P. 1
The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

|Views: 58|Likes:
Publicado porTimmot

More info:

Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less






  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

Toronto. It is held in this curve until dry. apart. The pieces are then dressed round. grasp it and hold the same as a club. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. away. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. wide and 2 ft. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. until it is bound as shown in Fig. To throw a boomerang. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. as shown in Fig. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides .Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. --Contributed by J. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. A piece of plank 12 in. 2 -. as shown in Fig. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. Fig. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. 1. 1.Fig. 2. distant. Ontario. E. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. Noble. long will make six boomerangs. 2. with the hollow side away from you. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 1.

The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. made of 6-in. minus the top. A wall. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. or rather no bottom at all. which makes the building simpler and easier. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. it is not essential to the support of the walls. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. blocks . 6 in. and it may be necessary to use a little water. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. forcing it down closely. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. and with a movable bottom. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. one inside of the circle and the other outside. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. high and 4 or 5 in. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. long. but about 12 in. First. the block will drop out. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. however. dry snow will not pack easily. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. thick. A very light. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. If the snow is of the right consistency. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house.

The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. above the ground. 2. Fig. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. C. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. Fig. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. 3 -. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. which can be made of wood. A nail. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. It also keeps them out. 1. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. D. 2. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. --Contributed by Geo. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. wide.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. long and 1 in. Ore. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. is 6 or 8 in. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. or an old safe dial will do. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. Union. The piece of wood. 1. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. 3. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. which is about 1 ft. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. a. and the young architect can imitate them. There is no outward thrust. Goodbrod. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. Fig. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates.

Merrill. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. as the weight always draws them back to place. says the Sphinx. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. the box locked . Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. one pair of special hinges. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. If ordinary butts are used. Syracuse. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. New York. S. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. --Contributed by R. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. and the other back of the stove and out of the way.

Fig. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Ga. If they do not. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. To make a design similar to the one shown. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Augusta. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. proceed as follows: First. When the sieve is shaken. -Contributed by L. With the metal shears. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. 3. All . it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. on drawing paper. draw one-half of it. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. 2. one for each corner. allowing each coat time to dry. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal.and the performer steps out in view. It remains to bend the flaps. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Place the piece in a vise. smooth surface. Alberta Norrell. as shown. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. 1. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. as shown in Fig. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. as shown in Fig. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. about 1-32 of an inch. If the measuring has been done properly.

separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. in passing through the lamp. --Contributed by R. After this has dried. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. in diameter. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. C. 25 gauge German-silver wire. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . is fitted tightly in the third hole. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. A resistance. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. long. A piece of porcelain tube. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. Galbreath. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again.the edges should be left smooth. If a touch of color is desired. from the back end. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. The common cork. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. which is about 6 in. In boring through rubber corks. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. should be in the line. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. about 6 in. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. When the current is turned off. and in the positions shown in the sketch. B. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. as shown at AA. if rolled under the shoe sole. heats the strip of German-silver wire. Denver. H. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. causing it to expand. of No. R. 25 German-silver wire. Colo. used for insulation. To keep the metal from tarnishing. The current. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors.

cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. 2. Purchase two long book straps. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. with thin strips of wood. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Mo. 3. between them as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. leaving a space of 4 in. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Kansas City. --Contributed by David Brown. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. 1. .bottom ring. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Fig. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked.

Syracuse. Kane. A. 1. and one weighing 25 lb. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Fig. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Fig. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. to form a handle. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. C. 4. are mounted on the outside of the box. as . allowing the edges to extend well up the sides.. Pa. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. 2. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. 1. Fig. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Doylestown. Two strips of brass. Morse. --Contributed by Katharine D. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. When the aeroplane tips. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. --Contributed by James M. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. just the right weight for a woman to use. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. long. 36 in. Y. 3. which is the right weight for family use. in diameter. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood..An ordinary electric bell. The folds are made over the string. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. and a pocket battery. The string is then tied. These are shown in Fig. 1. one weighing 15 lb. and tack smoothly. having a gong 2-1/2 in. N.

--Contributed by Louis J. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. Y. if once used. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. machine screws. Floral Park. 2. long. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. and many fancy knick-knacks. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. 1. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. such as brackets. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. The saw. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. two 1/8 -in. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. 3/32 or 1/4 in. four washers and four square nuts. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. AA. bent as shown in Fig. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. Day. 2. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Frame Made of a Rod . clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. in diameter. N. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. bookracks and shelves can be made with one.

1 part sulphuric acid.may be made of either brass. the most expensive.. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. copper. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. though almost any color may be obtained. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. If it colors the metal red. A. of course. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. if copper or brass. as well as brass and copper. Scranton. --Contributed by W. of water in which dissolve. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. The buckle is to be purchased. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. An Austrian Top [12] . be covered the same as the back. allowing each time to dry. green and browns are the most popular. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. of water. treat it with color. therefore. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. after breaking up. Rub off the highlights. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Apply two coats. Detroit. Drying will cause this to change to purple. Of the leathers. use them in place of the outside nuts. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. as well as the depth of etching desired. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. File these edges. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Watch Fob For coloring silver. Silver is the most desirable but. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. For etching. using a swab and an old stiff brush. it has the correct strength. 1 part nitric acid. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. Michigan. or silver. In the design shown. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should.

wide and 3/4 in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. Ypsilanti. When the shank is covered. hole in this end for the top. in diameter. long. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. pass one end through the 1/16-in. . give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. Parts of the Top To spin the top. hole. 1-1/4 in. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. is formed on one end. thick. starting at the bottom and winding upward.F. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. 5-1/4 in. Bore a 3/4-in. allowing only 1-1/4 in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. Michigan. The handle is a piece of pine. 3/4 in. set the top in the 3/4 -in. --Contributed by J. A handle. A 1/16-in. Tholl. long.

the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Houghton. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. A. --Contributed by Miss L. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. having no sides. . A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. tarts or similar pastry. Northville. --A. Alberta Norrell.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. The baking surface. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Augusta. For black leathers. Ga. Mich.

and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . --Contributed by Irl Hicks. then solder cover and socket together. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. glass fruit jar. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. two turns will remove the jar. When you desire to work by white light. says Studio Light. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Centralia. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Mo. Stringing Wires [13] A. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. the same as shown in the illustration. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper.

The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 4 Braces. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. 1-1/4 in.for loading and development. 1-1/4 in. and not tip over. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. . so it can be folded up. Wis. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. square by 12 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. 4 Vertical pieces. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. They are fastened. 16 Horizontal bars. Janesville. square by 62 in. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. as shown in the cross-section sketch. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in.

from scrap material. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. after filling the pail with water. O. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. If the loop is tied at the proper place. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. -Contributed by Charles Stem. H. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. The whole. Cincinnati. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. Phillipsburg. Rosenthal.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. After rounding the ends of the studs. The front can be covered . Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. C. and a loop made in the end. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. --Contributed by Dr. New York.

FIG. Develop them into strong prints. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. sickly one. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. By using the following method. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. --Contributed by Gilbert A. principally mayonnaise dressing. 1 FIG. either for contact printing or enlargements.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. you are. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. If the gate is raised slightly. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. by all rules of the game. Baltimore. The results will be poor. Md. the color will be an undesirable. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. the mouth of which rests against a. and. Wehr. if you try to tone them afterward. In my own practice. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. The . you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. thoroughly fix.

being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects... 2 oz. Iodide of potassium . When the desired reduction has taken place.. transfer it to a tray of water.. three times.... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison... 16 oz.. long to admit the angle support. but... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain... in size..... in this solution... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. It will bleach slowly and evenly.. preferably the colored kind. 1 and again as in Fig. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder... Cal.. --Contributed by T. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes.. to make it 5 by 5 in.... 5 by 15 in. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. 2. wide and 4 in.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. without previous wetting. L.. 20 gr. Water . Put one on each corner of the blotting paper....... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print... where it will continue to bleach... A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper... when it starts to bleach..... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. Place the dry print.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away... The blotting paper can . A good final washing completes the process.... Gray. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. etc." Cyanide of potassium .... San Francisco. With a little practice. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.

How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. wide. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Make a design similar to that shown. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. 20 gauge. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. --Contributed by J. the head of which is 2 in. 3. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Oshkosh. the shaft 1 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. and a length of 5 in. Monahan.J. wide below the . Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Wisconsin.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. --Contributed by L. Canada. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. having a width of 2-1/4 in.

Make one-half of the design. 1 part nitric acid. using a small metal saw. Do not put the hands in the solution. Trace the design on the metal. deep. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. 1. then put on a second coat. freehand. Apply with a small brush. 4. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. 2. Allow this to dry. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. which gives the outline of the design Fig. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. using turpentine. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. then trace the other half in the usual way. Pierce a hole with a small drill. using carbon paper. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. With files. but use a swab on a stick. The metal must be held firmly. Fig. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. being held perpendicular to the work.FIG. With the metal shears. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. then coloring. as shown in Fig. After this has dried. After the sawing. For coloring olive green. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. . smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. 1 Fig. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. 1 part sulphuric acid. after folding along the center line. 3. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water.

--Contributed by Katharine D. thick. East Hartford. When this is cold. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. M. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Ii is an ordinary staple. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. as shown. on a chopping board. --Contributed by H. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. After the stain has dried. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. it does the work rapidly. Conn. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. --Contributed by M. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. Burnett. Richmond. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Carl Cramer.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Syracuse. attach brass handles. Morse. Cal. . New York. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. then stain it a mahogany color. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in.

After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. as shown at A.. one shaft. brass. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. two enameled. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. 53 steel pens. thick. in width at the shank. and several 1/8-in. square. thick and 4 in. as shown in Fig. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. indicating the depth of the slots. WARNECKE Procure some brass. some pieces of brass. Jaquythe. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. saucers or pans. L. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. A. holes. Florida. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. about 3/16 in. 4. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Cal. --Contributed by W. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Richmond. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. not over 1/4 in. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. Kissimmee. H. --Contributed by Mrs. two stopcocks with 1/8 in.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. 1/4 in. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. Atwell. 1. Fig. or tin. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. . Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. machine screws. also locate the drill holes. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades.

Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. each about 1 in. supply pipe. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. Fig. 7. as shown in Fig. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. 3. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. Fig. with a 3/8-in. A 3/4-in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. 6. brass and bolted to the casing. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. using two nuts on each screw. wide and bend as shown in Fig. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. hole. in diameter and 1/32 in. long by 3/4 in. There should be a space of 1/16 in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . 2. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. thick. 1. Bend as shown in Fig. 5. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. thick. into the hole.. as in Fig. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. Fig. as shown. machine screws. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. with 1/8-in. a square shaft used. can be procured. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. hole is drilled to run off the water. long and 5/16 in. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. and pins inserted. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. lead should be run into the segments. 3. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. with the face of the disk. If the shaft is square. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. wide. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. The shaft hole may also be filed square. and the ends filed round for the bearings. machine screws and nuts. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. about 1/32 in. 2. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. If metal dishes. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. hole in the center.

V. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. make these seams come between the two back legs. --Contributed by F. Fasten with 3/4-in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. Be sure to have the cover. using four to each leg. The four legs are each 3/4-in. long. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. from the top of the box. When assembling. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. With a string or tape measure. 8-1/2 in. Hamilton. --Contributed by S. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. high and 15 in. The lower part. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Now you will have the box in two pieces.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Canada. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. from the bottom end of the legs. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. three of which are in the basket. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. deep and 1-1/4 in. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Ill. deep over all. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. we will call the basket. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. to make the bottom. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. La Salle. square and 30-1/2 in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Smith. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. or more in diameter. Stain the wood before putting in the . screws. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Cooke.

Md. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. wide. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. as shown in the sketch. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Mass. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Cover them with the cretonne. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. 1. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer.2 Fig. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. The side. sewing on the back side. Baltimore. you can. --also the lower edge when necessary. 2. -Contributed by Stanley H. Packard. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Sew on to the covered cardboards. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Fig. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. Boston. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. and gather it at that point. If all the parts are well sandpapered. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture.lining. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. When making the display. The folded part in the center is pasted together. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. wide and four strips 10 in.

The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. 3. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. saving all the solid part. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. --Contributed by B. It is cleanly. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. L. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. Y. Crockett. and. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Fig. Gloversville. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Orlando Taylor. Mo. with slight modifications. Cross Timbers. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. N.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. When through using the pad. --Contributed by H. It is not difficult to .

Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Both of these methods are wasteful. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Mass. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. and scrape out the rough parts. remove the contents. Texas. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. If a file is used. Bourne. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Lane. -Contributed by C. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. it should be new and sharp. or if desired. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. across the face. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. S. El Paso. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. After stirring. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. --Contributed by Edith E. Lowell. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. are shown in the diagram. After this is done.

The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. The process works well and needs no watching. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. As these were single-faced disk records. F. Turl. circled over the funnel and disappeared. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. --Contributed by Marion P. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Des Moines. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. Canton. Iowa. Greenleaf. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth.cooking utensil. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. --Contributed by Geo. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Those having houses . Wheeler. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Ill. The insects came to the light. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Ill. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Oregon. After several hours' drying. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. A Postcard Rack [25]. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Oak Park.

The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. but for cheapness 3/4 in. one on each side of what will be the . the bottom being 3/8 in. boards are preferable. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. --Contributed by Wm.. and both exactly alike. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. The single boards can then be fixed.. Dobbins. and as they are simple in design. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. Mass. and the second one for the developing bench. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. the best material to use being matched boards. 6 in. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. material. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. plane and pocket knife. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. Rosenberg. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. 6 in. Worcester. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. --Contributed by Thomas E. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Lay the floor next. Conn. thick.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Only three pieces are required. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. not even with the boards themselves. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Both sides can be put together in this way. will do as well. Glenbrook. by 2 ft. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room.

and shown to a larger scale in Fig. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. and in the middle an opening. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. The developing bench is 18 in. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. below which is fixed the sink. 2 in section. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. 6. In hinging the door. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. nailing them to each other at the ridge. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. and to the outside board of the sides. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. is cut. It is shown in detail in Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. as shown in Figs. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. brown wrapping paper. 9). which is fixed on as shown . so that it will fit inside the sink. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged.doorway. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. so that the water will drain off into the sink. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 6 and 9. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. 11. hinged to it. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. and the top as at C in the same drawing. 7. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. the closing side as at B. 8.. of the top of the door for the same reason... and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. The roof boards may next be put on. 3 and 4. 6. 10). and should be zinc lined. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. Fig. etc. At the top of the doorway. 9 by 11 in. by screwing to the floor. wide. 5. and act as a trap for the light. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room.

Details of the Dark Rook .

as shown in Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. screwing them each way into the boards. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. these being shown in Fig. as shown in the sections. it is better than anything on the market. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. 16. For beating up an egg in a glass. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. 2. mixing flour and water. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. Fig. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. as in Fig. after lining with brown paper. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. though this is hardly advisable. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. Erie. and a tank stand on it. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. Fig. four coats at first is not too many. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. 17. 15. Fig. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. 20. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. and a 3/8-in. --Contributed by W. if desired. or the room may be made with a flat roof. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. are fastened in the corners inside. 18. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 13. but not the red glass and frame. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. Pennsylvania. 13. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. 16. A circular piece about 2 in. The handle should be at least 12 in. or red light as at K. which makes it possible to have white light. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 19. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Karl Hilbrich. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. 6. The house will be much strengthened if strips. In use. as at I. 1. Fig. as at M. preferably maple or ash. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig.in Fig. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. 14.

Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. --Contributed by Wm. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Mo. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Yonkers. Eureka Springs. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Smith. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. G. New York. To operate. D. when put together properly is a puzzle. --Contributed by L.copper should be. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. long. Mitchell. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. -Contributed by E. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. L. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Kansas City. as shown in the sketch. Ark. Schweiger. about 3/8 in. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. which. for a handle.

Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. Each cork is cut as in Fig. Having completed the bare box. If the sill is inclined. 3. in order to thoroughly preserve it. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. as shown in Fig. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. the rustic work should be varnished. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 3. 1. holes should be drilled in the bottom. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. the box will require a greater height in front. as shown in Fig. especially for filling-in purposes. for the moment. to make it set level. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. The design shown in Fig. 2. . which binds them together. need them. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. After the box is trimmed. The corks in use are shown in Fig. as well as improve its appearance. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. as is usually the case. A number of 1/2-in. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided.

Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. When the corn is gone cucumbers. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. can't use poison. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Each long projection represents a leg. 1. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. But I have solved the difficulty. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. 2. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. 4. share the same fate. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. and observe results. as shown in Fig. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. Traps do no good.. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. . One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. etc. 3. drilled at right angles. cabbages. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. F. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. life in the summer time is a vexation. being partly eaten into. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. it's easy. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. too dangerous.

Iowa. The solution can be used over and over again. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. long. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. -. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. and made up and kept in large bottles.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. of No. About 9-1/2 ft. cut some of it off and try again. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. cut in 1/2-in. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. . The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. If. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. by trial. the coil does not heat sufficiently. strips.

The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. Fig 2. D. Y. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. hot-water pot. In cleaning silver. but with unsatisfactory results. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. Stir and mix thoroughly. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. to cause the door to swing shut. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. forks. Texas. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. of oleic acid with 1 gal. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Syracuse. . Doylestown. --Contributed by James M. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. Do not wash them. of gasoline. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Kane. as shown in the sketch. N. 1) removed. Pa. C. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Morse. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. it falls to stop G. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. and a strip. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. is a good size--in this compound.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Knives. --Contributed by Katharine D. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. coffee pot. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Dallas. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining.

Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. La. using the paper dry. of course. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Pa. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. negatives. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. . If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Sprout. Ill. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Waverly.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Fisher. but unfixed. which is. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . --Contributed by Oliver S. New Orleans. Harrisburg. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. later fixed and washed as usual. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Theodore L. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire.

Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. then .A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The harmonograph. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. 1. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. Fig. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. metal. a harmonograph is a good prescription. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. To obviate this difficulty. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy.

A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. R. as shown in the lower part of Fig. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. what is most important. Chicago. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. in diameter. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. --Contributed by Wm. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. K. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. A length of 7 ft. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. in the center of the circle to be cut. for instance. etc. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. of about 30 or 40 lb. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. which can be regulated. makes respectively 3. The length of the short pendulum H. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. Punch a hole. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. such as a shoe buttoner. and unless the shorter pendulum is. one-fourth. ceiling. Ingham.. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. one-fifth. Gaffney. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. 1. provides a means of support for the stylus. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. A small weight. is about right for a 10-ft.. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. Arizona. is attached as shown at H.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. 1. G. with a nail set or punch. Another weight of about 10 lb. or the lines will overlap and blur. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. Rosemont.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. A pedestal. A weight. Holes up to 3 in. as shown in Fig. A small table or platform. that is. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. J. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. as long as the other. exactly one-third. 1-3/4 by 2 in. --Contributed by James T. to prevent any side motion. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis.

Fig. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. Cruger. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Cape May City. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. The two key cards are made alike. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. Morey.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. The capacity of the vise. one for the sender and one for the receiver. -Contributed by W. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. 6.J. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. then 3 as in Fig. 2.H. a correspondent of . 1. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Chicago. dividing them into quarters. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. 5. distributing them over the whole card. and proceed as before. N. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. Fig. then put 2 at the top. of course. --Contributed by J. and 4 as in Fig. 4. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 3.J. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block.

the portion of the base under the coil. If constructed of the former. of ferricyanide of potash. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. drill 15 holes. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. After preparing the base and uprights. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. of the uprights. 1/4 in. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. 1/2 oz. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. 6 gauge wires shown. remove the prints. from the top and bottom. After securing the tint desired. Augusta. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. Ga. deep. wood-screws. acetic acid and 4 oz. says Popular Electricity. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Cut through the center. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. sheet of well made asbestos paper. 22 gauge German-silver wire. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. Alberta Norrell. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. To assemble. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. citrate of iron and ammonia. --Contributed by L. long. Wind the successive turns of . It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. respectively. Asbestos board is to be preferred. of 18-per-cent No. of water. 30 gr.

then fasten the upright in place. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. rivets. The case may be made of 1/2-in. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. 16 gauge copper wire. Ampere. etc. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. Small knobs may be added if desired. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Y. square. Ward. --Contributed by Frederick E. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. N. but these are not necessary. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. 14 gauge. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Labels of some kind are needed. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material.. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. which. screws. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. if one is not a smoker. as they are usually thrown away when empty.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No.

Copper. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. D. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. galvanized iron. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. Jaquythe. Ark.14 oz. The parts are put together with dowel pins. the pure muriatic acid should be used. C. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. California. B. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. a piece of solder. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. The material can be of any wood. it must be ground or filed to a point. --Contributed by W. zinc. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. --C. Eureka Springs." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Wis. --Contributed by A. or has become corroded. then to the joint to be soldered. and rub the point of the copper on it. as shown in the sketch. lead. brass. Heat it until hot (not red hot). This is considerable annoyance. being careful about the heat. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. S. tinner's acid. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. In soldering galvanized iron. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. of glycerine to 16 oz. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. Richmond. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. of water. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. and labeled "Poison. particularly so when the iron has once been used. . A. especially if a large tub is used. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. G. and one made of poplar finished black. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. sandpaper or steel wool. E and F. Kenosha. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub.. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. Larson. If the soldering copper is an old one. tin.

2. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. C. wide. The dimensions shown in Fig. Troy. I bind my magazines at home evenings. in diameter. D.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. a ring may be made from any metal. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Hankin. Brass rings can be plated when finished. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Place the band. W. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. 7/8 in. Take a 3/4-in. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. N. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. 1. brass and silver. Six issues make a well proportioned book. The punch A. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. round iron. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. The covers of the magazines are removed. in diameter. This will leave a clear hole. Apart from this. The disk will come out pan shaped. Fig. Y. which gives two bound volumes each year. such as copper. and drill out the threads. This completes the die. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. however. with good results. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . -Contributed by H. Fig. B. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. thick and 1-1/4 in. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. nut.

after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. 1 in Fig. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. 1. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. through the notch on the left side of the string No. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. The sections are then prepared for sewing. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. 1. and a third piece. Start with the front of the book. C. 2. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. is used for the sewing material. After drawing the thread tightly. Five cuts. . Coarse white thread. size 16 or larger. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. deep. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. then back through the notch on the right side. 5. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. of the ends extending on each side. as shown in Fig. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. using . leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. on all edges except the back. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. Place the cardboard covers on the book. The covering can be of cloth. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. The covering should be cut out 1 in. which is fastened the same as the first. If started with the January or the July issue. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. and place them against the strings in the frame. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired.4. threaded double. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. 1/8 in. and then to string No. allowing about 2 in. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 2. The string No. 1. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. is nailed across the top.

Divine. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. --Contributed by Clyde E. Cal. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Place the cover on the book in the right position. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Encanto. at opposite sides to each other. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. College View. For the blade an old talking-machine . and mark around each one. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. on which to hook the blade. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Tinplate. round iron. Nebr. and. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end.

Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. fuse hole at D. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). thick. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. and 1/4 in. Miss. and 1/4 in. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. with a steel sleeve. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. as shown. hydraulic pipe. at the same end. and another piece (B) 6 in. as it is sometimes called. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in.. Summitville. Then on the board put . and file in the teeth. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. F. long. Make the blade 12 in. On the upper side. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. Ohio. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Moorhead. A. -Contributed by Willard J. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. by 1 in. C. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. bore. Hays. or double extra heavy. by 4-1/2 in. thick. with 10 teeth to the inch.. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. and a long thread plug. E. in order to drill the holes in the ends. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. B.

high around this apparatus. H. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. of rubber-covered wire. Philadelphia.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. the jars need not be very large. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . about 5 ft. 4 jars. using about 8 in. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. Connect up as shown. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. A lid may be added if desired. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. some sheet copper or brass for plates. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. of wire to each coil. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. If you are going to use a current of low tension. and some No. Boyd. as from batteries. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. --Contributed by Chas.

by 2 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. as they "snatch" the ice. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp.. are important. 30 in. The top disk in jar No. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 2. The current then will flow through the motor. 1 and so on for No.the way. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. Use no nails. on No. by 5 in. and for the rear runners: A. by 6 in. 2 and 3. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. For the brass trimmings use No. 4) of 3/4-in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. Equip block X with screw eyes. 3 and No. two pieces 30 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. above the ground. wide and 3/4 in. The stock required for them is oak. bevel block K to give a rocker motion.. A 3/4-in.. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. by 1 in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. Construct the auto front (Fig. & S. 3. 27 B. At the front 24 or 26 in. 1 is connected to point No. beginning at the rear. apart. long. direct to wire across jars. 2 is lower down than in No. making them clear those in the front runner. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. On the door of the auto front put the . 1. sheet brass 1 in. 7 in. 4 in. B. Use no screws on the running surface. and plane it on all edges. C. two for each jar. thick. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. wide by 3/4 in. long. and bolt through. Z. is used to reduce friction. B. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 5 on switch. 16-1/2 in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. 34 in. with the cushion about 15 in. by 1-1/4 in.. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 1 on switch. B and C. two pieces 34 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. gives full current and full speed. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. steel rod makes a good steering rod. No. A variation of 1/16 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. See Fig. 2. long. thick. In proportioning them the points A. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. long by 22 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. The illustration shows how to shape it. square by 14 ft. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. wide. long. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. 15-1/2 in. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. Put arm of switch on point No. 3 in. First sandpaper all the wood.. . by 2 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. C. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. 2. The connection between point No. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. wide and 2 in. 11 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. oak boards.. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. 4. by 1-1/4 in. and four pieces 14 in. To wire the apparatus. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. 2 in. however. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. two pieces 14 in. or source of current.. An iron washer. Fig. as they are not substantial enough. The sled completed should be 15 ft. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. by 5 in.

to improve the appearance. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. brass plated. If desired. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. by 30 in. If the expense is greater than one can afford. etc. Then get some upholstery buttons. cheap material. such as used on automobiles. lunch. which is somewhat moist. by 1/2 in. parcels. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. may be stowed within. to the wheel. The best way is to get some strong. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. or with these for $25. a brake may be added to the sled. Fasten a horn. cutting it out of sheet brass. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. fasten a cord through the loop. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. overshoes.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. a number of boys may share in the ownership. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . such as burlap. long. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. If desired.

the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. . the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Ill. Leland. Lexington. --Contributed by Stewart H.tree and bring. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.

sheet metal. A small clearance space. This guide should have a beveled edge. The first tooth may now be cut. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. 4). FC. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . London. when flat against it. 2. 3. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. from F to G. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. so that the center of the blade. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. With no other tools than a hacksaw. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. a compass.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. the same diameter as the wheel. E. mild steel or iron. the cut will be central on the line. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. Fig. thick. by drawing diameters. will be over the line FG. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. made from 1/16-in. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. 1. The Model Engineer. Fig. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. CD. say 1 in. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. which. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. First take the case of a small gearwheel. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. Draw a circle on paper. The straight-edge. with twenty-four teeth. some files. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. though more difficult. outside diameter and 1/16 in. Fig.

and the other outlet wire. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. transmitter. B. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. B. as shown in Fig. 1. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. 1. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. as shown in Fig. Make a hole in the other. . as shown in Fig. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. some wire and some carbons. Then take one outlet wire. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. each in the center. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. 2. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. If there is no faucet in the house. electric lamp.Four Photos on One Plate of them. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. ground it with a large piece of zinc. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. hold in one hand. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. or several pieces bound tightly together. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. R. either the pencils for arc lamps. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. No shock will be perceptible. Focus the camera in the usual manner. A bright.

