Sundial. according to the size of the dial.56 .63 56° 7.40 34° 3.27 2.33 .03 3. Chords in inches for a 10 in.02 1. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.07 4. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.30 2.41 38° 3.55 46° 5. .00 40° 4. 2.79 4.11 3.66 1. base. with a radius of 5 in.33 42° 4. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.14 5.40 1.23 6.55 5.76 1. if of metal.28 .85 1.46 .32 6. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. Draw two semi-circles.93 2.68 5-30 6-30 5.30 1. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.85 35 .89 50° 5.82 5.10 6.82 3. and perpendicular to the base or style.12 52° 6.38 .83 27° 2. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. an inch or two.88 36° 3.77 2.18 28° 2. Fig. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. which will represent the base in length and thickness.42 .37 5. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. 2. Draw the line AD.

from Sundial lime. This correction can be added to the values in table No. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.93 6.98 4. after allowing for the declination.01 1. --Contributed by J..means that the dial is faster than the sun. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.63 1. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.77 3.08 1.89 3. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. Each weapon is cut from wood. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.52 Table No. E. 25.57 1.14 1.71 2. and for the difference between standard and local time. says the English Mechanic. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. The + means that the clock is faster. As they are the genuine reproductions. Sept. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. will enable one to set the dial. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.46 4.49 3. adding to each piece interest and value.50 . Sioux City. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. An ordinary compass.72 5.49 5.54 60 . then the watch is slower. June 15.82 3. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. Iowa.53 1. each article can be labelled with the name. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.12 5.87 6. London. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. Mitchell.79 6. 900 Chicago. and the .37 2. 3. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.10 4. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.add those marked + subtract those Marked . it will be faster.30 2. 2 and Dec.06 2. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.46 5. April 16.50 55 .60 4. if west. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.34 5. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. Sun time to local mean time.19 2. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.24 5. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 3.68 3.21 2.

with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. Partisan. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. 3. 1. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. ..swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. the length of which is about 5 ft. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. When putting on the tinfoil. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle.

long. It is about 6 ft. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The edges are sharp. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The length of this bar is about 5 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. about 4 in. 7. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. is shown in Fig. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The extreme length is 9 ft. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in..which is square. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. This weapon is about 6 ft. press it well into the carved depressions. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The spear is steel. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. 8. long. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. the holes being about 1/4 in. long with a round staff or handle. used about the seventeenth century. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. sharp on the outer edges. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. long with a round wooden handle. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. 6 ft. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. which are a part of the axe. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. . 5. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. in diameter. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. A gisarm or glaive.

or in holes punched in a leather strap. 1.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. Substances such as straw. This is important to secure neatness. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. They can be made of various materials. B. are less durable and will quickly show wear. 5. used for spacing and binding the whole together. The twisted cross cords should . Cut all the cords the same length. 4. Ohio. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. Workman. 2 and 3. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. apart. as shown in Fig. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Loudonville. the cross cords. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. In Figs. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. are put in place. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering.-Contributed by R. H. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. the most durable being bamboo. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig.

of the bottom. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. La. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. This was turned over the top of the other can. M. below the top to within 1/4 in. Lockport. -Contributed by Geo. The first design shown is for using bamboo. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels.be of such material. wide. shaped as shown at C. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. for a length extending from a point 2 in. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. Four V-shaped notches were cut. as shown at B. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. in which was placed a piece of glass. New York. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Harrer. bamboo or rolled paper. A slit was cut in the bottom. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. New Orleans. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. 3 in. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. To remedy this. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the .

This should be done gradually. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. --Contributed by Joseph H. H. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. giving the appearance of hammered brass. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Ill. After this is finished. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. --Contributed by W. do not throw away the gloves. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. Shay. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. the brass is loosened from the block. turned over but not fastened. Schaffner. Newburgh. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Maywood. wide. N. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. --Contributed by Chas. and two along the side for attaching the staff. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. Sanford. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. This plank. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. Y. It would be well to polish the brass at first. Pasadena. is shown in the accompanying sketch. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end.tape from sticking to the carpet. about 1/16 in. Cal. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled.

Richmond. --E. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Cal. bent as shown. in diameter. A. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Oak Park. K. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. -Contributed by W. the pendulum swings . Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Jaquythe. Unlike most clocks. Marshall. Ill.

high and 1/4 in. 6 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. bearing on the latter. about 6 in. Fasten another board. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. wide that is perfectly flat. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. 7-1/2 in. in diameter. the center one being 2-3/4 in. 5/16 in. B. C. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. Secure a board. on the board B. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. only have the opposite side up. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. thick. to the first one with screws or glue. 3/4 in. about 12 in. high.. away. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. says the Scientific American. is an electromagnet. --Contributed by V. high. such as this one. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. A. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. by 1-5/16 in. In using this method. high. bar. are secured in the base bar. Chicago. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Two uprights. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Metzech. . Now place the board to be joined. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. long and at each side of this. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. wide. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. and the other two 2-5/8 in. The construction is very simple. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end.

1. 1. or more. by driving a pin through the wood. The trigger. Pa.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. 1. as shown at A. Fig. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. 2. Phoenixville. wide and 1 in. wide and 5 in. plates should be made 8 in. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. is fastened in the hole A. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. --Contributed by Elmer A. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. 3. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Vanderslice. 4. from one end. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. square inside. square. . whose dimensions are given in Fig. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. Fig. long. Place the cardboard square in the nick B.

Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. one-half the length of the side pieces. square. rubbing varnish and turpentine. by weight. Simonis. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. Ohio.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks.A. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. 2 parts of whiting. as shown in the illustration. -Contributed by J. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Fostoria. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 5 parts of black filler. if only two bands are put in the . on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. which allows 1/4 in. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin.

No. London. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. Shaw. G. 8 in. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. Mass. and the picture can be drawn as described. It must be kept moist and well . is necessary. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. Michigan. 1. in the opposite end of the box. A mirror. deep. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. -Contributed by Abner B. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. Grand Rapids. and it may be made as a model or full sized. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. which may be either of ground or plain glass. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. In use. DeLoof. --Contributed by Thos. long. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. A piece of metal. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. If a plain glass is used. place tracing paper on its surface. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. In constructing helmets.lower strings. keeps the strong light out when sketching. wide and about 1 ft. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. preferably copper. Dartmouth. as shown in Fig. says the English Mechanic. is set at an angle of 45 deg. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. II. A double convex lens.

give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. Scraps of thin. as shown in Fig. joined closely together. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. as in bas-relief. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig.kneaded. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. and the deft use of the fingers. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. on which to place the clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. shown in Fig. After the clay model is finished. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. brown. or some thin glue. and over the crest on top. 1. and left over night to soak. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. 2. a few clay-modeling tools. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. take. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. The clay. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. This being done. and continue until the clay is completely covered. 3. 1. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. the clay model oiled. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. with a keyhole saw. will be necessary. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. All being ready.

