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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. The pieces are then dressed round.Fig. until it is bound as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 1. Ontario. apart. A piece of plank 12 in. E. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. away. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. 2 -. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. distant. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. To throw a boomerang. Toronto. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. wide and 2 ft. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. 2. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. as shown in Fig. It is held in this curve until dry. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . 2. grasp it and hold the same as a club. 1.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. Noble. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. Fig. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. --Contributed by J. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. long will make six boomerangs. with the hollow side away from you. 1. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown.

The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. If the snow is of the right consistency. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. thick. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. dry snow will not pack easily.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. one inside of the circle and the other outside. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. A very light. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. but about 12 in. made of 6-in. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. and it may be necessary to use a little water. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. long. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. forcing it down closely. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. A wall. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. First. high and 4 or 5 in. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. minus the top. 6 in. however. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. or rather no bottom at all. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. the block will drop out. which makes the building simpler and easier. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. blocks . and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. it is not essential to the support of the walls. and with a movable bottom.

Fig. 2. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. Fig. long and 1 in. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. 3 -. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. The piece of wood.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. --Contributed by Geo. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. It also keeps them out. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. 1.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. 1. which is about 1 ft. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. A nail. 3. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. which can be made of wood. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. or an old safe dial will do. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. There is no outward thrust. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. Goodbrod. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . wide. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. Ore. D. Union. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. is 6 or 8 in. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. a. Fig. C. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. 2. above the ground. and the young architect can imitate them.

The bolts are replaced in the hinges. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Merrill.When taking hot dishes from the stove. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. the box locked . and the other back of the stove and out of the way. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. says the Sphinx. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. one pair of special hinges. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. If ordinary butts are used. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. Syracuse. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. S. New York. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. as the weight always draws them back to place. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. --Contributed by R.

Augusta. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. 1. All . the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. If they do not. Alberta Norrell.and the performer steps out in view. To make a design similar to the one shown. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. about 1-32 of an inch. as shown in Fig. Place the piece in a vise. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. smooth surface. Ga. If the measuring has been done properly. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. -Contributed by L. proceed as follows: First. When the sieve is shaken. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Fig. on drawing paper. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. draw one-half of it. 2. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. one for each corner. as shown in Fig. With the metal shears. It remains to bend the flaps. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. as shown. 3. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. allowing each coat time to dry.

The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. R. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. Denver. heats the strip of German-silver wire. The current. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. H. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. as shown at AA. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. --Contributed by R. if rolled under the shoe sole. The common cork. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. In boring through rubber corks. When the current is turned off. about 6 in. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. Galbreath. Colo.the edges should be left smooth. in passing through the lamp. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. should be in the line. of No. 25 gauge German-silver wire. long. B. C. A resistance. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. After this has dried. from the back end. 25 German-silver wire. If a touch of color is desired. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. used for insulation. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. causing it to expand. To keep the metal from tarnishing. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. in diameter. which is about 6 in. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. and in the positions shown in the sketch. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. is fitted tightly in the third hole. A piece of porcelain tube. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube.

and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. leaving a space of 4 in. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. with thin strips of wood. 3. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. between them as shown in Fig. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. 2. as shown in Fig.bottom ring. Purchase two long book straps. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Kansas City. --Contributed by David Brown. Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Mo. . When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. 1.

When the aeroplane tips. Fig.An ordinary electric bell. just the right weight for a woman to use. The folds are made over the string. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Fig. A. 2. --Contributed by James M. and a pocket battery. are mounted on the outside of the box. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. and one weighing 25 lb. Pa. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. long. in diameter. as . N. Kane. which is the right weight for family use. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Morse. 3. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. and tack smoothly. Syracuse. to form a handle. having a gong 2-1/2 in. 1. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. 1. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. 36 in. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. C. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. These are shown in Fig. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year.. Y. 4. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. Doylestown. The string is then tied. Two strips of brass. 1. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. one weighing 15 lb. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. Fig. --Contributed by Katharine D. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom.. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole.

AA. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. machine screws. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. Frame Made of a Rod . These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. 2. bent as shown in Fig. long.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. two 1/8 -in. Y. and many fancy knick-knacks. 3/32 or 1/4 in. --Contributed by Louis J. such as brackets. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. four washers and four square nuts. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. if once used. 1. N. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. 2. in diameter. The saw. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. Day. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. Floral Park.

The buckle is to be purchased. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. --Contributed by W.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. A. as well as brass and copper. therefore. File these edges. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. Silver is the most desirable but. Drying will cause this to change to purple. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. treat it with color. or silver. of course. Of the leathers. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Detroit. Scranton. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. using a swab and an old stiff brush. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. Michigan. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. In the design shown. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. 1 part nitric acid. For etching. of water. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. An Austrian Top [12] . as well as the depth of etching desired. it has the correct strength. copper. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. of water in which dissolve. green and browns are the most popular. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water..may be made of either brass. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. If it colors the metal red. be covered the same as the back. allowing each time to dry. Apply two coats. if copper or brass. Watch Fob For coloring silver. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. 1 part sulphuric acid. though almost any color may be obtained. the most expensive. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. after breaking up. Rub off the highlights. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. use them in place of the outside nuts. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk.

--Contributed by J. The handle is a piece of pine. starting at the bottom and winding upward. long. in diameter. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. is formed on one end. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. hole. Bore a 3/4-in. When the shank is covered.F. 1-1/4 in. wide and 3/4 in. Ypsilanti. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. hole in this end for the top. 3/4 in. A 1/16-in. . allowing only 1-1/4 in. Parts of the Top To spin the top. 5-1/4 in. Tholl. pass one end through the 1/16-in. A handle. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. Michigan. thick. long. set the top in the 3/4 -in.

the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Mich. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Alberta Norrell. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. . The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. Houghton. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. The baking surface. --Contributed by Miss L. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Augusta. For black leathers. tarts or similar pastry. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. --A. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Northville. Ga. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. having no sides. A. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool.

obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. the same as shown in the illustration. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. then solder cover and socket together. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. two turns will remove the jar. Centralia. says Studio Light. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. glass fruit jar. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. The weight of the broom keeps it in position.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. When you desire to work by white light. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Stringing Wires [13] A. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. Mo. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt.

4 Braces. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost.for loading and development. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 1-1/4 in. square by 62 in. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. 16 Horizontal bars. square by 12 in. 4 Vertical pieces. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. Janesville. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. Wis. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. as shown in the cross-section sketch. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 1-1/4 in. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. . They are fastened. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. and not tip over. so it can be folded up.

and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. C. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. and a loop made in the end. from scrap material. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. Phillipsburg. After rounding the ends of the studs. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. Rosenthal.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. The whole. --Contributed by Dr. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. O. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. after filling the pail with water. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. H. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. New York. The front can be covered . Cincinnati. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. -Contributed by Charles Stem.

and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. Baltimore. By using the following method. Wehr. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. Develop them into strong prints. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. thoroughly fix. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. either for contact printing or enlargements. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. 1 FIG. you are. --Contributed by Gilbert A. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. the color will be an undesirable. by all rules of the game. The results will be poor. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. FIG. and. In my own practice. if you try to tone them afterward. the mouth of which rests against a. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. Md. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. principally mayonnaise dressing. If the gate is raised slightly. sickly one. The .

where it will continue to bleach. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper... When the desired reduction has taken place.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. Place the dry print. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table..... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper. long to admit the angle support. when it starts to bleach. to make it 5 by 5 in. 20 gr. With a little practice..... preferably the colored kind.... being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. It will bleach slowly and evenly. Water ... 5 by 15 in... 2 oz.......... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. in size. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. wide and 4 in. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder.. 2. three times. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. in this solution. but. Cal. --Contributed by T." Cyanide of potassium ... etc.. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses....... without previous wetting. San Francisco....... A good final washing completes the process.... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.. transfer it to a tray of water. The blotting paper can . The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. Gray. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away... Iodide of potassium . This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. 16 oz.. 1 and again as in Fig.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain....bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.. L...

Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. Corners complete are shown in Fig. wide. and a length of 5 in. the shaft 1 in. 3. Wisconsin. Canada.J. the head of which is 2 in. Wilson Aldred Toronto. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. --Contributed by J. 20 gauge. Make a design similar to that shown. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Monahan. Oshkosh. wide below the . having a width of 2-1/4 in. --Contributed by L.

then put on a second coat. using carbon paper. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. The metal must be held firmly. using a small metal saw. Do not put the hands in the solution. but use a swab on a stick. then trace the other half in the usual way. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Pierce a hole with a small drill. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. With the metal shears. Make one-half of the design. 3. Allow this to dry. 1 part sulphuric acid. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. For coloring olive green. being held perpendicular to the work. 2. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. With files. After the sawing. then coloring. as shown in Fig. Apply with a small brush. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. 4. 1 Fig. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. which gives the outline of the design Fig. deep. Trace the design on the metal.FIG. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. using turpentine. after folding along the center line. freehand. 1. . Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. After this has dried. 1 part nitric acid. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. Fig. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron.

--Contributed by Katharine D. Syracuse. as shown. attach brass handles. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. Ii is an ordinary staple. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. East Hartford. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. Conn. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. it does the work rapidly.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Cal. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. After the stain has dried. --Contributed by H. on a chopping board. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. --Contributed by M. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. M. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. When this is cold. . A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. Morse. Carl Cramer. Richmond. thick. New York. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. then stain it a mahogany color. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Burnett. the block is split and the pasteboard removed.

and several 1/8-in. 1/4 in. brass. holes. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. as shown in Fig. Cal. saucers or pans. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. Kissimmee. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. not over 1/4 in.. 1. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. 4. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. as shown at A. . A. indicating the depth of the slots. --Contributed by W. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Richmond. --Contributed by Mrs. Florida. machine screws. Atwell. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. thick and 4 in. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. square. also locate the drill holes. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. Fig. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. WARNECKE Procure some brass. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. Jaquythe. 53 steel pens. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. two enameled. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. some pieces of brass. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. about 3/16 in. one shaft. or tin. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. in width at the shank. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. L. H. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. thick.

using two nuts on each screw. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. thick. thick. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. 2. The shaft hole may also be filed square. in diameter and 1/32 in. hole in the center. with 1/8-in. Fig. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. 3. Fig. machine screws and nuts. as shown. These are connected to a 3/8-in. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. with the face of the disk. as in Fig. lead should be run into the segments.. 2. hole. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. and pins inserted. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. 7. 6. Fig. and the ends filed round for the bearings. each about 1 in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. machine screws. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. wide and bend as shown in Fig. There should be a space of 1/16 in. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. into the hole. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. 3. long and 5/16 in. a square shaft used. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. brass and bolted to the casing. can be procured.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. If metal dishes. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. about 1/32 in. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. A 3/4-in. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. wide. If the shaft is square. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. with a 3/8-in. as shown in Fig. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. supply pipe. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. 5. Bend as shown in Fig. long by 3/4 in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. 1. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. hole is drilled to run off the water. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play.

Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. When assembling. to make the bottom. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Ill. long. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Cooke.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. The lower part. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. With a string or tape measure. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Be sure to have the cover. 8-1/2 in. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. from the bottom end of the legs. deep and 1-1/4 in. using four to each leg. Stain the wood before putting in the . screws. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Fasten with 3/4-in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. or more in diameter. we will call the basket. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Canada. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Hamilton. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Smith. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. make these seams come between the two back legs. V. high and 15 in. --Contributed by F. La Salle. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Now you will have the box in two pieces. --Contributed by S. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. deep over all. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. square and 30-1/2 in. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. three of which are in the basket. from the top of the box.

The folded part in the center is pasted together. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. When making the display.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. wide and four strips 10 in. Md. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. If all the parts are well sandpapered. --also the lower edge when necessary. Boston. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper.2 Fig. as shown in the sketch. Packard. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. wide. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. The side. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Mass. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. 1. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. Baltimore. and gather it at that point. you can. -Contributed by Stanley H.lining. Fig. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. 2. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. Cover them with the cretonne. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Sew on to the covered cardboards. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. sewing on the back side.

When through using the pad. Cross Timbers. It is cleanly. Gloversville. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. --Contributed by H. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. saving all the solid part. Fig. 3. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Crockett. Y. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. with slight modifications. L. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by B. Orlando Taylor. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. It is not difficult to . Mo. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. N. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. and. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home.

Bourne. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. -Contributed by C. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Mass.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. El Paso. remove the contents. After stirring. and scrape out the rough parts. If a file is used. or if desired. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Both of these methods are wasteful. S. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Texas. are shown in the diagram. Lowell. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. across the face. --Contributed by Edith E. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Lane. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. After this is done. it should be new and sharp. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. and secure it in place with glue or paste. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon.

The process works well and needs no watching. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. Oregon. Canton. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. F. As these were single-faced disk records. Those having houses . the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Oak Park. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. The insects came to the light. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Ill. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Iowa.cooking utensil. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. circled over the funnel and disappeared. --Contributed by Loren Ward. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. A Postcard Rack [25]. After several hours' drying. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Turl. Des Moines. Ill. Wheeler. --Contributed by Marion P. --Contributed by Geo. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Greenleaf. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary.

screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces.. material. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. will do as well. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Lay the floor next. Glenbrook. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. Conn. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. 6 in. Both sides can be put together in this way. Rosenberg. The single boards can then be fixed. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Mass. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Only three pieces are required. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. 6 in.. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. not even with the boards themselves. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. plane and pocket knife. the bottom being 3/8 in. one on each side of what will be the . --Contributed by Thomas E. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. --Contributed by Wm. boards are preferable. and as they are simple in design. and the second one for the developing bench. Worcester. Dobbins. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. the best material to use being matched boards. and both exactly alike. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. thick. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. but for cheapness 3/4 in. by 2 ft.

The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. 6. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. by screwing to the floor.doorway. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. nailing them to each other at the ridge. of the top of the door for the same reason. and in the middle an opening. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. 5. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. 10). wide. the closing side as at B. 9 by 11 in. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. so that the water will drain off into the sink. The developing bench is 18 in.. 3 and 4. and the top as at C in the same drawing. etc.. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. 6 and 9. brown wrapping paper. It is shown in detail in Fig. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. which is fixed on as shown . and to the outside board of the sides. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. The roof boards may next be put on.. 11. In hinging the door. so that it will fit inside the sink. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 6. and act as a trap for the light. below which is fixed the sink. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. as shown in Figs. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. 2 in section. 8. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. is cut. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. 7. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. Fig. 9). so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. and should be zinc lined. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. hinged to it. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. At the top of the doorway.

Details of the Dark Rook .

Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. as at M. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. these being shown in Fig. 6. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. 13. 16. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular .in Fig. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. screwing them each way into the boards. as in Fig. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. Erie. Pennsylvania. or the room may be made with a flat roof. preferably maple or ash. and a tank stand on it. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. 17. after lining with brown paper. A circular piece about 2 in. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. 16. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. which makes it possible to have white light. 2. and a 3/8-in. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. In use. as at I. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. 13. mixing flour and water. 18. are fastened in the corners inside. For beating up an egg in a glass. hole bored in the center for a handle. 20. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. Fig. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. 1. Fig. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. as shown in the sections. 15. as shown in Fig. it is better than anything on the market. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. 14. The handle should be at least 12 in. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. The house will be much strengthened if strips. or red light as at K. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. if desired. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. four coats at first is not too many. 19. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. Fig. Fig. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. though this is hardly advisable. --Contributed by W. Karl Hilbrich. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. but not the red glass and frame.

Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. --Contributed by Wm. New York. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. about 3/8 in. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility.copper should be. which. Schweiger. long. L. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. for a handle. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Kansas City. Mitchell. Smith. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. D. Mo. when put together properly is a puzzle. G. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. To operate. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Yonkers. -Contributed by E. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. --Contributed by L. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. as shown in the sketch. Eureka Springs. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Ark.

3. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. A number of 1/2-in. 2. need them. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. Having completed the bare box. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. especially for filling-in purposes. The corks in use are shown in Fig. holes should be drilled in the bottom. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. which binds them together. to make it set level. as well as improve its appearance. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. 1. . but may be replaced with a panel or other design. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. as shown in Fig. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. as is usually the case. The design shown in Fig. the box will require a greater height in front. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. If the sill is inclined. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. in order to thoroughly preserve it. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. Each cork is cut as in Fig. for the moment. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. After the box is trimmed. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. the rustic work should be varnished. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. as shown in Fig. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. 3.

as shown in Fig. They eat all they can and carry away the rest.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. too dangerous. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. drilled at right angles. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. 1. cabbages. can't use poison. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. it's easy. 2. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs.. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. Traps do no good. 4. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. and observe results. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. When the corn is gone cucumbers. But I have solved the difficulty. . but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. being partly eaten into. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. share the same fate. etc. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. life in the summer time is a vexation. Each long projection represents a leg. F. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. 3. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop.

my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. Iowa. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. long. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. The solution can be used over and over again. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. -. and made up and kept in large bottles. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. cut in 1/2-in.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. cut some of it off and try again. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. by trial. strips. of No. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. About 9-1/2 ft. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. . the coil does not heat sufficiently. If.

Fig 2. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. In cleaning silver. Knives. and a strip. Kane. as shown in the sketch. Do not wash them. Stir and mix thoroughly. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Y. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. is a good size--in this compound. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. but with unsatisfactory results. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. hot-water pot. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. C. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Morse. --Contributed by James M. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. it falls to stop G. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Pa. of oleic acid with 1 gal. Doylestown. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. forks. --Contributed by Katharine D. 1) removed. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. coffee pot. Dallas. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. N. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Syracuse. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. of whiting and 1/2 oz. D. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. . of gasoline. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Texas. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. to cause the door to swing shut.

They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. La. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Harrisburg. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. later fixed and washed as usual.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. negatives. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. Ill. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. Sprout. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. . --Contributed by Oliver S. which is. Fisher. Pa. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. of course. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. using the paper dry. but unfixed. Waverly. --Contributed by Theodore L. New Orleans. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper.

A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. then . Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. To obviate this difficulty. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. Fig. metal. 1. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. The harmonograph. a harmonograph is a good prescription. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration.

A small weight. Ingham. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. A weight. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. A small table or platform. that is. Rosemont. and unless the shorter pendulum is. which can be regulated. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. as long as the other. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. as shown in the lower part of Fig. Holes up to 3 in. as shown in Fig. of about 30 or 40 lb. provides a means of support for the stylus. in diameter. 1. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. is about right for a 10-ft. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. is attached as shown at H. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Another weight of about 10 lb. Chicago. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. what is most important. ceiling. A pedestal. exactly one-third. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. The length of the short pendulum H.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups.. 1-3/4 by 2 in. such as a shoe buttoner. G. J. with a nail set or punch. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. in the center of the circle to be cut. to prevent any side motion. --Contributed by James T. Arizona. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. or the lines will overlap and blur.. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. 1. K. --Contributed by Wm. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. Punch a hole. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. Gaffney. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. R. A length of 7 ft. etc. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. makes respectively 3. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . one-fifth. for instance. one-fourth. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling.

Fig. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. N. then put 2 at the top. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The capacity of the vise. 3. 5. and proceed as before. dividing them into quarters.J. Cruger. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. Chicago. 4.H.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. one for the sender and one for the receiver. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. then 3 as in Fig. The two key cards are made alike. and 4 as in Fig. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter.J. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Fig. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. a correspondent of . Cape May City. --Contributed by J. -Contributed by W. 2. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. 1. of course. distributing them over the whole card. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Morey. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. 6.

and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. of ferricyanide of potash. remove the prints. Alberta Norrell. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. Cut through the center. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. acetic acid and 4 oz. 1/4 in. Ga. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. Asbestos board is to be preferred. from the top and bottom. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. the portion of the base under the coil. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. long. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. of 18-per-cent No. --Contributed by L. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Augusta. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. of water. respectively. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. of the uprights. deep. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. says Popular Electricity. 22 gauge German-silver wire. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. citrate of iron and ammonia. Wind the successive turns of . To assemble. If constructed of the former. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. After securing the tint desired.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. sheet of well made asbestos paper. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. After preparing the base and uprights. wood-screws. 30 gr. drill 15 holes. 1/2 oz. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. 6 gauge wires shown. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws.

instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. N. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. which. cut and dressed 1/2 in.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. Small knobs may be added if desired. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. 14 gauge. The case may be made of 1/2-in. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. Y. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. etc. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label.. Ampere. --Contributed by Frederick E. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . Labels of some kind are needed. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. but these are not necessary. 16 gauge copper wire. as they are usually thrown away when empty. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. square. if one is not a smoker. Ward. screws. rivets. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. then fasten the upright in place.

Heat it until hot (not red hot). E and F. G. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Jaquythe. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. and rub the point of the copper on it. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. A.. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Eureka Springs. of glycerine to 16 oz. Richmond. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. This is considerable annoyance. tin. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. then to the joint to be soldered. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. sandpaper or steel wool. and one made of poplar finished black. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac.14 oz. C. If the soldering copper is an old one. --Contributed by A. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. --C. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. particularly so when the iron has once been used. The parts are put together with dowel pins. Copper. S. --Contributed by W. Kenosha. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. it must be ground or filed to a point. as shown in the sketch. . Wis. especially if a large tub is used. being careful about the heat. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. a piece of solder. California. D. Ark. In soldering galvanized iron. B. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. or has become corroded. galvanized iron. zinc. lead. The material can be of any wood. of water. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. tinner's acid. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. and labeled "Poison. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. Larson. brass.

in diameter. 1. however. such as copper. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. 7/8 in. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. D. 2. Troy. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. C. W. This will leave a clear hole. nut. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. -Contributed by H. The disk will come out pan shaped. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. This completes the die. thick and 1-1/4 in. a ring may be made from any metal. wide. The punch A. and drill out the threads. B. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. I bind my magazines at home evenings. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Six issues make a well proportioned book. round iron. Y. Brass rings can be plated when finished. Hankin. Apart from this. The dimensions shown in Fig. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. which gives two bound volumes each year. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. The covers of the magazines are removed. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. in diameter. Take a 3/4-in. N. Place the band. Fig. with good results. brass and silver. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Fig.

size 16 or larger. on all edges except the back. The covering can be of cloth. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. 2. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. C. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Five cuts. 1. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. which is fastened the same as the first. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. and place them against the strings in the frame. using . the thread being carried across from each tie from No. . Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. is nailed across the top. and a third piece. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. After drawing the thread tightly. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 1/8 in. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. Coarse white thread. The sections are then prepared for sewing. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. as shown in Fig. 5. is used for the sewing material. Start with the front of the book. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. 1. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. through the notch on the left side of the string No.4. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. then back through the notch on the right side. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. Place the cardboard covers on the book. threaded double. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. and then to string No. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 1. allowing about 2 in. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. 2. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. 1 in Fig. The covering should be cut out 1 in. deep. If started with the January or the July issue. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. of the ends extending on each side. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. The string No.

--Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. --Contributed by Clyde E. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. For the blade an old talking-machine . Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. at opposite sides to each other. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Tinplate. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Cal. and. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. College View. and mark around each one. on which to hook the blade. round iron. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Encanto. Divine. Nebr. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Place the cover on the book in the right position. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry.

Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. C. and another piece (B) 6 in. as it is sometimes called.. in order to drill the holes in the ends. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. B. bore. E. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. with 10 teeth to the inch. Hays. and a long thread plug. by 1 in. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Make the blade 12 in. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. -Contributed by Willard J. as shown. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. Then on the board put . fuse hole at D.. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. F. A. long. by 4-1/2 in. On the upper side.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Moorhead. at the same end. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. hydraulic pipe. or double extra heavy. Miss. Summitville. and 1/4 in. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. thick. and file in the teeth. with a steel sleeve. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Ohio. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. and 1/4 in. thick. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose.

If you are going to use a current of low tension. as from batteries. --Contributed by Chas. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. A lid may be added if desired. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. 4 jars. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. of wire to each coil. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. of rubber-covered wire. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. H. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Connect up as shown. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. Boyd.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. about 5 ft. Philadelphia. using about 8 in. high around this apparatus. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. and some No. the jars need not be very large.

2 is lower down than in No. For the front runners these measurements are: A. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. Z. Fig. A variation of 1/16 in.. 1 and so on for No.. by 5 in. See Fig. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. & S. apart. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. B and C. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. then apply a coat of thin enamel. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. 15-1/2 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. 4 in. 3. The stock required for them is oak. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. by 1-1/4 in. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. two pieces 14 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft. making them clear those in the front runner. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. with the cushion about 15 in. 27 B. 34 in. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. No. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. The top disk in jar No. by 2 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in.the way. by 1 in. The current then will flow through the motor. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. A 3/4-in. C. For the brass trimmings use No. To wire the apparatus. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. square by 14 ft. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. Their size also depends on the voltage. long. wide and 3/4 in. and four pieces 14 in. are important. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. 1. 5 on switch.. by 1-1/4 in.. The connection between point No. 2. B. long. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. by 5 in. Use no screws on the running surface. 2 and 3. and for the rear runners: A. thick. by 6 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. 3 in. on No. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. two for each jar. At the front 24 or 26 in.. 3 and No. 1 on switch. and plane it on all edges. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. long. long by 22 in. Use no nails. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in.. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. and bolt through. wide. gives full current and full speed. First sandpaper all the wood. steel rod makes a good steering rod. Equip block X with screw eyes. In proportioning them the points A. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. sheet brass 1 in. An iron washer. 1 is connected to point No. 2.. two pieces 30 in. 16-1/2 in. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. thick. Put arm of switch on point No. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. by 2 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. long. 7 in. direct to wire across jars. 11 in. . wide and 2 in. wide by 3/4 in. oak boards. above the ground. as they are not substantial enough. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. 4) of 3/4-in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. B. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. 2 in. 30 in. On the door of the auto front put the . or source of current. 4. is used to reduce friction. 2. C. as they "snatch" the ice. however. beginning at the rear. two pieces 34 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft.

sewing it to the burlap on the under side. overshoes. which is somewhat moist. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. by 1/2 in. a number of boys may share in the ownership. cheap material. The best way is to get some strong. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. Fasten a horn. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. to improve the appearance. If desired. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. etc. If desired. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. by 30 in. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. If the expense is greater than one can afford. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. may be stowed within. or with these for $25. a brake may be added to the sled. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. such as burlap. cutting it out of sheet brass. such as used on automobiles. to the wheel. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. Then get some upholstery buttons. long. fasten a cord through the loop. parcels. brass plated. lunch. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance.

--Contributed by Stewart H.tree and bring. Leland. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. . The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Ill. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Lexington.

Fig. when flat against it. The Model Engineer. with twenty-four teeth. a compass. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. Draw a circle on paper. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. CD. by drawing diameters. some files. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. will be over the line FG. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. which. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. A small clearance space. 3. E. 1. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. say 1 in. Fig. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. The first tooth may now be cut. With no other tools than a hacksaw. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. thick. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. made from 1/16-in.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. First take the case of a small gearwheel. 2. from F to G. This guide should have a beveled edge. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . FC. Fig. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. 4). In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. mild steel or iron. The straight-edge. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. the cut will be central on the line. sheet metal. though more difficult. London. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. so that the center of the blade. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. the same diameter as the wheel. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. outside diameter and 1/16 in.

but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners.Four Photos on One Plate of them. R. or several pieces bound tightly together. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. and the other outlet wire. each in the center. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. transmitter. 2. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. 1. If there is no faucet in the house. Make a hole in the other. . Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. 1. No shock will be perceptible. B. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. some wire and some carbons. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. B. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. as shown in Fig. Focus the camera in the usual manner. Then take one outlet wire. ground it with a large piece of zinc. electric lamp. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. either the pencils for arc lamps. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. hold in one hand. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. A bright. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig.

the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. Ashland. They have screw ends. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. as indicated by E E. under the gable. a transmitter which induces no current is used. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Pa. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. as shown. Then set the whole core away to dry. one at the receiver can hear what is said. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. serves admirably. and will then burn the string C. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. leaving about 10 in. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. are also needed. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. --Contributed by Geo. One like a loaf of bread. Wrenn. of course. If desired. Dry batteries are most convenient. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. and about that size. 36 wire around it. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Ohio. But in this experiment. B. Several battery cells. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . Slattery. by 12 in. For a base use a pine board 10 in. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. D D are binding posts for electric wires. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. J. by 1 in. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. A is a wooden block. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. and again wind the wire around it. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. Emsworth. at each end for terminals. or more of the latter has been used.

Jr. Ohio. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. C.wire. 14 wire. for the . D. 2. Newark. B B. in parallel. as shown. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. First make a support. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. 1. and switch. The oven is now ready to be connected. B B. D. 12 or No. connecting lamp receptacles. F. C. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Fig. The coil will commence to become warm. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. Connect these three to switch. E. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. Place 16-cp. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. The apparatus is now ready for operation. and the lamps. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. At one side secure two receptacles. in series with bindingpost.. while C is open. run a No. From the other set of binding-posts. as shown. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. These should have hollow ends. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. Fig. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. and one single post switch. until the hand points to zero on the scale. Turn on switch. the terminal of the coil.

2. 7. After drilling. 4 in. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. D. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. drill in only to the opening already through. Montreal. drill a hole as shown at H. Fig. Dussault. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. 5.. 3. Fig. wind with plenty of No. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. To make one. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. long. 4 amperes. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 14. Mine is wound with two layers of No. is made of wire. a variable resistance. a standard ammeter. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. 6. The core. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. long and make a loop. E. is then made and provided with a glass front. C. 1/2 in. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. a battery. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. It is 1 in. The box is 5-1/2 in. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. D. --Contributed by J.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. B. If for 3-way. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. until the scale is full. as shown in the cut. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. Fig. 10 turns to each layer. 5. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. from the lower end. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. 1/4 in. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. 36 magnet wire instead of No. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. but if for a 4way. Fig. 3 amperes. 4. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. high. This is slipped on the pivot. At a point a little above the center. although copper or steel will do. thick. etc. inside measurements. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. and D. drill through the entire case and valve. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . remove the valve. A wooden box. The pointer or hand. is made of iron. long. where A is the homemade ammeter. to prevent it turning on the axle.E. 1.or 4-way valve or cock. 1. wide and 1-3/4 in.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. 14 wire. This may be made of wood. although brass is better. deep.

To start the light. B. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. and a metal rod. One wire runs to the switch. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. F. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. provided with a rubber stopper. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. making two holes about 1/4 in. high. and the other connects with the water rheostat. in diameter. This stopper should be pierced. which is used for reducing the current. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. By connecting the motor. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. E. in thickness . The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. A. as shown. D. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. and the arc light. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases.performing electrical experiments. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point.