B is an iron weight attached to the string C. Dry batteries are most convenient. by 1 in. of course. by 12 in. J. serves admirably. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. For a base use a pine board 10 in. under the gable. and about that size. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. as indicated by E E. and again wind the wire around it. Ohio. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. If desired. leaving about 10 in. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. one at the receiver can hear what is said. A is a wooden block. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. One like a loaf of bread. Wrenn. Emsworth. a transmitter which induces no current is used.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. as shown. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. They have screw ends. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. and will then burn the string C. Pa. But in this experiment. 36 wire around it. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. Then set the whole core away to dry. at each end for terminals. or more of the latter has been used. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. D D are binding posts for electric wires. Ashland. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. B. Slattery. --Contributed by Geo. Several battery cells. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. are also needed. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse .

. Fig. From the other set of binding-posts. connecting lamp receptacles. Turn on switch. F. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. run a No. Place 16-cp. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. 14 wire. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. These should have hollow ends. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. as shown. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. D. E. D. First make a support. 12 or No. Jr. The oven is now ready to be connected. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. At one side secure two receptacles. until the hand points to zero on the scale. B B. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. and switch. 1. Newark. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. The apparatus is now ready for operation. Connect these three to switch. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. The coil will commence to become warm. and one single post switch. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. C. Ohio. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. 2. B B. for the . the terminal of the coil. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. in series with bindingpost. Fig. C. as shown. in parallel. and the lamps.wire. while C is open. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane.

etc. After drilling.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. Dussault.or 4-way valve or cock. 36 magnet wire instead of No. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. 1. 5. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. 3 amperes. but if for a 4way. thick. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. 3. deep. C. 14 wire. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. is made of iron. E. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. Mine is wound with two layers of No. wind with plenty of No. A wooden box. 10 turns to each layer. long. Fig. as shown in the cut. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. This is slipped on the pivot. Fig. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured.. 6. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. At a point a little above the center. 4. to prevent it turning on the axle. inside measurements. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. 4 amperes. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. 1. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. long and make a loop. long. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. until the scale is full. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. wide and 1/8 in. --Contributed by J. 5. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. drill a hole as shown at H. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. B. is then made and provided with a glass front. and D. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. Fig. D. 4 in. This may be made of wood. where A is the homemade ammeter. a variable resistance. D. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. drill in only to the opening already through. high. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. although brass is better. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. is made of wire. 1/2 in. To make one. The core. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument.E. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. Fig. remove the valve. 14. 7. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. wide and 1-3/4 in. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. 2. 1/4 in. The box is 5-1/2 in. The pointer or hand. although copper or steel will do. a battery. If for 3-way. drill through the entire case and valve. Montreal. It is 1 in. a standard ammeter. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. from the lower end.

To start the light. B. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. and the other connects with the water rheostat. making two holes about 1/4 in. and a metal rod. and the arc light. E. This stopper should be pierced. which is used for reducing the current. F. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. in diameter. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. By connecting the motor. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. in thickness . as shown. A. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple.performing electrical experiments. provided with a rubber stopper. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. One wire runs to the switch. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. high. D.

A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. 1. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. 2. --Contributed by Harold L. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. As there shown. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. 2. long. Carthage.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. 1. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. A piece of wood. Having fixed the lead plate in position. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Fig. Y. as shown in B. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. To insert the lead plate. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. where he is placed in an upright open . as shown in C. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Fig. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. If the interrupter does not work at first. B. If all adjustments are correct. Fig. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. A. N. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Turn on the current and press the button. Jones. Fig. Having finished the interrupter. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. 1. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter.

from which the gong has been removed. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig.. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. could expect from a skeleton. and wave his arms up and down. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. the illusion will be spoiled. should be miniature electric lamps. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. with the exception of the glass.coffin. which can be run by three dry cells. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. by 7-1/2 in. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. L and M. and must be thoroughly cleansed. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. high. light-colored garments. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. figures and lights. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. by 7 in. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The glass should be the clearest possible. The skeleton is made of papier maché. to aid the illusion. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. as the entire interior. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. especially the joints and background near A. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. If everything is not black. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. The lights. should be colored a dull black. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. until it is dark there. They need to give a fairly strong light. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. inside dimensions. is constructed as shown in the drawings. A white shroud is thrown over his body. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. loosejointed effect. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. dressed in brilliant. within the limits of an ordinary room. All . A. giving a limp. The model. especially L. and can be bought at Japanese stores. Its edges should nowhere be visible. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. If it is desired to place the box lower down.

San Jose. as shown in the sketch. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in.that is necessary is a two-point switch. Cal. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. square block. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. placed about a foot apart. If a gradual transformation is desired. Fry. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. W. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . a double-pointed rheostat could be used. fat spark. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. after which it assumes its normal color. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. --Contributed by Geo. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. Two finishing nails were driven in. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery.

hydrogen gas is generated. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. This is a wide-mouth bottle. F. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. by small pieces of wood. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. with two tubes. New York. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. One of these plates is connected to metal top. or a solution of sal soda. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. In Fig. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. and should be separated about 1/8 in. -Contributed by Dudley H.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. into the receiver G. 1. the remaining space will be filled with air. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. as shown. If a lighted match . Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. The plates are separated 6 in. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. to make it airtight. soldered in the top. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. In Fig. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. A (see sketch). B and C. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. Cohen. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells.

If desired. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. One row is drilled to come directly on top. in diameter and 6 in. A piece of 1/8-in. P. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. long. which is plugged up at both ends. long. A. copper pipe. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. 1. by means of the clips. 1/2 in. C C. N. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. or by direct contact with another magnet. is then coiled around the brass tube. 36 insulated wire. Fig. A nipple. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. which forms the vaporizing coil. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. B. London. 2 shows the end view. as is shown in the illustration. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. is made by drilling a 1/8in. of No. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. either by passing a current of electricity around it. should be only 5/16 of an inch. from the bottom. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. A. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. A 1/64-in. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. A. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. then a suitable burner is necessary. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. 1-5/16 in. A. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . copper pipe. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. The distance between the nipple. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. and the ends of the tube. N. says the Model Engineer. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. Fig.

Take two strips of stout cloth. longer and 1/4 in. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Cut four pieces of cardboard. cut to the size of the pages. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. but if the paper knife cannot be used. 3. larger all around than the book. should be cut to the diameter of the can. this makes a much nicer book. about 8 or 10 in. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. leaving the folded edge uncut. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. with a fine saw. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. smoothly. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. 2). Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. duck or linen. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Fig. Fig.lamp cord. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. trim both ends and the front edge. taking care not to bend the iron. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. at the front and back for fly leaves. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Turn the book over and paste the other side. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. fold and cut it 1 in. Fig. boards and all. A disk of thin sheet-iron. 1. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . 1/4 in.

Noble. E. Parker. is made the same depth as B. the joint will be gas tight. deep. as shown. C. or rather the top now. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Another tank. is perforated with a number of holes. Ont. as shown in the sketch. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. which will just slip inside the little can. and a little can. --Contributed by Joseph N. of tank A is cut a hole. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Another can. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. --Contributed by James E. 4). H.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. A gas cock. in diameter and 30 in. This will cause some air to be enclosed. . Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. A. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. without a head. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. In the bottom. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. is fitted in it and soldered. Toronto. pasting them down (Fig. B. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Va. but its diameter is a little smaller. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. is soldered onto tank A. D. is turned on it. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. 18 in. Bedford City.

a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. B. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. The diagonal struts. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. 1. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. B. to prevent splitting. should be 3/8 in. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. The small guards. Fig. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. A A. which may be either spruce. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. by 1/2 in. exactly 12 in. D. N. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. B. and about 26 in.. D. Bott. S. The wiring diagram. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. The armature. If the back armature. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. If the pushbutton A is closed. Fig. shows how the connections are to be made. thus adjusting the . long. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. 2. should be cut a little too long. fastened in the bottom. are shown in detail at H and J. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. with an electric-bell magnet. as shown at C. making the width. A. The longitudinal corner spines. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. The bridle knots. when finished. C. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. E. H is a square knot. long. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. basswood or white pine. J.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. should be 1/4 in. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. tacks. and the four diagonal struts. which moves to either right or left. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. square by 42 in. -Contributed by H. Beverly. and sewed double to give extra strength.

for producing electricity direct from heat. the batteries do not run down for a long time. as shown. If the kite is used in a light wind. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Stoddard. thus shortening G and lengthening F. --Contributed by A. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Closing either key will operate both sounders. --Contributed by Edw. and. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. D. however. Clay Center. shift toward F. that refuse to slide easily. to prevent slipping. Kan.lengths of F and G. Chicago. and if a strong wind is blowing. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. E. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Harbert. can be made of a wooden . thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. with gratifying results. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high.

A and B. E. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. with a pocket compass. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. 14 or No. C. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. and also holds the pieces of wood. C. The wood screw. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. in position. Fasten a piece of wood. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil.frame. When the cannon is loaded. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. A. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. A. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. Then. A.. placed on top. --Contributed by A. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. to the cannon. and the current may then be detected by means. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. B. D. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. spark. by means of machine screws or. C. E. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. with a number of nails. 16 single-covered wire. or parallel with the compass needle. F. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. which conducts the current into the cannon. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. Chicago.

The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. To reverse. but no weights or strings. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook.the current is shut off. to receive the screw in the center. H. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. with the long arm at L'. within the reach of the magnet. requiring a strong magnet. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. --Contributed by Joseph B. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. --Contributed by Henry Peck. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. To lock the door. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. To unlock the door. 1. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. press the button. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 1. where there is a staple. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Big Rapids. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Ohio. Mich. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. Fig. Marion. Fig. in this position the door is locked. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. Chicago. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. A hole for a 1/2 in. now at A' and S'. In Fig. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. square and 3/8 in. Connect as shown in the illustration. A. A and S. 1. B. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. A and S. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. screw is bored in the block. when in position at A'. Keil. Bend the strips BB (Fig. . L.

--Contributed by C. Rand. put in the handle. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. West Somerville. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. if enameled white on the concave side. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. hole.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. J. and may be made at very slight expense. or for microscopic work. long. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and if desired the handles may . The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. The standard and base. and C is a dumbbell. When the holes are finished and your lines set. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. pipe with 1-2-in. Mass. are enameled a jet black. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. about 18 in. Thread the other end of the pipe. When ready for use. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. gas-pipe. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings.

In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Mass. Make a cylindrical core of wood. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. inside the pail. as shown at A in the sketch. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. long and 8 in. A. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. across. 8 in. D. 1. E. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. North Easton. B. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Fig. with a cover. which shall project at least 2 in. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . --Contributed by C. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. M. across.be covered with leather. Fig.. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. 1. high by 1 ft. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Warren.

1330°. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln.. This done. After removing all the paper. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. as is shown in the sketch. hotel china. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. to hold the clay mixture. in diameter. and varnish. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway.. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. and your kiln is ready for business. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. Cover with paper and shellac as before. and cut it 3-1/2 in. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. and 3/4 in. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. and 3/8 in. in diameter. If the cover of the pail has no rim. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. carefully centering it. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. but will be cheaper in operation. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. Whatever burner is used. Fig. Wind about 1/8 in. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. C.. Procure a bundle of small iron wire.-G. Fit all the parts together snugly. After finishing the core. Line the pail. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. if there is to be any glazing done. which is the hottest part.mixture of clay. 1). L. C. long. long over the lid hole as a chimney. and with especial caution the first time. and on it set the paper wrapped core. hard porcelain. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. about 1 in. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. as dictated by fancy and expense. When lighted. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. full length of iron core. of fine wire. let this dry thoroughly. 2 in. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. cutting the hole a little smaller. 1390°-1410°. pack this space-top. layer of the clay mixture. Set aside for a few days until well dried. pipe. make two wood ends. 1). 15%. the firing should be gradual. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. say 1/4 in. bottom and sides. W. diameter. such . strip of sheet iron. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. 60%. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. C. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. the point of the blue flame. pipe 2-ft. or make one yourself. It is placed inside the kiln. 25%. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. and graphite. projecting from each end (Fig. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. if you have the materials. passing wire nails through and clinching them. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. 3) with false top and bottom. 2. E. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. but it will burn a great deal of gas. wider than the kiln. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. thick. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. The 2 in. sand. thick.

2. red and black. taking care to have the first card red. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. Take the red cards. 8 in. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. around the coil. The funnel. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. Next restore all the cards to one pack. all cards facing the same way. length of .53 in. bind tightly with black silk. Of course. about 1/16 in. A. every alternate card being the same color. procure a new deck. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. Then take the black cards. You can display either color called for. the next black.. and so on. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. as in Fig. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. T. as shown in the sketch herewith. 2). plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. leaving long terminals. C. Then. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. diameter. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. Washington. R. square them up. as in Fig. 2. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. and discharges into the tube. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. and divide it into two piles. --Contributed by J. square them up and place in a vise. C. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. and plane off about 1/16 in. Chicago. overlaps and rests on the body. 1. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. D. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. . with a plane. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. B. C.

should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. about 20 in. Long Branch. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. B.. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. so that when they are assembled. 1. E. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. A. N. to form a dovetail joint as shown. B. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. Drill all the horizontal pieces. and this is inexpensive to build. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. as the difficulties increase with the size. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. The upright pieces. thus making all the holes coincide. the same ends will come together again. through the holes already drilled.C. To find the fall of snow. 1 gill of fine white sand. The cement. 1 gill of litharge. angle iron for the frame. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. F. D. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. The bottom glass should be a good fit. and then the frame is ready to assemble. the first thing to decide on is the size. Let . will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. A. stove bolts. stove bolts. It is well not to attempt building a very large one.J. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. E. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. of the frame. It should be placed in an exposed location. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. Fig. When the glass is put in the frame a space. All the horizontal pieces. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. C. B.

Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. having a swinging connection at C. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. if desired. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. D. Fig. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. a centerpiece (A. A. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. Aquarium Finished If desired. B. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. and. to the door knob. Fasten the lever. on the door by means of a metal plate.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium.

soldered to the end of the cylinder. Fig. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Fig. long. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. to form the main supports of the frame. 2 ft. for the top. approximately 1 ft. Buffalo. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. several lengths of scantling 3 in. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. showing the paddle-wheel in position. C. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. hoping it may solve the same question for them. another. I referred this question to my husband. with a water pressure of 70 lb. AA. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. will open the door about 1/2 in. Cut two of them 4 ft. long. --Contributed by Orton E. wide . PAUL S. 1. 1. screwed to the door frame. from the outside top of the frame. F. Two short boards 1 in. 26 in. which is 15 in. A small piece of spring brass. according to the slant given C. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. Fig. long. and Fig. B. White. and another. Fig. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. thus doing away with the spring. 6 in. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. Fig. long. Y. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. as at E. 2 is an end view. E. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. to keep the frame from spreading. Do not fasten these boards now. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. They are shown in Fig. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. 2 at GG. 3 shows one of the paddles. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. D. N.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. wide by 1 in. 1 is the motor with one side removed. To make the frame. 1 . Cut two pieces 30 in. Fig. another. to form the slanting part. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. but mark their position on the frame.. WINTER In these days of modern improvements.

Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. pipe. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. by 1-1/2 in. thick (HH. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Fasten them in their proper position. 2) with a 5/8-in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Fig. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in.along the edges under the zinc to form . hole through them. steel shaft 12 in. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. hole to form the bearings. Take the side pieces. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. from one end by means of a key. iron. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. These are the paddles. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Fig. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. that is. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. 2) form a substantial base. hole through their sides centrally. then drill a 3/16-in. 1. and a 1/4 -in. Tack one side on. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. When it has cooled. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. as shown in Fig. Make this hole conical. Now block the wheel. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. 4. after which drill a 5/8 in. 2) and another 1 in. holes. hole through the exact center of the wheel. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. take down the crosspieces. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. in diameter. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. 24 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). and drill a 1/8-in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. thick. hole through its center. Next secure a 5/8-in. remove the cardboard. Fig. and drill a 1-in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. tapering from 3/16 in. Drill 1/8-in. GG. iron 3 by 4 in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. hole from the tops to the 1-in.burlap will do -. with the wheel and shaft in place. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. (I. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. long to the wheel about 8 in. to a full 1/2 in.

the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. . Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. Do not stop down the lens. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. shutting out all light from above and the sides. but as it would have cost several times as much. place the outlet over a drain. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. It is obvious that. If the bearings are now oiled. Drill a hole through the zinc. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. or what is called a process plate. remove any white curtains there may be. and as near to it as possible. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Focus the camera carefully. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. Correct exposure depends. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. of course. as this makes long exposure necessary. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. says the Photographic Times. but now I put them in the machine. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. and leave them for an hour or so. any window will do. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. start the motor. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments.a water-tight joint. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. on the lens. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Raise the window shade half way. The best plate to use is a very slow one. If sheet-iron is used. sewing machine. light and the plate. it would be more durable. Darken the rest of the window. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. drill press. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. and the subject may move. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. as shown in the sketch at B. ice-cream freezer.

until the core slowly rises. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. by twisting. full of water. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. a core. the core is drawn down out of sight. The current required is very small. an empty pill bottle may be used. A. B. and a base. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. 2. which is made of iron and cork. D. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. C. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. or can be taken from an old magnet. and without fog. or wood. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. a glass tube. as a slight current will answer. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. The glass tube may be a test tube. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. as shown in Fig. or an empty developer tube. On completing . without detail in the face. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. With a piece of black paper. The core C. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. hard rubber. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. 2. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. with binding posts as shown. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do.

Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. whale oil. The colors appear different to different people. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. white lead. 1. according to his control of the current. 1 pt. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. and are changed by reversing the rotation. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. is Benham's color top. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. 1 lb. water and 3 oz. This is a mysterious looking instrument. and make a pinhole in the center. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. and one not easy to explain. finest graphite. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure.

This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. B. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. A. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. In prize games. before cutting. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. As this device is easily upset. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. when the action ceases. C. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. especially if the deck is a new one. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C.. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other.L. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. nearly every time. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. deuce.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. or three spot. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. In making hydrogen. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. Chicago. -Contributed by D. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results.B. fan-like. thus partly filling bottles A and C. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown.

Fig. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A.. Jr. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. S. Bently. 1. 4. Huron. long and 3 in. 12 in. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. in diameter. that will fit loosely in the tube A.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. --Contributed by C. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft.. 10 in. W. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. long. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. 9 in. Fig. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. in length and 3 in. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Form a cone of heavy paper. --Contributed by F. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 3). and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 2. Dak. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. (Fig. Detail of Phonograph Horn . as shown in Fig. Detroit. S. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. Make a 10-sided stick. . making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. J.

so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. making it three-ply thick. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. long. about the size of a leadpencil. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. Fig. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . and walk in.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. Fortunately. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. it is equally easy to block that trick. A second piece of silk thread. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. push back the bolt. allowing 1 in. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. on one side and the top. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. --Contributed by Reader. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. but bends toward D. A piece of tin. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Denver. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. E. A. 6. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. bend it at right angles throughout its length. Remove the form. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. Cut out paper sections (Fig. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. will cause an increased movement of C. C. with a pin driven in each end.

Minn. The feet. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Fremont Hilscher. is connected each point to a battery. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. are made 2 by 4 in. B. or left to right. R.. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. long. Jr. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. posts. long. will last for several years. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. are 7 ft. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. as shown. A..strip. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. The reverse switch. while the lower switch. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. The upper switch. S. Two wood-base switches. --Contributed by J. 4 ft. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . W. West St. put together as shown in the sketch. S S. and rest on a brick placed under each end. The 2 by 4-in. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. B. S. By this arrangement one. Paul.

E. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. 3/8 in. In Fig. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. 1. cut in half. which is made of tin. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. or anything available. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. and the crank bearing C. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. either an old sewing-machine wheel. 2. 2 and 3. and a cylindrical . The hose E connects to the boiler. Fig. is an old bicycle pump. The steam chest D. and the bearing B is fastened by staples.every house. FF. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. Fig. and valve crank S. and has two wood blocks. the size of the hole in the bearing B. which will be described later. pulley wheel. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The valve motion is shown in Figs. with two washers. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The piston is made of a stove bolt. The base is made of wood. and in Fig. H and K. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. thick.

San Jose. powder can. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. as it is merely a trick of photography. W. This engine was built by W.piece of hard wood. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. 3. Schuh and A. Fry. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Fig. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. . The boiler. C. and the desired result is obtained. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. First. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. J. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. The valve crank S. as shown in Fig. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. --Contributed by Geo. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. of Cuba. or galvanized iron. 1. is cut out of tin. to receive the connecting rod H. and a very amusing trick. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. can be an old oil can. at that. using the positive wire as a pen. Cal. G. and saturated with thick oil. Fig. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. G. Eustice. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. This is wound with soft string. 4. Wis. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly.

and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. as shown at AA. Fig. C. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. as shown. and place a bell on the four ends.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. Fig. 1 by covering up Figs. Cut half circles out of each stave. B. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. When turning. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. and Fig. and pass ropes around . Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. They may be of any size. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. diameter. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. to cross in the center. Fig. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. The smaller wheel. 1 will be seen to rotate. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. B. considering the nature of the material employed in making it.

such as clothes lines. This in turn will act on the transmitter. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury..Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. which accounts for the sound. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. To make this lensless microscope.G. --Contributed by H. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. from the transmitter. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. as shown in the illustration. St. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. Mo. but not on all. A (a short spool. long. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end.M. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. which allows the use of small sized ropes. procure a wooden spool. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. From a piece of thin . having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. W. produces a higher magnifying power). Louis. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in.

and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. the diameter will appear three times as large. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. the object should be of a transparent nature. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. bent as shown. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. and has the general appearance shown in Fig.. e. 2. otherwise the image will be blurred. To use this microscope. in which hay has been soaking for several days. is fastened at each end by pins. is made of iron. cut out a small disk. and at the center.) But an object 3/4-in. place a small object on the transparent disk. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. i. fastened to a wooden base.. 3. 1. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. .Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. A. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. B. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. or 64 times. E. The pivot. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. Viewed through this microscope. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. held at arm's length. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. Fig. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. An innocent-looking drop of water. C. C. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. as in all microscopes of any power. D. if the distance is reduced to one-third. by means of brads. H. if the distance is reduced to one-half. The spring. can be made of brass and the armature. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. and look through the hole D. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. which are pieces of hard wood. the diameter will appear twice as large. D. darting across the field in every direction. and so on. (The area would appear 64 times as large. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. The lever. which costs little or nothing to make. B.

DD. brass or iron soldered to nail. brass: E. binding posts: H spring The stop. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. can be made panel as shown. similar to the one used in the sounder. C. thick. Cut the top. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. wide and set in between sides AA. AA. and are connected to the contacts. F. wood. which are made to receive a pivot. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. A switch. long by 16 in. B. 2. between the armature and the magnet. wood: F. brass: B. FF. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. wide. is cut from a board about 36 in. wide. in length and 16 in. K. 16 in. fastened near the end. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. wide. K. wide. or a single piece. should be about 22 in. brass. Each side. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. KEY-A. connection of D to nail. The binding posts. nail soldered on A. C. The door. B. . soft iron. 1. Fig.SOUNDER-A. The back. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. A. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. or taken from a small one-point switch. coils wound with No. HH. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. Fig. D. The base of the key. long and 14-1/2 in. wood: C. E. D. long. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. 16 in. D. 26 wire: E. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. wide and about 20 in.

Make 12 cleats. Ill. brads. AA. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. cut in them. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above..How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. long. E. as shown. 2 and made from 1/4-in. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. material. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. In operation. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. as shown in the sketch. 13-1/2 in. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. with 3/4-in. Garfield. When the electrical waves strike the needle.

which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. A fairly stiff spring. Y. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. Pushing the wire. the magnet. filled with water. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. in order to increase the surface. A. Ridgewood. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. Fairport. A (see sketch). When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. and thus decreases the resistance. N. --Contributed by R. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. N. and. pulls down the armature. when used with a motor. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. The cord is also fastened to a lever. J. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. through which a piece of wire is passed. will give a greater speed. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. B. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. F. A. --Contributed by John Koehler. Brown. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. When the pipe is used. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. down into the water increases the surface in contact. C. E.

even those who read this description. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. Borden. --Contributed by Perry A. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two.for the secret contact. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. B. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Of course. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. Gachville. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. if desired. N. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch.

A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. E. Dobson. records. The top board is made 28-in. 2. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. where the other end of wire is fastened. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. From a piece of brass a switch. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. long and 5 in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. wide. and on both sides of the middle shelf. N. C. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. D. thick and 12-in. deep and 3/4 in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. wide. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. as shown in Fig. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. With about 9 ft. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. H. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. in a semicircle 2 in.. records and 5-5/8 in.whenever the bell rings. . Jr. from the bottom. East Orange. wide. as shown in Fig. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. --Contributed by Dr. Mangold. Nails for stops are placed at DD. wide. for 10in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. long and full 12-in. Washington. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. for 6-in. Compton. Connect switch to post B. J. C. wide. --Contributed by H. apart. A. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. Cal. 1.

closed. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. E. 1. Roanoke. which in operation is bent. Va. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. as shown by the dotted lines. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. to which is fastened a cord. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] .Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. A. B. When the cord is passed over pulley C. as shown in Fig.

apart. wide. The crankpin should fit tightly. as shown in the illustration. Put the rubber tube. Notice the break (S) in the track. D. in diameter. 1 in. one in each end. B. 1. long. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. These wheels should be 3/4 in. deep and 1/2 in. 3). Fig. square and 7/8 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. Bore two 1/4 in. thick (A. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Fig. through one of these holes. In the sides (Fig. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. CC. Fig. Now put all these parts together. Figs. is compressed by wheels. wide. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. If the wheels fit too tightly. in diameter. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. in diameter. E. it too loose. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. E. 1 in. Figs. excepting the crank and tubing. 3. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. holes (HH. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. deep. they will bind. thick. 5) when they are placed. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. to turn on pins of stout wire. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. against which the rubber tubing. in diameter. Cut two grooves. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. they will let the air through. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. Do not fasten the sides too . The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. but a larger one could be built in proportion. which should be about 1/2 in. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. In these grooves place wheels.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. 4 shows the wheel-holder.