They are all covered with tinfoil. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. The band is decorated with brass studs. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. the piecing could not be detected. as seen in the other part of the sketch. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. a few lines running down. should be modeled and made in one piece. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. When the helmet is off the model. --Contributed by Paul Keller. In Fig. When dry. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 7. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. one for each side. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Indiana. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. owing to the clay being oiled.as possible. Indianapolis. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. This contrivance should be made of wood. Before taking it off the model. or. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . and so on. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. The whole helmet. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. and the ear guards in two pieces. In Fig. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. the skullcap. will make it look neat. The center of the ear guards are perforated. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. as shown: in the design. 1. which should be no difficult matter. with the exception of the vizor. 9. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. 5. then another coating of glue. a crest on top. When perfectly dry. square in shape. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward.

as shown in Fig. 12 in. This will allow the plate. 2. thick. each 4-1/2 in. This will make an open space between the plates. 3 in. 4. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. 1. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. the holes leading to the switch. Fig. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. and C. are allowed to project about 1 in. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. If asbestos is used. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. as shown in Fig. which can be bought from a local druggist. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. A round collar of galvanized iron. long. Fig. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. of the top. 2. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. 1. as it stands a higher temperature. If a neat appearance is desired. long. FF. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. two ordinary binding posts. if the measurements are correct. The holes B and C are about 3 in. 4. as shown in Fig. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. AA. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. Fig. is then packed down inside the collar. Fig. 4. AA. one glass tube. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. wide and 15 in. JJ. The two holes. the fuse block. long. high. when they are placed in opposite positions. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. about 80 ft. Fig. 1. of fire clay. Fig. if this cannot be obtained. above the collar. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. Fig. 1 in. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. The reverse side of the base. is shown in Fig. E and F. Fig. The plate. for connections. GG. one fuse block. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 4. with slits cut for the wires. 3. 4 lb.same size. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. Fig. Fig. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. 2. to receive screws for holding it to the base. about 1 lb. Fig. The mineral wool. until it is within 1 in. one oblong piece of wood. 4. 4. about 1/4 in. 22 gauge resistance wire. Fig. of No. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. in diameter and 9 in. AA. should extend about 1/4 in. thick sheet asbestos. also the switch B and the fuse block C. or. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. 1. 4. and two large 3in. and. 1. one small switch. of mineral wool. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. German-silver wire is better. screws. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. Fig. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. 1.

This point marks the proper length to cut it. A. Fig. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. Cover over about 1 in. Fig. apart. Cut a 1/2-in. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. will slip and come in contact with each other. Can. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. so that the circuit will not become broken. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. and pressed into it. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. If it is not thoroughly dry. When this is done. --Contributed by R. more wire should be added. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. It should not be set on end. 2. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. it leaves a gate for the metal. A file can be used to remove any rough places. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. If this is the case. St. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. This completes the stove. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. above the rim. Next. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Cnonyn. H. allowing a space between each turn. when heated. deep. 4. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Cal. The clay. As these connections cannot be soldered. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. then. Jaquythe. Richmond. --Contributed by W. While the clay is damp. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. steam will form when the current is applied. It should not be left heated in this condition. II. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. as the turns of the wires. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. Catherines. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. using care not to get it too wet. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. when cool. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. KK. When the tile is in place. causing a short circuit. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on.

Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. --Contributed by Andrew G. square material in any size. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Ky. the pie will be damaged. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. and the frame set near a window. Then clip a little off the . but 12 by 24 in. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Louisville. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. constructed of 3/4-in. as shown. says the Photographic Times. and the prints will dry rapidly. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Thorne. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. is large enough.

each 1/2 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. 1 and 3. 3. open out. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. long. in diameter. which are fastened to the base. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. 1/2 in. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. which gives the shaft a half turn. at GG.Paper Funnel point. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. thereby saving time and washing. Le Mars. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. causing a break in the current. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. Fig. long. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. 1/2 in. 1. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. wide and 3 in. As the shaft revolves. in diameter and about 4 in. for the crank. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. each 1 in. 14 in. Herron. W. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. wide and 7 in. high. 1. Fig. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. 4 in. The driving arm D. Two supports. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. 22 gauge magnet wire. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. high. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The connecting rod E. wide. An offset is bent in the center. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. thick and 3 in. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. as shown. Fig. allowing each end to project for connections. 2-1/2 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. thick. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. 2. 1. 1. A 1/8-in. long. The upright B. The connections are made as shown in Fig. The board can be raised to place . The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. thick and 3 in. Iowa. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. Figs. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. -Contributed by S. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. slip on two cardboard washers. high. long.

The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. 3 in. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. . Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. One or more pots may be used. Place the pot.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. on a board. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. bottom side up. making a framework suitable for a roost. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. --Contributed by William F. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. in height. In designing the roost. Dorchester. Mass. as shown in the sketch. Stecher.

it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. 1. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails.. odd corners. grills and gratings for doors. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. will produce the pattern desired. shelves. if it is other than straight lines. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. when combined. adopt the method described. etc. The materials required are rope or.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. that it is heated. without any corresponding benefit. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. preferably. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. as shown in Fig. F. F. paraffin and paint or varnish. windows. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. 1. and give it time to dry. The bottom part of the sketch. in diameter. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. Wind the . Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. Fig. ordinary glue. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges..

Lockport. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. -Contributed by Geo. Fig. six designs are shown.Fig. 2. N. cut and glue them together. M. Harrer. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Y. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] .

The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. This piece of horse armor. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. As the .. 1.. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. which was used in front of a horse's head. and the sides do not cover the jaws. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. when it will be observed that any organic matter. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. etc. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. etc. will be retained by the cotton. chips of iron rust. London.. but no farther. says the English Mechanic.

These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. 6 and 7. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. This being done. as the surface will hold the clay. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. An arrangement is shown in Fig. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and will require less clay. The armor is now removed from the model. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. This triangularshaped support. This will make the model light and easy to move around. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. the same as in Fig. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. 2. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. which is separate. then another coat of glue. with the exception of the thumb shield. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. 2. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. 8. but the back is not necessary. which can be made in any size. and therefore it is not described. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. the rougher the better. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. 4. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. but for . This can be made in one piece. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. In Fig. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. and the clay model oiled. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. except the thumb and fingers. All being ready. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made.

Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. --Contributed by John G. A piece of board. the top of the rod. the foils will not move. in depth. will be about right. and the instrument is ready for use. When locating the place for the screw eyes. Y. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Buxton. fastened to the rod. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. but 3-1/2 in. Goshen. cut into the shape shown in Fig. --Contributed by Ralph L. The two pieces of foil. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. each about 1/4 in. long. two for the jaws and one a wedge. N. 2. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. . are better shown in Fig. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. running down the plate. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. two in each jaw. Redondo Beach. La Rue. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. are glued to it. 9. the two pieces of foil will draw together. Calif. 1/2 in. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. wide and 1/2 in. If it does not hold a charge.

Corsicana. Bryan. When a fish is hooked. as shown in the illustration. long. as indicated in the . pine board. as this will cut under the water without splashing. M. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. A. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Texas. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. silvered. --Contributed by Mrs. about 15 in. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. hole bored through it. from the smaller end. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. The can may be bronzed. At a point 6 in. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. is made of a 1/4-in. enameled or otherwise decorated. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. 2-1/2 in. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines.