B. To insert the lead plate. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. as shown in B. Jones. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Fig. N. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. 2. As there shown. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Fig. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Carthage. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. If all adjustments are correct. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. A piece of wood. Fig. 1. as shown in C. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. 1. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Fig. 2. where he is placed in an upright open . roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. long. Having finished the interrupter. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. 1. Turn on the current and press the button. Y. If the interrupter does not work at first. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. A. --Contributed by Harold L.

and wave his arms up and down. as the entire interior. which can be run by three dry cells. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. is constructed as shown in the drawings. and can be bought at Japanese stores. dressed in brilliant. by 7-1/2 in. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. giving a limp. If it is desired to place the box lower down. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The lights. The skeleton is made of papier maché. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. All . should be miniature electric lamps. the illusion will be spoiled. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. Its edges should nowhere be visible. L and M. light-colored garments. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. figures and lights. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. especially L. high. The glass should be the clearest possible. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. to aid the illusion. and must be thoroughly cleansed. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. within the limits of an ordinary room. The model. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. loosejointed effect. A. especially the joints and background near A. with the exception of the glass. They need to give a fairly strong light. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. from which the gong has been removed. inside dimensions. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. A white shroud is thrown over his body. could expect from a skeleton. should be colored a dull black. by 7 in. until it is dark there.. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry.coffin. If everything is not black. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view.

San Jose. square block. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. as shown in the sketch. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. fat spark. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. Two finishing nails were driven in. Cal. W.that is necessary is a two-point switch. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. after which it assumes its normal color. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. placed about a foot apart. Fry. If a gradual transformation is desired. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. --Contributed by Geo.

If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. This is a wide-mouth bottle. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. F. In Fig. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. or a solution of sal soda. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. One of these plates is connected to metal top. hydrogen gas is generated. with two tubes. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. into the receiver G. A (see sketch). B and C. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. New York. The plates are separated 6 in. the remaining space will be filled with air.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. 1. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. and should be separated about 1/8 in. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. In Fig. Cohen. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. soldered in the top. -Contributed by Dudley H. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. If a lighted match . When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. as shown. to make it airtight. by small pieces of wood.

long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. A nipple. London. Three rows of holes 1/16 in.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. which is plugged up at both ends. in diameter and 6 in. or by direct contact with another magnet. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. P. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. 1/2 in. 2 shows the end view. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. N. either by passing a current of electricity around it. One row is drilled to come directly on top. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. then a suitable burner is necessary. is then coiled around the brass tube. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. by means of the clips. should be only 5/16 of an inch. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. A 1/64-in. and the ends of the tube. Fig. 1. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. B. copper pipe. A piece of 1/8-in. of No. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. If desired. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. long. says the Model Engineer. 36 insulated wire. A. 1-5/16 in. A. as is shown in the illustration. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. long. N. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. which forms the vaporizing coil. copper pipe. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. C C. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. is made by drilling a 1/8in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. A. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. The distance between the nipple. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. A. Fig. from the bottom.

Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. 1/4 in. Fig. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). A disk of thin sheet-iron. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C.lamp cord. 3. Turn the book over and paste the other side. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. 1. should be cut to the diameter of the can. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. duck or linen. at the front and back for fly leaves. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. cut to the size of the pages. taking care not to bend the iron. Cut four pieces of cardboard. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. but if the paper knife cannot be used. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. fold and cut it 1 in. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. with a fine saw. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. about 8 or 10 in. longer and 1/4 in. larger all around than the book. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. smoothly. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. this makes a much nicer book. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Fig. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. 2). pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Take two strips of stout cloth. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. boards and all. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Fig. leaving the folded edge uncut. trim both ends and the front edge.

H. 4). from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. D. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. is turned on it. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Another can. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. E. C. Noble. and a little can. of tank A is cut a hole. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. Parker. A gas cock.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. Bedford City. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. B. as shown in the sketch. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. 18 in. A. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Another tank. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. as shown. . Va. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. is soldered onto tank A. or rather the top now. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. in diameter and 30 in. --Contributed by Joseph N. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. the joint will be gas tight. Toronto. which will just slip inside the little can. --Contributed by James E. deep. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. but its diameter is a little smaller. is made the same depth as B. This will cause some air to be enclosed. without a head. is perforated with a number of holes. In the bottom. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. is fitted in it and soldered. Ont. pasting them down (Fig.

of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. The bridle knots. If the back armature. should be cut a little too long.. and sewed double to give extra strength. by 1/2 in. when finished. H is a square knot. basswood or white pine. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. should be 1/4 in. N. Bott. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. thus adjusting the . The longitudinal corner spines. The wiring diagram. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. to prevent splitting. C.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. as shown at C. exactly 12 in. The diagonal struts. fastened in the bottom. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. B. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. B. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. -Contributed by H. B. S. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. Fig. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. making the width. which moves to either right or left. D. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. shows how the connections are to be made. should be 3/8 in. long. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. long. A A. J. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. which may be either spruce. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. E. and the four diagonal struts. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. The armature. 2. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. square by 42 in. The small guards. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. D. A. tacks. If the pushbutton A is closed. and about 26 in. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. are shown in detail at H and J. Beverly. Fig. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. with an electric-bell magnet. 1.

Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. E. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high.lengths of F and G. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. to prevent slipping. --Contributed by A. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. --Contributed by Edw. as shown. the batteries do not run down for a long time. can be made of a wooden . A bowline knot should be tied at J. with gratifying results. for producing electricity direct from heat. thus shortening G and lengthening F. Harbert. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. Stoddard. Clay Center. D. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. and if a strong wind is blowing. that refuse to slide easily. Kan. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. and. shift toward F. Closing either key will operate both sounders. however. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. If the kite is used in a light wind. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Chicago.

16 single-covered wire.frame. When the cannon is loaded. by means of machine screws or. The wood screw. C. or parallel with the compass needle. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. A and B. F. and the current may then be detected by means. which conducts the current into the cannon. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . C. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. Fasten a piece of wood. C. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. D. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. E. with a number of nails.. spark. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. A. placed on top. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. A. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. --Contributed by A. E. B. and also holds the pieces of wood. to the cannon. with a pocket compass. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. 14 or No. A. Then. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. Chicago. in position.

hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. but no weights or strings. 1. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. press the button. when in position at A'. To unlock the door. --Contributed by Joseph B. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. A hole for a 1/2 in. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. To reverse. with the long arm at L'. square and 3/8 in. Keil. Bend the strips BB (Fig. B. screw is bored in the block. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. within the reach of the magnet. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. in this position the door is locked. 1. requiring a strong magnet. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'.the current is shut off. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. to receive the screw in the center. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Fig. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Mich. In Fig. Big Rapids. To lock the door. H. now at A' and S'. . Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. A. 1. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Fig. where there is a staple. A and S. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Ohio. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. L. Chicago. Connect as shown in the illustration. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. A and S. Marion. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity.

The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. J. if enameled white on the concave side. When the holes are finished and your lines set. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. Rand. are enameled a jet black. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. gas-pipe. put in the handle. pipe with 1-2-in. long. about 18 in. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. The standard and base. Thread the other end of the pipe. hole. and if desired the handles may . A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. and C is a dumbbell. Mass. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. or for microscopic work. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. West Somerville. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and then tap it for a 3/8-in.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. --Contributed by C. When ready for use. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. and may be made at very slight expense.

--Contributed by C. 1. Warren. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. Fig. across. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1.. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. high by 1 ft. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. North Easton. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . across. E. Make a cylindrical core of wood. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. with a cover. inside the pail.be covered with leather. 8 in. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Fig. Mass. B. which shall project at least 2 in. as shown at A in the sketch. M. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. 1. This peculiar property is also found in ice. D. long and 8 in. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. A.

above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in.-G. long over the lid hole as a chimney. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. and your kiln is ready for business. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. the firing should be gradual. let this dry thoroughly. the point of the blue flame. pipe 2-ft.. 1330°. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. 3) with false top and bottom. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. projecting from each end (Fig. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. 25%. cutting the hole a little smaller. and cut it 3-1/2 in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. 2 in. C. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. 1). 2. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. and 3/8 in. When lighted. which is the hottest part. but it will burn a great deal of gas. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in.. and on it set the paper wrapped core. wider than the kiln. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. Line the pail. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. or make one yourself. C. pipe. to hold the clay mixture. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. if there is to be any glazing done.. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. 60%. Set aside for a few days until well dried.mixture of clay. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. thick. Fig. and varnish. thick. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. C. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. Wind about 1/8 in. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. 1390°-1410°. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. 15%. and 3/4 in. E. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. Cover with paper and shellac as before. and graphite. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. carefully centering it. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. as is shown in the sketch. After finishing the core. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. but will be cheaper in operation. strip of sheet iron. bottom and sides. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. hard porcelain. diameter. passing wire nails through and clinching them. layer of the clay mixture. The 2 in. make two wood ends. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. W. of fine wire. Whatever burner is used. sand. say 1/4 in. full length of iron core. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. long. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. 1). if you have the materials. It is placed inside the kiln. After removing all the paper. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. in diameter. about 1 in. Fit all the parts together snugly. This done. L. as dictated by fancy and expense. such . and with especial caution the first time. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. in diameter. If the cover of the pail has no rim. pack this space-top. hotel china.

taking care to have the first card red. A. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. about 1/16 in. and so on. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. with a plane.53 in. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. procure a new deck. every alternate card being the same color. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. C. You can display either color called for. R. C. 8 in. and divide it into two piles. T. bind tightly with black silk. Next restore all the cards to one pack. square them up. length of . as shown in the sketch herewith. as in Fig. and plane off about 1/16 in. Then. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. all cards facing the same way. . this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. D. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. 1. 2. 2. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. square them up and place in a vise.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. 2). leaving long terminals. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. --Contributed by J. red and black. C. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. around the coil. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. B. The funnel. and discharges into the tube. overlaps and rests on the body. as in Fig. Take the red cards. Then take the black cards. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. Of course. diameter. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed.. Chicago. the next black. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. Washington.

to form a dovetail joint as shown. Long Branch. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. thus making all the holes coincide. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. 1. Fig. When the glass is put in the frame a space. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. A. B. D. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. stove bolts. The cement. The bottom glass should be a good fit.. C. A. Let . E. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. B. stove bolts. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. Drill all the horizontal pieces.J. of the frame. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. It should be placed in an exposed location. the same ends will come together again. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. and then the frame is ready to assemble. The upright pieces. and this is inexpensive to build. F. 1 gill of litharge. angle iron for the frame. B.C. To find the fall of snow. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. E. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. the first thing to decide on is the size. so that when they are assembled. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. 1 gill of fine white sand. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. through the holes already drilled. about 20 in. N. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. as the difficulties increase with the size. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. All the horizontal pieces.

Aquarium Finished If desired. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. having a swinging connection at C. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. A. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. if desired. on the door by means of a metal plate. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Fig. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. D. and. Fasten the lever. B. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. to the door knob. a centerpiece (A. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet .

and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Y. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. long. PAUL S. to keep the frame from spreading. 2 ft. will open the door about 1/2 in. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. thus doing away with the spring. Fig. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. D. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. and Fig. 26 in. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. showing the paddle-wheel in position. --Contributed by Orton E. soldered to the end of the cylinder. to form the main supports of the frame. another. 1 . Fig. from the outside top of the frame. Fig. 1 is the motor with one side removed. E. Fig. long. 3 shows one of the paddles. Fig. several lengths of scantling 3 in. I referred this question to my husband. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. to form the slanting part. and another. hoping it may solve the same question for them. long. 1. screwed to the door frame. 2 at GG. another. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. which is 15 in. 6 in. 1. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. B. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Cut two of them 4 ft. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. AA. approximately 1 ft. White. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. wide . Cut two pieces 30 in. wide by 1 in. but mark their position on the frame. for the top. as at E. long. with a water pressure of 70 lb. 2 is an end view. Buffalo. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. N. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. To make the frame.. Fig. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. They are shown in Fig. F. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. A small piece of spring brass. C. Two short boards 1 in. according to the slant given C. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. Do not fasten these boards now.

Take the side pieces. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. after which drill a 5/8 in. GG. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. These are the paddles. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Next secure a 5/8-in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. thick. Tack one side on. Drill 1/8-in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. hole through its center. from one end by means of a key. and drill a 1-in. tapering from 3/16 in. Fig. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). hole from the tops to the 1-in. remove the cardboard. long and filling it with babbitt metal. hole to form the bearings. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw.burlap will do -. thick (HH. and drill a 1/8-in. 24 in. and a 1/4 -in. Make this hole conical. When it has cooled. 2) and another 1 in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. in diameter. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. Fasten them in their proper position. that is. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Now block the wheel. pipe. take down the crosspieces. steel shaft 12 in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in.along the edges under the zinc to form . iron 3 by 4 in. to a full 1/2 in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. 1. by 1-1/2 in. long to the wheel about 8 in. 2) with a 5/8-in. (I. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. Fig. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. with the wheel and shaft in place. iron. hole through their sides centrally. 2) form a substantial base. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. hole through the exact center of the wheel. then drill a 3/16-in. hole through them. holes. as shown in Fig. 4. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Fig.

and as near to it as possible. but now I put them in the machine. Do not stop down the lens. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. If the bearings are now oiled. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. ice-cream freezer. .) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. any window will do. or what is called a process plate. remove any white curtains there may be. as shown in the sketch at B. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Correct exposure depends. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. and the subject may move. shutting out all light from above and the sides. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. but as it would have cost several times as much. Darken the rest of the window. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. Raise the window shade half way. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. as this makes long exposure necessary. light and the plate. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. says the Photographic Times. it would be more durable. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. The best plate to use is a very slow one. Focus the camera carefully. on the lens. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. Drill a hole through the zinc. It is obvious that. If sheet-iron is used. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. and leave them for an hour or so. place the outlet over a drain. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. sewing machine. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. start the motor. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. of course. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. drill press.a water-tight joint. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine.

but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. 2. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. or an empty developer tube. The glass tube may be a test tube. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. as shown in Fig. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. D. as a slight current will answer. A. or wood. which is made of iron and cork. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. With a piece of black paper. hard rubber. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. the core is drawn down out of sight. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. The core C. a core. On completing . with binding posts as shown. and a base. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. full of water. and without fog. C. 2. until the core slowly rises. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. B. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. without detail in the face. The current required is very small. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. an empty pill bottle may be used. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. by twisting. a glass tube. or can be taken from an old magnet. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber.

whale oil. and one not easy to explain. 1. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. white lead. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. 1 pt. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. 1 lb. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. The colors appear different to different people. and are changed by reversing the rotation. according to his control of the current. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. water and 3 oz. This is a mysterious looking instrument. finest graphite. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. and make a pinhole in the center. is Benham's color top. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig.

2 can cut the cards at the ace. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. B. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. deuce. when the action ceases. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. Chicago. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. In making hydrogen. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. nearly every time. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. thus partly filling bottles A and C. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. before cutting. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. or three spot. -Contributed by D. As this device is easily upset. especially if the deck is a new one.L.B. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. C. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown.. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. In prize games. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. fan-like. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. A. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure.

W. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. in length and 3 in. (Fig. Form a cone of heavy paper. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. S. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Huron. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Jr. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. --Contributed by F. --Contributed by C. 1. as shown in Fig. S..requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. long and 3 in. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig.. 9 in. Bently. that will fit loosely in the tube A. 2. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. 3). connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Fig. long. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. 4. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. in diameter. Make a 10-sided stick. . J. Detroit. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 12 in. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. 10 in. Fig. Dak.

6. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. push back the bolt. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. long. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. will cause an increased movement of C. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. Cut out paper sections (Fig. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. A piece of tin. Remove the form. bend it at right angles throughout its length. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. and walk in. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. C. A second piece of silk thread. it is equally easy to block that trick. --Contributed by Reader. A. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. making it three-ply thick. allowing 1 in. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. on one side and the top. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. E. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. about the size of a leadpencil. but bends toward D. Fortunately. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. Fig. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. with a pin driven in each end. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. Denver.

while the lower switch. are made 2 by 4 in. West St. By this arrangement one. S S. is connected each point to a battery. Two wood-base switches. B. --Contributed by J. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. R. will last for several years. The 2 by 4-in. W. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them.. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch.strip. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . posts. The feet.. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. 4 ft. and rest on a brick placed under each end. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. long. The reverse switch. Jr. put together as shown in the sketch. S. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. as shown. Minn. or left to right. S. long. Paul. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. are 7 ft. B. Fremont Hilscher. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. A. The upper switch.

and has two wood blocks. 2. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. The base is made of wood. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. either an old sewing-machine wheel. H and K. 2 and 3. and the crank bearing C. pulley wheel. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. and valve crank S. is an old bicycle pump. Fig. The hose E connects to the boiler. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. 1. and in Fig. The valve motion is shown in Figs. and a cylindrical . the other parts being used for the bearing B. Fig. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. E. which is made of tin. cut in half. which will be described later. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base.every house. with two washers. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. FF. In Fig. or anything available. 3/8 in. the size of the hole in the bearing B. The piston is made of a stove bolt. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. The steam chest D. thick. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A.

and the desired result is obtained. C. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Eustice. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. The valve crank S. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. 3. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. can be an old oil can. or galvanized iron. Fig. This engine was built by W.piece of hard wood. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. of Cuba. and a very amusing trick. is cut out of tin. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. G. and saturated with thick oil. San Jose. Fry. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. The boiler. as it is merely a trick of photography. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. --Contributed by Geo. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. 1. 4. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. as shown in Fig. . Schuh and A. W. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. powder can. at that. to receive the connecting rod H. using the positive wire as a pen. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Cal. First. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. G. Wis. J. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. This is wound with soft string. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. Fig. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown.

1 will be seen to rotate. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. 1 by covering up Figs. to cross in the center. and pass ropes around . On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Fig.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. They may be of any size. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. and Fig. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. B. Cut half circles out of each stave. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. The smaller wheel. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. C. diameter. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. and place a bell on the four ends. B. When turning. as shown. Fig. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. as shown at AA. Fig. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution.

The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. which accounts for the sound. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. as shown in the illustration.M. To make this lensless microscope. --Contributed by H. From a piece of thin . procure a wooden spool. This in turn will act on the transmitter. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. Mo. produces a higher magnifying power). A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. but not on all. St. long. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. which allows the use of small sized ropes. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope.. Louis. W. A (a short spool.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. from the transmitter. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. such as clothes lines.G. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera.

cut out a small disk. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. Viewed through this microscope. fastened to a wooden base. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. and so on. which costs little or nothing to make. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. i.) But an object 3/4-in. e. A. E. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. B. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. D.. and at the center. the diameter will appear three times as large. the object should be of a transparent nature. To use this microscope. the diameter will appear twice as large. if the distance is reduced to one-half.. C. H. is made of iron. The spring. is fastened at each end by pins. or 64 times. C. B. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. Fig. which are pieces of hard wood. The lever. 3. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. held at arm's length. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. The pivot. and look through the hole D. bent as shown. D. as in all microscopes of any power. place a small object on the transparent disk. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. by means of brads. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. An innocent-looking drop of water.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. darting across the field in every direction. in which hay has been soaking for several days. . if the distance is reduced to one-third. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. 2. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. can be made of brass and the armature. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. otherwise the image will be blurred. 1. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. (The area would appear 64 times as large. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed.

by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. 26 wire: E. soft iron. wide. 1. D. similar to the one used in the sounder. B. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. Fig. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. Fig. A. D. which are made to receive a pivot. nail soldered on A. wide. . brass. wood: C. in length and 16 in. 16 in. or a single piece. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. Cut the top. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. DD. 2. C. or taken from a small one-point switch. connection of D to nail. C. The binding posts. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. and are connected to the contacts. long by 16 in. coils wound with No. between the armature and the magnet. F. A switch. long. binding posts: H spring The stop. wide and about 20 in. fastened near the end. K. FF. long and 14-1/2 in. K. brass: E. can be made panel as shown. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. E. HH. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. KEY-A. thick. should be about 22 in. D. wood. wide. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. brass or iron soldered to nail. wide and set in between sides AA. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. B. wood: F. The base of the key. AA. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. is cut from a board about 36 in. brass: B. The door. Each side. wide. The back.SOUNDER-A. 16 in.

The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. In operation. E. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Make 12 cleats. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. Ill. with 3/4-in. Garfield. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. cut in them. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. material. as shown in the sketch. When the electrical waves strike the needle. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. 2 and made from 1/4-in. brads. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. AA.. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. long. as shown. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. 13-1/2 in. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig.

Ridgewood. Brown. C. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. in order to increase the surface. filled with water. E. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. A fairly stiff spring. Y. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. through which a piece of wire is passed. J. B. F. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. when used with a motor. N. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. the magnet. The cord is also fastened to a lever. --Contributed by John Koehler. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. When the pipe is used. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. and. will give a greater speed. A. A. N. down into the water increases the surface in contact. pulls down the armature. and thus decreases the resistance. Fairport. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. A (see sketch). --Contributed by R. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. Pushing the wire. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor.

the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. B. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. N. Gachville. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Borden. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. if desired. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. --Contributed by Perry A. Of course. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two.for the secret contact. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. even those who read this description. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force.

wide. Connect switch to post B. wide. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. N. Compton. Jr. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. E. as shown in Fig. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. 2. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. thick and 12-in. Washington. wide. A. Cal. J. --Contributed by Dr. H. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. From a piece of brass a switch. wide. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. C.whenever the bell rings. wide.. The top board is made 28-in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. from the bottom. records and 5-5/8 in. apart. With about 9 ft. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. for 6-in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. East Orange. deep and 3/4 in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. long and full 12-in. --Contributed by H. long and 5 in. in a semicircle 2 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. The three shelves are cut 25-in. as shown in Fig. D. Mangold. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. Dobson. for 10in. . Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. records. and on both sides of the middle shelf. C. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. 1. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in.

--Contributed by Douglas Royer. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. as shown by the dotted lines. E. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. closed. to which is fastened a cord. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. When the cord is passed over pulley C.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. A. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. 1. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. B. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . Va. as shown in Fig. Roanoke. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. which in operation is bent.

The crankpin should fit tightly. they will bind. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. B. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. 1 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Bore two 1/4 in. as shown in the illustration. holes (HH. in diameter. long. In the sides (Fig. 3). If the wheels fit too tightly. 1 in. 5) when they are placed. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. deep. thick. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. wide. apart. Put the rubber tube. Figs. is compressed by wheels. E. excepting the crank and tubing. wide. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. D. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Do not fasten the sides too . thick (A.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. through one of these holes. to turn on pins of stout wire. against which the rubber tubing. deep and 1/2 in. Fig. Cut two grooves. in diameter. CC. E. 4 shows the wheel-holder. 1. Figs. which should be about 1/2 in. in diameter. square and 7/8 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. Fig. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. In these grooves place wheels. but a larger one could be built in proportion. one in each end. it too loose. in diameter. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. they will let the air through. Fig. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 3. Now put all these parts together. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K.

Cut six pieces. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. as it gives steadiness to the motion. Idana. though a small iron wheel is better. 1. mark for hole and 3 in. is all the expense necessary. 17-1/2 in. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. from each end. 2. Fig. iron. Fig. mark again. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. costing 10 cents. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. A in Fig. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. AA. tubing. 1. beyond each of these two. the other wheel has reached the bottom. The three legs marked BBB. from the bottom and 2 in. For ease in handling the pump. AA. of material. To use the pump. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. and are 30 in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. the pump will give a steady stream. The screen which is shown in Fig. B. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. Hubbard. and mark for a hole. and 3-1/2 in. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. Two feet of 1/4-in. because he can .securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. 1. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. 1. Kan. a platform should be added. --Contributed by Dan H. from each end. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. 1. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. from that mark the next hole. In the two cross bars 1 in. Fig. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. 2. Fig. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. If the motion of the wheels is regular. long. Then turn the crank from left to right. Take the center of the bar. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. The animal does not fear to enter the box. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. from each end. stands 20 in. 15 in.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. as shown in Fig.

This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts.see through it: when he enters. acid 1 part). and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. To cause a flow of electricity. dropping. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. Meyer. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. 1) must be prepared. some of it should be poured out. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. of the top. but if one casts his own zinc. or small electric motors. and the solution (Fig. Philadelphia. The battery is now ready for use. of water dissolve 4 oz. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. 4 oz. however. . there is too much liquid in the jar. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. The truncated. If the solution touches the zinc. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. When the bichromate has all dissolved. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. until it is within 3 in. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. If it is wet. --Contributed by H. long having two thumb screws. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. The battery is now complete. The mercury will adhere. 2). Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. or. and touches the bait the lid is released and. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. If the battery has been used before. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. add slowly. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. Place the carbon in the jar. 14 copper wire. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. When through using the battery. silvery appearance. potassium bichromate. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. C. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. stirring constantly. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. giving it a bright. It is useful for running induction coils. shuts him in. sulphuric acid. rub the zinc well. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution.

and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. the battery circuit. while the coal door is being opened. with slight changes. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. e. the jump-spark coil . --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Wis. The price of the coil depends upon its size. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. Madison. which opens the door.. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. After putting in the coal.Fig. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. i. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. however. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. If. pressing the pedal closes the door.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace.

while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. Now for the receiving apparatus. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. made of No. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. After winding. 6. coil. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. 7. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. W W. Change the coil described.7. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. while a 12-in. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. as shown in Fig. 7. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. in a straight line from top to bottom. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. This will make an excellent receiver. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used.described elsewhere in this book. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. which is made of light copper wire. diameter. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. This coil. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. in a partial vacuum. the full length of the coil. and closer for longer distances. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. apart. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. 5. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. W W. being a 1-in. Fig. as shown in Fig. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. 7). 6. .

The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. in the air. above the ground. The writer does not claim to be the originator. 1). 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). These circles. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. No. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. but it could be run by foot power if desired. 1 to 4. at any point to any metal which is grounded. after all. only. For an illustration. Run a wire from the other binding post. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. but simply illustrates the above to show that. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. I run my lathe by power. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. to the direction of the current. 90°. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. as it matches the color well. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface.6 stranded. being at right angles. A. which will be described later. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. A large cone pulley would then be required.The aerial line. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. . 90°. B the bed and C the tailstock. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. may be easily made at very little expense. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. being vertical. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. are analogous to the flow of induction. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. using an electric motor and countershaft. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. and hence the aerial line. where A is the headstock. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. Figs.

steel tubing about 1/8 in. Fig. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . If the bearing has been properly made. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. Fig. After pouring. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. 6. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. The bolts B (Fig. 2 and 3. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. Fig. Heat the babbitt well. pitch and 1/8 in. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. on the under side of the bed. 4. and Fig. and runs in babbitt bearings. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. deep. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 5. too. To make these bearings. 5. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. Fig. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. tapered wooden pin. but not hot enough to burn it. The headstock. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. 4. The bearing is then ready to be poured. and it is well to have the shaft hot. B. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. which pass through a piece of wood. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. just touching the shaft. 6 Headstock Details D. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. thick. which are let into holes FIG. A.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. one of which is shown in Fig.

Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. The tail stock (Fig. Take up about 5 ft. so I had to buy one. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. lock nut. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. Ill. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. B. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock.other machines. This prevents corrosion. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. Newark. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. they may be turned up after assembling. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. N. of the walk . 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. If not perfectly true. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. Oak Park. If one has a wooden walk. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. embedded in the wood. A. FIG. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. and a 1/2-in. the alarm is easy to fix up. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts.J.

--Contributed by R. S. save when a weight is on the trap. and the alarm is complete. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. to remove all traces of grease. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Minn. To avoid touching it. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. hang the articles on the wires. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Do not touch the work with the hands again.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. of water. add potassium cyanide again. Minneapolis. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Then make the solution . Connect up an electric bell. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. leaving a clear solution. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. silver or other metal. 2). (A. Jackson. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. water. Finally. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. so that they will not touch. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. clean the articles thoroughly. Fig. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. to roughen the surface slightly. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. before dipping them in the potash solution.

pewter. 18 wire. This solution. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. Having finished washing the precipitate. 3) directly over the hole. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. The wooden catch. and then treated as copper. On brass. The wooden block C. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. When all this is set up. about 25 ft. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. Can be made of a 2-in. Before silver plating. long. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. 1 in. thick by 3 in. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. Repeat six times. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. 1. piece of broomstick. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. light strokes. square. To provide the keyhole. when the point of the key touches the tin. If accumulators are used. a circuit is completed. and 4 volts for very small ones. with water. use 2 volts for large articles. lead. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. 1). bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. Screw the two blocks together. zinc. will serve for the key. Fig. 10 in. which is advised. such metals as iron. copper. of clothesline rope and some No. make a key and keyhole. I. but opens the door. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. Take quick. of water. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. nickel and such metals. from the lower end. A (Fig. an old electric bell or buzzer. 1). Fig. hole in its center. as at F. saw a piece of wood. With an electric pressure of 3. a hand scratch brush is good. 3) strikes the bent wire L. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. also. silver can be plated direct. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. with the pivot 2 in. Then. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. Fig. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. --Model Engineer. if one does not possess a buffing machine. 3. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. and the larger part (F. long.5 to 4 volts. with water. shaking. as shown in Fig. In rigging it to a sliding door. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. A 1/4 in. B should be of the same wood. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. which .up to 2 qt. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. Where Bunsen cells are used. must be about 1 in. 1 not only unlocks. Fig. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Make a somewhat larger block (E. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. If more solution is required. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. German silver. which is held by catch B.

This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. He removes the bowl from the black box. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. such as forks. 3. surrounding a perfectly black space. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. Thus. so much the better. Fig. 116 Prospect St.. some black cloth. the illumination in front must be arranged. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. Next. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. The interior must be a dead black. he tosses it into the cave. Objects appear and disappear. heighten the illusion. or cave. in his shirt sleeves. although a little more trouble. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. Fig. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. H. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. 1. 1. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. which unlocks the door. a few simple tools. should be cut a hole. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. shows catch B. Fig. Receiving the bowl again. 2. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. . --Contributed by E. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). Fig. sides and end. half way from open end to closed end. 2. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. H. New Jersey. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. One thing changes to another and back again. 0. and hands its contents round to the audience. and black art reigns supreme. no painting inside is required. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. To prepare such a magic cave. to throw the light toward the audience. floor. enlarged. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. On either side of the box. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. spoons and jackknives. with a switch as in Fig. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. between the parlor and the room back of it. The box must be altered first. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. and a slit. The magician stands in front of this. some black paint. One end is removed. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. one-third of the length from the remaining end. H. with the lights turned low. In front of you. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. East Orange. is the cut through which the rope runs. B. and plenty of candles. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. and finally lined inside with black cloth. the box should be painted black both inside and out. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Heavy metal objects. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. Next.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. the requisites are a large soap box. Klipstein. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. he points with one finger to the box. cut in one side. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. top.

The exhibitor should be . which can be made to dance either by strings. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box.Finally. which are let down through the slit in the top. as presented by Hermann. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. The illusion. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. was identical with this. of course. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. Consequently. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. only he. a screen must be used. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. and if portieres are impossible. and pours them from the bag into a dish. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. into the eyes of him who looks. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. one on each side of the box. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. his confederate behind inserts his hand. you must have an assistant. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. is on a table) so much the better. the room where the cave is should be dark. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. if. in which are oranges and apples. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. But illusions suggest themselves. The audience room should have only low lights. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. of course. had a big stage. and several black drop curtains.