In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. tubing. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. and are 30 in. Idana. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. long. the other wheel has reached the bottom. A in Fig. a platform should be added. Fig. 17-1/2 in. from each end. mark for hole and 3 in. 15 in. mark again. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. If the motion of the wheels is regular. B. Fig. and mark for a hole. Kan.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. Take the center of the bar. costing 10 cents. and 3-1/2 in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. To use the pump. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. iron. Two feet of 1/4-in. 2. stands 20 in. is all the expense necessary. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. as it gives steadiness to the motion. from the bottom and 2 in. The screen which is shown in Fig. the pump will give a steady stream. as shown in Fig. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. 2. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. AA. 1. from that mark the next hole. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. The three legs marked BBB. Then turn the crank from left to right. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. Hubbard. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Cut six pieces. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. from each end. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. from each end. 1. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. AA. Fig. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. --Contributed by Dan H. though a small iron wheel is better. 1. Fig. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. The animal does not fear to enter the box. of material. For ease in handling the pump. beyond each of these two. 1. because he can . this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. In the two cross bars 1 in. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. 1.

however. long having two thumb screws. potassium bichromate. silvery appearance. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. of the top. there is too much liquid in the jar. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. Place the carbon in the jar. and the solution (Fig. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. giving it a bright. 2). add slowly. of water dissolve 4 oz. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. or. The battery is now complete. The mercury will adhere. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. If the battery has been used before. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. 14 copper wire. stirring constantly. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. sulphuric acid. . raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. To cause a flow of electricity. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. When through using the battery. The truncated. The battery is now ready for use. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. If the solution touches the zinc. --Contributed by H. or small electric motors. acid 1 part). It is useful for running induction coils. 4 oz. When the bichromate has all dissolved. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. but if one casts his own zinc.see through it: when he enters. some of it should be poured out. If it is wet. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. until it is within 3 in. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. and touches the bait the lid is released and. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. C. Philadelphia. rub the zinc well. Meyer. 1) must be prepared. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. shuts him in. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. dropping.

Madison. pressing the pedal closes the door. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. If. which opens the door. however. e. i. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. with slight changes. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. The price of the coil depends upon its size. the jump-spark coil . The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. Wis. the battery circuit. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. After putting in the coal.Fig. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch.. while the coal door is being opened. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace.

6. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. 7. . apart. and closer for longer distances. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. diameter. 6. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. 7. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. 5. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. Fig. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. 7).described elsewhere in this book. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. This coil. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. coil. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. which is made of light copper wire. in a straight line from top to bottom. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. W W. in a partial vacuum. W W. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. made of No. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. as shown in Fig. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. This will make an excellent receiver. being a 1-in. while a 12-in. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig.7. the full length of the coil. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. Change the coil described. Now for the receiving apparatus. After winding. as shown in Fig. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B".

to the direction of the force that caused the circles. For an illustration. The writer does not claim to be the originator. using an electric motor and countershaft. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. These circles. 90°. A. No. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. 1 to 4. I run my lathe by power. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. where A is the headstock. 1). is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. Figs. Run a wire from the other binding post. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. being at right angles. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. B the bed and C the tailstock. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one.The aerial line. after all. and hence the aerial line. in the air. 90°. may be easily made at very little expense. which will be described later. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. to the direction of the current. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles.6 stranded. A large cone pulley would then be required. but simply illustrates the above to show that. . 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). as it matches the color well. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. are analogous to the flow of induction. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. only. being vertical. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. but it could be run by foot power if desired. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. at any point to any metal which is grounded. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. above the ground. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface.

cut a square hole in the wood as shown. 4. After pouring. Fig. and it is well to have the shaft hot. A.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. 4. on the under side of the bed. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. 5. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. but not hot enough to burn it. To make these bearings. Fig. deep. Heat the babbitt well. 6 Headstock Details D. one of which is shown in Fig. and runs in babbitt bearings. B. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . making half of the square in each half of the bearing. The headstock. If the bearing has been properly made. 6. which are let into holes FIG. 5. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. thick. The bolts B (Fig. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. pitch and 1/8 in. The bearing is then ready to be poured. too. which pass through a piece of wood. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. tapered wooden pin. Fig. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. steel tubing about 1/8 in. Fig. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. and Fig. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. just touching the shaft. 2 and 3.

--Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. The tail stock (Fig. Oak Park. embedded in the wood. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. of the walk .J. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. they may be turned up after assembling. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. If one has a wooden walk. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. Take up about 5 ft. If not perfectly true. This prevents corrosion. B. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. and a 1/2-in. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. Ill. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. A. the alarm is easy to fix up. so I had to buy one.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. FIG. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. Newark. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. lock nut. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. N. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock.other machines. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts.

clean the articles thoroughly. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. and the alarm is complete. silver or other metal. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. hang the articles on the wires. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. so that they will not touch. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. save when a weight is on the trap. To avoid touching it. add potassium cyanide again. Do not touch the work with the hands again. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. of water. (A. Minn. water. to roughen the surface slightly. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. before dipping them in the potash solution. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Finally. S. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Jackson. leaving a clear solution. Then make the solution . 2). Fig. to remove all traces of grease. Connect up an electric bell. Minneapolis. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. --Contributed by R. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired.

--Model Engineer. Then. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. 18 wire. such metals as iron.up to 2 qt. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. On brass. Where Bunsen cells are used. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. Repeat six times. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. zinc. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. To provide the keyhole. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. use 2 volts for large articles. which is held by catch B. which . Screw the two blocks together. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. which is advised. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. as shown in Fig. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. In rigging it to a sliding door. make a key and keyhole. Fig.5 to 4 volts. With an electric pressure of 3. and 4 volts for very small ones. copper. When all this is set up. I. B should be of the same wood. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. as at F. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. and the larger part (F. Make a somewhat larger block (E. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. piece of broomstick. A 1/4 in. of clothesline rope and some No. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. shaking. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. Fig. about 25 ft. Having finished washing the precipitate. from the lower end. but opens the door. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. saw a piece of wood. when the point of the key touches the tin. thick by 3 in. an old electric bell or buzzer. must be about 1 in. square. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. 1 not only unlocks. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. a hand scratch brush is good. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. 3) strikes the bent wire L. 3. also. 1. long. Can be made of a 2-in. of water. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. 1). A (Fig. The wooden catch. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. with water. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. If more solution is required. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. If accumulators are used. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. 10 in. hole in its center. with water. 3) directly over the hole. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. light strokes. Fig. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. will serve for the key. if one does not possess a buffing machine. Before silver plating. and then treated as copper. long. nickel and such metals. lead. Fig. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. 1 in. Take quick. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. German silver. with the pivot 2 in. a circuit is completed. silver can be plated direct. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. pewter. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. This solution. The wooden block C. 1).

The box must be altered first. top. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. the requisites are a large soap box. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. The interior must be a dead black. spoons and jackknives. Heavy metal objects. floor. some black paint. with the lights turned low. Fig. In front of you. so much the better. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. between the parlor and the room back of it. cut in one side. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. and hands its contents round to the audience. 116 Prospect St. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. the illumination in front must be arranged. and black art reigns supreme.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. some black cloth. sides and end. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. Fig. in his shirt sleeves. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. East Orange. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Fig. he tosses it into the cave. New Jersey. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. Receiving the bowl again. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. On either side of the box. no painting inside is required. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. and finally lined inside with black cloth. should be cut a hole. One thing changes to another and back again. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. heighten the illusion. and plenty of candles. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. Klipstein. 3. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. and a slit. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. a few simple tools. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. H. The magician stands in front of this. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. surrounding a perfectly black space. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. 2. Fig. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. which unlocks the door. 1. half way from open end to closed end. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. Objects appear and disappear. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. to throw the light toward the audience. although a little more trouble. He removes the bowl from the black box. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. Thus. is the cut through which the rope runs. . B. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. To prepare such a magic cave. --Contributed by E. one-third of the length from the remaining end. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. Next. Next. or cave. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). H. the box should be painted black both inside and out. with a switch as in Fig. 2. One end is removed. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. he points with one finger to the box. 1.. enlarged. such as forks. H. shows catch B. 0.

This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. Consequently. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. of course. is on a table) so much the better. only he. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. of course. But illusions suggest themselves. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. The exhibitor should be . into the eyes of him who looks. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. which are let down through the slit in the top. which can be made to dance either by strings. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. was identical with this. had a big stage. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. a screen must be used. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. the room where the cave is should be dark. and pours them from the bag into a dish. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. and if portieres are impossible. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. if. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. The illusion. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. in which are oranges and apples. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. and several black drop curtains.Finally. one on each side of the box. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. his confederate behind inserts his hand. as presented by Hermann. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. you must have an assistant. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. The audience room should have only low lights. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding.

b3. and c2 to the zinc. held down on disk F by two other terminals. 1. Fig. by means of two wood screws. c3. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). 2. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. terminal c3 will show . A represents a pine board 4 in. by 4 in. b3. their one end just slips under the strips b1. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. at L. is shown in the diagram. Then. as shown in Fig. respectively. b1. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. held down by another disk F (Fig. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. Finally. b2. and c4 + electricity. 2).a boy who can talk. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. if you turn handle K to the right. d. c4. terminal c3 will show +.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. vice versa. c2. and a common screw. when handle K is turned to one side. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. respectively. respectively. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. or binding posts. f2. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. 2. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. e1 and e2. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. and c1 – electricity. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. On the disk G are two brass strips. so arranged that.. c1. held down on it by two terminals. About the center piece H moves a disk. making contact with them. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. b2. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. with three brass strips. square. or b2. A. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. making contact with them as shown at y. 1.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. FIG. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes .

--Contributed by Eugene F. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. -Contributed by A. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. jump spark coil. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. and C and C1 are binding posts. . and when on No. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. 4. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries.. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . Ohio. E. 3. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. when on No. from four batteries. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. 5. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). when A is on No. from five batteries. Joerin. you have the current of one battery. when on No. When switch B is closed and A is on No. B is a onepoint switch. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Jr. 1. Newark. from three batteries. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Tuttle. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. and then hold the receiver to your ear.

A. The device thus arranged. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. per second. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. which may be a button or other small object.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. B. La. mark. E. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. and supporting the small weight. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. P. is the device of H. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. per second for each second. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. and placed on the windowsill of the car. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening.. over the bent portion of the rule. rule. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. A. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. of Burlington. A. Wis. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. When you do not have a graduate at hand. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. as shown in the sketch. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. Thus. mark. Handy Electric Alarm . If the thread is tied at the 17-in. so one can see the time. traveled by the thread. New Orleans. Redmond. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer.

attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. --Contributed by Gordon T. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. Instead. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. wrapping the wire around the can several times. Lane. C. S. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch.which has a piece of metal. but may be closed at F any time desired. Crafton. . At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. for a wetting is the inevitable result. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. Then if a mishap comes. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. --C. soldered to the alarm winder. B. and with the same result. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. When the alarm goes off. Pa. which illuminates the face of the clock.

Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. Two cleats. and duplicates of all these. L. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. bearings. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. models and miniature objects. as shown. BE. cannons. ornaments of various kinds. but it is a mistake to try to do this. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. --Contributed by A. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. small machinery parts. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. whence it is soon tracked into the house. 1. It is possible to make molds without a bench. AA. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. when it is being prepared. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. C. 1 . which may. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. binding posts. battery zincs. With the easily made devices about to be described. engines. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. and many other interesting and useful articles. A. The first thing to make is a molding bench.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools .Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. Macey. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. If there is no foundry Fig. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. as shown in Fig. New York City.

If the box is not very strong.How to Make a Mold [96] . high. Fig. The flask. which should be nailed in. as shown. and the "drag. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. If desired the sieve may be homemade. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. 1. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. but this operation will be described more fully later on. Fig. A A.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. as shown. II . and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. will be required. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. CC. 1. CC. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. and a sieve. and saw it in half longitudinally. H. An old teaspoon. and this. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. D. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. say 12 in. is made of wood. The rammer. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. try using sand from other sources. DD. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. is shown more clearly in Fig. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. is nailed to each end of the cope. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. the "cope. a little larger than the outside of the flask. E. 2 . A wedge-shaped piece. makes a very good sieve.near at hand." or lower part. The dowels. which can be made of a knitted stocking. J. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. white metal. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. G." or upper half. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. is filled with coal dust. by 8 in. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. and the lower pieces. It is made of wood and is in two halves. previous to sawing. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. A slight shake of the bag Fig. by 6 in. F. The cloth bag. is about the right mesh. which can be either aluminum. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. 2.

or "cope. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. It is then rammed again as before. as shown at C. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. Place another cover board on top. as shown at D. The sand is then ready for molding. as shown at E. as described. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. and thus judge for himself. After ramming. where they can watch the molders at work. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. and scatter about 1/16 in. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. In finishing the ramming. as shown. the surface of the sand at . everything will be ready for the operation of molding. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed." in position. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. and by grasping with both hands. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. in order to remove the lumps. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. turn the drag other side up. or "drag." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. as it is much easier to learn by observation. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. and if water is added.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. and then more sand is added until Fig.

" or pouring-hole. The "sprue. to give the air a chance to escape. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. wide and about 1/4 in. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. made out of steel rod. in order to prevent overheating. place the cope back on the drag. Fig. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. . from the surface of the mold to the pattern. deep. After drawing the pattern. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. and then pour. as shown at F. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. as shown at H. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. thus making a dirty casting. as shown at J. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. as shown at G. after being poured. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. is next cut. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. it shows that the sand is too wet. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. as shown in the sketch. This is done with a spoon. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. in diameter. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it.E should be covered with coal-dust. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. Place a brick or other flat. III. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. as shown at H. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. thus holding the crucible securely. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick.

may be used in either direction. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. If a good furnace is available. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. Morton. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. In my own case I used four batteries. Although the effect in the illustration . or from any adjacent pair of cells. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. although somewhat expensive. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. used only for zinc. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. but any reasonable number may be used. --Contributed by Harold S. 15% lead. Minneapolis. the following device will be found most convenient. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. is very desirable. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. and. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. and the casting is then ready for finishing. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. battery zincs. Referring to the figure. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. babbitt. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. white metal and other scrap available. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal.

If desired. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. to prevent them from rubbing the hands.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. as shown in the illustration. Put a sharp needle point. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. may be made of hardwood. Fig. backward. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. Chicago. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. as shown at A. Make one of these pieces for each arm. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. To make it take a sheet-iron band. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. B. 2. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. Then replace the table. The brass rings also appear distorted. A. outward. By replacing the oars with paddles. connected by cords to the rudder. --Contributed by Draughtsman. The bearings. shaft made. 3/4 in. which will be sufficient to hold it. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. Then walk down among the audience. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . He can easily steer the boat with his feet. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. B.

for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. It may seem strange that ice . W. The hubs. as shown in Fig. but when in motion. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. should be made of wood. C. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. spoiling its appearance. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. If babbitt is used. If galvanized iron is used. E. Snow. or the paint will come off. 2 and 3. 1. when it will again return to its original state. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. A. 1.melted babbitt. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. The covers. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. In the same way. Fig. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. 2. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. A block of ice. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. D. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. being simply finely divided ice. or under pressure. 1. as shown in Fig. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. and a weight. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. 3.

thus giving a high resistance contact. whenever there is any connection made at all. --Contributed by Gordon T. The rate of flow is often very slow. by 1/2 in. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. it will gradually change from the original shape A. which resembles ice in this respect. as per sketch. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. in. by 5 in. brass. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. but by placing it between books. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. as shown on page 65. B. Lane. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. Pa. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. by 2 in. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. sometimes only one or two feet a day. P. Pressing either push button. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. Crafton. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series.. by 1/4. but. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. square. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. no matter how slow the motion may be. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. or supporting it in some similar way. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. and assume the shape shown at B. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram.should flow like water.

In the wiring diagram. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. B. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. furnace. G. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. as shown. draft chain. as shown.000 ft. wooden supports. Wilkinsburg. about the size used for automobiles. Ward. the battery. and five dry batteries. D. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. horizontal lever. cord. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. vertical lever. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. F. J. weight. G. A is the circuit breaker. E. H. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. Indianapolis. K . The parts are: A. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. pulleys. Pa. draft. and C. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. --Contributed by A. C. B. the induction coil. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. I.thumb screws. The success depends upon a slow current. alarm clock.

which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. such as used for a storm window. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. will fit nicely in them. The frame (Fig.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. which will provide a fine place for the plants. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. where house plants are kept in the home. Artistic Window Boxes The top. 3. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. material framed together as shown in Fig. Kalamazoo. 2 are dressed to the right angle. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. as well as the bottom. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. Mich. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom.

Halifax. It must be remembered.. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. S. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. --Contributed by Wm. and cost 27 cents FIG. can be connected up in series. e. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. i. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. and will give the . A certain number of these. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. is something that will interest the average American boy. a cork and a needle.. and a suitable source of power. so as to increase the current. by connecting them in series. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. Push the needle into the cork. for some time very satisfactorily. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. This is more economical than dry cells. Thus. as if drawn upon for its total output. in this connection. 1 each complete with base. Grant. in any system of lamps. N. in diameter.. 1.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. and the instrument will then be complete. since a battery is the most popular source of power. where they are glad to have them taken away. but maintain the voltage constant. W. one can regulate the batteries as required. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. The 1/2-cp. this must be done with very great caution. as indicated by Fig. However. Canada. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. 1 cp. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. multiples of series of three. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. after a rest. which sells for 25 cents. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. However. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series.

Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. by the proper combination of these. which is the same as that of one battery. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. if wound for 6 volts. Thus. to secure light by this method. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. 2 shows the scheme. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. So. 11 series. These will give 3 cp. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. 1-cp. FIG. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. especially those of low internal resistance. although the first cost is greater. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. If wound for 10 volts. However. and diffused light in a room. 18 B & S.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. where the water pressure is the greatest. as in Fig. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. Chicago. each.proper voltage. and for Christmas trees. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. for display of show cases. Thus. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. lamp. lamps. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. we simply turn on the water. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. making. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. according to the water pressure obtainable. double insulated wire wherever needed. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. . and then lead No. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. or 22 lights. The dynamo can also be used as a motor.. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. lamps. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. generates the power for the lights. In conclusion. 3. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and running the series in parallel. Fig.

Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. brushes of motor. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. simply change the switch. --Contributed by Leonard E. the letters indicate as follows: FF. DD. bars of pole-changing switch. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Plymouth. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. B. are cut just alike. . outside points of switch. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. or a tempting bone. and the sides. --Contributed by F. CC. switch. B. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. To reverse the motor. we were not bothered with them. Santa Clara. BB. a bait of meat. and C. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. A indicates the ground. After I connected up my induction coil. AA. field of motor. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Cal. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. A. as shown in the sketch. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. or from one pattern. Ind. Emig. thus reversing the machine. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. Parker. center points of switch.

the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. which is in the door. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. A. and a table or bench. 903 Vine St. or would remain locked. thus locking the door. one cell being sufficient. Melchior.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. If it is not. a hammer. Minn. attached to the end of the armature B. San Jose. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. The experiment works best . Fry. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. W. The button can be hidden. as it is the key to the lock. When the circuit is broken a weight. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. -Contributed by Claude B. Cal. To unlock the door. a piece of string. Hutchinson. merely push the button E.. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule.

Wis. . in the ceiling and has a window weight. the stick falls away. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. Porto Rico. 3. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Madison. 3. which pulls the draft open. Ontario.Contributed by F. When the alarm rings in the early morning. run through a pulley. Canada. 4). Crawford Curry. where it will remain suspended as shown. I. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. the current flows with the small arrows. attached at the other end. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. C. Tie the ends of the string together. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. 18 Gorham St. D. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Culebra. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Schmidt. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. the key turns. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. forming a loop. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. --Contributed by Geo. P. as shown in Fig.. Brockville. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. -. 1). A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. releasing the weight. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. A. 2. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. W.

square and 1 in. Camden. Use a barrel to work on. D. Connect two wires to the transmitter. First. and break the corners off to make them round. J. J. N. S. which fasten to the horn. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and . The apparatus is not difficult to construct. including the mouthpiece. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. and then to the receiver. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. --Contributed by Wm. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. 6 in. The cut shows the arrangement.. running one direct to the receiver. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. Farley. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. thence to a switch. get two pieces of plate glass. R. or from a bed of flowers. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Jr. and the other to the battery. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. or tree.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. made with his own hands. thick.

When done the glass should be semitransparent. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. twice the focal length away. When polishing the speculum. Use a binger to spread it on with.. the coarse grinding must be continued. and label. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. a round 4-in. wide around the convex glass or tool. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. set the speculum against the wall. Then warm and press again with the speculum. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. or it will not polish evenly. Fasten. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. In a dark room. also rotate the glass. melt 1 lb. using straight strokes 2 in. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. and a large lamp. wetting it to the consistency of cream. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. as in Fig.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. Fig.. A. and the under glass or tool convex. and is ready for polishing. and spread on the glass. or less. When dry. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. 2. then take 2 lb. unless a longer focal length is wanted. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. by the side of the lamp. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Have ready six large dishes. so the light . with pitch. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. while walking around the barrel. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. 1. with 1/4-in. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. then 8 minutes. of water. spaces. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. 2. L. wet till soft like paint. in length.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. Fig.

4 oz. cement a strip of board 8 in. Place the speculum S. Fig.……………………………. Silver nitrate ……………………………. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. 25 gr. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency.. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. then ammonia until bath is clear. as in K. When the focus is found. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. Then add 1 oz. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Nitric acid . with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. face down. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. that was set aside. 39 gr.. 2. Place the speculum. Fig. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum).. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. longer strokes.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. if a hill in the center. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. The knife should not be more than 6 in. the speculum will show some dark rings. The polishing and testing done. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke.. also how the rays R from a star ..100 gr. 2. deep. with distilled water.. 100 gr. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. Two glass or earthenware dishes.. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Fig..……………. must be procured. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.……………………………….. If not. or hills. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. fill the dish with distilled water. touched with rouge. Now add enough of the solution A. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. 840 gr. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. long to the back of the speculum. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Then add solution B. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. With pitch. and pour the rest into the empty dish. 4 oz. the speculum is ready to be silvered. When dry.. from the lamp. Solution D: Sugar loaf .

A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Place over lens. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. . Mellish. Then I made the one described. is a satisfactory angle.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. two glass prisms. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. and proceed as for any picture. About 20..John E. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. which proves to be easy of execution. My telescope is 64 in. with an outlay of only a few dollars. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. using strawboard and black paper. long and cost me just $15. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Thus an excellent 6-in. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. telescope can be made at home. Make the tube I of sheet iron. deg. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. cover with paper and cloth. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. slightly wider than the lens mount. stop down well after focusing. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made.

when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. Ill. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. -Contributed by A. To unlock. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. B. unobstructed light strike the mirror. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. instead of the contrary. The rays of the clear. then add a little sulphate of potash. or powdered alum. complete the arrangement. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. as shown in Fig. through the lens of the camera and on the board. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. Do not stir it. . as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. push the button D. D. A. Boody. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. but will not preserve its hardening. and reflect through the negative. Fig. add the plaster gradually to the water. Zimmerman. 1. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. 2. says the Master Painter. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. The paper is exposed. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting.

Then blow through the spool. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. so that it can rotate about these points.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. throw . and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. 2. also provide them with a handle. as shown in the sketch. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Fig. Fasten on the switch lever. but will remain suspended without any visible support. 1). A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. as at A and B. as in Fig. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. use a string. To reverse. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. 2. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 3.

C C. In the sketch. . Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Tex. San Antonio. Tex.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. and E E. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. North Bend. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. B. --Contributed by R. D. and rub dry with linen cloth. Go McVicker. binding posts. San Marcos. rinse in alcohol. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. wash in running water. Neb. -Contributed by Morris L. Levy. Take out. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. as shown in the sketch. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. A is the electricbell magnet. --Contributed by Geo. Push one end of the tire into the hole. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. L. the armature. carbons. although this is not necessary. Thomas. carbon sockets.

Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. Bell. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. --Contributed by Joseph B. 16 magnet wire. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Divested of nearly all technical phrases. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Brooklyn. 14 or No. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. 36 magnet wire. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. long or more. wound evenly about this core. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. By means of two or more layers of No.

The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. 1. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. then the strip of tin-foil. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. A 7/8-in. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. which is an important factor of the coil. The following method of completing a 1-in. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. When cut and laid in one continuous length. the entire core may be purchased readymade. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. The primary is made of fine annealed No. as the maker prefers. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. 4. in diameter. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. diameter. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. This makes a condenser which may be folded. wide. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. with room also for a small condenser. at a time. 2 yd. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious.which would be better to buy ready-made. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. and finally the fourth strip of paper. about 6 in. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. but if it is not convenient to do this work. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. No. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. one piece of the paper is laid down. After the core wires are bundled. long and 5 in. and the results are often unsatisfactory. The condenser is next wrapped . and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. In shaping the condenser. which is desirable. in length. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. hole is bored in the center of one end. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. Beginning half an inch from one end. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. a box like that shown in Fig. making two layers. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. long and 2-5/8 in. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. as shown in Fig. or 8 in. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. coil illustrates the general details of the work. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper.

I. and the other sheet. shelf for clock. battery . See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. one from bell. B. F. by 12 in. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. which is insulated from the first. whole length. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. the letters indicate as follows: A. long and 12 in. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. D. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. Fig. to the door. long to key. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. shows how the connections are made. The alarm key will turn and drop down. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. lines H. 3. C. go. V-shaped copper strip.securely with bands of paper or tape. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. E. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. and one from battery. bell. switch. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. spark. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. 4 in. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. forms the other pole or terminal. G. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes.. A. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. open switch C. ready for assembling. flange turned on one side. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. B.) The wiring diagram. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. round so that the inside . copper lever with 1-in. which allows wiring at the back. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. wide.

and the battery is ready for use. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat.diameter is 7 in. Line the furnace. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. Use a glass or metal shade. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. London. of blue stone. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. of zinc sulphate. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. but add 5 or 6 oz.. instead of close to it. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. do not shortcircuit. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. The circuit should also have a high resistance. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. . but with the circuit. says the Model Engineer. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Short-circuit for three hours. If desired for use immediately. This is for blowing. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. 2 in. from the bottom. and then rivet the seam. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. That is what they are for.

Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. long." which created much merriment. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. the second finger along the side. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. If any or your audience presume to dispute. below the bottom of the zinc. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Outside of the scientific side involved. and then. porcelain and paper. Enlarge the hole slightly. for some it will turn one way. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. At least it is amusing. changes white phosphorus to yellow. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. or think they can do the same let them try it. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. If too low. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in.9 of a volt. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. but the thing would not move at all. herein I describe a much better trick. Try it and see. imparting to them a violet tinge. thus producing two different vibrations. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and therein is the trick. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. To operate the trick. Ohio. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. oxygen to ozone. 1. as in the other movement. for others the opposite way. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. square and about 9 in. This type of battery will give about 0. affects . g. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. while for others it will not revolve at all. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. 2..

Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. however. and. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. To the front board is attached a box. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. an old tripod screw. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. and one of them is photomicrography. if possible. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. chemicals. insects. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. a means for holding it vertical. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . earth. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. but this is less satisfactory. If the worker is not after too high a magnification.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. says the Photographic Times. but small flowers. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. a short-focus lens.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. but not essential.

then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 268 17 lb. 905 57 lb. while it is not so with the quill. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 1.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 5 in. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 9 ft. or 3 ft. in diameter. Divide one-quarter of the circle . long and 3 ft. which is 15 ft. 697 44 lb. Fig. 10 ft 523 33 lb. If the balloon is 10 ft. 179 11 lb. 7-1/2 in. Ft Lifting Power. CD. or 31 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. and a line. The following table will give the size.--Contributed by George C. balloon. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. Boston. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 5 ft. 381 24 lb. A line. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 12 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 113 7 lb. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 6 ft. 7 ft. in Cu. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 65 4 lb. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. AB. Madison. 8 ft. 7-1/2 in. 11 ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. Cap. Mass.

When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. The cloth segments are sewed together. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. on the curved line from B to C. and so on. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. making a double seam as shown in Fig. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. 4. of beeswax and boil well together. The pattern is now cut. 3. and after marked is cut the same shape and size.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. 2. keeping the marked part on the outside. cutting all four quarters at the same time. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. Repeat this operation four times. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. 70 thread. This test will show if the bag is airtight. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. Procure 1 gal. of the very best heavy body. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. using a fine needle and No. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas.

of gas in one hour. to the bag. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. . if it is good it will dry off. balloon are 125 lb. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. of water will make 4 cu. A. capacity and connect them. with 3/4in. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. ft. . a clean white rag. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. A. pipe.. After washing a part. Water 1 oz. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. 1 lb. All FIG. 150 gr. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. ]. this should be repeated frequently. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. or dusting with a dry brush. 1 lb. Vegetable oils should never be used. The 3/4-in. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. In the barrel. or a fan. B. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. A. About 15 lb. B. 5. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. above the level of the water in barrel A. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. until no more dirt is seen. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. but if any grease remains on the hand. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. it is not fit to use. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. using a fine brush. which may sound rather absurd. of iron borings and 125 lb. with water 2 in. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. should not enter into the water over 8 in. as shown in Fig. Fill the other barrel.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. of sulphuric acid. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. 5 . The outlet. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. B. When the clock has dried. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. by fixing. C. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. of iron. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator.ft. C. oil the spindle holes carefully.Green Iron ammonium citrate . let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. leaving the hand quite clean. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. with the iron borings.

Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Dry the plates in the dark. 20 to 30 minutes. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. This aerial collector can be made in . of the cell is connected to the aerial line. Dry in the dark. keeping the fingers out of the solution. and keep in the dark until used. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp.Water 1 oz. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly.000 ft. Exposure. of any make.. . Printing is done in the sun. toning first if desired. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. The negative pole. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. dry atmosphere will give best results. to avoid blackened skin. Port Melbourne. at the time of employment. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. A longer exposure will be necessary. A cold. or zinc. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. or battery. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. says the Moving Picture World. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. and a vigorous negative must be used. fix in hypo. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. or carbon. . The positive pole. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. The miniature 16 cp.

To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. long. lay a needle. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. a positive and a negative. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. in diameter. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. The storage cell. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. will soon become dry and useless. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. holes . part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. and have the other connected with another aerial line. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. This will complete the receiving station. As the telephone offers a high resistance. as described below. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. and as less current will flow the short way. both positive and negative. If the wave ceases. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. forming a cup of the pipe. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates.various ways. 5 in. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. making a ground with one wire. lead pipe. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. If the waves strike across the needle. the resistance is less. when left exposed to the air.

Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. When mixing the acid and water. or tube C. This support or block. or tube B. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. B. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. namely: a square hole. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. on each end. an oblong one and a triangular one. says the Pathfinder. one to the positive. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. D. a round one. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency.as possible. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. does not need to be watertight. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. Two binding-posts should be attached. except for about 1 in. The other plate is connected to the zinc. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. by soldering the joint. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. and the other to the negative. This box can be square. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. This. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. of course.

is built 15 ft. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. all around the edge. 2. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. 1. in place on the wood. 2. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. leaving about 1/16 in. long. A and B. C. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. thick cut two pieces alike. Chicago. . wide. were fitted by this one plug. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. about 20 in. and has plenty of good seating capacity. Only galvanized nails should be used. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. 1. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. deep and 4 ft. as shown in Fig. back and under. 3. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. as shown in Fig. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. C. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. The third piece of brass. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. as it is not readily overturned. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. wide. and match them together. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. This punt. Ill. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible.

with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Wash. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Tacoma.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. B. is cut 1 in. A piece of 1/4-in. A. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. square (Fig 2).-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. In Fig. thick and 3-1/2 in. gas pipe. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in.

with the exception of insulated wire. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. or "rotor. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. which the writer has made. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. says the Model Engineer. without auxiliary phase. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. lamp. may be of interest to some of our readers. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. if possible. H. The winding of the armature. no special materials could be obtained." has no connection with the outside circuit. which can be developed in the usual manner. and to consume. In designing. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of .--Contributed by Charles H. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. it had to be borne in mind that. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. Wagner. no more current than a 16-cp.

They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. A. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. and filled with rivets. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. They are not particularly accurate as it is. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. 1. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. with the dotted line. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available.the field-magnet. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. about 2-1/2 lb. and all sparking is avoided. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. 4. Holes 5-32 in. also varnished before they were put in. After assembling a second time. to be filed out after they are placed together. C. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. 5. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. B. holes. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. while the beginnings . and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. wrought iron. 2. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. or "stator. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. The stator is wound full with No. bolts put in and tightened up. no steel being obtainable. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. Unfortunately. this little machine is not self-starting. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. as shown in Fig. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. 3. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. thick. in diameter were drilled in the corners. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. were then drilled and 1/4-in. being used. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. as shown in Fig. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig.

a regulating resistance is not needed. J. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. if applied immediately. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. N. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. One is by contact. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. The image should . as a means of illustrating songs. E. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. and especially of colored ones. In making slides by contact. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. McKinney. If too late for alcohol to be of use. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. and all wound in the same direction. as before stated.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. 3-Contributed by C. and the other by reduction in the camera. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. having no commutator or brushes. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. and as the motor runs at constant speed.. Jr. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. and as each layer of wire was wound. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. 2. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. Newark. This type of motor has drawbacks. 1. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. and would not easily get out of order. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. The lantern slide is a glass plate. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. it would be very simple to build. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. The rotor is wound with No. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. as shown in Fig. No starting resistance is needed. film to film.

which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. and then a plain glass. as shown in Fig. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. Select a room with one window. D. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. 1. about a minute. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. A. B. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. if possible. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. Fig. C. the formulas being found in each package of plates. If the exposure has been correct. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. a little extra work will be necessary. and development should be over in three or four minutes. It is best. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. to use a plain fixing bath. These can be purchased from any photo material store. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. 5. except that the binding is different. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. also. as shown in Fig. they are much used by travelers. Draw lines with a pencil. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. 3. Being unbreakable.appear in. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. over the mat. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. 2. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. 4. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used.

from the ends. or other stout cloth. long. in diameter and 40 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. from the center of this dot draw a star. Fig. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. long. 1.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. 2. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. Corinth. long. is to be used for the seat. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. as shown in Fig. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. Hastings. from the end piece of the chair. wide and 50 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. Vt. These longer pieces can be made square. as shown at A. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. holes bored in the end pieces. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. in diameter and 20 in. 16 in. A piece of canvas. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. known as rods and cones. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. 1. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. as shown at B. Fig. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. If the star is in front of the left eye.

. Auburn.-Contributed by P. 2. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. made from an ordinary sash cord. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. Cal. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A disk 1 in. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. as well as to operate other household machines. J. as shown in Fig. O'Gara. as shown in Fig. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. 1. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. A belt. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. per square inch. in thickness and 10 in. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances.

or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. it serves a very useful purpose. Put the bolt in the hole. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. Cut out a piece from the block combination. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. square for a support. Bore a 1/4-in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. with as fine a thread as possible. or inconvenient to measure. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. screwing it through the nut. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. leaving it shaped like a bench. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. fairly accurate. wide. and counting the threads in an inch of its length.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. The part of a rotation of the bolt. and the construction is complete. . The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. to the top of the bench. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. divided by the number of threads to the inch. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. will be the thickness of the object. thick and 2-1/2 in. then removing the object. direction. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. long. says the Scientific American. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. A simple. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. 3/4 in. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument.

How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. beyond the end of the wood. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Santa Maria. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. material 12 ft. Bore a 3/4-in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. globe that has been thrown away as useless. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Oal. which show up fine at night. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. long. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. The wheel should be open . yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. bolt in each hole. Place a 3/4-in. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. long is used for the center pole. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. piece of wood 12 ft. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in.

A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. 1/2 in. long. is soldered. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. thick is used for the armature. P. A cross bar. from the ends. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. The coil. of the ends with boards. C. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. in diameter. wide and 1/8 in. at the bottom. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. Graham. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. to be operated by the magnet coil. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. from the top end. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod.-Contributed by A. B. long with the upper or wider part 4 in.Side and Top View or have spokes. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. long. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. A piece of brass 2 in. which should be 1/4 in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. C. A. made of the same material. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. thick. Tex. at the top and 4 in. and the lower part 61/2 in. square and 3 or 4 in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. thick. and on its lower end a socket. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. The spool . H and J. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. long. The boards may be nailed or bolted. long. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. pieces used for the spokes. O. L. Fort Worth.

which may be had by using German silver wire. R. This tie can be used on grain sacks. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. is drilled. do it without any apparent effort. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. then with a firm. or a water rheostat heretofore described. one without either rubber or metal end. S. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. A soft piece of iron. by soldering.--A. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in.E. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. and directly centering the holes H and J. --Contributed by Arthur D. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. 1. The armature. and place it against a door or window casing. Mass. and is adjusted in place by two set screws.J. This is a very neat trick if performed right. for insulating the brass ferrule. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. B. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. Randolph. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. F. At the bottom end of the frame. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. C. When you slide the pencil along the casing. Bradlev. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. that holds the lower carbon.000 for irrigation work. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. and in numerous other like instances. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. S. 2. D and E. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. A. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied.is about 2-1/2 in. long. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil.000. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. 2 the hat hanging on it. .

from the core and directly opposite. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. D. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. about 3/16 in. A. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. in diameter and 2 in.500 turns of No. in diameter. wide. Fig. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. for adjustment. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. in diameter and 1/16 in. B. S. S. with a 3/16-in. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. about 1 in. long and 1 in. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. for the secondary. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. may be made from a 3/8-in. is constructed in the usual manner. in diameter. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. hole in the center. 1. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. C. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. for the primary. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. Experiment with Heat [134] . thick. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. about 1/8 in. 1. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. The core of the coil. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The vibrator B. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. is connected to a flash lamp battery. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The coil ends are made from cardboard. F. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. 2. About 70 turns of No. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. long. Fig.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. and then 1. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. mixed with water to form a paste. leaving the projections as shown. The switch. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. The vibrator.

one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. Fig. 16 in. 1. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. with which to operate the dial. 2 to fit the two holes. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. The tin is 4 in. as shown. board. which is only 3/8-in. . lighted. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. wide. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. The three screws were then put in the hasp. The hasp. The lock. which is cut with two holes. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. and then well clinched. thick on the inside. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. between the boards. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. it laps down about 8 in. as shown in the sketch. was to be secured by only three brass screws. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin.Place a small piece of paper. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. which seemed to be insufficient. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. The knob on the dial extends out too far. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. long and when placed over the board. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. and the same distance inside of the new board. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. brass plate. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. 1. in an ordinary water glass. which may be filed off and two holes substituted.

an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. When making of wood. or in the larger size mentioned. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. the glass. any article placed therein will be reflected in. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. When the rear part is illuminated. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. If the box is made large enough. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. square and 10-1/2 in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. which completely divides the box into two parts. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. high for use in window displays. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. not shiny. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. and the back left dark. but when the front part is illuminated. black color. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. square and 8-1/2 in. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. clear glass as shown. one in each division. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits.

Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. alternately. into the other.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. as shown in the sketch. as shown at A in the sketch. long and 1 ft. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. When there is no electric current available. wide will be about the right size. . or a piece of this width put on the bottom. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. as it appears. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. a tank 2 ft.. above the top of the tank. When using as a window display. and with the proper illumination one is changed. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. Instead of changing the current operated by hand.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

square and 40 in. using a 3/4-in. thick and 3 in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. and boring two holes with a 1-in. 5 ft. gauge for depth. wide. If a planing mill is near. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. from the ground. 2 ft. radius. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. square. bore from each end. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. each. as shown. Three windows are provided. high. one for each side. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. wide. with a length of 13 in. but with a length of 12 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. lines gauged on each side of each. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. under sides together. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. Iron sulphate. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. This hole must be continued . and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. Shape the under sides first. and a solution of iron sulphate added. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. The 13-in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. is built on the front. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. 1 in. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. The pieces can then be taken out. then use a red-hot iron to finish. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. O. is the green vitriol. 6 in. long. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. long. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. bit. Columbus. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. and 6 ft. A small platform. or ferrous sulphate. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. This precipitate is then washed. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. and a door in front. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. however. hole bored the full length through the center.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. hole.

" This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. When the filler has hardened. apply two coats of wax. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. A better way. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult.through the pieces forming the base. hole in each block. thick and 3 in. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Saw the two blocks apart. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Electric globes--two. three or four may be attached as shown. If the parts are to be riveted. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. When this is dry. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. For art-glass the metal panels are . Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. square and drawing a diagonal on each. if shade is purchased. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler.

The Completed Lamp cut out. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. such as copper.Construction of Shade . as brass. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. METAL SHADE .

and Fig. as in ordinary devices. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. 2 the front view of this stand. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The arms holding the glass. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. one way and 1/2 in. the object and the background. the other. Figure 1 shows the side. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. as shown in the sketch. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings.

An ordinary pocket compass. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. long. uncork and recork again. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. If the light becomes dim. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Put the ring in place on the base. outside diameter. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. pointing north and south. thus forming a 1/4-in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. in diameter for a base. wide and 11 in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. in diameter. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. as shown in the cut. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. and swinging freely. Before mounting the ring on the base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. about 1-1/4 in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. wide and 6-5/16 in. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. thick 5/8-in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. channel in the circumference of the ring. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Cut another circular piece 11 in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. as it is very poisonous. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in.

For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. in diameter and 8 in. CC.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg.865 1. of the top. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. are mounted on a base. from the second to the third. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.500 . Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. above the half can. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. into these cylinders. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. 1 oz. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second.420 . B.289 . AA.715 . The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. and mirrors. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. black oxide of copper. Place on top the so- . Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.600 . How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.182 .088 .3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. The results given should be multiplied by 1. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. EE. Corresponding mirrors. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. and north of the Ohio river.

A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. slender bottle. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. 62 gr. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. Colo. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. little crystals forming in the liquid. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. says Metal Worker. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. the wheel will revolve in one direction. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. which otherwise remains clear. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. 31 gr. alcohol. In Fig. then they will not rust fast. always remove the oil with a siphon. of pulverized campor. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. When renewing. University Park. Put the solution in a long.

If zinc and copper are used. about 1-1/4 in. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. Attach to the wires. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. floating on a solution. Lloyd Enos. on the under side of the cork.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. This is used in place of the spoon. will allow the magnet to point north and south. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. If zinc and carbon are used. A paper-fastener box. --Contributed by C. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. If two of them are floating on the same solution. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. Solder in the side of the box . A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube.

Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. long. piece of 1/4-in. Thos. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. Bore holes for binding-posts. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in.in. 1/2. The spring should be about 1 in. is made from a piece of No.Contributed by J. or made with a little black paint. one on each side of the board. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Put ends. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. Rhamstine. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. as shown in Fig. 1-1/4 in. and then solder on the cover. H. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. to it. C. Use a board 1/2. D. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. hole. E. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. A circular piece of cardboard. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. 1. of wire on each end extending from the coil. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. and on the other around the glass tube. F. 14 wire will do.not shorter than 18 in. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. To this standard solder the supporting wire. If the hose is not a tight fit. G--No. The bottom of the box. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. of No. away. D. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. can be made of oak. E. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. A. Take a small piece of soft iron.in. . long. wide and 2-1/2 in. A.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. B. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Wind evenly about 2 oz. 10 wire about 10 in. C. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. glass tubing . On one side bend the wire around the tube B. wide and 6 in. brass tubing. thick. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. long that has about 1/4-in. C. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. The base. stained and varnished.1-in. D. The standard. 3 in. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. B. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring.

2. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks.of the coil. 3 in. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. long. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. 5. When the glass becomes soft. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. of mercury will be sufficient. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. in diameter. J. Smith.--Contributed by Edward M. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. is drawn nearer to the coil. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. E. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. four hinges. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. The iron plunger. D. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. 1. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. of 8-oz. long. from the right hand. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. Y. N. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. two pieces 2-1/2 ft.--Contributed by R. of No. 3-in. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. two pieces 2 ft. Wis. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. 3. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. Milwaukee. Teasdale. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. long are used for the legs. making a support as shown in Fig. long. long. canvas. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. long. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. . about 1 in. Cuba. as shown in Fig. About 1-1/2 lb. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in.

expelling all the air. thus leaving a. --Contributed by David A. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Break off the piece of glass. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig.. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. Take 1/2 in. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. 5.. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. 4. of vacuum at the top. Can.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Keys. leaving 8 in. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. 6. 2. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. This tube as described will be 8 in. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. 3. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Fig. long. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. small aperture in the long tube. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. holding in the left hand. Measure 8 in. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. The tube now must be filled completely. Toronto. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in.

Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. wide and 3 in. 3. 6.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. The large pulley is about 14 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. 4. 3 in. long. cut in the shape shown in Fig. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. 7. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. These are bent and nailed. 1 in. but yellow pine is the best. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . Fig. 5. wide and 5 ft. thick. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 1 in. joint be accurately put together. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. 2. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. wide and 5 ft. in diameter. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. thick. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. This forms a slot. as in Fig. 9 in. as shown in Fig. A crosspiece 3/4-in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. as shown in Fig. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. FIG. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 3 in. long. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. and 1/4 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. 4 in. wide and 12 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. 1. wide and 5 ft. long. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. thick. material 2 in. long.6 -. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. wood screws. Four blocks 1/4 in. thick. from the end of same. thick. with each projection 3-in.

by 1-in. Kan. R. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. . says Photography. above the runner level. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Water 1 oz. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. --Contributed by C. first removing the crank. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Manhattan. attach runners and use it on the ice. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Welsh. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr.

This is done with a camel's hair brush. The print is washed. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Mass. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Treasdale. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. 3. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Leominster. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. --Contributed by Edward M. . 2. from an ordinary clamp skate. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. 1 oz. as shown in Fig. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Newton. Printing is carried rather far. --Contributed by Wallace C. as shown in Fig. 1.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. and very much cheaper. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. of water. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. also. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws.

The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. and bend them as shown in the sketch. long. The swing door B. Fig. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. Then. 1. The thread is broken off at the . about 10 in. 1. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. wide and 4 in. F. Take two glass tubes. extending the width of the box. Church. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. Fig. fasten a 2-in. 2. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. and 3 ft. too.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. 1 ft. wide. say. hole. as shown in the sketch. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. high. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. from one end. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. with about 1/8-in. 1-1/2 ft. --Contributed by H. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. and to the bottom. Alexandria. square piece. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. which represents the back side of the door. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. A. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. causing the door to swing back and up. high for rabbits. Va. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. Place a 10-in. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A.

Fig. and go in the holder in the same way. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. as shown in Fig. in size. say 8 in. Paste a piece of strong black paper. but cut it 1/4 in.. 3. -Contributed by William M. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. shorter. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. to be used as a driving pulley. black surfaced if possible. high and 12 in. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. B. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders.by 7-in. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. 1.by 5-in. . being 1/8 in. Out two rectangular holes. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. plates. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. This opening. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. A and B. Cut an opening in the other piece. camera and wish to use some 4. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. wide. 1 in. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. from the edge on each side of these openings. Take two pieces of pasteboard.proper place to make a small hole. 10 in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. Fig. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. shorter at each end. Crilly. trolley cars. long. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. long. inside of the opening. automobiles. C. says Camera Craft. horses and dogs. 2. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. Jr. D. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. wide. and exactly 5 by 7 in. in size. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Chicago. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. wide and 5 in. one in each end and exactly opposite each other.

A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. wide will be required. long and 6 in. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in.. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. into which the dog is harnessed. in diameter. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. The needle will then point north and south. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. making a .in. A cell of this kind can easily be made. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. if it has previously been magnetized. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon.

then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. filter. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. only the joints. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. in diameter and 6 in. Place the pan on the stove. for a connection. of the plate at one end. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. says Electrician and Mechanic. under the spool in the paraffin. leaving about 1/2-in. of rosin and 2 oz. 3/4 lb. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. fuel and packing purposes. This makes the wire smooth. long which are copper plated. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. Do not paint any surface. zinc oxide. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. A is a block of l-in. pine. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. 1 lb.in. File the rods to remove the copper plate. . plaster of paris. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. when the paraffin is melted. B is a base of 1 in.watertight receptacle. fodder. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. of water. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. beeswax melted together. sal ammoniac. Pack the paste in. one that will hold about 1 qt. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. of the top. Form a 1/2-in. and a notch between the base and the pan. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. in which P is the pan. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. short time. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. with narrow flanges. pull out the wire as needed. F is a spool. 1/4 lb.

long. while for others it will not revolve at all. and he finally. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Enlarge the hole slightly. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. from vexation. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. g. or think they can do the same. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. for some it will turn one way. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Try it and see. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Ohio. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. 2. and one friend tells me that they were . On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction." which created much merriment. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. but the thing would not move at all. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. for others the opposite way. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. as in the other movement. Toledo. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath.. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. by the Hindoos in India. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. square and about 9 in. thus producing two different vibrations. and therein is the trick. and then. let them try it. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. At least it is amusing. If any of your audience presume to dispute. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics.

As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. and. by means of a center punch. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. 4. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. no rotation resulted. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. If the pressure was upon an edge. 2. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. gave the best results. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. m. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. the rotation may be obtained. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. Speeds between 700 and 1. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. rotation was obtained. and I think the results may be of interest. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. Thus a circular or . The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. 5. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. 3. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. The experiments were as follows: 1. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. secondly. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. p. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. 6. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece.100 r. 7. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. To operate. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. A square stick with notches on edge is best. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly.

elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. G. Washington. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out.. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use.. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. if the pressure is from the left. at first. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Minn. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. --Contributed by M. unwetted by the liquid. a piece of wire and a candle. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. is driven violently away. Duluth. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. C. --Contributed by G. and the resultant "basket splash. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. the upper portion is. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. Ph. or greasy. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. A. D." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in.D. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Lloyd. it will be clockwise. as shown. A wire is tied around the can. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. . forming a handle for carrying. Sloan. is proved by experiments 3 and 4.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

thick and 1 in. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. flange and a 1/4-in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . about 2-5/8 in. as shown. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. as shown in Fig. hole drilled in the center." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. with a 1/16-in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. axle. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. long. 1. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. in diameter. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Each wheel is 1/4 in. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button.

If the ends are to be soldered. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. long. This will save buying a track. bottom side up. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. The current. as shown in Fig. 3. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. lamp in series with the coil. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. put together complete. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. wood. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. is made from a piece of clock spring. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. A trolley. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. 5. holes 1 in. is made from brass. Fuller.brass. 4. and the locomotive is ready for running.50. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. 2. bent as shown. or main part of the frame. 3/4 in. are shown in Fig. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. 2. 3. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. Fig. --Contributed by Maurice E. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. Fig. each in its proper place. which must be 110 volt alternating current. The parts. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. 6. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. The motor is now bolted. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. These ends are fastened together. Texas. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. San Antonio. wide and 16 in. with cardboard 3 in. The first piece. of No. 1 from 1/4-in.

slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. 3. Fig 1. and holes drilled in them. the length of a paper clip. O. 1. When cold treat the other end in the same way. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. but do not heat the center. 2. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. as shown in Fig. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Fig. Cincinnati. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. and as this end . --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. as shown in Fig. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. The quarter will not go all the way down. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. then continue to tighten much more. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in.

a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. has finished a cut for a tooth. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. 2 and 1 respectively. When the trick is to be performed. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. When the cutter A. or should the lathe head be raised. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. In the sketch. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. or apparent security of the knot. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. A pair of centers are fitted. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. and adjusted . 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3.

above the surface. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. In this manner gears 3 in. Bunker. trace the outline. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. (3. coin purse. Fold over along these center lines. note book.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Fig. Bott. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. Brooklyn. gentleman's card case or bill book.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. 1. tea cosey. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. When connecting to batteries. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. draw center lines across the required space. swing lathe. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. such as brass or marble. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. (6. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. book mark. about 1-1/2 in. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. blotter back.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. twisted around itself and soldered. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. long. if four parts are to be alike. --Contributed by Howard S. lady's belt bag. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. watch fob ready for fastenings. --Contributed by Samuel C. (2. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. tea cosey. or one-half of the design. in diameter can be made on a 6-in.) Place the paper design on the leather and. An ordinary machine will do. dividing it into as many parts as desired. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. holding it in place with the left hand.) Make on paper the design wanted. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . lady's card case. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). 2. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. N.to run true. Y. (1. The frame holding the mandrel. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. and a nut pick. (4. (5. if but two parts. at the same time striking light. Second row: -Two book marks.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper.

How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose. Secure . and an ordinary bottle.

The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. a distance of 900 miles. B. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. and bore a hole through the center. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. Thrust a pin. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. A. into which fit a small piece of tube.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. D. where it condenses. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. and push it through a cork. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The electrodes are made .C. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. If the needle is not horizontal. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. Florida.. C. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. from Key West.

lumber cannot be procured. several strips 1/2 in. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. as shown in Fig. 1/2. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. thick. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. square and 8 ft long. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. wide and 4 ft. Powell. 1-1/4 in. or flying-machine. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. long. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. 3/4 in. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. which is tacked to the front edge. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. The operator can then land safely and . thick. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. thick. 3. long. 1-1/2 in. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. 2 in. All wiring is done with No. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. slacken speed and settle. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. by 3/4 in.in. long. --Contributed by Edwin L. lengths and splice them. Connect as shown in the illustration. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. and also to keep it steady in its flight. D. both laterally and longitudinally. using a high resistance receiver. use 10-ft. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. If 20-ft. as shown in Fig. 16 piano wire. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. free from knots. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. long. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. Washington. Four long beams 3/4 in. wide and 4 ft. apart and extend 1 ft. 2 arm sticks 1 in. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. 1. 12 uprights 1/2 in. wide and 20 ft. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. wide and 3 ft. 2. long. 1. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. take the glider to the top of a hill. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. long for the body of the operator. thick. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. thick. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. as shown in Fig. wide and 4 ft long. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. C. 2. wide and 3 ft. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. 1. To make a glide. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane.

the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Of course. Great care should be . The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. but this must be found by experience. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing.gently on his feet. Glides are always made against the wind. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour.