When it has dried over night. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Basswood or butternut. A good size is 5 in. 22 is plenty heavy enough. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Having completed the drawing. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. Polish the metal. using a piece of carbon paper. then with a nail. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. wide by 6 in. long over all. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth.Match Holder accompanying sketch. or even pine. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. as shown. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. thick. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. take a piece of thin wood. using powdered pumice and lye. put a coat or two of wax and polish . 3/8 or 1/4 in. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Next prepare the metal holder. Any kind of wood will do. and trace upon it the design and outline. If soft wood. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. such as basswood or pine was used. punch the holes.

tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. Instead of the usual two short ropes. wide and 5 in. can be made on the same standards. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. If one has some insight in carving. It is useful for photographers. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Richmond. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. are used for the cores of the magnets. A. long. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. of pure olive oil. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. each 1 in. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. long. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. 2 in. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. is used for the base of this instrument. .over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. If carving is contemplated. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. 1/2 in. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Jaquythe. the whole being finished in linseed oil. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. thick. Cal. Two wire nails. --Contributed by W. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in.

A piece of tin. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. . Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. leaving about 1/4 in. similar to that used in electric bells. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. as shown by the dotted lines. then covered with red. acts as a spring to keep the key open. Lynas. A rubber band. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. 3. cut in the shape of the letter T. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. London. in the shape shown in the sketch. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. the paper covering put on. 25 gauge. says the English Mechanic. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. except that for the legs. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. when the key is pushed down. H. All of the parts for the armor have been described. --Contributed by W. 1. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. cloth or baize to represent the legs. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. About 1 in. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. at A. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. about No. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. as shown in Fig.

and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. Secure two strips of wood. make the same series of eight small holes and. A 1/4-in. Take the piece shown in Fig. at each end. for the sake of lightness. Cut them to a length or 40 in. not too tight. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. Instead of using brass headed nails. holes. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. says Camera Craft. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. In one end of the piece. one to another . and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. 3 in. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. long. So set up. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. The two pieces are bolted together. drill six 1/4-in. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. apart. completes the equipment. 2. 1 and drill a 1/4in. By moving the position of the bolt from. 1 in. These can be purchased at a stationery store. hole in the center.. can be made in a few minutes' time. Silver paper will do very well. about 1 in. and eight small holes. flat headed carriage bolt. apart. or ordinary plaster laths will do. in the other end. Fig. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues.

and the one beneath C. 1. Then take B and lay it over A. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. 4. and lay it over the one to the right. Start with one end. Then draw all four ends up snugly. Fig. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. in Fig. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. of the ends remain unwoven. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. D over A and C. A is the first string and B is the second. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. then B over C and the end stuck under A. lay Cover B and the one under D. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. as shown in Fig. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. 2. In this sketch. for instance. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. the one marked A. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. 2. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A.of the larger holes in the strip. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. taking the same start as for the square fob. long. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. doubled and run through the web of A. C over D and B. 2. A round fob is made in a similar way. but instead of reversing . and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. as in portraiture and the like.

the design of which is shown herewith. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. long. Other designs can be made in the same manner. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. as at A in Fig. Monroeville. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. 1-1/2 in. Ohio. --Contributed by John P. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. as in making the square fob. is to be made of leather. 3. always lap one string. A loop. 5. The round fob is shown in Fig. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Rupp. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. especially if silk strings are used. as B.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. over the one to its right. is left out at the center before starting on one side.

Mich.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. such as a nut pick. pressing it against the wood. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. When the supply of wax is exhausted. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. it can be easily renewed. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Any smooth piece of steel. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. A. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. Houghton. beeswax or paraffin. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. using the reverse side. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. door facing or door panel. . -Contributed by A. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. Northville. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. filling them with wax. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool.

Y. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Select the print you wish to mount. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. J. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. New York. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. and after wetting. although tin ones can be used with good success. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. N. apart and driven in only part way. . Enough plaster should. Ill. place it face down in the dish. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. if blueprints are used. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. The tacks should be about 1 in. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. remaining above the surface of the board. E and F. long. but any kind that will not stick may be used. and about 12 in. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. thick. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Thompson. those on matte paper will work best. says Photographic Times. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Fold together on lines C. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Petersburg. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. D. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. it is best to leave a plain white margin. --Contributed by O. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. leaving about 1/4 in. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it.

Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. bell flowers. without mixing the solutions. will be rendered perfectly white. roses. One of the . The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. as shown in the right of the sketch. Lower into the test tube a wire. violets. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. etc. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. as shown at the left in the sketch. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution.. filling the same about onehalf full. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized.

to keep the core from coming off in turning.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. 1. shading. made of heavy tin. should be soldered to the box. The diaphragm. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. and at the larger end. long. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. 1-7/8 in. not too tightly. long and made of wood. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. 2. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. turned a little tapering. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. Millstown. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. --Contributed by L. as shown. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. South Dakota. When soldering these parts together. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The first point should be ground blunt. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. in diameter and 1 in. as shown in the sketch. but which will not wobble loose. or delicate tints of the egg. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. thick. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. Fig. The tin horn can be easily made. Shabino. L. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. is about 2-1/2 in. The sound box. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. 3. A rod that will fit the brass tube. about 1/8s in.. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle.

Contributed by E. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Ill. mice in the bottom. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Colo. wondering what it was. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. says the Iowa Homestead. Chicago. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. E. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Jr. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . while playing in the yard close to a grain house. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. and. put a board on top. Gold. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Victor. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four.

Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Y. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. Can. Ottawa. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. N. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Pereira. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. . There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Buffalo. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. --Contributed by Lyndwode.

on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . A. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Put a small nail 2 in. a piece of tin. longer than the length of the can. by means of a flatheaded tack. cut round. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Richmond. Mich. above the end of the dasher. De Loof. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. This cart has no axle. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. and at one end of the stick fasten. Jaquythe. as it can be made quickly in any size. --Contributed by Thos. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Cal. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by W. Grand Rapids. through which several holes have been punched. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. as shown.

Notches 1/8 in. long. Fig. Pa. 2. wide and 3 ft. The baseboard and top are separable. Doylestown. wide. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. 1/4 in. deep and 3 in. 1. I reversed a door gong. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. thick. 1 ft. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. New Orleans. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. as shown. wide and as long as the box. La. 2 in. 2. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. screwed it on the inside of a store box. The candles. Kane. apart. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. of course. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood.1. were below the level of the bullseye. 1-1/2 in. 2. cut in the center of the rounding edge.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. A wedge-shaped piece of . --Contributed by James M. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. board. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. wide and 1/8 in.

This device is very convenient for invalids. the blade is put back into the groove . dressing one surface of each piece. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. when placed as in Fig. take two pieces of hard wood. the reason being that if both were solid. wide into each side of the casing. 3. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. Worcester.. 1. can be picked up without any trouble. etc. West Union. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. After completing the handle. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. scissors. --Contributed by G. wide rubber bands or felt. as shown in Fig. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Cover the block with rubber. For the handle. stone or wood. Needles. A. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. the shelf could not be put on the window. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. The block can also be used as a paperweight.Book Back Holders metal. it can be removed without marring the casing. After the glue has dried. When not in use. Ia. will. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Wood. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Mass. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. by cutting away the ends.

Hutchins. Jacobs. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. . Mass. 1. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Ohio. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. square and 4 in. as shown in Fig. A. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. is shown in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by H. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. long. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. 1 in. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Pa. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by W. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Cleveland.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Erie. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. thus carrying the car up the incline. Malden. If desired. S. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. --Contributed by Maud McKee. 2. A notch is cut in one side.