Fig. b2. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. respectively. About the center piece H moves a disk. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. b2. b3. 1. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. as shown in Fig. is shown in the diagram. e1 and e2. at L. respectively. square. making contact with them as shown at y. or binding posts. and a common screw. and c2 to the zinc. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. A represents a pine board 4 in. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. by means of two wood screws. Finally. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. 2.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. b1. terminal c3 will show +. when handle K is turned to one side. A.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. 2. their one end just slips under the strips b1. vice versa. Then. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. held down on it by two terminals. and c1 – electricity. with three brass strips. terminal c3 will show . FIG. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. so arranged that. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. c1.a boy who can talk. respectively. d. c3. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. On the disk G are two brass strips. or b2. and c4 + electricity. by 4 in. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . b3. held down on disk F by two other terminals. held down by another disk F (Fig. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. 1. making contact with them. c4. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. if you turn handle K to the right. 2). so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former.. f2. c2. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself.

More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. . Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. when A is on No. Ohio. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 3. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. Jr. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. when on No. 4. 1. When switch B is closed and A is on No. thus making the message audible in the receiver. -Contributed by A. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). you have the current of one battery. and when on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. from five batteries. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. jump spark coil. from three batteries. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries.. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . when on No. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. and C and C1 are binding posts. E. Newark. 5. B is a onepoint switch. --Contributed by Eugene F. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Joerin. from four batteries.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. Tuttle.

mark. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. Thus if the thread moves 1 in.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. Thus. P. mark. so one can see the time. per second. Redmond. A. traveled by the thread. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. A. is the device of H. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. and placed on the windowsill of the car. When you do not have a graduate at hand. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. over the bent portion of the rule. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. Handy Electric Alarm . rule. per second for each second. which may be a button or other small object. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. A. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train.. The device thus arranged. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. E. New Orleans. and supporting the small weight. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. Wis. as shown in the sketch. La. B. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. of Burlington.

It was not long before a big greyhound came along. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. for a wetting is the inevitable result. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. Then if a mishap comes. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn.which has a piece of metal. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. wrapping the wire around the can several times. Instead. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. soldered to the alarm winder. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. Crafton. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. C. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. and with the same result. but may be closed at F any time desired. Lane. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. --C. --Contributed by Gordon T. B. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. When the alarm goes off. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. Pa. S. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. . fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. which illuminates the face of the clock. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone.

AA. L. The first thing to make is a molding bench. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. Macey. but it is a mistake to try to do this. With the easily made devices about to be described. when it is being prepared. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. BE. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. as shown in Fig. and duplicates of all these. If there is no foundry Fig. cannons. It is possible to make molds without a bench. 1 . thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. and many other interesting and useful articles. engines. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. New York City. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. which may. binding posts. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. Two cleats. --Contributed by A. bearings. whence it is soon tracked into the house. 1. as shown. A. ornaments of various kinds. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. which in turn support the mold while it is being made.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . C. models and miniature objects. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. battery zincs. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. small machinery parts.

as shown. is made of wood. a little larger than the outside of the flask. 1. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. If desired the sieve may be homemade. is filled with coal dust. Fig. A wedge-shaped piece. try using sand from other sources. white metal. and a sieve." or upper half. A A. which can be either aluminum. but this operation will be described more fully later on. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. A slight shake of the bag Fig. 1. and the lower pieces. 2. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described.near at hand. The cloth bag. II . Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. CC. by 6 in. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. The dowels. makes a very good sieve." or lower part. If the box is not very strong. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. Fig. G. which can be made of a knitted stocking. H. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. 2 . and saw it in half longitudinally. which should be nailed in. The rammer. previous to sawing. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. F. It is made of wood and is in two halves. An old teaspoon.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. will be required. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. DD. The flask. high. D. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. is about the right mesh. and this. is shown more clearly in Fig. and the "drag. CC. is nailed to each end of the cope. E. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. the "cope. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose.How to Make a Mold [96] . as shown. J. by 8 in. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. say 12 in.

scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. in order to remove the lumps. After ramming. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. or "drag. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. as described. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. as shown. and by grasping with both hands. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. or "cope. the surface of the sand at . as shown at E. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. as shown at D. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. and scatter about 1/16 in. as it is much easier to learn by observation. as shown at C. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. and if water is added. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. It is then rammed again as before. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. The sand is then ready for molding. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. Place another cover board on top. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. In finishing the ramming.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. where they can watch the molders at work." in position. turn the drag other side up. and thus judge for himself. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. and then more sand is added until Fig.

4 -Pouring the Metal If. Fig. as shown at J. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. and then pour. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. Place a brick or other flat. after being poured. as shown at F. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. it shows that the sand is too wet. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. as shown at H.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. . The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. made out of steel rod. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. as shown at H. III. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. place the cope back on the drag. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. thus holding the crucible securely. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. deep. is next cut. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. This is done with a spoon. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. to give the air a chance to escape. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. in diameter. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. as shown at G. in order to prevent overheating.E should be covered with coal-dust." or pouring-hole. thus making a dirty casting. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. After drawing the pattern. The "sprue. wide and about 1/4 in. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. as shown in the sketch.

or from any adjacent pair of cells. white metal and other scrap available. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. the following device will be found most convenient. although somewhat expensive. but any reasonable number may be used. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. 15% lead. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. Morton. --Contributed by Harold S. is very desirable. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. Although the effect in the illustration . used only for zinc. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. If a good furnace is available. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. babbitt. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. and the casting is then ready for finishing. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. may be used in either direction. and. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. Referring to the figure. battery zincs. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. Minneapolis. In my own case I used four batteries. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. 5% zinc and 5% antimony.

By replacing the oars with paddles. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. Chicago. Fig. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. The bearings. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . Then walk down among the audience. Then replace the table. 2. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. If desired. as shown in the illustration. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. backward. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. A. B. shaft made.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. --Contributed by Draughtsman. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. which will be sufficient to hold it. outward. To make it take a sheet-iron band. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. 3/4 in. Put a sharp needle point. The brass rings also appear distorted. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. Make one of these pieces for each arm. B. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. as shown at A. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. connected by cords to the rudder. may be made of hardwood.

but when in motion. 3. when it will again return to its original state. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. A. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. C. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. W. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. Fig. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. or the paint will come off. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. 1. 2 and 3. 1. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. If babbitt is used. If galvanized iron is used. 2. being simply finely divided ice. as shown in Fig. It may seem strange that ice . may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. In the same way. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. 1. Snow. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands.melted babbitt. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. spoiling its appearance. The hubs. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. E. should be made of wood. and a weight. as shown in Fig. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. A block of ice. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. The covers. D. or under pressure. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process.

as per sketch. or supporting it in some similar way. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. which resembles ice in this respect. square. as shown on page 65. The rate of flow is often very slow. Lane. whenever there is any connection made at all. but by placing it between books. sometimes only one or two feet a day. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. it will gradually change from the original shape A. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. by 2 in. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. by 1/2 in. P. Pressing either push button. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. and assume the shape shown at B. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. by 1/4. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . B. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. Crafton. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself.should flow like water. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder.. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. thus giving a high resistance contact. by 5 in. in. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. Pa. no matter how slow the motion may be. --Contributed by Gordon T. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. but. brass.

--Contributed by Coulson Glick. J. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. draft chain. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. I. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. E. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. B. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. the battery. B. furnace. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. and five dry batteries. alarm clock. weight. In the wiring diagram. cord. The success depends upon a slow current. C. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. horizontal lever. G. A is the circuit breaker. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. as shown. --Contributed by A. Ward. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. K . as shown. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. about the size used for automobiles. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel.thumb screws. wooden supports. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. F. vertical lever. The parts are: A. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. Indianapolis. and C. the induction coil. G. H. Pa. pulleys. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. D.000 ft. draft. Wilkinsburg.

which will provide a fine place for the plants. as well as the bottom. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. will fit nicely in them. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. Mich. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. Artistic Window Boxes The top. Kalamazoo. such as used for a storm window. The frame (Fig. 3. 2 are dressed to the right angle. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. where house plants are kept in the home. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. material framed together as shown in Fig.

one can regulate the batteries as required. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. Thus. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. is something that will interest the average American boy. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. Grant. after a rest. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. and a suitable source of power. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. and cost 27 cents FIG. --Contributed by Wm. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. 1 cp. since a battery is the most popular source of power..An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. in any system of lamps.. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. This is more economical than dry cells. as indicated by Fig. S. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. It must be remembered. which sells for 25 cents. in diameter. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. 1. where they are glad to have them taken away. this must be done with very great caution. Halifax. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. for some time very satisfactorily. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. e. a cork and a needle. However. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. N. and will give the . More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. in this connection. A certain number of these. However. but maintain the voltage constant. so as to increase the current. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. The 1/2-cp. as if drawn upon for its total output. Push the needle into the cork. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. i. Canada. and the instrument will then be complete. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case.. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. multiples of series of three. W. can be connected up in series. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. 1 each complete with base. by connecting them in series.

as in Fig. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. So. or 22 lights. These will give 3 cp.proper voltage. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. In conclusion. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. each. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. Chicago. and running the series in parallel. which is the same as that of one battery. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. lamps. The dynamo can also be used as a motor.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. Fig. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. lamp. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. according to the water pressure obtainable. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and for Christmas trees. although the first cost is greater. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. and then lead No. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. lamps. If wound for 10 volts. FIG. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. 11 series. . These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. double insulated wire wherever needed. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. especially those of low internal resistance. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. by the proper combination of these. and diffused light in a room. for display of show cases. 18 B & S. 1-cp. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. However. 3.. Thus. making. if wound for 6 volts. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. to secure light by this method. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. Thus. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. generates the power for the lights. 2 shows the scheme. where the water pressure is the greatest. we simply turn on the water.

The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. A indicates the ground. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. switch. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. are cut just alike. simply change the switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Santa Clara. B. or a tempting bone. --Contributed by F. Parker. . Emig. and the sides. we were not bothered with them. --Contributed by Leonard E. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. and C. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. B. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. a bait of meat. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. bars of pole-changing switch. AA. center points of switch. or from one pattern. thus reversing the machine. the letters indicate as follows: FF. CC. field of motor. Cal. To reverse the motor. outside points of switch. Ind. DD. BB.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. A. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Plymouth. After I connected up my induction coil. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. as shown in the sketch. brushes of motor. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil.

which is in the door. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. Minn. When the circuit is broken a weight. thus locking the door. and a table or bench. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. or would remain locked. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. as it is the key to the lock.. A. Melchior. 903 Vine St. If it is not. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. a piece of string. The experiment works best . Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. a hammer. To unlock the door. attached to the end of the armature B. merely push the button E. W. -Contributed by Claude B.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. Cal. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. Fry. San Jose. The button can be hidden. Hutchinson. one cell being sufficient.

Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Tie the ends of the string together. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. the key turns. 3.. C. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. 1). Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. run through a pulley. forming a loop.Contributed by F. the current flows with the small arrows. P. where it will remain suspended as shown. Canada. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. attached at the other end. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. -. Culebra. Schmidt. 3. Ontario. Brockville. as shown in Fig. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. --Contributed by Geo. Crawford Curry.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. in the ceiling and has a window weight. When the alarm rings in the early morning. the stick falls away. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. releasing the weight. W. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. D. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. Porto Rico. Madison. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. I. 18 Gorham St. Wis. 4). 2. . On another block of wood fasten two wires. which pulls the draft open. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. A.

Farley. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. and then to the receiver. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. The cut shows the arrangement. N. including the mouthpiece. Connect two wires to the transmitter. which fasten to the horn. Jr. First. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. and . Camden. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. S. Use a barrel to work on. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. thence to a switch. or tree. J. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. 6 in. get two pieces of plate glass. made with his own hands.. R. and break the corners off to make them round. J. --Contributed by Wm. or from a bed of flowers. square and 1 in. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. D. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. thick. running one direct to the receiver. and the other to the battery.

being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. and a large lamp. a round 4-in. then 8 minutes. wet till soft like paint. in length. the coarse grinding must be continued. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. Have ready six large dishes. wetting it to the consistency of cream. When done the glass should be semitransparent. while walking around the barrel. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. using straight strokes 2 in. then take 2 lb. and label. or less. of water. and spread on the glass. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. with 1/4-in. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. Fig. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. wide around the convex glass or tool. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. spaces.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. also rotate the glass. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum.. or it will not polish evenly. In a dark room. When dry. A. and the under glass or tool convex. Use a binger to spread it on with. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge.. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. so the light . 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Fig. with pitch. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. melt 1 lb. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. twice the focal length away. by the side of the lamp. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. 1. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. 2. Fasten. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. When polishing the speculum. Then warm and press again with the speculum. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. as in Fig. set the speculum against the wall. L. and is ready for polishing. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. unless a longer focal length is wanted. 2. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. Then take a little of the coarsest powder.

The knife should not be more than 6 in. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). longer strokes. Then add solution B. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. 2. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.……………………………. When the focus is found. Place the speculum S... Fig.……………. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center.………………………………. If not. Place the speculum. then ammonia until bath is clear. 2. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Alcohol (Pure) …………….100 gr. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. deep. 100 gr. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Fig. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. from the lamp. Now add enough of the solution A. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. the speculum will show some dark rings. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Nitric acid . touched with rouge.. Then add 1 oz. long to the back of the speculum.. Fig. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. When dry. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. The polishing and testing done. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. 4 oz. if a hill in the center. 840 gr.. with distilled water. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole.. and pour the rest into the empty dish. Two glass or earthenware dishes. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. 39 gr. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. With pitch. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. Solution B: Distilled water …………………………….. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water.. 4 oz.. Solution D: Sugar loaf . Silver nitrate ……………………………. also how the rays R from a star .. the speculum is ready to be silvered. fill the dish with distilled water. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. cement a strip of board 8 in. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. 25 gr. or hills. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. must be procured. that was set aside. face down. as in K. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid.

are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. with an outlay of only a few dollars. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. long and cost me just $15. Place over lens. My telescope is 64 in. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. stop down well after focusing. About 20. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Thus an excellent 6-in. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. using strawboard and black paper. telescope can be made at home. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it.John E. Make the tube I of sheet iron. . slightly wider than the lens mount. which proves to be easy of execution.. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. The flatter they are the less they will distort. is a satisfactory angle. deg. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. and proceed as for any picture. cover with paper and cloth. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. two glass prisms. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Mellish. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. Then I made the one described.

Do not stir it. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. complete the arrangement. B. push the button D. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. . when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. The paper is exposed. but will not preserve its hardening. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. The rays of the clear. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. 2. and reflect through the negative. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. A. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. add the plaster gradually to the water. says the Master Painter. unobstructed light strike the mirror. 1. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. instead of the contrary. through the lens of the camera and on the board. Boody. or powdered alum. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. Fig. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. as shown in Fig. Ill. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. To unlock. D. -Contributed by A. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. then add a little sulphate of potash. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Zimmerman. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera.

as in Fig. 2. 2. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. as shown in the sketch. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. so that it can rotate about these points. 3.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. Fig. use a string. throw . but will remain suspended without any visible support. Then blow through the spool. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. as at A and B. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Fasten on the switch lever. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. To reverse. 1). also provide them with a handle.

Levy. D. Neb. C C. L. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. San Antonio. Go McVicker. Tex. binding posts. Take out. although this is not necessary. B. North Bend. San Marcos. rinse in alcohol. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. wash in running water. the armature. and rub dry with linen cloth. as shown in the sketch. -Contributed by Morris L. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Push one end of the tire into the hole. In the sketch. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Tex. Thomas. A is the electricbell magnet. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. carbons. --Contributed by Geo. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. --Contributed by R. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. and E E. . carbon sockets.

and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. long or more. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. wound evenly about this core. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. 36 magnet wire. By means of two or more layers of No. 14 or No. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Bell. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. 16 magnet wire.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. Brooklyn. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. --Contributed by Joseph B. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip.