One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. as shown in Fig. Olson. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. which causes the dip in the line.exercised in making landings. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. When heated a little. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. 2. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. --Contributed by L. 1. half man and half horse. a creature of Greek mythology. M. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Bellingham.

long. outside the box. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. making it 2-1/2 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. in diameter. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. about the size of stove pipe wire. at the other. will complete the material list. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. 14 in. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. The light from the . a piece of brass or steel wire. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. this will cost about 15 cents. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. square. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. about the size of door screen wire. While at the drug store get 3 ft. long and about 3/8 in. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. of small rubber tubing. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box.

as shown in Fig. Dayton. . as shown in Fig.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. 1. as shown in the sketch. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Hunting. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. 2. If done properly the card will flyaway. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. while others will fail time after time. M. --Photo by M. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. O. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. This is very simple when you know how.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair.

as before. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. as shown. closing both hands quickly.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand." or the Chinese students' favorite game. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. When the desired shape has been obtained. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. This game is played by five persons. as described. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. hold the lump over the flame. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. then put it on the hatpin head. place the other two. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. If a certain color is to be more prominent. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. Cool in water and dry. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again.

Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. these sectors. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. distribute electric charges . passing through neutralizing brushes.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. or more in width. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in.

and pins inserted and soldered. wide at one end. The plates are trued up. 2. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. in diameter. after they are mounted. from about 1/4-in. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. are made from 7/8-in. and of a uniform thickness. in diameter. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. or teeth. as shown in Fig. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. D. to which insulating handles . material 7 in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. wide. in diameter and 15 in. in diameter. Two solid glass rods. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. GG. The drive wheels. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. long. RR. 1. the side pieces being 24 in. 3. as shown in Fig. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. Fig. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. in diameter. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. long and the shank 4 in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. 1 in. Two pieces of 1-in. 4. long. 3. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. Fig. EE. in diameter. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The plates. and 4 in. free from wrinkles. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. are made from solid. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. long and the standards 3 in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. 1-1/2 in. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. at the other. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. turned wood pieces. and the outer end 11/2 in. 3/4 in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. in diameter. The two pieces. These pins. The fork part is 6 in. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. C C. The collectors are made. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. brass tubing and the discharging rods.

A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. which are bent as shown. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. wide and 22 ft. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. and the work was done by themselves. Lloyd Enos. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. 12 ft. KK. --Contributed by C.. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . D.are attached. ball and the other one 3/4 in. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Colorado City. long. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. in diameter. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. one having a 2-in. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Colo.

as at A. They can be used to keep pins and needles. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. pens . the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. string together. The key will drop from the string. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. and bore a hole 1/2 in. using a 1-in. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. yet such a thing can be done. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. deep.is a good one. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. bit.

inside the first on all. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. unless it would be the metal shears. Having determined the size of the tray. sharp division between background and design. above the metal. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. 9. Inside this oblong. two spikes. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. slim screw. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. When the stamping is completed. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. extra metal on each of the four sides. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. 8. stamp the background promiscuously. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off.and pencils. 23 gauge. 6. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. 5. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. also trace the decorative design. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. and the third one 1/4 in. etc. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. file. very rapid progress can be made. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. The second oblong was 3/4 in. Raise the ends. flat and round-nosed pliers. then the other side. about 3/4-in. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. using a nail filed to chisel edge.. they make attractive little pieces to have about. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. 3. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. 4. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 2. etc. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. inside the second on all. Proceed as follows: 1. This is to make a clean. Use .. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. above the work and striking it with the hammer. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. Draw one-half the design free hand. 7. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. or cigar ashes. They are easily made.

In the first numbering. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. and the effect will be most pleasing. 8. and fourth fingers. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. second fingers. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 10. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. third fingers. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. 7. 6. The eyes. first fingers. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. 9.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot.

Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. etc. Let us multiply 12 by 12. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. which would be 16. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. or 60. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. Put your thumbs together. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired.. etc. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. 2 times 2 equals 4. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. 25 times 25. thumbs. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. renumber your fingers. 11. first fingers.. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. which would be 70. there are no fingers above. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. which tens are added. and the six lower fingers as six tens. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. above 15 times 15 it is 200. or 80. or the product of 6 times 6. Two times one are two. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. if we wish. above 20 times 20. or the product of 8 times 9. . The addition of 100 is arbitrary. etc. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. 400. or numbers above 10. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. as high as you want to go. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. but being simple it saves time and trouble. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. Still. At a glance you see four tens or 40. At a glance you see seven tens or 70.. the product of 12 times 12. In the second numbering. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. viz. 12. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. 600.

the value of the upper fingers would be 50. the value of the upper fingers being 20. further.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. For example. at the will of the observer. and. as one might suppose. about a vertical axis. being 80). the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. It takes place also. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. adding 400 instead of 100. and so on. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. the revolution seems to reverse. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. however. whether the one described in second or third numbering. beginning the thumbs with 16. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. And the lump sum to add. Proceed as in the second lumbering. in the case of a nearsighted person. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. lastly. 8. 21. which is the half-way point between the two fives. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. For figures ending in 6. Take For example 18 times 18. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. . At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. first finger 17. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. 3. twenties. thirties. forties.. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. or what. the inversion takes place against his will. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. The inversion and reversion did not take place. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. first fingers 22. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. 2. etc. any two figures between 45 and 55. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. 75 and 85. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. 7. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. the value which the upper fingers have. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. thumbs. the lump sum to add. not rotation. when he removes his spectacles. or from above or from below.

one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. Looking at it in semidarkness. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. and putting a cork on the point. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The ports were not easy to make. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. as . tee. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. when he knows which direction is right. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. A flat slide valve was used. sometimes the point towards him. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. the other appearance asserts itself. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee.

and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. saw off a section of a broom handle. and make in one end a hollow. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. -Contributed by W. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. secure a piece of No. The tools are simple and can be made easily. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. H. deep. While this engine does not give much power.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. Ill. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. such as is shown in the illustration. The steam chest is round. Fasten the block solidly. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. Kutscher. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. inexpensive.. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. pipe 10 in. If nothing better is at hand. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. about 2 in. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. Next take a block of wood. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. in diameter. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. bottom side up. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. The eccentric is constructed of washers. Springfield. across and 1/2 in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. across the head. Beating copper tends to harden it and. if continued too long without proper treatment. apart. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. . Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. it is easily built. pipe. as in a vise.

which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. Hay. Vinegar. as it softens the metal. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. Camden. and. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. S. This process is called annealing. especially when the object is near to the observer. --Contributed by W. To overcome this hardness. C. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. O. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. the other to the left. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side.will cause the metal to break. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. To produce color effects on copper.

If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. because. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. with the stereograph. So with the stereograph. diameter. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. because of the rays coming from them. the left eye sees through a blue screen. although they pass through the screen. not two mounted side by side. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. in the proper choice of colors. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in.stereoscope. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. only the orange rays may pass through. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. disappears fully. . Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. while both eyes together see a white background. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. orange. from the stereograph. But they seem black. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. In order to make them appear before the card. the one for the left eye being blue. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. would serve the same purpose. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. that for the right. and lies to the right on the picture. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. the further from the card will the composite image appear. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. The red portions of the picture are not seen. as for instance red and green. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. it. It is just as though they were not there. and without any picture. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. they must be a very trifle apart. however. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. The further apart the pictures are. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange.

Two types of make-and-break connection are used. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. This should only be bored about half way through the block. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. The weight of the air in round . which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. thick. Cal. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. Place a NO. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. long and a hole drilled in each end. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. wireless. wide and 1 in. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. A No. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. San Francisco. in the shape of a crank. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. in diameter. 12 gauge wire. etc. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. 1/4 in. or the middle of the bottle. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge.

to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. or. wide and 40 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. the instrument. 30 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. high. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. wide and 4 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. high. will calibrate itself. square. pine 3 in. 34 ft. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. and a slow fall. long. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in.numbers is 15 lb. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed.6) 1 in. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. the contrary. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. high. The 4 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. long. Before fastening the scale. thick. if you choose. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. In general. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. square. internal diameter and about 34 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. a bottle 1 in. Only redistilled mercury should be used. a glass tube 1/8 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. . The tube is now to be filled with mercury. long. but before attempting to put in the mercury. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather.. But if a standard barometer is not available. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. inside diameter and 2 in. if accurately constructed.

Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 3. long. the size of the outside of the bottle. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . 6 and 7. 2. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. Procure a metal can cover. Mark out seven 1-in. 1. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. thick. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. wide and 10 in. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. which is slipped quickly over the end. Number the pieces 1. a cover from a baking powder can will do. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. 5. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. and place them as shown in Fig.

How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Move 14-Jump No. 3 into No. 6. Woolson. 1 into No. Move 3-Move No. Cape May Point. To make such a tent. 6 to No. 2. Move 7-Jump No. 1. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. procure unbleached tent duck. each 10 ft. 3 over No. Move 9-Jump No. 3 to the center. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 5 over No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. N. 6. Move 13-Move No. as shown in Fig. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 3. 2's place. 6 over No. 3. Move 2-Jump No. 7's place. 7. using checkers for men. 5's place. This can be done on a checker board. Move 10-Move No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 6 into No. Move ll-Jump No.J. 1 to No. 6 in. 5. Move 12-Jump No. shaped like Fig. long and 2 ft. in diameter. 2 over No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. L. 2 .-Contributed by W. Make 22 sections. Move 8-Jump No. l over No. which is the very best material for the purpose. 2 over No. 2's place. Move 4-Jump No. 5's place. Move 6-Move No. Move 15-Move No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 7 over No. 5 over No. Move 5-Jump No. 2. 1. 7 over No. 3. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads.

6-in. Have the tent pole 3 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Fig. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Use blocks. Punch holes in the brass in . diameter. in diameter. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design.. 5) stuck in the ground. Fig. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. high. added. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. 5. 3 in. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. After transferring the design to the brass. as in Fig. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. These are ventilators. leaving the rest for an opening. fill with canvas edging. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft.J. made in two sections. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. 6. 2. --Contributed by G. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. As shown in the sketch. from the top. long. about 9 in. long and 4 in. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Emsworth. Tress. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine.in. 2 in. to a smooth board of soft wood. 9 by 12 in. will do. wide at the bottom. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. wide by 12 in. wide at the bottom. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Pa. round galvanized iron. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. In raising the tent.

cut out the brass on the outside lines. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores.the spaces around the outlined figures. When the edges are brought together by bending. . but before punching the holes. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. It will not. bend into shape. excepting the 1/4-in. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. Corr. When all the holes are punched. around the outside of the pattern. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. Chicago. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. apart. The pattern is traced as before. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes.

Badger. These pipes are . E. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. or less. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. better still. G. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard.however. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. A cast-iron ring. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. --Contributed by H. A 6-in. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. --Contributed by Geo. Stevens. between which is placed the fruit jar. or. or center on which the frame swings. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Oregon. Que. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. partially filled with cream. If a wheel is selected. Dunham. allowing 2 ft. Mayger. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. pipe. pipe is used for the hub. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn..

pipe. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe clamps. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. Four braces made from 1/2-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. An extra wheel 18 in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. bent to the desired circle. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee.

the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The performer. 1. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. 3. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. while doing this. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. and the guide withdrawn. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. and dropped on the table. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. which was placed in an upright position. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. as shown in Fig.

-Contributed by C. White. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Denver. 1. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. St. D. Mo. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. F. first. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. and second. The box can be made of selected oak or .make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Louis. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. in a half circle. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Harkins. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. 2. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. --Contributed by H. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. in diameter on another piece of tin. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. it requires no expensive condensing lens. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Colo.

Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. This will be 3/4 in. An open space 4 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. long. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. wide and 6-1/2 in. AA. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. If a camera lens is used. Two or three holes about 1 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. 2. and 2 in. fit into the runners. wide and 6-1/2 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. high and must . which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. wide by 5 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. wide. as shown in Fig. but not tight. 5-1/2 in. long. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens.mahogany. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. high and 11 in. from each end of the outside of the box. 1. 3-1/2 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. long and should be placed vertically. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. and. from each end. focal length. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. wide and 5 in. The door covering this hole in the back. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight.

and so on. the article may be propped up . and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. as it requires an airtight case. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached.. calling that knuckle January. April. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. Ohio. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. C. provided it is airtight. June and November. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens." etc. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. West Toledo. and extending the whole height of the lantern. This process is rather a difficult one. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. calling this February. Bradley. then the second knuckle will be March. --Contributed by Chas. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. 1.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles.

The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. H. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. and set aside for half a day. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. in. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. or suspended by a string. . The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. Pour in a little turpentine. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. but waxed. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. Schenectady. running small motors and lighting small lamps. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. In each place two electrodes. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. and the lead 24 sq. 2. In both Fig. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. one of lead and one of aluminum. 1 and 2. Y. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. taking care to have all the edges closed. Crawford. in. 1. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. the lid or cover closed. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box.with small sticks. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. N. --Contributed by J. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. giving it an occasional stir. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The top of a table will do. fruit jars are required.

Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. This trick is very simple. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . O.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. as you have held it all the time. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. he throws the other. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain.. as well as others. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Cleveland. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. After a few seconds' time. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. you remove the glass. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. He. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. which you warm with your hands.

and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. in diameter in the center. if any snags are encountered. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. but by being careful at shores. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. near a partition or curtain. J. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. . A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Be sure that this is the right one. Crocker. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Colo. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. but in making one.-Contributed by E. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top.take the handiest one. on a table. put it under the glass. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Pull the ends quickly. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Victor. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot.

and is removed after the ribs are in place. at the ends. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. wide. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. from each end to 1 in. drilled and fastened with screws. from the stern. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. 14 rib bands. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. apart. and. 3 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. for center deck braces. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. and the other 12 in. of rope. 1 piece. long. 1 in. square by 16 ft. 1/4 in. 2 in. for the stern piece.. 1 mast. long. 1. wide unbleached muslin. for cockpit frame. by 15 ft. 8 in. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 1 in. are as follows: 1 keelson. one 6 in. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. by 16 ft. wide and 12 ft. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. wide 12-oz. 8 yd. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. by 12 in. by 2 in. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 2 gunwales. selected pine. as illustrated in the engraving. 1/8 in. wide and 12 ft. 50 ft. ducking. 3 in. 7 ft. Paint. Fig. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 4 outwales.. from the bow and the large one. clear pine. long. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. thick and 3/4 in. by 2 in.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 11 yd. Both ends are mortised. and fastened with screws. is 14 ft. 1 piece. long. 1 in. screws and cleats. 2 and braced with an iron band. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 3 and 4. of 1-1/2-yd. 1 in. of 1-yd. for the bow. by 10 ft. by 16 ft. by 8 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. The keelson. 9 ft.

A piece of oak. is a cube having sides 6 in. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. Braces. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. A seam should be made along the center piece. They are 1 in. long.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. 1/4 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. long is well soaked in water. wide and 3 ft. and fastened to them with bolts. 6 in. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. gunwales and keelson. Before making the deck. Figs. The block is fastened to the keelson. wide. 6. This block. A block of pine. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. The trimming is wood. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. length of canvas is cut in the center. 1 in. 7 and 8. doubled. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. Fig. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. The 11-yd. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. in diameter through the block. 4 in. wood screws. thick. 5. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. wide and 24 in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. 3-1/2 ft. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. thick and 1/2 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. thick 1-1/2 in. The deck is not so hard to do. long. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. thick and 12 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. 9. wide and 14 in. from the bow. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. thick. These are put in 6 in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. 6 and 7. a piece 1/4 in. Fig. also. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. wide. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. A 6-in. 1 in. screws. corner braces. long. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. apart. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. .

The rudder is made as shown in Fig. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The keel. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. each 1 in. at the other. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. wide. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. Wilmette. long. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The sail is a triangle. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The house will accommodate 20 families. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. . 12. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. long. in diameter and 10 ft. are used for the boom and gaff. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. Ill. thick by 2 in. 11. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. apart in the muslin. A strip 1 in. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. The mast has two side and one front stay. Tronnes. is 6 in. Fig. E. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. wide at one end and 12 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. 10 with a movable handle. --Contributed by O.

five 1/2-in. Bevel both sides of the pieces.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. Wilmette. long. 2. thick. Fig. 1 yd. as shown in Fig. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. 5. 2-1/2 in. --Contributed by O. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. long and five 1/2-in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. 3. about 5/16 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. wide. thick. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. Take this and fold it over . The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Ill. Cut the maple. with the ends and the other side rounding. thick. 2 in. and the other 18 in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. wide and 30 in. one 11-1/2 in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. square. Tronnes. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 4. long. E. wide. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. long. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood.into two 14-in. wide and 2 ft. flat-headed screws. 1. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. flat on one side. 2-1/2 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. flat headed screws. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. and 3 ft.

3 in. thick. Bliss. The front. the top and bottom. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. The bag is then turned inside out. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. long. is set. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. long. about 3/8 in. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. and take care that the pieces are all square. Cut another piece of board. C. long. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. Fig. wide and 5 in. of each end unwound for connections. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. square. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. wide and 6-3/4 in. wide and 3 ft. wide and 6-1/2 in. thick and 3 in. Louis. St. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. Wind three layers of about No. Figs. Make a double stitch all around the edge. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. A. wide and 4-1/2 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. A. leaving a small opening at one corner. soaked with water and blown up. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. long. D. The sides are 3-1/4 in. then centered. --Contributed by W. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. 2 and 3. forming an eye for a screw. this square box is well sandpapered. Glue a three cornered piece. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. long. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. After the glue. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. E. long. wide . and make a turn in each end of the wires. pieces 2-5/8 in. as well as the edges around the opening. C. B. the mechanical parts can be put together. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. but can be governed by circumstances. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. Mo. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. 3-1/4 in. are rounded. and the four outside edges. long. If carefully and neatly made. When the glue is set. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. 1-1/4 in. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. square. 5 from 1/16-in. wide and 2-1/2 in. long.once. 6-1/2 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. About 1/2 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. F. Another piece. thick. 3/8 in. 1. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in.

An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. wide and 9 in. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. wide and 2-1/2 in. C. from the spindle. The end of the polar axis B. --Contributed by George Heimroth. Fig.A. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose.R. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. A pointer 12 in. These wires should be about 1 in. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. Austwick Hall. the part carrying the pointer moves away. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . The base is a board 5 in. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut.S. long. The resistance is now adjusted to show . A brass tube having a 1/4-in.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. and fasten in place. L. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. Another strip of tin. Like poles repel each other. thick. W. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. and the farther apart they will be forced. from one end. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. 4. 1/16 in. hole is fastened to the pointer. 5. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. The stronger the current. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. so it will just clear the tin. showing a greater defection of the pointer. G. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. bored in the back. the same size as the first. 4 is not movable. I. Chapman. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. Yorkshire. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. Fig. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. R. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. board. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. When the current flows through the coil. long. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. in diameter. 4. 5-1/2 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. long. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. Place the tin. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. that has the end turned with a shoulder. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. Richmond Hill.and 2-5/8 in. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. and as the part Fig. 1/4 in. F.

and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. The following formula will show how this may be found. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. say Venus at the date of observation. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. at 9 hr. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. M. and vice . Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. A. 1881. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. 10 min. 30 min. thus: 9 hr. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. shows mean siderial. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. 10 min. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time.

New Haven.f. or. and then verify its correctness by measurement. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Hall. . Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. --Contributed by Robert W. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Conn. if one of these cannot be had. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. owing to the low internal resistance.m. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances.

cover up with the same. 3/8 in. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. arsenic to every 20 lb. Wet paper will answer. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. put the fish among the ashes. leaves or bark. 1-3/4 in. The boring bar. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. and heap the glowing coals on top. When the follower is screwed down. long. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. as shown in the accompanying picture. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. Then.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Fig. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. fresh grass. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. especially for cooking fish. of alum and 4 oz. inside diameter and about 5 in. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. 1. thick. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size.

pipe. thick. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. about 1/2 in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. pipe. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. when they were turned in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. and threaded on both ends.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. fastened with a pin. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in.

The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. If the valve keeps dripping. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. labor and time. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. the float is too high.valve stems. bent in the shape of a U. Clermont. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. It . 5. however. as the one illustrated herewith. Fig. The rough frame. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. This plate also supports the rocker arms. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. but never one which required so little material. long. wide. 2. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. and which gave such satisfactory results. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. 3. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. 4. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. thick and 3 in. Iowa. a jump spark would be much better. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. A 1-in. Fig. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. Fig. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. square iron. 30 in. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. then it should be ground to a fit. was then finished on an emery wheel.

long is the pivot. long. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. If it is to be used for adults. with no trees or buildings in the way. butting against short stakes. timber. A 3/4 -in. W. completes the merry-go-round.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. strong clear material only should be employed. long. in fact. no matter what your age or size may be. A malleable iron bolt. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. rope is not too heavy. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. and a little junk. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. strengthened by a piece 4 in. Use a heavy washer at the head. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. This makes an easy adjustment. 12 ft. Nieman. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. It looks like a toy. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. in diameter and 15 in. The seats are regular swing boards. square and 5 ft. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. The upright is a 4 by 4-in." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. square. The crosspiece is 2 in. in the ground with 8 ft. for the "motive power" to grasp. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. and. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. being held in position by spikes as shown." little and big. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. The illustration largely explains itself. extending above. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. long. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. from all over the neighborhood. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. hole bored in the post. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. 3/4 in. from the center. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. square and 2 ft. As there is no bracing. so it must be strong enough. --Contributed by C. set 3 ft.

2 emery. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. The backbone is flat. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. and sent to earth. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. 2. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in.the fingers. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. if nothing better is at hand. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. Having placed the backbone in position. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. Both have large reels full of . a wreck. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. These ends are placed about 14 in. 1/4 by 3/32 in. A reel is next made. 1. and 18 in. long. then it is securely fastened. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. away. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. as shown in Fig. The bow is now bent. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. To wind the string upon the reel. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. 4. square. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. light and strong. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. one for the backbone and one for the bow. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well.

Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. he pays out a large amount of string. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away.string. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. If the second kite is close enough. Bunker. common packing thread. First. Moody. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Y. The handle end is held down with a staple. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. often several hundred yards of it. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench.-Contributed by S. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. the balance. Mass. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Newburyport. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. C. Brooklyn. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. N. or glass-covered string. --Contributed' by Harry S.

1) which will make five layers of cloth. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. such as mill men use. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. lengths (Fig. each the size of half the table top. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Vt. cutting the circular piece into quarters. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. then draw the string up tight. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. must be attached to a 3-ft. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. square (Fig. length of 2-in. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. If the table is round. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. then a dust protector. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Corinth.

but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. and E to G.. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.-Contributed by H. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. hard pencil. Calif. Use a smooth. 2-1/4 in. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture.. from E to F. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. which spoils the leather effect. 16-1/4 in. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Wharton.9-1/4 in. Moisten the . Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. . E.. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. from C to D. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. 6-1/4 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. G to H. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. trace the design carefully on the leather. Oakland. 17-1/2 in. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless.

A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. G-J. also lines A-G. wide. I made this motor . Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. and lace through the holes. Cut it the same size as the bag. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. if not more than 1 in. place both together and with a leather punch. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. about 1/8 in. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Now cut narrow thongs. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. apart. H-B. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. get something with which to make a lining. Trace the openings for the handles. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. with the rounded sides of the tools. and corresponding lines on the other side. To complete the bag. is taken off at a time. and E-G.

1. --Contributed by J. as shown in Fig. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. of No. 1. Shannon. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. 2. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. Pasadena. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. iron. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used.M. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. . Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. 2-1/4 in. each being a half circle. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. The one shown is 3-1/2 in.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. D. in length. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. B. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Calif. long. 24 gauge magnet wire.

Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The gores for a 6-ft. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. balloon should be about 8 ft. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. near the center. 1.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. are the best kind to make. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. pasted in alternately. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. high. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. and the gores cut from these. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. from the bottom end.

the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. --Contributed by R. B. Fig. coming through the small pipe A. In removing grease from wood. These are to hold the wick ball.widest point. 1. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. In starting the balloon on its flight. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. Staunton. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. As the boat is driven forward by this force. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. 4. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. so it will hang as shown in Fig. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . in diameter. after which the paint will adhere permanently. If the gores have been put together right. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The steam. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. After washing. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. leaving the solution on over night. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. saturating it thoroughly. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. 2. as shown in Fig. A. lap on the edges. 5. E. 3. somewhat larger in size. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. The boat soon attains considerable speed. using about 1/2-in. leaving a long wake behind. as shown in Fig. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together.

a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. high and 8 in. There are three ways of doing this: First. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. In using either of the two methods described. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. as is shown in Fig. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . Second. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. 1. apart on these lines. long and each provided with a handle. wide by 6 in. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. if you have several copies of the photograph. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The blocks are about 6 in. Third. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. long. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. in bowling form. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first.

The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Hellwig. thick. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Fig. Albany. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. being careful not to dent the metal.Fig. Rinse the plate in cold water. N. not pointed down at the road at an angle. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. 2. Y. --Contributed by John A. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board.

In Fig. Richmond. 5 in. and. S. --Contributed by R. long for the base. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . A. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. B. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. 2 the front view. A circular piece of wood. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. wide and of any desired height. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. 6 in. Break off the frame. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. with a set screw. are screwed to the circular piece. and Fig. is fastened to a common camera tripod. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. wide and 8 in. With this device. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. which is 4 in. These corner irons are also screwed to. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. CC. 1 Fig. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight.upon any particular object. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. through which passes the set screw S. Corner irons. thick. Paine. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. in diameter. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. Va. A. and not produce the right sound.

Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Kidder. This will make a very compact electric horn. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. D. in diameter of some 1-in. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. pine boards. . and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. thus producing sound waves. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. This horn. as only the can is visible. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. R.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Lake Preston. La Salle. S. -1. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. I made a wheel 26 in. Ill.

Doylestown. --Contributed by James R. 2. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. 1. 1. A. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. --Contributed by C. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Fig.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. the same thickness as the coins. B. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Feet may be added to the base if desired. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. The frame is made of a heavy card. If there is a large collection of coins. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. thick and 12 in. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Ghent. square. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. O. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Kane. Purdy.

How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by J. Wis. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Cal. Canada. It will hold 4 oz. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. several large nails. The material required is a sheet of No. --Contributed by August T. Smith.J. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. of developer. border all around. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. though not absolutely necessary.E. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. a hammer or mallet. melted and applied with a brush. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. Milwaukee. thick. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Toronto. into which to place the screws . cut and grooved. for after the slides have been shown a few times. and then glued together as indicated. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Neyer. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. plus a 3/8-in. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. A lead pencil. they become uninteresting. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. --Contributed by R. Noble. A rivet punch is desirable. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. One Cloud. If desired.

never upon the metal directly. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. Remove the screws. There are several ways of working up the design. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Fasten the metal to the board firmly.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. using 1/2-in. draw one part. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. both outline and decoration. screws placed about 1 in. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Take the nail. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. and file it to a chisel edge. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. like the one shown. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the .

hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. square and 11 in. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. being ball bearing. . two lengths. The pedal. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. long. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. using a 1/2in.wall. 3/4 in. 1. Rivet the band to the holder. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. and two lengths. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. 2. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. l-1/8 in. of 11-in. square and 181/2 in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. each 1 in. for the top. up from the lower end. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. 3. for the lower rails. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. Provide four lengths for the legs. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. long. in the other. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. long. square. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. About 1/2 yd. Do not bend it over or flatten it. as shown in Fig.