6 by 9-1/2 in. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Prepare a design for the front. a board on which to work it. This will insure having all parts alike. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. The letters can be put on afterward. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. One sheet of metal. If one such as is shown is to be used.J. N. and an awl and hammer. Cape May Point. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. .. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. will be needed.

2 parts white vitriol. a violin. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. So impressive are the results. Remove the metal. On the back. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. 3/4 part. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. applied by means of a brush. . If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. if desired. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes." In all appearance.Fasten the metal to the board. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. only the marginal line is to be pierced. behind or through the center of a table leg. If any polishing is required. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. The stick may be placed by the side of. flat brush. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. which is desirable. or. mandolin or guitar. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. 1 part. that can be worked in your own parlor. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. to right angles. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. 1/4 part. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. One coat will do. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. paste the paper design right on the metal. varnish. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. placed on a table. as shown. but weird and distant. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. says Master Painter. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. The music will not sound natural. in the waste metal. turpentine.

One thing is always at hand and that is wood. are shaped as shown in Fig. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. Two pairs of feet. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. long and measuring 26 in. is bent square so as to form two uprights. and is easy to construct. without them. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. square bar iron. 3. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. thick by 1/2 in. 2. it might be difficult. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. apart. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. says Work. each 6 in. across the top. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. round-head machine screws. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. long and spread about 8 in. long. . London. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. With proper tools this is easy.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. The longest piece. each 28 in. wide. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig.

These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. Fig. in the grooves of the borders. 4. 5. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. as shown in Fig. lead. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. is held by the brads. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. B. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. 7. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. C. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. the latter being tapped to . A. The brads are then removed. D. Place the corner piece of glass. The glass. and the base border. cut a long piece of lead. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. or. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. on it as shown. After the joints are soldered. Fig. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. After the glass is cut. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. The design is formed in the lead. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. 6. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. using rosin as a flux. special flux purchased for this purpose. 5. better still. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. While the piece of lead D.

hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. H. then drill a 3/4-in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. 8. Dreier. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. Secure a post. in diameter and about 9 in. The center pin is 3/4-in. This ring can be made of 1-in. holes through their centers. plank about 12 ft. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. long. rounded at the top as shown. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Jr. plates. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. long. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. one on each side and central with the hole. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Camden. Make three washers 3-in..the base of the clip. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Bore a 5/8-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. long. Fasten the plates to the block B. wood screws in each washer. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. not less than 4 in. A and B. bolt. This . bolt. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. N. rocker bolt. J. --Contributed by W. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Bore a 3/4-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. thick and drill 3/4-in. in diameter and 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. and two wood blocks. Two styles of hand holds are shown. and round the corners of one end for a ring. square and of the length given in the drawing. then flatten its end on the under side. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers.

Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 50 ft. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. by 3 ft. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. screws. because it will not stand the weather. hickory. shanks. horse and rings. 3 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. and some one can swing an axe.will make an excellent cover for a pot. can make a first class gymnasium. The four 7-in. New Orleans. 1 by 7 in. maple. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . Draw a line on the four 7-in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 3/4 by 3 in. To substitute small. 1. square by 9-1/2 ft. long. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. of 1/4-in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. 4 pieces. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 4 filler pieces. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. If trees are convenient. apart for a distance of 3 ft. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. boards along the side of each from end to end. 1/2 in. chestnut or ash. 4 in. by 2 ft. from one edge. 7 in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. in diameter and 7 in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. long and 1 piece. 2-1/2 in. 4 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. 4 pieces. long. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. by 6-1/2 ft. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 16 screws. La. long. long. long. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. bit. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. square by 5 ft. 9 in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. straight-grained hickory. bolts and rope. 2 by 4 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 1-1/4in.

from the end. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones.. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. piece of wood. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. apart. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. 2. apart.. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. so the 1/2-in. 8 in. Bore a 9/16-in. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. at each end. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in.bored. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. each 3 ft. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. deep and remove all loose dirt. boards coincide.

about 100 ft. just visible against the dark evening sky. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. He stretched the thread between two buildings. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. . A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others." which skimmed along the distant horizon. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference.. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. and materially heightened the illusion. If the tumbler is rotated. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. When the interest of the crowd. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. W. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. which at once gathered. it follows the edge for about 1 in.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. the effect is very striking. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. and then passes in a curve across the base. was at its height. passing through a screweye at either end. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. but most deceptive at dusk. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and ascends the stem. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. And all he used was a black thread. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. in an endless belt. not even the tumbler. it is taken to the edge of the foot. apart. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. not much to look at in daytime. disappearing only to reappear again.

A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. long. square and 6 ft. from either side of the center. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. long. beginning at a point 9 in. and turned in a spiral D. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 2 side braces. Bevel the ends of . large spikes. so the point will be on top. 2 by 4 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. deep. by 7 ft. A wire about No. 2 by 3 in. 6 in. 4 bolts. 4 in. 2 base pieces. 8 in. The cork will come out easily. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. La. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. square and 51/2 ft. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. by 3 ft. Chisel out two notches 4 in. Fig. 4 wood screws. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 8 in. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. New Orleans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 7 in. 2 by 4 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. by 2 ft. 1. 2 cross braces. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 8 bolts. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. wide and 1 in. 2 in. long. 8 in. long. by 10 ft. long. long. 4 knee braces. To make the apparatus. long. long. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. long and 1 doz. preferably cedar.

The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. as shown in the diagram. After the trenches are dug. save the bars. Two endpieces must be made. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. and countersinking the heads. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. . Cal. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. These will allow the ladle to be turned. Richmond. additional long. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. except the bars. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. A large sized ladle. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. Jaquythe. leave it undressed. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. so the bolts in both will not meet. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in.the knee braces. etc. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. If using mill-cut lumber. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. --Contributed by W. jellies. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. The wood so treated will last for years. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. which face each other. of 7 ft. but even unpainted they are very durable. leaving the strainer always in position. A. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. ( To be Continued.. equipped with a strainer. using four of the 7-in bolts. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. screws.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands.

it is necessary to place a stick. Oil. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. drill press or planer. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. A. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. . This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. milling machine. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. partly a barrier for jumps. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. thus holding the pail as shown. which seems impossible. of sufficient 1ength. In order to accomplish this experiment. or various cutting compounds of oil. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool.

bolts. The round part of this log must be planed. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. projections and splinters. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. by 3 ft. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. wood yard or from the woods. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. These are well nailed in place. 1 cross brace. in diameter--the larger the better. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. from each end. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. 1 in.. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. two 1/2-in. beginning 1-1/2 in. To construct. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. square by 5 ft. Hand holds must be provided next. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 2 by 4 in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. by 3 ft. long. and free from knots. 2 by 4 in. 2 adjusting pieces. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. Procure from a saw mill. 4-1/2 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 4 in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. in the ground. long. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. square by 5-1/2 ft. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. ten 1/2-in. bolts. by 3 ft. The material required is as follows: Two posts. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. but 5 ft. long. 7 in. 4 in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. bolts. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. long. These are placed 18 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 2 bases. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. 3 in. 4 knee braces. is a good length.. long. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. piece of 2 by 4-in. apart in a central position on the horse. apart. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. long. bolt. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. long. long. 2 by 4 in. stud cut rounding on one edge. 4 in.