2 yd. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. When cut and laid in one continuous length. which is desirable. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. as shown in Fig. or 8 in. about 6 in. 4. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. In shaping the condenser. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. Beginning half an inch from one end. coil illustrates the general details of the work. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. and finally the fourth strip of paper. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. but if it is not convenient to do this work. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. in diameter. 1. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. After the core wires are bundled. long and 2-5/8 in. The primary is made of fine annealed No. and the results are often unsatisfactory. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. as the maker prefers. which is an important factor of the coil. long and 5 in. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. a box like that shown in Fig. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. A 7/8-in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. in length. No. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. then the strip of tin-foil. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. The following method of completing a 1-in. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. hole is bored in the center of one end. one piece of the paper is laid down. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. the entire core may be purchased readymade.which would be better to buy ready-made. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. wide. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. This makes a condenser which may be folded. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. diameter. with room also for a small condenser. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. at a time. The condenser is next wrapped . making two layers. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils.

long to key. by 12 in. V-shaped copper strip. ready for assembling. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. B. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. shows how the connections are made. I. The alarm key will turn and drop down. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. Fig. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. to the door. one from bell.securely with bands of paper or tape. G. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. long and 12 in. and the other sheet. whole length. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. wide. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. spark. bell. A. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. copper lever with 1-in. and one from battery. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. forms the other pole or terminal. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. 3. battery . If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. switch. lines H. F. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. which allows wiring at the back. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. E. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. 4 in. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. D. flange turned on one side. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. open switch C. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. round so that the inside . Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. B. C. which is insulated from the first. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. shelf for clock. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. the letters indicate as follows: A..) The wiring diagram. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. go.

Line the furnace. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. The circuit should also have a high resistance. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. If desired for use immediately. and then rivet the seam. Use a glass or metal shade. do not shortcircuit. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in.. but with the circuit. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. That is what they are for. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. of zinc sulphate. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. This is for blowing. . instead of close to it. 2 in. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. and the battery is ready for use. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom.diameter is 7 in. Short-circuit for three hours. of blue stone. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. says the Model Engineer. but add 5 or 6 oz. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. from the bottom. London. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage.

Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. while for others it will not revolve at all. but the thing would not move at all. At least it is amusing. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time." which created much merriment. herein I describe a much better trick. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. If too low. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. thus producing two different vibrations. and therein is the trick. Ohio. 2. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. changes white phosphorus to yellow. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. If any or your audience presume to dispute. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. This type of battery will give about 0. or think they can do the same let them try it. Enlarge the hole slightly. 1. Outside of the scientific side involved. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. for others the opposite way. Very few can make it turn both ways at will.. g. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. square and about 9 in. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. for some it will turn one way.9 of a volt. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. long. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. below the bottom of the zinc. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. and then. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. grip the stick firmly in one hand. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. oxygen to ozone. as in the other movement. porcelain and paper. To operate the trick. Try it and see. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. the second finger along the side. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. affects . Make a hole through the center or this one arm. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. imparting to them a violet tinge. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body.

a means for holding it vertical. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. but this is less satisfactory. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. a short-focus lens. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. but not essential. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. says the Photographic Times. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. insects. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. but small flowers.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. if possible. an old tripod screw. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. and one of them is photomicrography. If the worker is not after too high a magnification.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. chemicals. To the front board is attached a box. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. however. earth. and.

We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. 8 ft. The following table will give the size. 11 ft. Divide one-quarter of the circle . long and 3 ft. 5 ft. 7-1/2 in. CD. 113 7 lb. 7-1/2 in. AB. Cap. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. or 3 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 65 4 lb. A line. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 697 44 lb. 1. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. while it is not so with the quill. Mass. and a line. Ft Lifting Power. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 5 in. wide from which to cut a pattern. which is 15 ft. 268 17 lb.--Contributed by George C. 12 ft. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. in Cu. 6 ft. 7 ft.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 9 ft. balloon. or 31 ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Boston. in diameter. Madison. 179 11 lb. If the balloon is 10 ft. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. Fig. 10 ft 523 33 lb. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 381 24 lb. 905 57 lb.

and after marked is cut the same shape and size. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. 3. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. of the very best heavy body. The cloth segments are sewed together. on the curved line from B to C. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. of beeswax and boil well together. Procure 1 gal. The amounts necessary for a 10- . and so on. Repeat this operation four times. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. keeping the marked part on the outside. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. The pattern is now cut. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. 2. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. 4. using a fine needle and No. This test will show if the bag is airtight. making a double seam as shown in Fig. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. 70 thread. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB.

How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. A. with the iron borings. above the level of the water in barrel A. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. if it is good it will dry off. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. Water 1 oz. or dusting with a dry brush. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. 5 . . should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. B. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. About 15 lb. balloon are 125 lb. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. with 3/4in. with water 2 in. A. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. to the bag. Vegetable oils should never be used. using a fine brush. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. of gas in one hour.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. should not enter into the water over 8 in. ft. until no more dirt is seen. it is not fit to use. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. but if any grease remains on the hand. a clean white rag. of water will make 4 cu. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. capacity and connect them. C. A. B. The 3/4-in..ft. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. C. 5. 1 lb. 150 gr. or a fan. . pipe extending down into the cooling tank. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. oil the spindle holes carefully. leaving the hand quite clean. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. of sulphuric acid. All FIG. pipe. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. Fill the other barrel. as shown in Fig. this should be repeated frequently. B. The outlet. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. 1 lb. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. When the clock has dried. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. After washing a part. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. of iron. ]. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. of iron borings and 125 lb. by fixing. In the barrel. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler.Green Iron ammonium citrate . which may sound rather absurd.

Dry the plates in the dark. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. or zinc. . to avoid blackened skin. Port Melbourne. and a vigorous negative must be used. Dry in the dark. fix in hypo. toning first if desired. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band.Water 1 oz. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. of any make. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. or carbon. . Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. says the Moving Picture World. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. This aerial collector can be made in . Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. at the time of employment.000 ft. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. dry atmosphere will give best results. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Printing is done in the sun. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. A longer exposure will be necessary. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. The negative pole. and keep in the dark until used.. Exposure. keeping the fingers out of the solution. The positive pole. 20 to 30 minutes. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. A cold. or battery. The miniature 16 cp.

long. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. a positive and a negative. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. as described below. in diameter. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. If the waves strike across the needle. If the wave ceases.various ways. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. holes . How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. lead pipe. making a ground with one wire. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. will soon become dry and useless. both positive and negative. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. The storage cell. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. forming a cup of the pipe. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. and have the other connected with another aerial line. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. This will complete the receiving station. As the telephone offers a high resistance. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. lay a needle. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. when left exposed to the air. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. the resistance is less. and as less current will flow the short way. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. 5 in. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in.

The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. This. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. or tube B. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. an oblong one and a triangular one. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. does not need to be watertight. namely: a square hole. except for about 1 in. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. Two binding-posts should be attached. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . a round one. says the Pathfinder. one to the positive. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. This support or block. This box can be square. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. The other plate is connected to the zinc. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. on each end. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. or tube C. B. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. of course. by soldering the joint. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. and the other to the negative.as possible. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. When mixing the acid and water. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. D. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid.

as it is not readily overturned. . Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. in place on the wood. and match them together. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. as shown in Fig. The third piece of brass. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. all around the edge. C. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. thick cut two pieces alike. about 20 in. 1. C. A and B.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. Chicago. long. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. back and under. 3. wide. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. deep and 4 ft. 2. 2. Only galvanized nails should be used. This punt. wide. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. Ill. were fitted by this one plug. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. is built 15 ft. and has plenty of good seating capacity. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. as shown in Fig. leaving about 1/16 in. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. 1. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. From a piece of brass 1/16 in.

Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. A piece of 1/4-in. A. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. B. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. Tacoma.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. thick and 3-1/2 in. gas pipe. square (Fig 2). Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Wash. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. In Fig. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. is cut 1 in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water.

The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. no more current than a 16-cp. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. if possible. The winding of the armature. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. may be of interest to some of our readers. without auxiliary phase.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. which the writer has made. with the exception of insulated wire. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C.--Contributed by Charles H. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. no special materials could be obtained. which can be developed in the usual manner. H. or "rotor. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. and to consume. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. Wagner." has no connection with the outside circuit. lamp. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . it had to be borne in mind that. In designing. says the Model Engineer.

the field-magnet. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. and all sparking is avoided. this little machine is not self-starting. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. were then drilled and 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. no steel being obtainable. After assembling a second time. B. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. with the dotted line. 1. about 2-1/2 lb. 2. They are not particularly accurate as it is. Unfortunately. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. wrought iron. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. in diameter were drilled in the corners. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. 4. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. being used. holes. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. also varnished before they were put in. bolts put in and tightened up. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. The stator is wound full with No. while the beginnings . all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. as shown in Fig. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. A. and filled with rivets. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. C. to be filed out after they are placed together. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. 3. Holes 5-32 in. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. thick. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. 5. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. or "stator. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine.

All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac.. it would be very simple to build. If too late for alcohol to be of use. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. as a means of illustrating songs. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. and all wound in the same direction. as shown in Fig.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. E. and especially of colored ones. The rotor is wound with No. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. a regulating resistance is not needed. and as the motor runs at constant speed. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. N. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. and would not easily get out of order. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. No starting resistance is needed. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. 1. The image should . The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. 2. Jr. and as each layer of wire was wound. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. One is by contact. and the other by reduction in the camera. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. film to film. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. J. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. having no commutator or brushes. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. if applied immediately. 3-Contributed by C. Newark. as before stated. This type of motor has drawbacks. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. McKinney. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. The lantern slide is a glass plate. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. In making slides by contact. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. each limb being filled with about 200 turns.

In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. also. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. 3. and development should be over in three or four minutes. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. D. as shown in Fig. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. 4. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. to use a plain fixing bath. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. C. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. 2. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . A. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. Fig. 5. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. if possible. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. the formulas being found in each package of plates. It is best. These can be purchased from any photo material store. over the mat. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. B. a little extra work will be necessary. Select a room with one window. Draw lines with a pencil. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. they are much used by travelers. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. except that the binding is different. 1. If the exposure has been correct.appear in. as shown in Fig. and then a plain glass. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. about a minute. Being unbreakable.

long. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. from the ends. Corinth. as shown in Fig. long. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. from the end piece of the chair. from the center of this dot draw a star. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. or other stout cloth. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Fig. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. If the star is in front of the left eye. while the dot will be in front of the other. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. Hastings. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. 16 in. A piece of canvas.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. as shown at A. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. in diameter and 20 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. long. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. holes bored in the end pieces. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. Vt. 1. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. These longer pieces can be made square. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. wide and 50 in. as shown at B. is to be used for the seat. Fig. in diameter and 40 in. 1. known as rods and cones. 2.

It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. made from an ordinary sash cord. O'Gara. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. 2. A pitman was attached to the large pulley.-Contributed by P. A disk 1 in. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. as well as to operate other household machines. A belt. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. . as shown in Fig.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. Cal. in thickness and 10 in. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. as shown in Fig. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. 1. Auburn. per square inch. J. allowing the shaft to project through the holes.

and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. direction. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. and the construction is complete. thick and 2-1/2 in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. says the Scientific American. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. Bore a 1/4-in. screwing it through the nut.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. or inconvenient to measure. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. Put the bolt in the hole. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. leaving it shaped like a bench. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. A simple. wide. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. Cut out a piece from the block combination. divided by the number of threads to the inch. square for a support. it serves a very useful purpose. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. with as fine a thread as possible. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. then removing the object. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. to the top of the bench. The part of a rotation of the bolt. fairly accurate. will be the thickness of the object. . so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. 3/4 in. long. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire.

Oal. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Place a 3/4-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. piece of wood 12 ft. Bore a 3/4-in. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. bolt in each hole. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. long. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. material 12 ft. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Santa Maria. which show up fine at night.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. long is used for the center pole. beyond the end of the wood. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. The wheel should be open . This may appear to be a hard thing to do. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water.

are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. P. in diameter. A. wide and 1/8 in. A piece of brass 2 in. pieces used for the spokes. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. C. The boards may be nailed or bolted. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. thick is used for the armature. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. C. is soldered. A cross bar. H and J. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. at the top and 4 in. thick. The spool . is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. Fort Worth. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. which should be 1/4 in. thick. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. long. and the lower part 61/2 in. made of the same material. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing.Side and Top View or have spokes. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. from the top end. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. and on its lower end a socket. square and 3 or 4 in. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. wide and 1/8 in. long. 1/2 in. Tex. long. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. long. O. at the bottom. The coil. B. to be operated by the magnet coil. Graham. from the ends. of the ends with boards.-Contributed by A. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. L. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in.

Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. This tie can be used on grain sacks. .000 for irrigation work. 2. Randolph. This is a very neat trick if performed right. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. A. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. A soft piece of iron. B. S. and in numerous other like instances. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. one without either rubber or metal end. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. or a water rheostat heretofore described. by soldering. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. making a hole just a little larger than the rod.is about 2-1/2 in. that holds the lower carbon. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. and place it against a door or window casing. long. S. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil.J. is drilled. Mass. then with a firm. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. R.E. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. Bradlev. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied.000. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. and directly centering the holes H and J. do it without any apparent effort. 2 the hat hanging on it. When you slide the pencil along the casing. At the bottom end of the frame. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. --Contributed by Arthur D. which may be had by using German silver wire.--A. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. C. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. The armature. D and E. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. F. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. for insulating the brass ferrule. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. 1.

The vibrator. S. thick.500 turns of No. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. 2. in diameter. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. long. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. D. in diameter. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. The vibrator B. mixed with water to form a paste. for adjustment. B. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. leaving the projections as shown. S. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. Fig. hole in the center. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. long and 1 in. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. The switch. The core of the coil. C. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. 1. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. from the core and directly opposite. is constructed in the usual manner. About 70 turns of No. wide. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. for the secondary. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. is connected to a flash lamp battery. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. about 1/8 in. with a 3/16-in. about 1 in. Fig. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. F. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. and then 1. A. may be made from a 3/8-in. 1. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. for the primary.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. about 3/16 in. The coil ends are made from cardboard. Experiment with Heat [134] . in diameter and 2 in. in diameter and 1/16 in. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core.

This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. The lock. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. The tin is 4 in. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. wide. board. and then well clinched. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. thick on the inside. The hasp. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin.Place a small piece of paper. in an ordinary water glass. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. 16 in. brass plate. with which to operate the dial. 2 to fit the two holes. as shown in the sketch. The three screws were then put in the hasp. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. between the boards. which seemed to be insufficient. Fig. long and when placed over the board. as shown. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. lighted. and the same distance inside of the new board. was to be secured by only three brass screws. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. which is only 3/8-in. 1. it laps down about 8 in. . As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. The knob on the dial extends out too far. 1. which is cut with two holes. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial.

These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. square and 8-1/2 in.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. one in each division. not shiny. If the box is made large enough. or in the larger size mentioned. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. clear glass as shown. which completely divides the box into two parts. but when the front part is illuminated. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. When the rear part is illuminated. black color. any article placed therein will be reflected in. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. When making of wood. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. and the back left dark. square and 10-1/2 in. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. high for use in window displays. the glass. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain.

This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. When using as a window display. When there is no electric current available. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. as it appears. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. long and 1 ft. and with the proper illumination one is changed. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. as shown in the sketch. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. .Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. as shown at A in the sketch. above the top of the tank. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in.. a tank 2 ft. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. wide will be about the right size. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. alternately. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. into the other.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

radius. bore from each end. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. 2 ft. wide. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. with a length of 13 in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. is the green vitriol. each. Three windows are provided. hole bored the full length through the center. high. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. and 6 ft. and boring two holes with a 1-in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. 6 in. but with a length of 12 in. using a 3/4-in. Columbus. lines gauged on each side of each. This precipitate is then washed. square. one for each side. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. and a solution of iron sulphate added. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. hole. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. dried and mixed with linseed oil. and a door in front. as shown. Shape the under sides first. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. however. square and 40 in. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. long. is built on the front. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. A small platform. This hole must be continued . wide. long. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. 1 in. thick and 3 in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. under sides together. Iron sulphate. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. The pieces can then be taken out. bit. 5 ft. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. then use a red-hot iron to finish. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. The 13-in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. or ferrous sulphate. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. O. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. gauge for depth. from the ground. If a planing mill is near. two pieces 1-1/8 in.