The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. having quite a length of threads. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. New York City. Ala. F.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. Attalla. Quackenbush. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. --Contributed by John Shahan. --Contributed by W. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way.

Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. one about 1 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. from the end. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. The desired emblem. and the other 2-3/4 in. long.. wide and 4-1/4 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. long. long. --Contributed by C. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. stitched on both edges for appearance. Mich. something that is carbonated. D. each 1-1/4 in. Two pieces of felt. Purchase a 1/2-in. using class. college or lodge colors. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. Ironwood. Assemble as shown in the sketch. initial. and 3/8 in. and two holes in the other. in depth. from one end. making a lap of about 1 in. Luther. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt.

This method allows a wide range of designs. 2. --Contributed by John H. if desired by the operator. A piece of lead. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. in the cover and the bottom. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. Punch two holes A. from the center and opposite each other. 1. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Ind. or more in height.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Schatz. or a pasteboard box. and the cork will be driven out. which can be procured from a plumber. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Fig. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. about 2 in. in diameter and 2 in. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Indianapolis. 1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. as shown at B.

1. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. Columbus. are turned up as in Fig. as shown in Fig. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. and the ends of the bands looped over them. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. The pieces of tin between the holes A. When the can is rolled away from you. putting in the design. A piece of thick glass. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. 5. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. Fig. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. it winds up the rubber band. . made of paper strips pasted on the tin. metal. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. allowing the two ends to be free. on both top and bottom. or marble will serve. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. O. 3. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in.Rolling Can Toy lead. 4.

and. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. 3 in. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. thick. mark over the design. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. The edges should be about 1/8 in. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. or more thick on each side. hole through it. long and bored a 1/2-in. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. deep in its face. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. Next place the leather on the glass. thicker than the pinion. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. New York City. wide and 20 in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. 1 in. face up. After this has been done. from each end.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. A pencil may be used the first time over. I secured a board 3/4 in.

The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Now fit up the two clamps. lag screws as shown. Fig. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. New York. 2 by 2 by 18 in. --Contributed by A. 1 piece. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 2 crosspieces. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. much of the hard labor will be saved. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. in diameter. 2 by 12 by 77 in. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. M. 1 piece for clamp. thick top board. 1 back board. pieces for the vise slides. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 2 end rails. 1 top board. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. Rice. 2 side rails. and fit it in place for the side vise. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 3 by 3 by 36. 1 screw block. 1 top board. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Brooklyn. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Y. 1. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 4 guides. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 2. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. N. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Make the lower frame first. Syracuse.in the board into the bench top. 1 piece for clamp. Cut the 2-in.

A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 cross cut saw. 1 monkey wrench.. 1 bench plane or jointer. in diameter. rule. 2 screwdrivers. . 24 in. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 24 in. it can be easily found when wanted. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. Only the long run. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 jack plane or smoother. as well as the pattern maker. 1 set chisels. 1 rip saw. 1 wood scraper. 1 countersink. 1 set gimlets. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools.. 1 brace and set of bits. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 claw hammer. 1 pair pliers. 1 pocket level. 1 pair dividers. 1 compass saw. The bench is now complete. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 3 and 6 in. 1 marking gauge. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need.. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. The amateur workman. If each tool is kept in a certain place.screws. 1 2-ft. 1 nail set.

---Contributed by James M. Fig. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 1. Fig. being softer. after constant use.1. the projecting point A. 1. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 3. 1 oilstone. will be easier to work. Fig. 2 and 00 sandpaper. 2. The calf skin. becomes like A. Pa. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. No. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. Doylestown. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. try square. but will not make .1 6-in. Fig. Kane.

a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. Turn the leather. when dry. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. . If cow hide is preferred. but a V-shaped nut pick. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. secure a piece of modeling calf. cover it completely with water enamel and. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Two pieces will be required of this size.as rigid a case as the cow skin. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. the same method of treatment is used. which steam. then prepare the leather. lay the design on the face. The form can be made of a stick of wood. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. White. such as copper or brass. If calf skin is to be used. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. Having prepared the two sides. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. -Contributed by Julia A. First draw the design on paper. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. New York City. After the outlines are traced. water or heat will not affect. and the length 6-5/8 in. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. will do just as well. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow.

it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. and an adjustable friction-held loop. . Maine. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. A. Jaquythe. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by Chester L. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Richmond. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Cal. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. Herrman. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. New York City. as shown in the sketch. Portland. C. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Cobb. --Contributed by W. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one.

in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Conn. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Middletown. was marked out as shown. A thick piece of tin. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. This was very difficult. Cambridge. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. for instance. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Roberts. B. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. an inverted stewpan. Mass. . The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. --Contributed by Geo. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well.. --Contributed by Wm. Wright. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction.

which has been tried out several times with success. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. --Contributed by C. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. The next morning there was no trace of oil. apply powdered calcined magnesia. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. as shown. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Illinois. Ind. face down. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. A beautifully bound book. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Herbert. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Bone. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. pulverized and applied. on a clear piece of glass. When dry. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. L. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. used as part of furniture. If the article is highly polished. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. Chicago. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. such as chair seats. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper.. and the grease will disappear. --Contributed by Paul Keller. . but only an odor which soon vanished.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. There was no quicklime to be had. so some bones were quickly calcined. well calcined and powdered. Indianapolis. and quite new. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. of boiling water. If any traces of the grease are left. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. F. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. but not running over.

the pieces . The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. set and thumbscrews.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. deep and 5 in.. --Contributed by Geo.. Howe. wide and 12 in. 6 in. long. high and are bolted to a block of wood. says Scientific American. thick. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. If properly adjusted. 2 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. The pieces marked S are single. Tarrytown. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. A. New York. This coaster is simple and easy to make. soft steel with the opening 6 in.

Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. albums and the like. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. to the underside of which is a block. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. for sending to friends. no doubt. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. A sharp knife. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. they will look remarkably uniform. The seat is a board. If the letters are all cut the same height.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. E. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Their size depends on the plate used. says Camera Craft.

Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. photographing them down to the desired size. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. So made. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. using care to get it in the right position. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. for example. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. and. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. The puzzle is to get . stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. In cutting out an 0." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. pasting the prints on some thin card. after. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. So arranged. mount them on short pieces of corks. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind.

-Contributed by I. with the longest end outside. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. G. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. He smells the bait. long that will just fit are set in. says the American Thresherman. so they will lie horizontal. of its top. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. snow or anything to hide it. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. squeezes along past the center of the tube. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit.J. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . Old-Time Magic . The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. Cape May Point. A hole 6 or 7 in. N. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. Bayley. the tube righting itself at once for another catch.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. hung on pivots. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves.

putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Parker. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Y. Rhode Island. --Contributed by L. then spread the string. Szerlip. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Pawtucket. --Contributed by Charles Graham. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Brooklyn. N. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. then expose again. Pocatello. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Idaho. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. E. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve.faced up. --Contributed by L. Press the hands together. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. or rub the hands a little before doing so.

tapering down to 1-1/2 in. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. and if carefully made. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. dark red. 1. using a straightedge and a pencil. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. 3 Fig. says the English Mechanic. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. 1 Fig. The blade should be about 27 in. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. in building up his work from the illustrations. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in.. they will look very much like the genuine article. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. 2 Fig. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. near the point end. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. whether he requires a single sword only. long. The handle is next made. or designs in this article are from authentic sources.Genuine antique swords and armor. The pieces. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. wide and 2 in. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. in width. thick.. 4 on the blade. if any. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. narrower. end of the blade. full size. wipe the blade . Glue the other side of the blade. or a complete suit of armor. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. When the whole is quite dry. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. or green oil paint. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot.

1. the other is flat or half-round. 3. follow the directions as for Fig. in diameter. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. not for use only in cases of tableaux. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. of course. In the finished piece. long. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. 1. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. the other is flat or halfround. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. allowing for a good hold with both hands. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. Both edges of the blade are sharp. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. The length of the handle. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. shows only two sides. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. 2. Fig. the length of the blade 28 in. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. In making this scimitar. 1. square and of any length desired. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in.with light strokes up and down several times. about 1-1/2 in. the other two are identical. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. 1/8 in. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. preferably of contrasting colors.. take two pieces of wood. the illustration. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. This sword is about 68 in. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. should be about 9 in. 1. In making. thick and 5 in. 3.. 2. and 3 in. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. 4. in the widest part at the lower end. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. as it is . A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig.

A cold . can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. --Contributed by Katharine D. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Franklin. however. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. each about 1 ft. and if so. square. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Both can be made easily. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. It is made of a plank. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. 2 in.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. long. and. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Y. as there was some at hand. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. as can the pitch bed or block. piping and jackets by hard water. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. N. On each edge of the board. The thinness of the plank. Morse. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. Doctors probed for the button without success. in an attempt to remove it. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. --Contributed by John Blake. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. A piece of mild steel. as shown in the sketch. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. about 3/8 in. or an insecure fastening. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Syracuse. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. at the lower end. Mass.

. using a small metal saw. 5 lb. secure a piece of brass of about No. When this has been done. 18 gauge. plaster of Paris. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. a file to reduce the ends to shape. 5 lb. tallow. on the pitch.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. design down. When the desired form has been obtained. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. To remedy this.. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. Trim up the edges and file them . The metal will probably be warped somewhat. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. To put it in another way.

to keep it from floating. 30 ft. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. 1 ft. 2). That is lifting 33. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. per second. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. 1) and the other 12 in. in one second. and hang a bird swing. The smaller is placed within the larger. in the center. Cutter. Before giving the description. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. 1 ft. in one minute or 550 lb. Clean the metal thoroughly. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. A. per minute. one 18 in. lb. Fig. make an unusual show window attraction. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. --Contributed by Harold H. lb. living together in what seems like one receptacle. and still revolve. or 550 ft. using powdered pumice with lye.000 ft.smooth. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. in diameter (Fig. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. This in turn divided by 33. in diameter (Fig. or fraction of a horsepower. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. .000 lb. 3.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. over the smaller vessel. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. but not to stop it. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. space between the vessels with water. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Fill the 3-in. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor.

The effect is surprising. Diameter 12 in. Brooklyn.18 in. Campbell. F. or on a pedestal. by L. Szerlip. Mass. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. --Contributed. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete .3 Fig. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. 2 Fig. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. 1 Fig. Diameter Fig.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Somerville. Y. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. N. --Contributed by J.

to keep the metal from tarnishing. Polish both of these pieces. which may be of wood or tin. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. Do not be content merely to bend them over. as a rule. is. with other defects. the same as removing writing from a slate. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. and the clay . A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. away from the edge. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. and cut out the shape with the shears. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. then by drawing a straightedge over it. In riveting. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Rivet the cup to the base. often render it useless after a few months service. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. and then.copper of No. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. unsatisfactory. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. keeping the center high. after which it is ready for use. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. This compound is impervious to water. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. which. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. with the pliers. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. using any of the common metal polishes.

2. 3/4 in. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Northville. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. --Contributed by John T. long. Grand Rapids. Mich. -Contributed by Thos. Shettleston.can be pressed back and leveled. Mich. It is made of a glass tube. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. in diameter and 5 in. DeLoof. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. the device will work for an indefinite time. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Houghton. A. 1. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. . Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Scotland. --Contributed by A. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. Dunlop. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. as shown in Fig.

says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. This sword is 4 ft. As the handle is to . The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color.1 FIG. long. 1. put up as ornaments.FIG. stilettos and battle-axes. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. in width and 2 in. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. London.

wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. then glued on the blade as shown. 4. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. the upper part iron or steel. sometimes called cuirass breakers. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The ball is made as described in Fig. firmly glued on. string. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. This weapon is also about 1 ft. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. In Fig. with both edges of the blade sharp. This axe is made similar to the one . very broad. with wire or string' bound handle. small rope and round-headed nails. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. The handle is of wood. 3 is shown a claymore. in width. is shown in Fig. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. 8. This weapon is about 1 ft. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. This sword is about 4 ft. 9. Both handle and axe are of steel. When the whole is quite dry. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. This stiletto has a wood handle. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. In Fig. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. When dry. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. 6. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. narrower. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. In Fig. which is about 2-1/2 ft. in length. the same as used on the end of the handle. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. A German stiletto. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. glue and put it in place. These must be cut from pieces of wood. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. long. 20 spike. A German poniard is shown in Fig. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. 7. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. Three large. 5. The crossbar and blade are steel. The lower half of the handle is of wood. long with a dark handle of wood.represent copper. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. one about 1/2 in. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. sharp edges on both sides. in length. studded with brass or steel nails. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. The sword shown in Fig. the axe is of steel. 11 were used. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. When the glue is thoroughly dry. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. wood with a keyhole saw. with both edges sharp. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. paint it a dark brown or black. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel.

This will make a very good flexible belt. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. high. such as braided fishline. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. Old-Time Magic . When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. so the contents cannot be seen. together as shown in Fig. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. the ends are tied and cut off. 10. Chicago. When wrapped all the way around. 2. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand.described in Fig. W. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. will pull where other belts slip. Davis. --Contributed by E. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. .

2. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Before the performance. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. N. held in the right hand. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. apparently. with the circle centrally located. in a few seconds' time. causing the flowers to grow. an acid. filled with water. Oakland. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Bridgeton. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. These wires are put in the jar. The dotted lines in Fig. To make the flowers grow in an instant. --Contributed by A. or using small wedges of wood. Calif. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. about one-third the way down from the top. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . As zinc is much lighter than iron. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. four glass tumblers. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand.J.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Macdonald. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. some of the liquid. S. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. There will be no change in color. 1 and put together as in Fig.

It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . 2 for height. not only because of the fact just mentioned. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. --Contributed by W. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. Richmond. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. This outlines the desired opening. and kept ready for use at any time. If the size wanted is No. A. which are numbered for convenience in working. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. 4 for width and No. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. When many slides are to be masked. and equally worthy of individual treatment.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. says a correspondent of Photo Era. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. Cal. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. Jaquythe. practical and costs nothing. unless some special device is used. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple.

may be changed. not the water into the acid. a little less acid than water. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. Draw a design. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. The one shown is merely suggestive. is about right for the No. paint the design. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. The decoration. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. possibly. and the extreme length 7 in. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then .Etching copper is not a very difficult process. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. and do not inhale the fumes. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. When etched to the desired depth. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. or. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. too. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. about half and half. With a stick. This done. the paper is folded along the center line. which is dangerous. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. Secure a sheet of No. the margin and the entire back of the metal. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. using the carbon paper. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. 16 gauge. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. or a pair of old tongs. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. but they can be easily revived. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry.

allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. 4. about 2-1/2 in. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. 3. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. 3/8 in. 5. Fig. . the bell will ring. so that when it is pressed down. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Fig. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. 2. about 1 in. and bore two holes. with the wires underneath. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. high. as in Fig. The connections are simple: I. or more wide. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. Fig. wide. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. 1. it will touch post F. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. long. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Nail a board. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. as shown in Fig. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. J is another wire attached in the same way. A. as shown in the illustration. It may be either nailed or screwed down. to the table. in diameter and 1/4 in. Cut out a piece of tin. 24 parts water. attached to a post at each end. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. as at H. C and D. Fig. about 8 in. repeat as many times as is necessary. Then get two posts. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. 5. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. Paint the table any color desired. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. and to keep the metal from tarnishing.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. 2. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. long and 1 ft. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. 0 indicates the batteries. When the button S is pressed. wide and of the same length as the table. thick. through it. Fig. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. and about 2-1/2 ft. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. about 3 ft. 2.

The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. This weapon is about 22 in. such as .PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den.Imitation Arms and Armor . but they are somewhat difficult to make. A wood peg about 2 in. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. thick. is to appear as steel. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in.. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. the wood peg inserted in one of them. These rings can be carved out. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. The imitation articles are made of wood. handle and all. long. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. 2. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. The circle is marked out with a compass. The entire weapon. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. long serves as the dowel. After the glue is dry. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. says the English Mechanic. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. 1.

5. also. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. Its length is about 3 ft. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. 2. is shown in Fig. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up.ornamental scrolls. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. 3. If such a tool is not at hand. . it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. 6. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. or the amateur cannot use it well. the hammer and spike. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. etc. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. covered with red velvet. flowers. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The lower half of the handle is wood. 8. The upper half of the handle is steel. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. long. The axe is shown in steel. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. used at the end of the fifteenth century. as before mentioned. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. This weapon is about 22 in. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The handle is of wood. The handle is of steel imitation. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. leaves. as shown. All of these axes are about the same length. studded with large brass or steel nails. as described in Fig. The entire handle should be made of one piece. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a sharp carving tool. The spikes are cut out of wood.

A foul ball is indicated by Fig. . --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Each person plays until three outs have been made. then the other plays. 6. as in Fig. 3. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. The knife falling on its side (Fig. 7) calls for one out. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. as shown in Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. Fig. 1. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. and so on for nine innings. 5. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 2. 4). a three-base hit. Chicago. calls for a home run. the knife resting on its back. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position.

How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. 3. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. This he does.-Contributed by J. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. with the rope laced in the cloth.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. Campbell. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. one of them burning . of water for an hour or two. F. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. Somerville. 1. as shown in Fig. If it is spotted at all. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. 2. of the rope and holds it. Old-Time Magic . while the committee is tying him up. Mass. hypo to 1 pt. It may be found that the negative is not colored. as shown in Fig. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen.

When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. showing that there is nothing between them. and the audience gaze on and see nothing.. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Brown. Ky. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. etc. of sugar. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. Drill Gauge screw. . He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. of plumbago. 4 oz. shades the light for a few seconds. Thome. and. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. 3/4 in. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. --Contributed by L. of turpentine. He then walks over to the other candle. Louisville. --Contributed by C. Lebanon. New York City. bolt. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart.Contributed by Andrew G. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. thus causing it to light. The magician walks over to the burning candle. the other without a light. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. 4 oz.brightly. invisible to them (the audience). The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. of water and 1 oz. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Evans. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. thick. B. Ky. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. with which he is going to light the other candle.

The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Its current strength is about one volt. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. --Contributed by C. In making up the solution. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. steady current. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. long. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. into a tube of several thicknesses. Y. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. about 5 in. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. Denniston. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. thick. Pulteney. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. H. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. 5 in. but is not so good. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. but can be made up into any required voltage in series.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. or blotting paper. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. To make the porous cell. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. for the material. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. N. which will give a strong. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. Do not add water to the acid. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. diameter.

A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. one drawing them together. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. Finally. One hole was bored as well as possible. the other holding them apart. while the other end is attached by two screws. long with a bearing at each end. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. After much experimentation with bearings. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. steel. a positive adjustment was provided. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. As to thickness. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces.) may be obtained. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. but somewhat lighter. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. To insure this. carrying the hour circle at one end. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. steel. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The .station. steel.

since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. Cassiopiae. 45 min. It is. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper.." Only a rough setting is necessary. If the result is more than 24 hours. To find a star in the heavens. Declination is read directly. and 15 min. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. Set the declination circle to its reading. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. are tightened. subtract 24. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . To locate a known star on the map. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. The pole is 1 deg. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The aperture should be 1/4 in. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate." When this is done. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. and if it is not again directed to the same point. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. excepting those on the declination axis. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. When properly set it will describe a great circle. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. is provided with this adjustment. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Point it approximately to the north star. save the one in the pipe. All set screws. apart.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. Instead. All these adjustments. once carefully made. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. need not be changed. The pointer is directed to Alpha.. Each shaft. turn the pointer to the star.

Strosnider. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. add a little more benzole. which is the one examined. Plain City. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. La. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. Ohio. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. The ball is found to be the genuine article.. is folded several times. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. -Contributed by Ray E. taking care not to add too much. cannon balls. of ether. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. as shown in the sketch. The dance will begin. If this will be too transparent. long. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. benzole. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. 3 or 4 in. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. a great effect will be produced. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. In reality the first ball. New Orleans. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. the others .glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. then add 1 2-3 dr. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. is the real cannon ball. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day.

drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. San Francisco. Wis. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Mass. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. Somerville. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. small brooches. Cal. In boxes having a sliding cover. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Milwaukee. --Contributed by J. 2. etc. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Campbell. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Fig. F. taps. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. 1). without taking up any great amount of space..are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. as shown in the illustration. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Return the card to the pack.

The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. prints. Beller. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. as shown in the illustration. This box has done good service. from the bottom of the box. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Hartford. thus giving ample store room for colors. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. round pieces 2-1/4 in. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. slides and extra brushes. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. . the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Connecticut.

The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. Mass. about threefourths full. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. with well packed horse manure. Fill the upper tub.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. -Contributed by C. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. will answer the purpose. West Lynn.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. When the ends are turned under. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. 1). Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. holes in the bottom of one. . a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. FIG. 2). or placed against a wall. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. costing 5 cents. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. tacking the gauze well at the corners. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. Darke. O.

but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. --Contributed by L. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. M. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. they should be knocked out. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. when they are raised from the pan. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. If plugs are found in any of the holes. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. If the following directions are carried out. Eifel. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. cutting the cane between the holes. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. oil or other fluid. and each bundle contains . with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. Chicago. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. if this is not available. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. A pair of these shields will always come in handy.

Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. 1. as shown in Fig. held there by inserting another plug. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. In addition to the cane. put about 3 or 4 in. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. as it must be removed again. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. it should be held by a plug. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. No plugs . the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. then across and down. a square pointed wedge. after having been pulled tight. and.

There are several different designs of sundials. 1 lat. W. During the weaving. 5 in. D. using the same holes as for the first layer. After completing the second layer. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. 5. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. No weaving has been done up to this time. is the base (5 in. --Contributed by M.42 in.2+. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . From table No. 41°-30'. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs.15+. for 2°. trim off the surplus rosin. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. Fig. 1.5 in. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. as for example. 42° is 4. It consists of a flat circular table. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. the height of the line BC. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. All added to the lesser or 40°. the height of which is taken from table No.3 in. Even with this lubrication.2 in. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. it is 4. 1. 3. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. in this case) times the . nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. When cool. we have 4. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. Detroit. as it always equals the latitude of the place. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. as the height of the line BC for lat. R. the next smallest. called the gnomon. is the horizontal dial. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. 40°. -Contributed by E. If you have a table of natural functions. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. Michigan. and for 1° it would be . The style or gnomon. 1. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. 3. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. Fig. 41 °-30'.15 in. 4. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair.075 in. and for lat. lat. as shown in Fig.= 4. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. and the one we shall describe in this article.075 in. stretch the third one. or the style. Patrick. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. If handled with a little care. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. but the most common.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. This will make three layers. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. Their difference is .

37 5.19 1.99 2. with a radius of 5 in.27 2.89 50° 5.77 2. or more. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.56 .49 30 .81 4. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. . The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.55 5.57 3.42 1.18 28° 2. 2.33 42° 4.30 1. To layout the hour circle.96 32° 3. 2.94 1.59 2.26 4.79 4. long. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.28 .11 3.23 6.88 36° 3. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. 1.44 44° 4.02 1. base.37 54° 6.41 38° 3. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.55 4. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.32 6.tangent of the degree of latitude.10 6.82 5.00 40° 4.50 26° 2.55 46° 5. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.57 1.30 2.20 60° 8. Its thickness.64 4 8 3.49 3. gives the 6 o'clock points. Chords in inches for a 10 in.12 52° 6. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .46 3.16 40 .66 48° 5.93 6.46 . Height of stile in inches for a 5in. if of metal. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. according to the size of the dial.42 45 .66 latitude.63 56° 7. Draw two semi-circles. 2 for given latitudes. and intersecting the semicircles. using the points A and C as centers. Draw the line AD.29 4-30 7-30 3.85 1.39 . Table NO. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.87 1.07 4.68 5-30 6-30 5.55 30° 2.87 4.91 58° 8.97 5 7 4.85 35 .83 27° 2.06 2. Fig. and perpendicular to the base or style.40 34° 3.38 . and for this size dial (10 in.33 .82 3.66 1. an inch or two. circle Sundial.40 1. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. For latitudes not given. or if of stone.76 1.03 3.93 2.16 1.14 5.82 2.42 . which will represent the base in length and thickness.

reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.50 55 . The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.68 3.87 6. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.50 .37 2. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.53 1. E. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . London.98 4.52 Table No.06 2. 2 and Dec.add those marked + subtract those Marked . The + means that the clock is faster. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. 3. then the watch is slower.82 3.54 60 . and for the difference between standard and local time. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. Each weapon is cut from wood. 3. As they are the genuine reproductions.57 1.71 2.30 2. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. Sept. says the English Mechanic.means that the dial is faster than the sun. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.49 3. after allowing for the declination. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.21 2. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.49 5. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen.19 2. April 16. if west.89 3. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.24 5. Iowa.10 4.63 1.01 1.08 1. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. adding to each piece interest and value. June 15. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. --Contributed by J..60 4.72 5.77 3. each article can be labelled with the name.46 5. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. Mitchell. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. Sun time to local mean time. This correction can be added to the values in table No. Sioux City.93 6.12 5. 900 Chicago. will enable one to set the dial. it will be faster. 25.14 1.from Sundial lime.34 5.79 6. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. and the . Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. An ordinary compass.46 4.

swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. 1.. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. 3. the length of which is about 5 ft. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. When putting on the tinfoil. . Partisan. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. Glaive and Voulge brass nails.

The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. 8. . The spear is steel. long. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. It is about 6 ft. sharp on the outer edges. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. long with a round wooden handle. about 4 in. long. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. which are a part of the axe. The edges are sharp.. long with a round staff or handle. 5. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The extreme length is 9 ft. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. 7.which is square. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. A gisarm or glaive. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. used about the seventeenth century. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. in diameter. the holes being about 1/4 in. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. is shown in Fig. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. This weapon is about 6 ft. 6 ft. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. press it well into the carved depressions.

Workman. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. The twisted cross cords should . and if placed from 6 to 12 in. They can be made of various materials. used for spacing and binding the whole together. 2 and 3. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. are less durable and will quickly show wear. Ohio. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. This is important to secure neatness. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. apart. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. H. are put in place. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. 1. the cross cords. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. as shown in Fig. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. or in holes punched in a leather strap. 5. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. Loudonville.-Contributed by R. In Figs. Cut all the cords the same length.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. 4. Substances such as straw. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. the most durable being bamboo. B. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering.

shaped as shown at C. below the top to within 1/4 in. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. This was turned over the top of the other can. Harrer. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . New Orleans. Four V-shaped notches were cut. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. La.be of such material. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. as shown at B. for a length extending from a point 2 in. -Contributed by Geo. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. New York. of the bottom. 3 in. wide. The first design shown is for using bamboo. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. M. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. To remedy this. A slit was cut in the bottom. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. bamboo or rolled paper. in which was placed a piece of glass. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Lockport. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Cal. This plank. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. --Contributed by W. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. about 1/16 in. giving the appearance of hammered brass. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Newburgh. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. --Contributed by Chas. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . do not throw away the gloves. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. After this is finished. wide. H.tape from sticking to the carpet. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. turned over but not fastened. Y. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. N. --Contributed by Joseph H. Ill. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Pasadena. This should be done gradually. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. Schaffner. Sanford. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. It would be well to polish the brass at first. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Maywood. Shay. and two along the side for attaching the staff. the brass is loosened from the block. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy.