When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. such as a dent. but nevertheless. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon.horse top. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. snow. over and around. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Richmond. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Jaquythe. Such a hand sled can be made in a . When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. A. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. it is caused by an overloaded shell. water. etc. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Also. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. then bending to the shape desired. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. it is caused by some obstruction. no one is responsible but himself. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Cal. pipe and fittings. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle.--Contributed by W. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape.

The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. 1/4 or 3/16 in. These. will give the length. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. --Contributed by Arthur E. then run a string over each part. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. France. Paris. 2.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Joerin. when complete. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. W. Boston. are all the tools necessary. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Ontario. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. --Contributed by J. which. is much better than a wood sled. at E and F. Mass. Noble. Toronto. . Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. thick. The end elevation. Vener. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. in width and 1/32 in. 1. when straightened out. --Contributed by James E.

The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. and the latter will take on a bright luster. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. 4. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The method shown in Figs. It is best to use soft water. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. AA and BB. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. 3. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. are nailed. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. nor that which is partly oxidized. .

The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. The materials used are: backbone. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 3. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. class ice-yacht. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 1). Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. . having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. 2. 8 and 9. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. or various rulings may be made. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. or unequal widths as in Fig. Percy Ashley in Rudder. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 4. Broad lines can be made. 2. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. 1-Details of Lathe sort. about 30 in. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. long. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The point should extend about 11/2 in. but if it is made much longer. It can be made longer or shorter. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. pins to keep them from turning. out from the collar. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch.Fig. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. a tee and a forging. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. bent and drilled as shown. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. 1. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. pipe. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. a larger size of pipe should be used. The headstock is made of two tees. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. Both the lower . nipples and flanges arranged as shown.

--Contributed by M. --Contributed by W. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. else taper turning will result. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. or a key can be used as well. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. 2. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. 2. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Fruitvale. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. It is about 1 in. UpDeGraff. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. a straight line should be scratched Fig. a corresponding line made on this. as shown in Fig. 1. thick as desired. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Laporte. W. --Contributed by W. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. 3/4 or 1 in. and will answer for a great variety of work. Boissevain. Cal. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. 2. Man. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. . Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. M. Held. Musgrove. but also their insulating properties. Indiana. To do this. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord.

The handle is of pine about 18 in. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. J. In use. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. To obviate this. Smith. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. Cline. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. --Contributed by E. as shown. long. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. Ft. Ark.

face off the end of the piece. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. New Orleans. if this method is followed: First. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. on starting the lathe. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. take . bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. White. centering is just one operation too many. Denver. the drill does not need the tool.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. This prevents the drill from wobbling. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. La. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Colo. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. After being entered. and when once in true up to its size. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. which should be backed out of contact. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. --Contributed by Walter W. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club.

so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. by applying caustic soda or . after being shown empty. and can be varied to suit the performer. After the wand is removed. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. all the better. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. The handkerchief rod. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. says the Sphinx. It can be used in a great number of tricks. a long piece of glass tubing. is put into the paper tube A. unknown to the spectators. In doing this. as shown in D. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. The glass tube B. shorter t h a n the wand. vanishing wand. and this given to someone to hold. a bout 1/2 in. the cap is placed over the paper tube. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. shown at C.

A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 2 Sides. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. 1 End. long. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. 1/4 in. The brace at D is 1 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. by 14 by 17 in. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. and glue it to the neck at F. As the cement softens. Cut a piece of hard wood. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. Glue the neck to the box. With care and patience. can be made by the home mechanic. square and 1-7/8 in. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 1. 1 Bottom. The sides. thick. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. with the back side rounding. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. as shown by K. End. This dimension and those for the frets . ends and bottom are made of hard wood. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters.potash around the edges of the letters. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. 3/16. across the front and back to strengthen them. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. preferably hard maple. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Glue strips of soft wood. cut to any shape desired. 1 Neck. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets.

thick and about 1 ft. --Contributed by Chas. Stoddard. -Contributed by J. in diameter. long is used for a keel. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. but it is not. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. 1) on which to stretch the paper. toward each end. Norwalk. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Six holes. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. O. 3/16 in. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. or backbone. E. Carbondale. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. and beveled . The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length.Pa. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. A board 1 in.should be made accurately. H. Frary. wide and 11-1/2 ft.

3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. wide by 26 in. For the gunwales (a. buy some split cane or rattan. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 3. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. Any tough. Fig. or similar material.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. which are easily made of long. with long stout screws. Osiers probably make the best ribs. b. 2. Fig. such as hazel or birch. as shown in Fig. thick. The cross-boards (B. as shown in Fig. and. . the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. b. are next put in. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. will answer nearly as well. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. when made of green elm. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. B. 4. apart. In drying. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. and are not fastened. some tight strips of ash. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. 2). Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. 3. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. long. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. procure at a carriage factory. 13 in. Fig. and so. Fig. 4). two strips of wood (b. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Green wood is preferable. 3). long are required. as before described. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Shape these as shown by A. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. slender switches of osier willow. such as is used for making chairbottoms. but twigs of some other trees. Fig. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. twigs 5 or 6 ft. b. by means of a string or wire. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. in thickness and should be cut. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. These are better. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. but before doing this. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. Fig. 2). because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. 3/8 in. Fig.) in notches. thick. C. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join.. The ribs. Fig. or other place. two twigs may be used to make one rib. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. as they are apt to do. probably. the loose strips of ash (b. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 1. 3). 1 and 2. in such cases. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. C. a. Fig.

and light oars. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. tacking it to the bottom-board. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. and as soon as that has soaked in. preferably iron. Fig. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. B. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. but neither stiff nor very thick. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. wide. If not. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. When the paper is dry. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. You may put in . Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Being made in long rolls. Then take some of the split rattan and. If the paper be 1 yd. and very tough. if it has been properly constructed of good material. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. of very strong wrapping-paper. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. It should be drawn tight along the edges. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. It should be smooth on the surface.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. and steady in the water. however. but with less turpentine. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. after wetting it. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. and held in place by means of small clamps. When thoroughly dry. The paper is then trimmed. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. 5).

1. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. Drive the lower nail first. 5). We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. fore and aft. We procured a box and made a frame. and if driven as shown in the cut. and make a movable seat (A. 1 and the end in . we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. Fig. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. to fit it easily. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. they will support very heavy weights. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. 5. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. Fig. 2. Fig.

A good way to handle this work. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. Close the other end with the same operation. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. Pa. 4. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast.Fig. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. 3. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. 5. Pittsburg. This way has its drawbacks. this makes the tube airtight. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. and the result is. being softer where the flame has been applied. This is an easy . simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. and the glass.

Sixth. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. three. -Contributed by A. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. or six arms. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. extra metal all around. above the work and striking it with the hammer.way to make a thermometer tube. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. above the metal. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. also trace the decorative design. file. very rapid progress can be made. with a piece of carbon paper. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. four. then reverse. Give the metal a circular motion. fourth. Oswald. metal shears. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. fifth. Seventh. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. The candle holders may have two. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. rivet punch. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. After the bulb is formed. flat and round-nosed pliers. second. thin screw. 23 gauge. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. third.

Small copper rivets are used. Metal polish of any kind will do.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. and holder. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . drip cup. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Having pierced the bracket. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.