To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Saw the two blocks apart. If the parts are to be riveted. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. three or four may be attached as shown. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. When the filler has hardened. When this is dry. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. thick and 3 in. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. A better way. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. The sketch shows one method of attaching. Electric globes--two. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. apply two coats of wax. square and drawing a diagonal on each.through the pieces forming the base. hole in each block. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. if shade is purchased. Directions will be found on the filler cans. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. For art-glass the metal panels are . and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap.

as brass. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.The Completed Lamp cut out. such as copper. METAL SHADE . Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.Construction of Shade .

with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. Figure 1 shows the side. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The arms holding the glass. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. and Fig. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. the other. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. as in ordinary devices. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. the object and the background. one way and 1/2 in. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. 2 the front view of this stand. as shown in the sketch. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to .

Before mounting the ring on the base. and an inside diameter of 9 in. and swinging freely. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. An ordinary pocket compass. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. wide and 11 in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. thus forming a 1/4-in. about 1-1/4 in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. in diameter for a base. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. as shown in the sketch. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. uncork and recork again.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. If the light becomes dim. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. as it is very poisonous. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. in diameter. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. wide and 6-5/16 in. thick 5/8-in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. pointing north and south. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. as shown in the cut. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. Put the ring in place on the base. long. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. outside diameter.

How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. into these cylinders.715 . from the second to the third. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . EE. of the top. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.600 . are mounted on a base. The results given should be multiplied by 1.289 . The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.420 . AA. B.500 . and mirrors. and north of the Ohio river. Place on top the so- . black oxide of copper.865 1. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. above the half can. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. in diameter and 8 in. 1 oz. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. Corresponding mirrors. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.088 .182 . CC. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.

When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. always remove the oil with a siphon. says Metal Worker. little crystals forming in the liquid. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. 31 gr. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. Colo. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. In Fig. of pulverized campor. then they will not rust fast. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. When renewing. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. 62 gr. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. University Park.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. the wheel will revolve in one direction. slender bottle. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. Put the solution in a long. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . which otherwise remains clear. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. alcohol.

This is used in place of the spoon.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. If zinc and carbon are used. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. on the under side of the cork. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. A paper-fastener box. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. Lloyd Enos. Solder in the side of the box . The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If zinc and copper are used. --Contributed by C. If two of them are floating on the same solution. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. floating on a solution. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. Attach to the wires. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. about 1-1/4 in. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. will allow the magnet to point north and south.

E. or made with a little black paint. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. long that has about 1/4-in. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. Thos. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Wind evenly about 2 oz. If the hose is not a tight fit. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. The base. can be made of oak. Take a small piece of soft iron. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. To this standard solder the supporting wire. of No. H. B. one on each side of the board. of wire on each end extending from the coil.not shorter than 18 in. brass tubing. E. long. wide and 6 in. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. long. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. is made from a piece of No. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. B. . piece of 1/4-in. thick. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid.in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. stained and varnished. as shown in Fig. Rhamstine. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. C. D. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. The spring should be about 1 in. C. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. and then solder on the cover. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. 14 wire will do. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. A. D. wide and 2-1/2 in. A circular piece of cardboard. The standard. glass tubing . D. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . 10 wire about 10 in. 3 in. A.in. 1/2. The bottom of the box. Put ends. F. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. C. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper.Contributed by J. 1.1-in. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. hole. and on the other around the glass tube. Bore holes for binding-posts. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. 1-1/4 in. G--No. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. away.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. Use a board 1/2. to it. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire.

Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands.of the coil. in diameter. of 8-oz. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. long. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. 1. When the glass becomes soft. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Cuba. Y. J. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. About 1-1/2 lb. is drawn nearer to the coil. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. from the right hand. Smith. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest.--Contributed by R. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. four hinges. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. of mercury will be sufficient. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. as shown in Fig. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. 5. 3. Teasdale. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Wis. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. of No. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. two pieces 2 ft. . about 1 in. 3-in. D. The iron plunger. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. long. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. long. long. E. long are used for the legs. 3 in. canvas. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. making a support as shown in Fig. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig.--Contributed by Edward M. N. 2. Milwaukee.

small aperture in the long tube. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Break off the piece of glass. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. long. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. 6. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. 2. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. 5. of vacuum at the top. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. leaving 8 in. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. The tube now must be filled completely. Can. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. expelling all the air. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. 3. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. thus leaving a. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Take 1/2 in. Measure 8 in.. Fig. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. --Contributed by David A. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. 4. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. This tube as described will be 8 in. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. Keys. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. holding in the left hand.. Toronto.

from the end of same. 3 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. This forms a slot. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. material 2 in. 3. cut in the shape shown in Fig. and the single projection 3/4 in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. thick. with each projection 3-in. 4 in. long. 4. in diameter. wood screws. 1 in. 6. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. wide and 5 ft. thick. Four blocks 1/4 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. joint be accurately put together. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. 3 in. 7. FIG. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. 1 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. long. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 9 in. thick. as in Fig. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. thick. 5. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . wide and 3 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. long. as shown in Fig.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. as shown in Fig. 2. thick. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. long. The large pulley is about 14 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. wide and 5 ft. These are bent and nailed. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. but yellow pine is the best. wide and 5 ft. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in.6 -.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. Fig. 1. and 1/4 in. wide and 12 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in.

Welsh. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. --Contributed by C. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. says Photography. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. by 1-in. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. first removing the crank. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. R. attach runners and use it on the ice. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. above the runner level. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Manhattan. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Kan. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. . Water 1 oz.

1 oz. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. 3. of water. also. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. --Contributed by Edward M. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. . fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. The print is washed. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. This is done with a camel's hair brush. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. 1. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Mass. 2. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. as shown in Fig. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. --Contributed by Wallace C. and very much cheaper. as shown in Fig. Printing is carried rather far. Leominster. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Treasdale. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Newton. from an ordinary clamp skate. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part.

long. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. fasten a 2-in. Place a 10-in. hole. wide and 4 in. The thread is broken off at the . wide. Take two glass tubes. Fig. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. say. high. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. about 10 in.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. --Contributed by H. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. 1-1/2 ft. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. 1 ft. square piece. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. and bend them as shown in the sketch. with about 1/8-in. which represents the back side of the door. and 3 ft. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. too. Alexandria. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. Church. 1. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. as shown in the sketch. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. extending the width of the box. Then. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. 2. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. causing the door to swing back and up. Va. The swing door B. from one end. high for rabbits. F. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. 1. and to the bottom. Fig. A.

as shown in Fig. high and 12 in. inside of the opening. -Contributed by William M. in size. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. shorter. black surfaced if possible. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. in size. horses and dogs. Paste a piece of strong black paper. and exactly 5 by 7 in.by 5-in. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. 2. Fig. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Chicago. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. plates. say 8 in. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. wide. but cut it 1/4 in. 3. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. C. Fig. to be used as a driving pulley. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. Jr. D. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. 1 in. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. from the edge on each side of these openings. 1. Crilly. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. automobiles. says Camera Craft. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. trolley cars. 10 in. long. A and B.proper place to make a small hole. wide and 5 in. shorter at each end. Out two rectangular holes. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools.by 7-in. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. . On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. Cut an opening in the other piece. being 1/8 in. long. and go in the holder in the same way. This opening. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. camera and wish to use some 4. wide.. B. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box.

in. in diameter. making a . A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. wide will be required. into which the dog is harnessed.. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. if it has previously been magnetized. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. A cell of this kind can easily be made. long and 6 in. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. The needle will then point north and south. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in.

then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. F is a spool. 3/4 lb. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. File the rods to remove the copper plate. 1/4 lb. with narrow flanges. of the plate at one end. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. pull out the wire as needed. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. zinc oxide. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. under the spool in the paraffin. says Electrician and Mechanic. long which are copper plated. 1 lb. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Form a 1/2-in. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. and a notch between the base and the pan. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. pine. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in.watertight receptacle. only the joints. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. leaving about 1/2-in. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. for a connection. of rosin and 2 oz. when the paraffin is melted. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. in which P is the pan. . Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. plaster of paris. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. A is a block of l-in. of water. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in.in. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. one that will hold about 1 qt. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. Pack the paste in. This makes the wire smooth. Do not paint any surface. sal ammoniac. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. short time. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. fodder. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. beeswax melted together. fuel and packing purposes. Place the pan on the stove. filter. of the top. B is a base of 1 in. in diameter and 6 in.

" which created much merriment. as in the other movement. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. and therein is the trick. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. for some it will turn one way. and then. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. from vexation. g. square and about 9 in. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. grip the stick firmly in one hand.. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Enlarge the hole slightly. and one friend tells me that they were . for others the opposite way. long. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Ohio. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. 2. but the thing would not move at all. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. let them try it.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Toledo. by the Hindoos in India. Try it and see. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. or think they can do the same. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. while for others it will not revolve at all. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and he finally. At least it is amusing. thus producing two different vibrations.

and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. and. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. no rotation resulted. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. by means of a center punch. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. 2.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. 5. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. Thus a circular or . To operate. If the pressure was upon an edge. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. the rotation may be obtained. p. secondly. 4. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. A square stick with notches on edge is best. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. 7. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. rotation was obtained.100 r. Speeds between 700 and 1. 3. and I think the results may be of interest. m. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. 6. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. The experiments were as follows: 1. gave the best results. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin.

and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Lloyd. . unwetted by the liquid. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. G. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch.. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. if the pressure is from the left. --Contributed by M. D.. Minn. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. the upper portion is. a piece of wire and a candle. it will be clockwise. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. as shown. Duluth. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. or greasy. is driven violently away. and the resultant "basket splash. so far as can be seen from the photographs. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. C. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. Sloan. A wire is tied around the can. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. A. at first. and the height of the fall about 6 in.D. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. --Contributed by G. Washington. forming a handle for carrying. Ph. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

hole drilled in the center. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. long. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. as shown in Fig. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. Each wheel is 1/4 in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. flange and a 1/4-in. 1. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. thick and 1 in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. axle. in diameter. about 2-5/8 in. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. with a 1/16-in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. as shown.

This will save buying a track. If the ends are to be soldered. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. 3. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. is made from a piece of clock spring. each in its proper place. The first piece. A trolley. The current. 3. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. These ends are fastened together. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . San Antonio. The parts. Fuller.brass. with cardboard 3 in. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. Texas. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. as shown in Fig. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. which must be 110 volt alternating current. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1.50. of No. bottom side up. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. holes 1 in. --Contributed by Maurice E. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. Fig. 2. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. 5. Fig. long. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. or main part of the frame. are shown in Fig. The motor is now bolted. 1 from 1/4-in. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. is made from brass. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. lamp in series with the coil. bent as shown. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. 6. 4. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. put together complete. 3/4 in. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. wide and 16 in. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. and the locomotive is ready for running. 2. wood. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail.

Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. 1. as shown in Fig. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. but do not heat the center. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. and holes drilled in them.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. Fig. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. When cold treat the other end in the same way. 2. Fig 1. 3. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Cincinnati. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. O. The quarter will not go all the way down. and as this end . trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. as shown in Fig. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. the length of a paper clip. then continue to tighten much more.

A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. In the sketch. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. or should the lathe head be raised. and adjusted . The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. When the trick is to be performed. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. 2 and 1 respectively. When the cutter A. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. A pair of centers are fitted. has finished a cut for a tooth. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. or apparent security of the knot. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3.

This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. book mark. gentleman's card case or bill book. holding it in place with the left hand. (3.) Make on paper the design wanted. Second row: -Two book marks. twisted around itself and soldered. Bunker. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. --Contributed by Samuel C. (4. (5. When connecting to batteries. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. N. 1. swing lathe. (2. or one-half of the design. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). (6. Bott.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. Y. tea cosey. such as brass or marble. note book. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Fold over along these center lines. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. --Contributed by Howard S. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. 2. An ordinary machine will do. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. trace the outline. if four parts are to be alike. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. long. blotter back. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. if but two parts. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. (1. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. In this manner gears 3 in.) Place the paper design on the leather and. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. draw center lines across the required space.to run true. dividing it into as many parts as desired. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. about 1-1/2 in. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. and a nut pick. watch fob ready for fastenings. Fig.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. at the same time striking light. coin purse. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Brooklyn. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. above the surface. lady's card case. tea cosey. The frame holding the mandrel. lady's belt bag.

some heavy rubber hose. and an ordinary bottle. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. a distance of 900 miles. B. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. where it condenses. Thrust a pin. D. C. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. If the needle is not horizontal.C. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown.. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. and push it through a cork. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. The electrodes are made . The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. Florida. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. into which fit a small piece of tube. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. A. and bore a hole through the center. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. from Key West.

wide and 3 ft. 1. as shown in Fig. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. If 20-ft. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. Powell. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 1. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. 16 piano wire. wide and 4 ft. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. 2 arm sticks 1 in. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. To make a glide. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. lengths and splice them. 2. use 10-ft. Connect as shown in the illustration. long for the body of the operator. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. which is tacked to the front edge. wide and 3 ft. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. --Contributed by Edwin L. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. 2 in. take the glider to the top of a hill. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. 12 uprights 1/2 in. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. slacken speed and settle. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. 2. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. 1. thick. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. square and 8 ft long. long. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. C. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. apart and extend 1 ft. thick. and also to keep it steady in its flight. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. 3/4 in. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. D. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. wide and 4 ft long. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. All wiring is done with No. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. long. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. both laterally and longitudinally. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. free from knots. lumber cannot be procured. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. wide and 4 ft. 1-1/4 in. using a high resistance receiver. 1/2. or flying-machine. as shown in Fig. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. long. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. 3. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. by 3/4 in. Washington. as shown in Fig. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. thick.in. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. thick. long. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. several strips 1/2 in. The operator can then land safely and . apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. Four long beams 3/4 in. long.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. thick. wide and 20 ft. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. 1-1/2 in.

Glides are always made against the wind. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Of course. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. but this must be found by experience.gently on his feet. Great care should be . The higher the starting point the farther one may fly.

A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. half man and half horse. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. a creature of Greek mythology. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. which causes the dip in the line.exercised in making landings. --Contributed by L. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. M. Olson. as shown in Fig. 2. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. Bellingham. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. 1. When heated a little. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a.

Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. square. long. a piece of brass or steel wire. this will cost about 15 cents. making it 2-1/2 in. outside the box. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. at the other. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. 14 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. about the size of stove pipe wire. will complete the material list. The light from the . the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. While at the drug store get 3 ft. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. about the size of door screen wire. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. long and about 3/8 in. of small rubber tubing. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. in diameter.

O.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. as shown in Fig. 1. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. Dayton. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. as shown in Fig. M. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. 2. This is very simple when you know how. as shown in the sketch.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. . If done properly the card will flyaway. Hunting. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. --Photo by M. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. while others will fail time after time. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand.

closing both hands quickly. hold the lump over the flame. then put it on the hatpin head. If a certain color is to be more prominent. This game is played by five persons. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. as before. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. When the desired shape has been obtained. while the one in the right shall have disappeared.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. Cool in water and dry." or the Chinese students' favorite game. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. place the other two. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. as shown. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. as described. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick.

This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. passing through neutralizing brushes. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. distribute electric charges . Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. these sectors.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. or more in width.