Richmond. the pendulum swings . Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. -Contributed by W. Ill. A. Marshall. Cal. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Jaquythe. Unlike most clocks. bent as shown. Oak Park. --E. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. K. in diameter. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob.

and the other two 2-5/8 in. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. bar. high. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. A.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Metzech. by 1-5/16 in. in diameter. The construction is very simple. only have the opposite side up. the center one being 2-3/4 in. In using this method. high and 1/4 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. 3/4 in. are secured in the base bar. thick. on the board B. long and at each side of this. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Two uprights. bearing on the latter. wide. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. B. Now place the board to be joined. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. to the first one with screws or glue. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. 5/16 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. says the Scientific American. --Contributed by V. about 6 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. C. away. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. 7-1/2 in. Secure a board. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. . in diameter and 1-7/16 in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. Chicago. wide that is perfectly flat. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. high. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. high. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. 6 in. such as this one.. about 12 in. is an electromagnet. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Fasten another board. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip.

Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. 1. from one end. plates should be made 8 in. 2. long. 3. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Fig. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. whose dimensions are given in Fig. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. wide and 1 in. or more. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. Phoenixville. Fig. square. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Pa. wide and 5 in. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. 1. Vanderslice. 1. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. . as shown at A. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. The trigger. is fastened in the hole A. 4. square inside. --Contributed by Elmer A. by driving a pin through the wood. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in.

3 parts of stiff keg lead. one-half the length of the side pieces. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. by weight.A. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. Simonis. Fostoria. if only two bands are put in the . The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. as shown in the illustration. square. which allows 1/4 in. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. 2 parts of whiting. Ohio. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 5 parts of black filler. rubbing varnish and turpentine. -Contributed by J. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan.

If a plain glass is used. Grand Rapids. No. II. and the picture can be drawn as described. long. --Contributed by Thos. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. DeLoof. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. 8 in. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. wide and about 1 ft. In constructing helmets. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. says the English Mechanic.lower strings. in the opposite end of the box. A piece of metal. In use. A mirror. deep. is set at an angle of 45 deg. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. London. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. as shown in Fig. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. which may be either of ground or plain glass. Michigan. 1. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. keeps the strong light out when sketching. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. Shaw. is necessary. place tracing paper on its surface. G. Mass. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. and it may be made as a model or full sized. -Contributed by Abner B. It must be kept moist and well . A double convex lens. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. Dartmouth. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. preferably copper.

the clay model oiled. brown. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. 1. Scraps of thin. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. shown in Fig. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. on which to place the clay. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. 3. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. The clay. and over the crest on top. and left over night to soak. take. with a keyhole saw. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. and the deft use of the fingers. 2. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. and continue until the clay is completely covered. 1. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. joined closely together. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. All being ready.kneaded. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. will be necessary. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. as shown in Fig. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. This being done. as in bas-relief. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. or some thin glue. a few clay-modeling tools. After the clay model is finished.

1. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. the skullcap. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. When perfectly dry. square in shape. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. and so on. This contrivance should be made of wood. as seen in the other part of the sketch. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. The whole helmet. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. will make it look neat. 9. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. Indianapolis. with the exception of the vizor. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. 7. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. --Contributed by Paul Keller. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. In Fig. 5. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. which should be no difficult matter.as possible. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. and the ear guards in two pieces. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. The band is decorated with brass studs. then another coating of glue. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. Indiana. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. one for each side. a few lines running down. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. as shown: in the design. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. They are all covered with tinfoil. or. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. When dry. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . a crest on top. should be modeled and made in one piece. The center of the ear guards are perforated. In Fig. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. the piecing could not be detected. Before taking it off the model. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. When the helmet is off the model. owing to the clay being oiled. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet.

of mineral wool. is then packed down inside the collar. 4 lb. 4. of fire clay. one fuse block. about 1/4 in. 3 in. long. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. if the measurements are correct. Fig. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. 1. Fig. also the switch B and the fuse block C. The reverse side of the base. The mineral wool. 2. E and F. GG. as shown in Fig. AA. 1 in. as shown in Fig. 12 in. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. 1. Fig. Fig. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. to receive screws for holding it to the base. The holes B and C are about 3 in. about 1 lb. JJ. 22 gauge resistance wire. is shown in Fig. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. The two holes. Fig. 1. wide and 15 in. If asbestos is used. above the collar. AA. AA. thick sheet asbestos. which can be bought from a local druggist. for connections. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. until it is within 1 in. high. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . 2. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. 4. Fig. Fig. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. one glass tube. If a neat appearance is desired. Fig. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. one small switch. with slits cut for the wires. German-silver wire is better. one oblong piece of wood. of the top. should extend about 1/4 in. are allowed to project about 1 in. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. the fuse block. 2. long. about 80 ft. as it stands a higher temperature. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. 4. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. Fig. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. Fig. and. as shown in Fig. 1. long. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. when they are placed in opposite positions. 4. This will allow the plate. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. Fig. 4. each 4-1/2 in. two ordinary binding posts. or. and two large 3in. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. Fig. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. 1. 4. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. A round collar of galvanized iron. if this cannot be obtained. screws. The plate. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. in diameter and 9 in. Fig. of No.same size. thick. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. This will make an open space between the plates. 3. the holes leading to the switch. 4. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. FF. 1. and C. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar.

sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. 2. This completes the stove. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. steam will form when the current is applied. Cut a 1/2-in. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. using care not to get it too wet. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. This point marks the proper length to cut it. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. A. The clay. so that the circuit will not become broken. When the tile is in place. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. Cover over about 1 in. As these connections cannot be soldered. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. and pressed into it. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Can. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. When this is done. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. deep. Next. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. above the rim. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. Richmond. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. then. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. H. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. A file can be used to remove any rough places. If it is not thoroughly dry. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Jaquythe. It should not be left heated in this condition. when cool. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. While the clay is damp. allowing a space between each turn. Cal. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by R. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. it leaves a gate for the metal. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. If this is the case. Fig. Fig. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. II. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. 4. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . St. will slip and come in contact with each other. causing a short circuit. as the turns of the wires. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. It should not be set on end. apart. when heated. KK. Cnonyn.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. more wire should be added. Catherines.

Thorne. the pie will be damaged. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Ky. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. Then clip a little off the . thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. says the Photographic Times. square material in any size. Louisville. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. and the prints will dry rapidly. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. and the frame set near a window. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. constructed of 3/4-in. as shown. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. the air can enter from both top and bottom. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. is large enough. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. --Contributed by Andrew G. but 12 by 24 in. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way.

thick and 3 in. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. wide and 3 in. 3. Herron. wide and 7 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. An offset is bent in the center. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. high. long. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. Figs. which gives the shaft a half turn. in diameter and about 4 in. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. slip on two cardboard washers. high. A 1/8-in. 1. for the crank. each 1/2 in. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. wide. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. thick and 3 in. 2-1/2 in. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. W. 2. The connecting rod E. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. open out. -Contributed by S. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. thick. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. each 1 in. 1. 1 and 3. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. Iowa. 1. thereby saving time and washing. 22 gauge magnet wire. Le Mars. The driving arm D. causing a break in the current. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. Fig. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. The board can be raised to place . 1/2 in. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. The upright B. which are fastened to the base. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. as shown. 4 in. high. long. long. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. long.Paper Funnel point. 1/2 in. As the shaft revolves. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. 1. 14 in. in diameter. The connections are made as shown in Fig. allowing each end to project for connections. Two supports. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. at GG. Fig. Fig.

Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. bottom side up. Stecher. Dorchester. --Contributed by William F. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Mass.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. . making a framework suitable for a roost. In designing the roost. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Place the pot. as shown in the sketch. One or more pots may be used. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. on a board. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. in height. 3 in.

Wind the . paraffin and paint or varnish. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. The bottom part of the sketch. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. will produce the pattern desired. that it is heated. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. as shown in Fig. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. 1. ordinary glue. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. The materials required are rope or. adopt the method described. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. windows. if it is other than straight lines.. odd corners. preferably. F. grills and gratings for doors. when combined. etc. in diameter.. 1. Fig. shelves. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. F. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. The design must be considered first and when one is selected.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. without any corresponding benefit. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. and give it time to dry.

six designs are shown. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Lockport. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Harrer. N. Fig. M. cut and glue them together. Y. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. 2. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. -Contributed by Geo.Fig.

chips of iron rust. etc. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. when it will be observed that any organic matter. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work.. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. will be retained by the cotton... Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. As the . Pour the water in until the filter is filled. says the English Mechanic. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. but no farther.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. and the sides do not cover the jaws. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. etc. which was used in front of a horse's head. 1. This piece of horse armor. London. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords.

This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. 8. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. 6 and 7. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. which is separate. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. This can be made in one piece. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. This will make the model light and easy to move around. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. 2. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. the same as in Fig. and will require less clay. 4. then another coat of glue. which can be made in any size. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. as shown in the sketch. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. All being ready. with the exception of the thumb shield. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. but the back is not necessary. In Fig. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. and the clay model oiled. 2. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. except the thumb and fingers. An arrangement is shown in Fig. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. This being done. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. the rougher the better. and therefore it is not described. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. This triangularshaped support. as the surface will hold the clay. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. but for . A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The armor is now removed from the model. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay.

will be about right. but 3-1/2 in. the foils will not move. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. Redondo Beach. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. When locating the place for the screw eyes. 9. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. --Contributed by John G. each about 1/4 in. 1/2 in. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. two in each jaw. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. are glued to it. are better shown in Fig. the top of the rod. N. the two pieces of foil will draw together. The two pieces of foil. in depth. Y. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. Calif. and the instrument is ready for use. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. long. . Goshen. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. La Rue. cut into the shape shown in Fig. Buxton. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. running down the plate. --Contributed by Ralph L. If it does not hold a charge. 2. wide and 1/2 in. two for the jaws and one a wedge. fastened to the rod. A piece of board.

Bryan. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. pine board. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. silvered. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. At a point 6 in. Texas. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Corsicana. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. M. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. When a fish is hooked. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. is made of a 1/4-in. enameled or otherwise decorated. from the smaller end. A. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. about 15 in. as shown in the illustration. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. as indicated in the . thus making it ornamental as well as useful. long. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. 2-1/2 in.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. The can may be bronzed. as this will cut under the water without splashing. hole bored through it. --Contributed by Mrs. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die.

but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. If soft wood. A good size is 5 in. 22 is plenty heavy enough. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. using powdered pumice and lye. When it has dried over night. then with a nail. Having completed the drawing. Basswood or butternut." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. long over all. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. thick. wide by 6 in. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No.Match Holder accompanying sketch. as shown. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. using a piece of carbon paper. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. 3/8 or 1/4 in. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. or even pine. such as basswood or pine was used. take a piece of thin wood. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. and trace upon it the design and outline. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Polish the metal. Next prepare the metal holder. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Any kind of wood will do. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. punch the holes. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. put a coat or two of wax and polish .

can be made on the same standards. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. If one has some insight in carving. long. the whole being finished in linseed oil. It is useful for photographers. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. A. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. Richmond. of pure olive oil. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. . This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. each 1 in. 2 in. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. 1/2 in. Two wire nails. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. is used for the base of this instrument. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. long. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. thick. wide and 5 in. If carving is contemplated. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. Cal. Instead of the usual two short ropes. are used for the cores of the magnets. Jaquythe. --Contributed by W. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood.

the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. All of the parts for the armor have been described. acts as a spring to keep the key open. similar to that used in electric bells. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. Lynas. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. A piece of tin. as shown in Fig. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. cloth or baize to represent the legs. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. H. --Contributed by W. London. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. about No. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. 1. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. 25 gauge. cut in the shape of the letter T. when the key is pushed down. says the English Mechanic. in the shape shown in the sketch. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. as shown by the dotted lines. at A. About 1 in. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. then covered with red. the paper covering put on. except that for the legs. 3. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. A rubber band. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. leaving about 1/4 in. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. . Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel.

flat headed carriage bolt. or ordinary plaster laths will do. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues..Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. long. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. apart. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. in the other end. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. So set up. Secure two strips of wood. The two pieces are bolted together. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. Fig. and eight small holes. 1 and drill a 1/4in. can be made in a few minutes' time. one to another . a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. apart. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. for the sake of lightness. In one end of the piece. By moving the position of the bolt from. A 1/4-in. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. 2. says Camera Craft. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. drill six 1/4-in. Take the piece shown in Fig. not too tight. about 1 in. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Silver paper will do very well. holes. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. Cut them to a length or 40 in. 3 in. completes the equipment. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. hole in the center. Instead of using brass headed nails. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. at each end. make the same series of eight small holes and. 1 in.

D over A and C. Then draw all four ends up snugly. A round fob is made in a similar way.of the larger holes in the strip. and lay it over the one to the right. but instead of reversing . Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. long. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. of the ends remain unwoven. and the one beneath C. in Fig. the one marked A. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. 1. 2. for instance. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. In this sketch. taking the same start as for the square fob. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. as shown in Fig. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. 4. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. as in portraiture and the like. Fig. lay Cover B and the one under D. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. C over D and B. A is the first string and B is the second. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. Then take B and lay it over A. Start with one end. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. then B over C and the end stuck under A. 2. doubled and run through the web of A. 2. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured.

Monroeville. as at A in Fig. especially if silk strings are used. Ohio. --Contributed by John P. 3. over the one to its right. long. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. is left out at the center before starting on one side. as B. the design of which is shown herewith. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. Other designs can be made in the same manner. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. 1-1/2 in. always lap one string. 5. as in making the square fob. A loop. The round fob is shown in Fig. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Rupp. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. is to be made of leather.

To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. . Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. filling them with wax. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Any smooth piece of steel. Houghton. A. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. Mich. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. beeswax or paraffin. door facing or door panel. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. it can be easily renewed. using the reverse side. pressing it against the wood. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. When the supply of wax is exhausted. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. Northville. -Contributed by A. such as a nut pick.

Select the print you wish to mount. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. says Photographic Times. New York. J. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. remaining above the surface of the board. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. and about 12 in. long. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. The tacks should be about 1 in. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. place it face down in the dish. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. if blueprints are used. D. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. N.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Ill. Thompson. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. leaving about 1/4 in. although tin ones can be used with good success. --Contributed by O. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. and after wetting. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. those on matte paper will work best. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. Enough plaster should. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. it is best to leave a plain white margin. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. thick. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Petersburg. E and F. Fold together on lines C. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. but any kind that will not stick may be used. . apart and driven in only part way. Y. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch.

The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. violets. filling the same about onehalf full. without mixing the solutions. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. will be rendered perfectly white. Lower into the test tube a wire.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. One of the . roses. bell flowers. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda.. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. as shown at the left in the sketch. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. etc. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. as shown in the right of the sketch.

The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The tin horn can be easily made. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. is about 2-1/2 in. A rod that will fit the brass tube. as shown. as shown in the sketch. should be soldered to the box. but which will not wobble loose. 2. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. South Dakota. Millstown. about 1/8s in. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. Fig. The diaphragm. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. thick. shading. made of heavy tin. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. 3. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . --Contributed by L. to keep the core from coming off in turning. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking.. The sound box. in diameter and 1 in. The first point should be ground blunt. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. turned a little tapering. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. or delicate tints of the egg. 1-7/8 in. not too tightly. 1. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. long. Shabino. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. L. When soldering these parts together. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. long and made of wood. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. and at the larger end.

mice in the bottom. Jr. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Chicago. says the Iowa Homestead. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. E. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. and weighted it with a heavy stone. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. and. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . wondering what it was. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. put a board on top. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Ill. Gold. Victor. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Colo.Contributed by E.

The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Ottawa. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Buffalo. Pereira. N. Can. --Contributed by Lyndwode. . The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. Y. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages.

which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. --Contributed by W. Cal. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Mich. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. This cart has no axle. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. a piece of tin. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. through which several holes have been punched. Richmond. cut round. Put a small nail 2 in. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. as it can be made quickly in any size. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Grand Rapids. A. longer than the length of the can. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. --Contributed by Thos. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Jaquythe. De Loof. by means of a flatheaded tack. and at one end of the stick fasten. above the end of the dasher. as shown.

Doylestown. 1/4 in. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. wide and 1/8 in. --Contributed by James M. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig.1. 1. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. board. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. of course. were below the level of the bullseye. Kane. thick. 1-1/2 in. wide and as long as the box. New Orleans. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. wide and 3 ft. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. Fig. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Notches 1/8 in. 2. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. 2 in. long. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. The baseboard and top are separable. The candles. 1 ft. 2. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. 2. La. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. cut in the center of the rounding edge. screwed it on the inside of a store box. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. A wedge-shaped piece of . The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. as shown. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. wide. deep and 3 in. I reversed a door gong. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. apart. Pa.

After completing the handle. when placed as in Fig. Mass. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. take two pieces of hard wood. it can be removed without marring the casing. Needles. --Contributed by G. stone or wood.. After the glue has dried. A. Wood. For the handle. scissors. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. the blade is put back into the groove . wide into each side of the casing. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Worcester. will. etc. to prevent its scratching the desk top. the reason being that if both were solid. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. by cutting away the ends. as shown in Fig. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. 3.Book Back Holders metal. can be picked up without any trouble. West Union. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Ia. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. 1. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. wide rubber bands or felt. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. When not in use. Cover the block with rubber. This device is very convenient for invalids. the shelf could not be put on the window. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. The block can also be used as a paperweight. dressing one surface of each piece.

Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. 2. square and 4 in. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. -Contributed by W. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Malden. . --Contributed by H. Erie. long. 1. Ohio.and sharpened to a cutting edge. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Hutchins. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. thus carrying the car up the incline. Cleveland. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Mass. A notch is cut in one side. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Jacobs. Each one is made of a hardwood block. If desired. 1 in. Pa. A. S. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. --Contributed by Maud McKee.

One sheet of metal. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. will be needed. 6 by 9-1/2 in. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. If one such as is shown is to be used. Cape May Point.. N. a board on which to work it. and an awl and hammer. The letters can be put on afterward.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. . Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. Prepare a design for the front.J. This will insure having all parts alike. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material.

Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil." In all appearance. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. . The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. 2 parts white vitriol. 3/4 part. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. says Master Painter. or. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. if desired. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. but weird and distant. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. only the marginal line is to be pierced. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. placed on a table. which is desirable. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. applied by means of a brush. paste the paper design right on the metal. So impressive are the results. turpentine. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. as shown. that can be worked in your own parlor. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. varnish. mandolin or guitar. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. to right angles. in the waste metal. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. 1/4 part. Remove the metal. If any polishing is required. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. 1 part. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. behind or through the center of a table leg. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. One coat will do. The stick may be placed by the side of. The music will not sound natural. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick.Fasten the metal to the board. a violin. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. flat brush. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. On the back. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards.

without them. says Work. With proper tools this is easy. long. and is easy to construct. thick by 1/2 in. it might be difficult. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. each 28 in. each 6 in. square bar iron. The longest piece. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. is bent square so as to form two uprights. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. round-head machine screws. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. long and measuring 26 in. are shaped as shown in Fig. 2. . Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. wide. across the top. 3. long and spread about 8 in. Two pairs of feet. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. London. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. apart.

cut a long piece of lead. better still. C. or. using rosin as a flux. While the piece of lead D. in the grooves of the borders. The brads are then removed. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. as shown in Fig. is held by the brads. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. 5. 4. Place the corner piece of glass. The glass. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. lead. The design is formed in the lead. Fig. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. special flux purchased for this purpose. the latter being tapped to . B. 6. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. 5. and the base border. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. on it as shown. Fig. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. After the joints are soldered. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. 7. A. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. After the glass is cut. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. D.

in diameter and about 9 in. not less than 4 in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. and two wood blocks. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. H. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. plank about 12 ft. long. in diameter and 1/4 in. Make three washers 3-in. thick and drill 3/4-in. bolt. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. long. Bore a 5/8-in. 8. Dreier.the base of the clip. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. N.. This . square and of the length given in the drawing. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. rounded at the top as shown. A and B. wood screws in each washer. then flatten its end on the under side. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. and round the corners of one end for a ring. Jr. This ring can be made of 1-in. Fasten the plates to the block B. as shown in Fig. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. one on each side and central with the hole. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. rocker bolt. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Bore a 3/4-in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. bolt. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Two styles of hand holds are shown. J. holes through their centers. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. then drill a 3/4-in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. plates. Camden. --Contributed by W. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Secure a post. The center pin is 3/4-in. long.

This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. long. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 7 in. 16 screws. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 50 ft. New Orleans. horse and rings. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. bit. by 2 ft. To substitute small. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. straight-grained hickory. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. of 1/4-in. 4 pieces. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. long. by 3 ft. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. long. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 1. can make a first class gymnasium.will make an excellent cover for a pot. because it will not stand the weather. The four 7-in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 1 by 7 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. chestnut or ash. hickory. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 9 in. boards along the side of each from end to end. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. long and 1 piece. 4 in. screws. 2-1/2 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. and some one can swing an axe. the money outlay will be almost nothing. If trees are convenient. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. bolts and rope. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. maple. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. long. 3/4 by 3 in. 4 in. by 6-1/2 ft. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. Draw a line on the four 7-in. shanks. square by 9-1/2 ft. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 2 by 4 in. in diameter and 7 in. square by 5 ft. 4 filler pieces. 4 pieces. long. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 1/2 in. La. 1-1/4in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. from one edge. long. 3 in.

It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. piece of wood. at each end. apart. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. from the end. so the 1/2-in. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. each 3 ft.. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. 8 in. 2. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. deep and remove all loose dirt. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. boards coincide.. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. apart.bored. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. Bore a 9/16-in. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in.

about 100 ft. was at its height. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. disappearing only to reappear again. and then passes in a curve across the base.. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. it follows the edge for about 1 in. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. W. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. in an endless belt. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. the effect is very striking. passing through a screweye at either end. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. the effect will be as shown in the illustration." which skimmed along the distant horizon. If the tumbler is rotated. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. but most deceptive at dusk. apart. not much to look at in daytime. and ascends the stem. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. When the interest of the crowd. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. which at once gathered. He stretched the thread between two buildings. it is taken to the edge of the foot. just visible against the dark evening sky. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. and materially heightened the illusion. . not even the tumbler. And all he used was a black thread. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem.

long. square and 6 ft. so the point will be on top. 4 in. deep. 2 in. Chisel out two notches 4 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 2 by 4 in. by 10 ft. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. square and 51/2 ft. long. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. To make the apparatus. wide and 1 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. A wire about No. La. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 8 in. Fig. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. long. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. by 3 ft. long. 2 by 3 in. 2 by 4 in. from either side of the center. long and 1 doz. long. 7 in. The cork will come out easily. long. 2 base pieces. and turned in a spiral D. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. long. Bevel the ends of . 8 bolts. 4 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. large spikes. 1. 4 knee braces. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. beginning at a point 9 in. 6 in. 8 in. preferably cedar. 8 in. by 7 ft. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 4 wood screws. New Orleans. long. 4 bolts. 2 side braces. by 2 ft. 2 cross braces. 2 by 4 in.

additional long. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. A. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. using four of the 7-in bolts. The wood so treated will last for years.. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. ( To be Continued. jellies. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. --Contributed by W. equipped with a strainer. leaving the strainer always in position. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. After the trenches are dug. Jaquythe. etc. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. Two endpieces must be made. and countersinking the heads. save the bars. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. Richmond. A large sized ladle. If using mill-cut lumber. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. screws. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. so the bolts in both will not meet. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. except the bars. but even unpainted they are very durable.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. before burying the lower part of the end pieces.the knee braces. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. leave it undressed. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. which face each other. Cal. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. . of 7 ft. as shown in the diagram. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. These will allow the ladle to be turned. from the bottom of the base up along the posts.

Oil. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. . A. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. milling machine. In order to accomplish this experiment. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. or various cutting compounds of oil. drill press or planer. which seems impossible. of sufficient 1ength. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. partly a barrier for jumps. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. thus holding the pail as shown. it is necessary to place a stick. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface.

from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft.. from each end. stud cut rounding on one edge. 2 bases. long. 2 by 4 in. To construct. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. ten 1/2-in. Hand holds must be provided next. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. long. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 2 adjusting pieces. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 4 in. piece of 2 by 4-in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. square by 5-1/2 ft. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. These are placed 18 in. apart. long. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. bolts. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. Procure from a saw mill. but 5 ft. two 1/2-in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. long. 4-1/2 in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. 1 cross brace. by 3 ft. bolt. long. 4 in. long. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. by 3 ft. wood yard or from the woods. The material required is as follows: Two posts. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. projections and splinters. 7 in. 4 knee braces. The round part of this log must be planed. square by 5 ft. long.. and free from knots. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. beginning 1-1/2 in. 4 in. These are well nailed in place. 3 in. bolts. is a good length. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. long. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. in diameter--the larger the better. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. 1 in. 4 in. bolts. in the ground. apart in a central position on the horse. by 3 ft.

When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way.--Contributed by W. Richmond. A. no one is responsible but himself. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Cal. it is caused by some obstruction. pipe and fittings. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. over and around. etc. it is caused by an overloaded shell. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. then bending to the shape desired. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. such as a dent. Such a hand sled can be made in a . and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Also. but nevertheless. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. water. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. snow.horse top. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Jaquythe.

when complete. 1. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. is much better than a wood sled. when straightened out. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. at E and F. 2. France. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. in width and 1/32 in. Paris. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Ontario. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. --Contributed by Arthur E.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Mass. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. then run a string over each part. . Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Joerin. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. thick. are all the tools necessary. Boston. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Noble. Toronto. --Contributed by J. 1/4 or 3/16 in. W. These. Vener. which. will give the length. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. --Contributed by James E. The end elevation.

It is best to use soft water. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. AA and BB. and the latter will take on a bright luster. . Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. 4. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. nor that which is partly oxidized. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. are nailed. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. 3. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. The method shown in Figs.

Broad lines can be made. 8 and 9. . 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. as shown in Fig. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 2. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 3. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. 4. or various rulings may be made. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. Percy Ashley in Rudder. class ice-yacht. or unequal widths as in Fig. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 2. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 1). The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. The materials used are: backbone. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. as shown in Fig.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. but if it is made much longer. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. bent and drilled as shown. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. about 30 in. a tee and a forging. Both the lower . The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. long. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The headstock is made of two tees. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. 1. pipe. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck.Fig. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. a larger size of pipe should be used. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. It can be made longer or shorter. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The point should extend about 11/2 in. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. out from the collar. pins to keep them from turning. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. A good and substantial homemade lathe. nipples and flanges arranged as shown.