The gaff. I steer with the front wheel. The boom. is a broomstick. A saw. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. N. glycerine 4 parts. smooth it down and then remove as before. if it has not absorbed too much ink. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and it will be ready for future use. F. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. they were like an ice boat with a sail. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. sugar 1 part. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. of glycerine to about 200 deg. using a steel pen. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. winding the ends where they came together with wire. on a water bath. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. J. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. hammer. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. Fifty. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. thus it was utilized. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. and other things as they were needed. Shiloh. alcohol 2 parts. Heat 6-1/2 oz.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. Twenty cents was all I spent. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. the stick at the bottom of the sail. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. all the rest I found. and water 24 parts. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. deep. and brace and bit were the tools used. and add the gelatine. Mother let me have a sheet. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. except they had wheels instead of runners. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. and in a week . Soak 1 oz. when it will be ready for use. The wind was the cheapest power to be found.

a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

and the lens slide. describe a 9-in. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. or a lens of 12-in. slide to about 6 ft. are . thick. H. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. 1/2 to 3/4 in. This ring is made up from two rings.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. E. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. Fig. well seasoned pine. but if such a box is not found. at a point 1 in. at a distance of 24 ft. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. as desired. A and B. focus enlarging a 3-in. 1. and 14 in. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. provided the material is of metal. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. wide and 15 in. about 2 ft. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. A table. DD. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. above the center. 3. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. long. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. or glue. high. 8 in. wide.. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. The slide support. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. and a projecting lens 2 in. The board is centered both ways. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. If a small saw is used. and. and the work carefully done. wire brads. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. G. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws.

should the glass happen to upset. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick.constructed to slip easily on the table. Paul.-Contributed by G. JJ. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. To reach the water. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. E. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. Minn. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. and when the right position is found for each. light burning oil. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. placed on the water. Small strips of tin. apply two coats of shellac varnish. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. the water at once extinguishes the flame. but not long enough. P. St. of safe. The arrangement is quite safe as. A sheet . the strips II serving as guides. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. B.

Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 2. I ordered a canvas bag. then the corners on one end are doubled over. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . by 12 ft. Y. Schenectady. 12 ft. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig.. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. Fig. 3. to cover the mattresses. If one of these clips is not at hand.H. Crawford. 9 in. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. --Contributed by J. 1. N. 4. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. form a piece of wire in the same shape. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. from a tent company. Fig. 3 in. 3. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it.

C. in the center coil. Denver. to keep it from unwinding. Fasten the wire with gummed label. first mark the binding-post A. 1/2 in. drill two 3/16 in. so as to form two oblong boxes. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. An arc is cut in the paper.each edge. 3 to swing freely on the tack. 1/2 in. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. thick. --Contributed by Edward M. Fig. open on the edges. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Pa. --Contributed by Walter W. wide. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. long. as shown in Fig. Fold two strips of light cardboard. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Warren. 2. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. apart. Fig. Attach a piece of steel rod. 3/4 in. A Film Washing Trough [331] . and insert two binding-posts. Do not use too strong a rubber. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. holes in the edge. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. A rubber band. through which the indicator works. D. for amperes and the other post. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. White. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. 2. V. long and 3/16 in. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. 3/4 in. 2. 1. 1. Colo. Teasdale. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. To calibrate the instrument. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. to the coil of small wire for volts. insulating them from the case with cardboard.

Cut a 1/4-in. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Wood Burning [331] . M. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. O. Hunting. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Dayton. Place this can on one end of the trough. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. with the large hole up. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. as shown. --Contributed by M.

a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. mouth downward. then into this bottle place.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays.

Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. --Contributed by Fred W.Y. 3/4 in. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. long. If the cork is adjusted properly. N. This will make a very pretty ornament. Auburn. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Ala. but not very thick. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. Whitehouse. If the small bottle used is opaque. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . wide and 4 in. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. 1. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. Place the small bottle in as before. --Contributed by John Shahan. thick. 2. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. as shown in the sketch. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Upper Troy. provided the bottle is wide.

which extended to the ground. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. The shaft C. A staple. even in a light breeze. If a transmitter is used. B. 1. by the method shown in Fig. 1. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. thick and 3 in. The 21/2-in. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. --Contributed by D. 2. line. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. thick. Fig. was keyed to shaft C. 1. Fig. which gave considerable power for its size. The bearing blocks were 3 in. 1. to the shaft. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. wide. which was 6 in. pulley. The wire L was put . They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 2 ft. Both bearings were made in this manner. which was nailed to the face plate. Its smaller parts. W. 3. long. were constructed of 1-in. Fig. Fig.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. I. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. pulley F. as shown in Fig. Fig. in diameter and 1 in. iron rod. On a 1000-ft. was 1/4in. 1. such as blades and pulleys. G. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. Milter. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. thick. 4. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. sugar pine on account of its softness. K. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. 1 in. high without the upper half. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in.

6. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. This completes the receiver or sounder. This fan was made of 1/4-in. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. The smaller one. Fig. 3 in. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. was 2 ft. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. in diameter. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. hole for the shaft G was in the center. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. apart in the tower. R. G. To lessen the friction here. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. top down also. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. strips. wide and 1 in. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. 1. long. Fig. pine 18 by 12 in. in the center of the board P. hole was bored for it. long and bend it as . which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. long and bend it as shown at A. This board was 12 in. The other lid. long and 3 in. If you have no bell. 2. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. 1. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. was tacked.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. as. when the windmill needed oiling. washers were placed under pulley F. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. 1) 4 in. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. To make the key. Fig. Fig. 25 ft. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. long. and was cut the shape shown. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. a 1/2-in. cut out another piece of tin (X. with all parts in place. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. with brass headed furniture tacks. 0. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Fig. H. for instance. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. The power was put to various uses. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. through the latter. Fig. There a 1/4-in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. 6. The bed plate D. 5. providing one has a few old materials on hand. across the thin edge of a board. 1. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. 1. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. so that the 1/4-in. Two washers were placed on shaft C. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. long and 1/2 in. Fig.

Now. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts.shown. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. The rear barrels are. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. like many another device boys make. using cleats to hold the board frame. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. although it can be made with but two. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Before tacking it to the board. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. 1. Thus a center drive is made. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. 2. as indicated. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. and. fitted with paddles as at M. causing a buzzing sound. at the front. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. leaving the other wire as it is. Going back to Fig. -Contributed by John R. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. as shown at Water. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . By adjusting the coils. McConnell. When tired of this instrument. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft.

The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. 3. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. To propel it. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. as shown in Fig. can be built. copper piping and brass tubing for base. 1. there will not be much friction. feet on the pedals. which will give any amount of pleasure. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. or even a little houseboat. There is no danger.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. The speed is slow at first. If the journals thus made are well oiled. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels.

Then melt out the rosin or lead. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Fig. A. C. Shape small blocks of boxwood. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. and so creating a false circuit. Fig. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. Fig. 1. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. or it may be put to other uses if desired. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Turn a small circle of wood. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. B. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far.of pleasure for a little work. 2. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. 2. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. Fig. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. then the glass disc and then the other ring. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. 1. 1. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. D. If magnifying glass cannot be had. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. If it is desired to make the light very complete. 2. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained.

The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. --Contributed by Geo. wide and 1/16 in. S. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. switch. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. while lying in bed. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. When alarm goes off. H.. key of alarm clock. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. Throw lever off from the right to center. G. which stops bell ringing. F. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . --Contributed by C. bell. D. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. copper tubing. X. wire from batteries to switch. The parts indicated are as follows: A. set alarm key as shown in diagram. or 1/4in. brass strip. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. In placing clock on shelf. long. shelf. contact post. thick. J. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. To throw on light throw levers to the left. I. Swissvale. E. C. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. Chatland. Ogden. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . 4 in. after setting alarm. To operate this. Pa. long.india rubber tubing. brass rod. C. To get the cylinder into its carriage. after two turns have been made on the key. Brinkerhoff. 5-1/4 by 10 in. some glue will secure them. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. if too small. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. wire from bell to switch. 3/8 in. dry batteries. and pulled tight. by having the switch on the baseboard. Utah. wire from light to switch. 4-1/2 in. such as is used for cycle valves. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. bracket. B. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. T. near the bed.

a bed warmer. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. letting it extend 3/4 in. S. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. 1/4 in. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. as in Fig. about 3-1/2 in. 1. about 6 in. as . Pull out the nail and stick. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. wide. --Contributed by Chas. from one end. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. as at A. being careful not to get the sand in it. Lanesboro. beyond the end of the spindle. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Minn. 2. gives the heater a more finished appearance. which can be made of an old can. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. All that is required is a tin covering. as at A. Make a shoulder. in diameter. Fig. in diameter. This is to form the fuse hole. Fig. will do the heating.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Make the spindle as in Fig. 4 in. for instance. A flannel bag. Having finished this. Fig. as at B. place stick and all in a pail of sand. A small lamp of about 5 cp. long. 1. Chapman. 3. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. 2. making it as true and smooth as possible.

--Contributed by Arthur E. long. good straight-grained pine will do. deep. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. The material must be 1-1/2 in. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . wide and 6 ft. will be sufficient to make the trigger. 6 in. Joerin. thick. A piece of tin. The illustration shows how this is done. but if this wood cannot be procured. ash. wide and 3/8 in. thick. long. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. 1. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. this is to keep the edges from splitting. 1 in.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. 5/8 in. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. long. spring and arrows. A piece of oak. or hickory. thick. 11/2 in. wide and 3 ft. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 3/8 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow.

The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. 3. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. 7. from the end of the stock. The stick for the bow. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. which is 1/4 in. it lifts the spring up. To shoot the crossbow. A spring. Trownes. Such a temporary safe light may be . The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. To throw the arrow. from the opposite end. 6. better still.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. thick. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. or through the necessity of. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. E. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. 2. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. as shown in Fig. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. wide at each end. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. in diameter. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Fig. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. place the arrow in the groove. having the latter swing quite freely. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. and one for the trigger 12 in. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. The trigger. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. Fig. When the trigger is pulled. 8. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. as shown in Fig. Wilmette. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 9. The bow is not fastened in the stock. --Contributed by O. Fig. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. Ill. 4. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice.

Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. the bark lean-to is a . There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. or only as a camp on a short excursion. and replace as shown at B. The cut should be about 5 ft. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. says Photo Era. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. apart. make the frame of the wigwam. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. The hinged cover E.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. from the ground. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Remove the bottom of the box. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. respectively. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. C. This lamp is safe. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. from the ground. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. and nail it in position as shown at A. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. By chopping the trunk almost through. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. is used as a door. Remove one end. it is the easiest camp to make. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. since the flame of the candle is above A. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. making lighting and trimming convenient. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Moreover. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains.

make the best kind of a camp bed. nails are necessary to hold it in place. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. long and 1-1/2 in. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. For a permanent camp. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. . The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. 3 ft. selecting a site for a camp. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. Tongs are very useful in camp. spruce. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. a 2-in. piled 2 or 3 ft. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. and split the tops with an ax. deep and covered with blankets. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. and cedar. are a convenient size for camp construction. will dry flat. thick. long and 2 or 3 ft. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. For a foot in the middle of the stick. In the early summer. wide. long. A piece of elm or hickory. Where bark is used. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Sheets of bark. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. 6 ft. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. and when the camp is pitched. makes a good pair of tongs. wide and 6 ft.

. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. hinges.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and affording accommodation for several persons. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.

changing the water both morning and night. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. 1. Kane. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. the interior can. and provide a cover or door. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. A. wide. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Doylestown.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. B. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Pa. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. deep and 4 in. about 4 in. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. B. I drove a small cork.. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Fig. --Contributed by James M. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. to another . Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand.

2. such as ether. for instance. Fig. a liquid. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. if necessary. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. E. 4 and 5). The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. C. to pass through an increasing resistance. fused into one side. This makes . the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. limit. which project inside and outside of the tube. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered.glass tube. 3. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. 2. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. until. The diagram. The current is thus compelled. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. for instance.

brass or iron. The bearing studs are now made. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. set at 1/8 in. as shown in the left-hand sketch. Alpena. therefore. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Then the field can be finished to these marks. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. A 5/8in. thick. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. on a lathe. which may be of any thickness so that. clamp the template. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. bent at right angles as shown. Fig. between centers. or pattern. thick. 1. When the frame is finished so far. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. drill the four rivet holes. Fig. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. making it 1/16 in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. when several pieces are placed together. is composed of wrought sheet iron. hole is . Before removing the field from the lathe. as shown in Fig. assemble and rivet them solidly. brass. in diameter. screws. and for the outside of the frame. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. 2. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. two holes. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. cannot be used so often. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. Michigan. 3. by turning the lathe with the hand. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. which will make it uniform in size. thicker. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. mark off a space. they will make a frame 3/4 in. or even 1/16 in. but merely discolored. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. 4-1/2 in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. 3-3/8 in. larger than the dimensions given. in diameter. These holes are for the bearing studs. A. 3-3/8 in. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. tap. After the template is marked out.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. If the thickness is sufficient. to allow for finishing. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. After cleaning them with the solution.

file them out to make the proper adjustment. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. or otherwise finished. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. Fig. When the bearings are located. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. brass rod is inserted. into which a piece of 5/8-in. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. 4. and build up the solder well. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . is turned up from machine steel. soldered into place. solder them to the supports. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The shaft of the armature.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point.

or segments. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. inside diameter. Armature-Ring Core. After they . as shown in Fig. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. wide. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. holes through them for rivets. sheet fiber. Procure 12 strips of mica. thick. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. and then they are soaked in warm water. as shown in Fig. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. When this is accomplished. 1/8 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. being formed for the ends. 8. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. Rivet them together. 5. After the pieces are cut out. 1-1/8 in. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. 9. 6. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 3. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. thick.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. 3. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. When annealed. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. hole and tap it for a pin. then drill a 1/8-in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. wide. thick and 1/4 in. The pins are made of brass. brass rod. and held with a setscrew. 7. The sides are also faced off and finished. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. by 1-1/2 in. washers. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. to allow for finishing to size. as shown m Fig. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. Make the core 3/4 in.. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. deep and 7/16 in. 3/4 in. 6. as shown in Fig. threaded. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. thick are cut like the pattern. thick. Find the centers of each segment at one end. 3/4 in. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils.

Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. are soldered together. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. The two ends are joined at B. of the wire. and wind on four layers. Run one end of the field wire. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. 6 in. The field is wound with No. the two ends of the wire. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. or side. 8 in. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. about 100 ft. wide and 1 in. thick. shown at A. sheet fiber. of No. after the motor is on the stand. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. which will take 50 ft. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. All connections should be securely soldered. This winding is for a series motor. and bring the end of the wire out at B. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. sheet fiber. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. After one coil. shown at B. In starting to wind. 1. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. The winding is started at A. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. being required. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. yet it shows a series of . 1. by bending the end around one of the projections.have dried. To connect the wires. until the 12 slots are filled. of the end to protrude. When the glue is set. Fig. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. 5. long. they are glued to the core insulation. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Fig. The source of current is connected to the terminals. Connect a wire from the other brush stud.

Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. Nine wires run from the timer. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. and one. as in the case of a spiral. or. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. one from each of the eight contacts. which serves as the ground wire. is fastened to the metallic body. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. A 1/2-in. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. still more simply.

The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. Covering these is a thin. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. long. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. board. Without this attachment. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. The pointer end of the needle is painted black.The Wind Vane. circle. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. 6 in. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. 45 deg. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. of the dial. thus giving 16 different directions. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. It should be . Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial.

Cut 3-in. Before tacking the fourth side. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. called a chip carving knife. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. Blackmer. however. 14 by 18 in. Place the leather on some level. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. -Contributed by James L. is most satisfactory. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. thus making a universal joint. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders.about 6 ft. though a special knife. Fill the box with any handy ballast. also a piece of new carpet. To work these outlines. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. Buffalo. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. will be enough for the two sides. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. To make it. making it heavy or light. . A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. N. if not too high. and about 6 in. high. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. long to give the best results. will answer the purpose just as well. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. Y. will be sufficient. according to who is going to use it. or. and securely nail on the top of the box.

being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. An ordinary sewing-machine . Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. A good leather paste will be required. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.

and tie them together securely at the bottom. --Contributed by Katharine D. square and tying a piece of . The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. temporary lameness. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. rather than the smooth side. N. away from it. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. B. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. and fasten the feathers inside of it. of common salt and 10 lb. of water. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. or a hip that has been wrenched. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. as in cases of a sprained ankle. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Syracuse. a needle and some feathers. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. can be thrown away when no longer needed. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Y.will do if a good stout needle is used. If a fire breaks out. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Morse.

A small wooden or fiber end. Gordon Dempsey. thus helping the rats to enter. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. long. commonly called tintype tin. board all around the bottom on the inside. One end is removed entirely. Albany. The diaphragm C. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. as shown. --Contributed by John A. long. the corners being wired. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. Ashland. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. Wis. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. laying poisoned meat and meal. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. 1/8 in. E. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. and a coil of wire. A. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. but not sharp. Y. and tacked it to the boards. letting it go at arm's length. cut to the length of the spool. and the receiver is ready for use. deep. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. B. The body of the receiver. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. is cut on the wood. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. high. N. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. Hellwig. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. which is the essential part of the instrument.J. wide and 1/16 in. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The end is filed to an edge. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. etc. This not only keeps the rats out. G. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. The coil is 1 in. N. The strings should be about 15 in. setting traps. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. There is a 1-in. wound on the head end.. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. . The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. Paterson. --Contributed by J. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. made up of four layers of No. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. F.string to each corner.

The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. better still. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. wide. To clean small articles. to . and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. a piece of small wire. Take a piece of string or. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. gold. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. The vase is to have three supports. and bend each strip in shape. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. begin with the smallest scrolls. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. A single line will be sufficient. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll.

The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. 3-1/2 in. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. After taking off the pattern. Fold the leather on the line EF. 3-1/4 in. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather.. from E to F. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. wide when stitching up the purse. and does not require coloring. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. from the lines EF on the piece. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. . stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. About 1 in. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. 4-1/4 in.. through which to slip the fly AGH. thus raising it. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. using a duller point of the tool. Work down the outside line of the design. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. as shown in the sketch. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Press or model down the leather all around the design. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. 6-3/8 in. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. from C to D. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Trace also the line around the purse. sharp pencil.

When it is finished. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. deep. following the dotted lines. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and a model for speed and power. Then nail the wheel down firmly. as well as useful. and. the "open" side. Now take another piece of wood. 1/2 in. 2. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. then place the square piece out of which Fig. with a compass saw. with the open side down. as shown in Fig. deep. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. around the wheel. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. leaving the lug a. all the way around. being cast in wooden molds. and cut out a wheel. and which will be very interesting. Make the lug 1/4 in. then nail it. square. long. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. 1. It is neat and efficient. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. First. Cut off six pieces 12 in. and tack the other piece slightly. with pins or small nails.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Fit this to the two . b. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. It can be made without the use of a lathe. thick. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. 1 was cut. with the largest side down. This also should be slightly beveled. 3. and the projections B. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. by 12 ft.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make.

Now put mold No. holes through it. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. Take the mold apart. slightly beveled. deep. After it is finished. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and boring a 3/8-in. 4. and clean all the shavings out of it. square pieces of wood. as shown by the black dots in Fig. 1. hole entirely through at the same place. hole bored through its center. one of which should have a 3/8-in. bolts. as shown by the . place it between two of the 12-in. in the center of it. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in.pieces just finished. then bolt it together. hole 1/4 in. and lay it away to dry. Now take another of the 12-in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. and bore six 1/4-in. square pieces of wood. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in.

1. holes at d. see that the bolts are all tight. This is the same as Fig. A piece of mild steel 5 in. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. place it under the drill. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. where the casting did not fill out. and 3/8-in. long. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. and bore three 1/4-in. and pouring metal in to fill it up. Let it stand for half an hour. 6. This is for a shaft. B. and two 1/4-in. d. one in the lug. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in.black dots in Fig. and the exhaust hole in projection b. Fig.1. and lay it away to dry. instead of the right-handed piece. and connect to the boiler. from the one end. in diameter must now be obtained. and pour babbitt metal into it. so that it will turn easily. and drill it entirely through. and drill them in the same manner. wide and 16 in.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. true it up with a square. lay it on a level place. one in the projections. 4.2. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. fasten a 3/8-in. This is mold No. Put this together in mold No. Pour metal into mold No. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in.2. only the one is left-handed. long. and the other in the base. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. put the top of the brace through this hole. This will cast a paddle-wheel. drill in it. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. Commencing 1-1/2 in. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. as shown by the black dots in Fig. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. take an ordinary brace. the other right-handed. and run in babbitt metal again. Then bolt the castings together. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. 5. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. screw down. holes. until it is full. Using the Brace . 6. Now cut out one of the 12-in. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. over the defective part. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. b. 1. Now take mold No. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. as shown in illustration. place the entire machine in a vise. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. After it is fitted in.

while it is running at full speed. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. with a boss and a set screw.. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. and. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. long. turn the wheel to the shape desired. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. and with three small screw holes around the edge. and the other 8 ft. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. Plan of Ice Boat . bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. piece and at right angles to it. At each end of the 6ft. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. one 6 ft. Then take a knife or a chisel. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. will do good service.

plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. long and 2-1/2 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. at the end. in diameter at the base. tapering to 1-1/2 in. which may come in handy in heavy winds. plank nail 8-in. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. at the butt and 1 in. Run the seam on a machine. The tiller. This fits in the square hole.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. in front of the rudder block. in diameter. Over the middle of the 6-ft. projecting as in Fig. in diameter in the center. 1. 8 a reef point knot. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. distant. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . in t