Indiana. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. Cal. It is about 1 in. --Contributed by M.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. as shown in Fig. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. or a key can be used as well. thick as desired. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. 1. --Contributed by W. a corresponding line made on this. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. else taper turning will result. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Man. UpDeGraff. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. Laporte. M. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. 3/4 or 1 in. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. and will answer for a great variety of work. but also their insulating properties. a straight line should be scratched Fig. Fruitvale. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. To do this. 2. 2. . as shown in Fig. Musgrove. W. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. 2. Boissevain. Held.

as shown. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. Cline. Ark. --Contributed by E. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . long. J. The handle is of pine about 18 in. Smith. Ft. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. To obviate this. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. In use.

which should be backed out of contact. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. the drill does not need the tool. take . it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. if this method is followed: First. Denver. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. and when once in true up to its size. on starting the lathe. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. New Orleans. This prevents the drill from wobbling. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. --Contributed by Walter W. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. After being entered. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Colo.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. centering is just one operation too many. White. face off the end of the piece. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. La. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill.

Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. and this given to someone to hold. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. says the Sphinx. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. The glass tube B. all the better. the cap is placed over the paper tube. vanishing wand. is put into the paper tube A. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. and can be varied to suit the performer. a bout 1/2 in. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. after being shown empty. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. unknown to the spectators. shorter t h a n the wand.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. a long piece of glass tubing. After the wand is removed. as shown in D. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. The handkerchief rod. shown at C. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. It can be used in a great number of tricks. In doing this. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. by applying caustic soda or . The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given.

by 14 by 17 in. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. The brace at D is 1 in. square and 1-7/8 in. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. Glue the neck to the box. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. and glue it to the neck at F. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. 1/4 in.potash around the edges of the letters. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. 1 Neck. can be made by the home mechanic. 1. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. as shown by K. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. This dimension and those for the frets . Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. across the front and back to strengthen them. End. As the cement softens. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 1 End. 2 Sides. 3/16. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. With care and patience. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. Cut a piece of hard wood. cut to any shape desired. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. and if care is taken in selecting the material. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. with the back side rounding. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. long. 1 Bottom. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. thick. The sides. Glue strips of soft wood. preferably hard maple.

Carbondale. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. but it is not. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. or backbone. 3/16 in. long is used for a keel. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Norwalk. thick and about 1 ft. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing.Pa. Stoddard. --Contributed by Chas. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. E. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. in diameter. H. When it is completed you will have a canoe. toward each end. -Contributed by J. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Six holes. A board 1 in. wide and 11-1/2 ft. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. Frary. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand.should be made accurately. 1) on which to stretch the paper. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. O. and beveled .

For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. Osiers probably make the best ribs.. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. C. in thickness and should be cut. Fig. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. . 4. 2. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. two twigs may be used to make one rib. Any tough. b. and so. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. with long stout screws. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. B. some tight strips of ash. 2). b. Fig. 4). For the gunwales (a. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. such as hazel or birch. 1. by means of a string or wire. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. will answer nearly as well. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. Fig. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. b. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. buy some split cane or rattan. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. as before described. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. 3). the loose strips of ash (b. are next put in. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 13 in. Fig. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. or other place. thick. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. or similar material. slender switches of osier willow. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. long. when made of green elm. and are not fastened. two strips of wood (b. as shown in Fig. These are better. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. The ribs. 2). Fig.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. In drying. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. which are easily made of long. probably.) in notches. and. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. and notched at the end to receive them (B. wide by 26 in. Green wood is preferable. as they are apt to do. procure at a carriage factory. in such cases. 3). after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. as shown in Fig. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. 3/8 in. thick. 3. Fig. Fig. a. 1 and 2. The cross-boards (B. twigs 5 or 6 ft. apart. Fig. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. Fig. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. such as is used for making chairbottoms. but twigs of some other trees. 3. Shape these as shown by A. but before doing this. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. long are required. C.

and as soon as that has soaked in. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. If the paper be 1 yd. after wetting it. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. and light oars. preferably iron. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. When thoroughly dry. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. It should be smooth on the surface. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. B. tacking it to the bottom-board. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. wide. If not. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. You may put in . and steady in the water. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. apply a second coat of the same varnish. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. Being made in long rolls. if it has been properly constructed of good material. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. The paper is then trimmed. It should be drawn tight along the edges. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Fig. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. but with less turpentine. however. and held in place by means of small clamps. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. 5). Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. and very tough. When the paper is dry. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. but neither stiff nor very thick. of very strong wrapping-paper. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. Then take some of the split rattan and. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint.

To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. to fit it easily. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. 5. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. and if driven as shown in the cut.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. fore and aft. 1 and the end in . and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. and make a movable seat (A. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. 5). Fig. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. Fig. 2. Fig. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. they will support very heavy weights. 1. We procured a box and made a frame. Drive the lower nail first.

Close the other end with the same operation. 4. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. A good way to handle this work. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. and the glass. 3. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. This way has its drawbacks. 5. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. and the result is. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. Pa. this makes the tube airtight. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig.Fig. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. being softer where the flame has been applied. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. Pittsburg. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. This is an easy .

File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. After the bulb is formed. second. fifth. then reverse. -Contributed by A. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. very rapid progress can be made. The candle holders may have two. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. file. metal shears. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Sixth. Oswald. flat and round-nosed pliers. third. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . fourth. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. three. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. with a piece of carbon paper. rivet punch. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. Seventh. four. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. extra metal all around. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. above the metal. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. also trace the decorative design. or six arms. thin screw.way to make a thermometer tube. 23 gauge. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Give the metal a circular motion. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge.

How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Having pierced the bracket. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Small copper rivets are used. drip cup. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Metal polish of any kind will do.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. and holder.

Soak 1 oz. Mother let me have a sheet. Shiloh. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. glycerine 4 parts. and other things as they were needed. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. thus it was utilized. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. Heat 6-1/2 oz. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. F. sugar 1 part. except they had wheels instead of runners. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. N. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. and in a week . So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. and add the gelatine. hammer. using a steel pen. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. all the rest I found. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. and water 24 parts. The boom.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. of glycerine to about 200 deg. A saw. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Fifty. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. winding the ends where they came together with wire. when it will be ready for use. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. and it will be ready for future use. Twenty cents was all I spent. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. the stick at the bottom of the sail. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. deep. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. smooth it down and then remove as before. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. I steer with the front wheel. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. The gaff. and brace and bit were the tools used. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. is a broomstick. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. J. on a water bath. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. alcohol 2 parts.

Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens . A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.

at a distance of 24 ft. long. about 2 ft. above the center. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. A table. as desired. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. A and B. 3. and 14 in. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in..Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. and. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. and the work carefully done. and the lens slide. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. describe a 9-in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. wide and 15 in. E. Fig. 8 in. or a lens of 12-in. DD. 1/2 to 3/4 in. or glue. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. well seasoned pine. at a point 1 in. H. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. The slide support. If a small saw is used. 1. G. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. thick. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. provided the material is of metal. but if such a box is not found. high. are . white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. This ring is made up from two rings. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. The board is centered both ways. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. wide. slide to about 6 ft. focus enlarging a 3-in. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. wire brads. and a projecting lens 2 in.

-Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. Small strips of tin. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. of safe. light burning oil. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts.constructed to slip easily on the table. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. Minn. but not long enough. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. the strips II serving as guides. apply two coats of shellac varnish. placed on the water. St. JJ. A sheet . Paul. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil.-Contributed by G. E. B. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. should the glass happen to upset. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. the water at once extinguishes the flame. The arrangement is quite safe as. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. P. To reach the water. and when the right position is found for each.

4. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. Y. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 3. Crawford. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 3 in. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 2. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. Fig. by 12 ft. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 9 in. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. Schenectady. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. from a tent company. 12 ft. 1. I ordered a canvas bag. N. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 3. form a piece of wire in the same shape. to cover the mattresses. then the corners on one end are doubled over.H.. If one of these clips is not at hand. --Contributed by J. Fig.

The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. so as to form two oblong boxes. Denver. to the coil of small wire for volts. long and 3/16 in. 1. Fold two strips of light cardboard. to keep it from unwinding. An arc is cut in the paper. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. Warren. apart. 2. open on the edges. 1/2 in. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Fig. 3/4 in. A rubber band. Fig. White. drill two 3/16 in. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. D. Teasdale. thick. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. 3 to swing freely on the tack. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. A Film Washing Trough [331] . On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. C. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Pa. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. 2. 3/4 in. 1. Fasten the wire with gummed label. as shown in Fig. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. through which the indicator works. --Contributed by Edward M. --Contributed by Walter W. holes in the edge. long. 1/2 in. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Do not use too strong a rubber. for amperes and the other post. Colo. first mark the binding-post A. and insert two binding-posts. V. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Attach a piece of steel rod. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. 2. in the center coil. insulating them from the case with cardboard. wide. To calibrate the instrument.each edge.

Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Cut a 1/4-in. Place this can on one end of the trough. Wood Burning [331] . Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Hunting. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. O. Dayton. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. M. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. as shown. with the large hole up. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. --Contributed by M.

When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. mouth downward.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. then into this bottle place. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.

long. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. 1. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. N. thick. 3/4 in. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. provided the bottle is wide. Upper Troy. many puzzling effects may be obtained. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. Whitehouse. 2. wide and 4 in. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Ala. Auburn. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will.Y. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Place the small bottle in as before. --Contributed by Fred W. If the cork is adjusted properly.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. This will make a very pretty ornament. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. --Contributed by John Shahan. If the small bottle used is opaque. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. but not very thick.

line. The bearing blocks were 3 in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 1. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. 1. The 21/2-in. such as blades and pulleys. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. sugar pine on account of its softness. which extended to the ground. 1 in. in diameter and 1 in. long.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. Milter. was 1/4in. Fig. were constructed of 1-in. iron rod. thick. A staple. or ordinary telephone transmitters. as shown in Fig. Fig. B. Fig. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. even in a light breeze. K. by the method shown in Fig. which gave considerable power for its size. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. high without the upper half. which was nailed to the face plate. 1. W. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. was keyed to shaft C. 3. The shaft C. to the shaft. 1. --Contributed by D. 2 ft. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. Fig. wide. G. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. 1. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. pulley. The wire L was put . If a transmitter is used. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. pulley F. I. Fig. thick. 4. 2. Its smaller parts. which was 6 in. On a 1000-ft. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. Both bearings were made in this manner. thick and 3 in.

strips. wide and 1 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. in the center of the board P. in diameter. 1. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. as. long. This completes the receiver or sounder. long. with all parts in place. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. Fig. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. There a 1/4-in. when the windmill needed oiling. 3 in. 1) 4 in. hole was bored for it. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. so that the 1/4-in. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. Two washers were placed on shaft C. To lessen the friction here. across the thin edge of a board. a 1/2-in. 1. 1. The smaller one. The other lid. providing one has a few old materials on hand. pine 18 by 12 in. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. apart in the tower. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. The bed plate D. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. 25 ft. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. This board was 12 in. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. 6. long and 3 in. with brass headed furniture tacks. 1. through the latter. long and 1/2 in. R. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. top down also. If you have no bell. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. 0. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. Fig. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. To make the key. washers were placed under pulley F. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. was 2 ft. long and bend it as . 5. Fig. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Fig. Fig. 2. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. The power was put to various uses. Fig. Fig. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. H. hole for the shaft G was in the center. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. for instance. cut out another piece of tin (X. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. G.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. long and bend it as shown at A. and was cut the shape shown. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. 6. was tacked.

leaving the other wire as it is. Going back to Fig. 1. By adjusting the coils. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. and. -Contributed by John R. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. When tired of this instrument. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. using cleats to hold the board frame. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. at the front. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. as shown at Water. after the manner of bicycle wheels. McConnell. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. fitted with paddles as at M. although it can be made with but two. 2. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels.shown. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Thus a center drive is made. like many another device boys make. Now. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. causing a buzzing sound. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. The rear barrels are. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. as indicated. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Before tacking it to the board.

The speed is slow at first. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. can be built. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. 3. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. If the journals thus made are well oiled. copper piping and brass tubing for base. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. feet on the pedals. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . as shown in Fig. there will not be much friction. 1. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. which will give any amount of pleasure. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. or even a little houseboat. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. There is no danger.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. To propel it.

1. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. or it may be put to other uses if desired. If it is desired to make the light very complete. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. and so creating a false circuit. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. Fig. 2. Place one brass ring in cylinder. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. A. then the glass disc and then the other ring. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. C. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. D. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. 2. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. If magnifying glass cannot be had. 1. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. B. Fig. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. Then melt out the rosin or lead.of pleasure for a little work. 1. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Turn a small circle of wood. Fig. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Fig. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Shape small blocks of boxwood. 2. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig.

Utah. after setting alarm. T. thick. Pa. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. X. some glue will secure them. 4-1/2 in. shelf. Throw lever off from the right to center. switch. after two turns have been made on the key. B. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. long. H. In placing clock on shelf. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. brass rod. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. if too small. E. D. wide and 1/16 in. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. wire from light to switch. --Contributed by Geo. wire from batteries to switch. set alarm key as shown in diagram. S. bell. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. and pulled tight. J. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. G. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. 4 in. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. near the bed. To get the cylinder into its carriage. while lying in bed. such as is used for cycle valves. key of alarm clock. Brinkerhoff. C. contact post. F. I. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . long. dry batteries. or 1/4in. --Contributed by C. brass strip. To throw on light throw levers to the left. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. which stops bell ringing. When alarm goes off. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. bracket. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. Chatland. wire from bell to switch. Ogden.. C. by having the switch on the baseboard. 5-1/4 by 10 in. copper tubing. To operate this. Swissvale. 3/8 in. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. The parts indicated are as follows: A.india rubber tubing.

about 3-1/2 in. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. wide. making it as true and smooth as possible. as at B. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. beyond the end of the spindle. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. 4 in. Fig. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. gives the heater a more finished appearance. as at A. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Having finished this. being careful not to get the sand in it. This is to form the fuse hole. --Contributed by Chas. 3. Lanesboro. which can be made of an old can. as at A. 1/4 in. 2. as in Fig. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. about 6 in. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. Chapman. for instance. Make the spindle as in Fig. from one end. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. All that is required is a tin covering. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. Make a shoulder. in diameter.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. long. letting it extend 3/4 in. 1. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Pull out the nail and stick. Fig. 2. a bed warmer. in diameter. 1. Fig. will do the heating. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Minn. A flannel bag. as . S.

The illustration shows how this is done. ash. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. wide and 3/8 in. good straight-grained pine will do. thick. 3/8 in. 11/2 in. wide and 6 ft. spring and arrows. A piece of oak. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. The material must be 1-1/2 in. or hickory. 1. 6 in. 5/8 in. A piece of tin. will be sufficient to make the trigger. 1 in. thick. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. long. thick. wide and 3 ft. long. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. this is to keep the edges from splitting. Joerin.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. deep. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. long. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. but if this wood cannot be procured. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . The bow is made from straight-grained oak. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. --Contributed by Arthur E.

A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. having the latter swing quite freely. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. Fig. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. To throw the arrow. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. Ill. thick. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. wide at each end. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. from the end of the stock. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. place the arrow in the groove. The stick for the bow. E. The trigger. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. better still. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. 7. When the trigger is pulled. and one for the trigger 12 in. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. it lifts the spring up. 8. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. as shown in Fig. 6. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. from the opposite end. The bow is not fastened in the stock. --Contributed by O. 9. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. Such a temporary safe light may be . The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. A spring. as shown in Fig. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. To shoot the crossbow. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. Fig. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. which is 1/4 in. 3. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. Trownes. in diameter. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. 4. Fig. Wilmette. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. 2. or through the necessity of. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left.

There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. apart. from the ground. The hinged cover E. make the frame of the wigwam. and replace as shown at B. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. is used as a door. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. This lamp is safe. since the flame of the candle is above A. respectively. making lighting and trimming convenient. says Photo Era. Moreover. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. it is the easiest camp to make. The cut should be about 5 ft. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. the bark lean-to is a . Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Remove the bottom of the box. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. from the ground. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Remove one end.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. By chopping the trunk almost through. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. and nail it in position as shown at A. C. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods.

a 2-in.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. long. thick. wide and 6 ft. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. are a convenient size for camp construction. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. deep and covered with blankets. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. A piece of elm or hickory. Tongs are very useful in camp. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. 6 ft. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. selecting a site for a camp. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. wide. long and 1-1/2 in. and cedar. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. For a foot in the middle of the stick. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. . a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. piled 2 or 3 ft. and when the camp is pitched. nails are necessary to hold it in place. and split the tops with an ax. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. spruce. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. long and 2 or 3 ft. For a permanent camp. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. Sheets of bark. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. Where bark is used. In the early summer. 3 ft. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. makes a good pair of tongs. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. make the best kind of a camp bed. will dry flat. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut.

and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. . and affording accommodation for several persons. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. hinges. or even a rough lock for the camp larder.

1. A. Doylestown. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. I drove a small cork. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. the interior can. and provide a cover or door. B. to another . Pa. --Contributed by James M. changing the water both morning and night. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. wide. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. deep and 4 in. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. about 4 in.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. B. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. be kept at 90 or 100 deg.. Fig. Kane.

and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. E. The diagram. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. 2. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. fused into one side. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. if necessary. to pass through an increasing resistance.glass tube. for instance. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. for instance. Fig. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. limit. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. 4 and 5). The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. This makes . The current is thus compelled. 3. which project inside and outside of the tube. 2. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. a liquid. C. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. such as ether. until. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5.

thick. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. clamp the template. as shown in Fig. and for the outside of the frame. as shown in the left-hand sketch. but merely discolored. Fig. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. thicker. Michigan. A 5/8in. screws. 2. between centers. to allow for finishing. which will make it uniform in size. Before removing the field from the lathe. After the template is marked out. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. thick. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. 1. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. or even 1/16 in. cannot be used so often. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. Alpena. When the frame is finished so far. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. brass. set at 1/8 in. 3. Fig. 3-3/8 in. drill the four rivet holes. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. A. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. in diameter. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. therefore. two holes. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. tap. assemble and rivet them solidly. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. they will make a frame 3/4 in. These holes are for the bearing studs. or pattern. bent at right angles as shown. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. brass or iron. The bearing studs are now made. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. 3-3/8 in. After cleaning them with the solution. which may be of any thickness so that. when several pieces are placed together. making it 1/16 in. by turning the lathe with the hand. larger than the dimensions given. is composed of wrought sheet iron. Then the field can be finished to these marks. If the thickness is sufficient. in diameter. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. 4-1/2 in. on a lathe. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. mark off a space. hole is . This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in.

4. file them out to make the proper adjustment. brass rod is inserted. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. soldered into place. or otherwise finished. When the bearings are located. The shaft of the armature. and build up the solder well. solder them to the supports. Fig.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. into which a piece of 5/8-in. is turned up from machine steel. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line.

5. When annealed. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. as shown m Fig. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. The pins are made of brass. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. 3/4 in. 8. and then they are soaked in warm water. The sides are also faced off and finished. as shown in Fig. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. or segments. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. washers. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. hole and tap it for a pin. thick are cut like the pattern. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. 6. thick. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. being formed for the ends. thick. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. 3. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. Procure 12 strips of mica. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. Make the core 3/4 in. Find the centers of each segment at one end. thick and 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. After they . True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. 6. by 1-1/2 in. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. holes through them for rivets. to allow for finishing to size. 3. deep and 7/16 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. as shown in Fig. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. wide. 3/4 in. 9. brass rod. as shown in Fig. Armature-Ring Core. After the pieces are cut out. Rivet them together. 1/8 in. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in.. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. sheet fiber. and held with a setscrew. thick. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. inside diameter. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. then drill a 1/8-in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 1-1/8 in. 7. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. When this is accomplished. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. wide. as shown in Fig. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. threaded. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts.

about 100 ft. All connections should be securely soldered. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. The winding is started at A. after the motor is on the stand. sheet fiber. The two ends are joined at B. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. yet it shows a series of . The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. being required. 8 in. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. In starting to wind. wide and 1 in. 1. or side. by bending the end around one of the projections. of the wire. To connect the wires. and wind on four layers. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Fig. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. After one coil. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. long. shown at B. and bring the end of the wire out at B. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. shown at A. The source of current is connected to the terminals. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. until the 12 slots are filled. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. This winding is for a series motor. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. 6 in. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. they are glued to the core insulation. are soldered together. Fig. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. of No. the two ends of the wire. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. sheet fiber. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. thick. which will take 50 ft. Run one end of the field wire. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. The field is wound with No. 1. When the glue is set. 5. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on.have dried. of the end to protrude.

The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. Nine wires run from the timer. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. still more simply. or. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. as in the case of a spiral. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. A 1/2-in. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. and one. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. is fastened to the metallic body. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. which serves as the ground wire. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of .The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. one from each of the eight contacts. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch.

Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. 45 deg. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. It should be . two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. of the dial. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Without this attachment. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. thus giving 16 different directions. Covering these is a thin. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. circle. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial.The Wind Vane. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. board. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. long. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. 6 in.

The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. To work these outlines. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. 14 by 18 in. and about 6 in. and securely nail on the top of the box. though a special knife. is most satisfactory. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. Cut 3-in. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady.about 6 ft. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. making it heavy or light. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. N. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Blackmer. thus making a universal joint. if not too high. high. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. or. will be enough for the two sides. also a piece of new carpet. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. called a chip carving knife. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. To make it. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. will be sufficient. . however. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. according to who is going to use it. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. -Contributed by James L. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. Before tacking the fourth side. Place the leather on some level. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. Y. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. will answer the purpose just as well. Buffalo. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. Fill the box with any handy ballast. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. long to give the best results.

A good leather paste will be required. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. An ordinary sewing-machine . Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.

B. temporary lameness. of common salt and 10 lb. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. or a hip that has been wrenched. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. as in cases of a sprained ankle. If a fire breaks out. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft.will do if a good stout needle is used. can be thrown away when no longer needed. of water. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. and tie them together securely at the bottom. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. away from it. Syracuse. a needle and some feathers. square and tying a piece of . The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. rather than the smooth side. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. and fasten the feathers inside of it. Y. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. N. --Contributed by Katharine D. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Morse. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting.

N. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. G. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. F. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. and a coil of wire. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off.string to each corner. long.J. setting traps. thus helping the rats to enter. laying poisoned meat and meal. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. --Contributed by J. Paterson. One end is removed entirely. but not sharp. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. letting it go at arm's length. Gordon Dempsey. There is a 1-in. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. high. wide and 1/16 in. Hellwig. wound on the head end. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. and tacked it to the boards. and the receiver is ready for use. Y. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. Wis. A. The coil is 1 in. deep. Albany. The body of the receiver. This not only keeps the rats out. The strings should be about 15 in. N. E.. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. is cut on the wood. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. Ashland. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. etc. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. as shown. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. commonly called tintype tin. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. cut to the length of the spool. The end is filed to an edge. the corners being wired. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. 1/8 in. . long. board all around the bottom on the inside. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. A small wooden or fiber end. made up of four layers of No. B. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. --Contributed by John A. which is the essential part of the instrument. The diaphragm C. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume.

As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. wide. a piece of small wire. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. A single line will be sufficient. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. gold. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. begin with the smallest scrolls. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. The vase is to have three supports.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. better still. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. To clean small articles. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. and bend each strip in shape. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. Take a piece of string or. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. to .

thus raising it. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. sharp pencil. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. wide when stitching up the purse.. using a duller point of the tool. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. from E to F. through which to slip the fly AGH. 3-1/2 in. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. . Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. About 1 in.which the supports are fastened with rivets. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. and does not require coloring. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. from C to D. Work down the outside line of the design. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. 3-1/4 in. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. Trace also the line around the purse.. 4-1/4 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. Fold the leather on the line EF. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. from the lines EF on the piece. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. 6-3/8 in. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Press or model down the leather all around the design. as shown in the sketch. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. After taking off the pattern.

following the dotted lines. long. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. Fit this to the two . being cast in wooden molds. Make the lug 1/4 in. and. around the wheel. and cut it out as shown in Fig. deep. It is neat and efficient. and cut out a wheel. 1. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. all the way around. It can be made without the use of a lathe. Then nail the wheel down firmly. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. as shown in Fig.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. This also should be slightly beveled. thick. 1 was cut. When it is finished. with pins or small nails. First. deep. square. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. Cut off six pieces 12 in. and which will be very interesting. leaving the lug a. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. then nail it.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. 1/2 in. with the open side down. with a compass saw. b. the "open" side. and the projections B. as well as useful. and tack the other piece slightly. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. and a model for speed and power. 2. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. 3. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. by 12 ft. Now take another piece of wood. with the largest side down. then place the square piece out of which Fig.

hole 1/4 in. After it is finished. and clean all the shavings out of it. one of which should have a 3/8-in. Take the mold apart. hole entirely through at the same place. holes through it. deep. place it between two of the 12-in. Now take another of the 12-in. and lay it away to dry. and boring a 3/8-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. then bolt it together. 1. as shown by the . as shown by the black dots in Fig. hole bored through its center. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. in the center of it. square pieces of wood. square pieces of wood.pieces just finished. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 4. slightly beveled. Now put mold No. and bore six 1/4-in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. bolts.

as shown by the black dots in Fig. 1. and the exhaust hole in projection b. put the top of the brace through this hole. After it is fitted in. and two 1/4-in. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. and run in babbitt metal again. instead of the right-handed piece. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. place the entire machine in a vise. see that the bolts are all tight. Fig.2. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. Pour metal into mold No. This is mold No. This is for a shaft. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. lay it on a level place. and pouring metal in to fill it up. Using the Brace . Also bore the port-hole in projection B. b. wide and 16 in. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. and the other in the base. 6. holes at d. and connect to the boiler. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. Put this together in mold No. one in the lug. drill in it. 6. place it under the drill. and bore three 1/4-in. Let it stand for half an hour. and drill them in the same manner. until it is full. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. 5. holes. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. and lay it away to dry.2. as shown in illustration. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. Now take mold No. true it up with a square. screw down. where the casting did not fill out. one in the projections. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. only the one is left-handed. 4. long. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. and 3/8-in. take an ordinary brace. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. Commencing 1-1/2 in.1. so that it will turn easily. the other right-handed. Now cut out one of the 12-in. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. over the defective part. in diameter must now be obtained. from the one end. and drill it entirely through. B. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. d.black dots in Fig. This is the same as Fig. and pour babbitt metal into it.1. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. Then bolt the castings together. A piece of mild steel 5 in. long. If there should happen to be any holes or spots.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. This will cast a paddle-wheel. fasten a 3/8-in.

How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. At each end of the 6ft. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. one 6 ft. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Then take a knife or a chisel. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. piece and at right angles to it. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. while it is running at full speed. long. and if instructions have been carefully followed. with a boss and a set screw. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Plan of Ice Boat . and the other 8 ft. and. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. turn the wheel to the shape desired.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal.. will do good service. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate.

plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. in diameter in the center. 1. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. plank. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. distant. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. projecting as in Fig. as the runners were fastened. long. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. long. This fits in the square hole. in diameter at the base. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. in diameter. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. Fig. in front of the rudder block. Make your runners as long as possible. and about 8 in. at the top. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. piece and at right angles to it. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. The tiller. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. where they often did considerable damage. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been u