2. in diameter. in diameter. material 7 in. Two solid glass rods. The plates. from about 1/4-in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. D. RR. in diameter. long. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. to which insulating handles . brass tubing and the discharging rods. as shown in Fig. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. and this should be done before cutting the circle.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. 1-1/2 in. C C. and 4 in. in diameter. Two pieces of 1-in. GG. after they are mounted. 4. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. The fork part is 6 in. Fig. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. or teeth. 3. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. at the other. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. as shown in Fig. in diameter. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. These pins. long and the standards 3 in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. 3. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. and the outer end 11/2 in. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. and pins inserted and soldered. 3/4 in. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. free from wrinkles. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. long. The collectors are made. in diameter. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. are made from solid. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The drive wheels. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. wide at one end. EE. in diameter and 15 in. the side pieces being 24 in. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. and of a uniform thickness. turned wood pieces. 1. Fig. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. wide. long and the shank 4 in. The two pieces. The plates are trued up. 1 in. are made from 7/8-in.

but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. long..are attached. Colo. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. one having a 2-in. wide and 22 ft. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. D. Lloyd Enos. in diameter. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. 12 ft. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. which are bent as shown. Colorado City. and the work was done by themselves. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. ball and the other one 3/4 in. --Contributed by C. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. KK. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods.

the boards are then put in a vise as shown. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. deep. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. The key will drop from the string. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. string together. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. and bore a hole 1/2 in. using a 1-in. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. yet such a thing can be done. bit. pens . as at A.is a good one. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold.

. Raise the ends. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. When the stamping is completed. 9. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. stamp the background promiscuously. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. inside the second on all. or cigar ashes. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. Having determined the size of the tray. flat and round-nosed pliers. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. they make attractive little pieces to have about. Use . 6. extra metal on each of the four sides. slim screw. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. above the work and striking it with the hammer. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. file. using a nail filed to chisel edge. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. very rapid progress can be made. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. about 3/4-in. above the metal. Inside this oblong. Proceed as follows: 1.. 23 gauge. sharp division between background and design. then the other side. two spikes. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. etc. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. and the third one 1/4 in. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. etc. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. They are easily made. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. This is to make a clean. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. also trace the decorative design.and pencils. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. 4. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. 5. 8. unless it would be the metal shears. Draw one-half the design free hand. 2. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. 7. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. 3. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. The second oblong was 3/4 in. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. inside the first on all.

"8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. In the first numbering. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. The eyes. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. 10. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. first fingers. third fingers. and fourth fingers. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. 8. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. 6. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. and the effect will be most pleasing. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. second fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 7. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. 9.

.. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Two times one are two. if we wish. . so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. Put your thumbs together. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. above 20 times 20. or 80. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. Let us multiply 12 by 12. 400. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. and the six lower fingers as six tens. or the product of 6 times 6. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. thumbs. above 15 times 15 it is 200. which tens are added. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100.. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. etc. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. viz. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. 25 times 25. which would be 16. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. etc. 2 times 2 equals 4. as high as you want to go. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. etc. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. 11. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. first fingers. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. or the product of 8 times 9. there are no fingers above. or 60. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Still. At a glance you see four tens or 40. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. 12. renumber your fingers. which would be 70. the product of 12 times 12. 600. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. In the second numbering. or numbers above 10.

not rotation. the revolution seems to reverse. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. thumbs. first finger 17. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. Take For example 18 times 18. etc. whether the one described in second or third numbering. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. however. and. about a vertical axis. twenties. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. being 80). Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the lump sum to add. first fingers 22. or what. any two figures between 45 and 55. Proceed as in the second lumbering. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. as one might suppose. 3. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. lastly. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked.. adding 400 instead of 100. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. 2. at the will of the observer. or from above or from below. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. further. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. For example. 7. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. It takes place also. and so on. For figures ending in 6. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. the value which the upper fingers have. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. when he removes his spectacles. in the case of a nearsighted person. the inversion takes place against his will. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. beginning the thumbs with 16. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. forties. And the lump sum to add. 75 and 85. 21. 8. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. The inversion and reversion did not take place. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. . which is the half-way point between the two fives. thirties.

sometimes the point towards him. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. The ports were not easy to make. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. A flat slide valve was used. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. the other appearance asserts itself. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. and putting a cork on the point. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. as . one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. Looking at it in semidarkness. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. tee. when he knows which direction is right. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee.

These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. pipe 10 in. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. Ill. it is easily built. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. pipe. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. . While this engine does not give much power. The steam chest is round. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. apart. in diameter. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. if continued too long without proper treatment. as in a vise. deep. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Fasten the block solidly. H. -Contributed by W. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. If nothing better is at hand. bottom side up. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. across and 1/2 in. saw off a section of a broom handle. and make in one end a hollow. Next take a block of wood. The eccentric is constructed of washers. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. Beating copper tends to harden it and. secure a piece of No. across the head. Kutscher. about 2 in. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. inexpensive. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Springfield. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim.. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. such as is shown in the illustration.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. The tools are simple and can be made easily. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends.

This process is called annealing. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. O. Vinegar. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. and. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. Camden. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. --Contributed by W. S.will cause the metal to break. especially when the object is near to the observer. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. as it softens the metal. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. C. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. the other to the left. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. To overcome this hardness. Hay. To produce color effects on copper.

It is just as though they were not there. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. orange. The red portions of the picture are not seen. that for the right. disappears fully. and lies to the right on the picture. would serve the same purpose. in the proper choice of colors. the one for the left eye being blue. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. as for instance red and green. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. from the stereograph. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. they must be a very trifle apart. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The further apart the pictures are. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black.stereoscope. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. it. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. the further from the card will the composite image appear. because. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. with the stereograph. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. and without any picture. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. diameter. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. So with the stereograph. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. In order to make them appear before the card. while both eyes together see a white background. however. not two mounted side by side. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. the left eye sees through a blue screen. . But they seem black. although they pass through the screen. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. because of the rays coming from them. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. only the orange rays may pass through. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result.

The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. or the middle of the bottle. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. thick. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. etc. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. in diameter. long and a hole drilled in each end. wireless. 12 gauge wire.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. wide and 1 in. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. This should only be bored about half way through the block. Cal. A No. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. in the shape of a crank. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. San Francisco. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. 1/4 in. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Place a NO. The weight of the air in round .

. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. Only redistilled mercury should be used. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. if you choose. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. square. Before fastening the scale. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. or a column of mercury (density 13. wide and 4 in. high. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. 34 ft. if accurately constructed. a bottle 1 in. 30 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. high. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. In general. high. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. but before attempting to put in the mercury. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. a glass tube 1/8 in. thick. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. inside diameter and 2 in. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner.numbers is 15 lb. wide and 40 in.6) 1 in. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. When the tube is filled to within 1 in.. pine 3 in. square. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. But if a standard barometer is not available. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. will calibrate itself. the instrument. long. internal diameter and about 34 in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. The 4 in. and a slow fall. or. long. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. long. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. the contrary.

5. a cover from a baking powder can will do. which is slipped quickly over the end. the size of the outside of the bottle. Mark out seven 1-in. 1. wide and 10 in. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. Number the pieces 1. Procure a metal can cover. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. 6 and 7. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 2. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. long. thick. and place them as shown in Fig. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. 3. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed.

Make 22 sections. 5 over No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. long and 2 ft. 3. Move 14-Jump No. Move 5-Jump No. 7 over No. 1. Move 6-Move No. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 2. 2's place. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. as shown in Fig. l over No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 3 to the center. 7 over No. 5's place. 6 in. shaped like Fig. 6 into No.J.Position of the Men move only one at a time. using checkers for men. Move 15-Move No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 5. 2 over No. in diameter. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 2. 6 to No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit.-Contributed by W. N. 7's place. 6. 5's place. Move 12-Jump No. Move 8-Jump No. 3. Move 7-Jump No. 3. 6 over No. L. 1. To make such a tent. Move 4-Jump No. Move 10-Move No. 7. each 10 ft. 6. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 5 over No. Move 13-Move No. which is the very best material for the purpose. procure unbleached tent duck. This can be done on a checker board. 2 over No. 3 over No. 2 . but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 9-Jump No. Move 3-Move No. Move 2-Jump No. Move ll-Jump No. Cape May Point. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. Woolson. 1 to No. 1 into No. 3 into No. 2's place.

2 in. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig.. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. 9 by 12 in. Tress. 5. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. --Contributed by G. 3 in. As shown in the sketch. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. about 9 in. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Fig. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Fig. will do. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Use blocks. In raising the tent. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. long. as in Fig. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. high. Nail a thin sheet of brass. wide by 12 in. Emsworth. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. wide at the bottom. leaving the rest for an opening. fill with canvas edging. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 5) stuck in the ground. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. diameter. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. These are ventilators. added.in. 6. Have the tent pole 3 in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. from the top. in diameter. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Punch holes in the brass in . Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. wide at the bottom. After transferring the design to the brass. round galvanized iron. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. 6-in. back of the rice paper and before a bright light.J. 2. to a smooth board of soft wood. long and 4 in. made in two sections. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Pa. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable.

The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. cut out the brass on the outside lines. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. . fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. It will not. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. Corr. but before punching the holes. apart. bend into shape. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. around the outside of the pattern. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. The pattern is traced as before. When all the holes are punched. When the edges are brought together by bending. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. Chicago. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes.the spaces around the outlined figures. excepting the 1/4-in.

Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. or. Badger. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. allowing 2 ft. or center on which the frame swings. --Contributed by Geo. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. better still. partially filled with cream. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. E. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. Dunham. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. A cast-iron ring. G. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. between which is placed the fruit jar. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Mayger. pipe. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Stevens. A 6-in. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. pipe is used for the hub. These pipes are . but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph.. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Oregon. Que. or less. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. --Contributed by H. If a wheel is selected. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank.however. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft.

Four braces made from 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . bent to the desired circle. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. pipe clamps. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee.

The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. which was placed in an upright position. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. and the guide withdrawn. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The performer. 1. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. as shown in Fig. and dropped on the table. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. while doing this. 3.

Colo. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. in a half circle. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. 1. -Contributed by C. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. 2. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. White. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Louis. Denver. D. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. St. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. and second. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. F. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. it requires no expensive condensing lens. first. Harkins. The box can be made of selected oak or . --Contributed by H. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Mo. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. in diameter on another piece of tin.

deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. but not tight. wide and 5 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. AA. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. long. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. from each end of the outside of the box. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. long and should be placed vertically. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent.mahogany. fit into the runners. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. If a camera lens is used. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. This will be 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. long. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. and 2 in. focal length. wide and 6-1/2 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. from each end. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. 1. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. represented by the dotted line in Fig. Two or three holes about 1 in. high and 11 in. 2. and. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. high and must . 5-1/2 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. The door covering this hole in the back. wide. 3-1/2 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. wide by 5 in. An open space 4 in.

The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. then the second knuckle will be March. April. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Bradley. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month.. --Contributed by Chas." etc. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. and extending the whole height of the lantern. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. West Toledo. This process is rather a difficult one. Ohio. the article may be propped up . then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. as it requires an airtight case. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. 1. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. C. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. provided it is airtight. calling that knuckle January. June and November. and so on. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. calling this February.

2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. in. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in.with small sticks. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. H. or suspended by a string. . N. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. 1. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. in. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. Crawford. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The top of a table will do. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. the lid or cover closed. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. giving it an occasional stir. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. 1 and 2. fruit jars are required. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. In each place two electrodes. 2. In both Fig. but waxed. Pour in a little turpentine. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. Schenectady. running small motors and lighting small lamps. taking care to have all the edges closed. one of lead and one of aluminum. and the lead 24 sq. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. Y. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. and set aside for half a day. --Contributed by J. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum.

on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. he throws the other. After a few seconds' time. you remove the glass. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . and take the handkerchief and unfold it. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Cleveland. O. This trick is very simple. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. which you warm with your hands. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. He. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. You have an understanding with some one in the company. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up.. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. as you have held it all the time. as well as others. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts.

Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. near a partition or curtain. put it under the glass. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief.take the handiest one. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Colo. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Pull the ends quickly. Victor. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. but by being careful at shores. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. in diameter in the center. J. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. . if any snags are encountered. Be sure that this is the right one. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. on a table. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle.-Contributed by E. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. but in making one. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Crocker.

8 yd. Fig. for center deck braces. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. Both ends are mortised. and fastened with screws. 2 in. of 1-1/2-yd. at the ends. 1. is 14 ft. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. and is removed after the ribs are in place. drilled and fastened with screws. and. 1/8 in. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. The keelson. wide. the smaller is placed 3 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. screws and cleats. wide and 12 ft. apart. ducking. by 16 ft. by 12 in. square by 16 ft. by 15 ft. from the stern. for the bow. 7 ft. thick and 3/4 in. are as follows: 1 keelson. by 10 ft. selected pine. 9 ft. 1 in..Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. from each end to 1 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 3 and 4. 3 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 1 piece. long. of rope. for cockpit frame. wide 12-oz. from the bow and the large one. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. by 2 in. wide and 12 ft. of 1-yd. 50 ft. wide unbleached muslin. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. one 6 in. 3 in. Paint. 1 in. 2 gunwales. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 1 piece. long. and the other 12 in. 2 and braced with an iron band. by 2 in. clear pine. 1 mast. for the stern piece. 8 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 11 yd. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. as illustrated in the engraving.. 1 in. long. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. by 16 ft. 1/4 in. long. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. by 8 in. 4 outwales. 14 rib bands. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 1 in.

The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 1 in. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. 6 in. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. a piece 1/4 in. . gunwales and keelson. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. long. thick. wide and 24 in. long. wide and 3 ft. Figs. apart. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. 7 and 8. The deck is not so hard to do. 1/4 in. from the bow. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. thick and 12 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. These are put in 6 in. This block. and fastened to them with bolts. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. 6. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. wide. thick 1-1/2 in. The trimming is wood. 5. A piece of oak. 9. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. A block of pine. screws. wood screws. corner braces. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. Fig. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. also. A 6-in. A seam should be made along the center piece. is a cube having sides 6 in. 1 in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. Fig. The 11-yd.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. is cut to fit under the top boards. The block is fastened to the keelson. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. thick and 1/2 in. 3-1/2 ft. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. length of canvas is cut in the center. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. Braces. wide and 14 in. Before making the deck. They are 1 in. 6 and 7. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. 4 in. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. wide. in diameter through the block. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. long is well soaked in water. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. doubled. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. thick. long.

or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. 10 with a movable handle. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. Tronnes. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. The keel. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. long. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. are used for the boom and gaff. apart in the muslin. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. 12. in diameter and 10 ft. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. wide. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The sail is a triangle. . at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. long. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. Ill. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The mast has two side and one front stay. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. at the other. The house will accommodate 20 families. Fig. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. thick by 2 in. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. --Contributed by O. E. A strip 1 in. 11. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. is 6 in. Wilmette. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. each 1 in.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. wide at one end and 12 in. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut.

one 11-1/2 in. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. square.into two 14-in. --Contributed by O. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. Bevel both sides of the pieces. 3. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. Cut the maple. thick. 2. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. Tronnes. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. Wilmette. 2-1/2 in. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. Ill. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. 2 in. Take this and fold it over . flat-headed screws. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. wide and 2 ft. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. wide. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. five 1/2-in. 1. as shown in Fig. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. 2-1/2 in.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. and 3 ft. thick. 4. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. Fig. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. long. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. about 5/16 in. thick. E. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. long. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. with the ends and the other side rounding. wide and 30 in. long. flat headed screws. 1 yd. long and five 1/2-in. flat on one side. 5. and the other 18 in. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. wide.

E. If carefully and neatly made. long. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. The front. 1. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. About 1/2 in. wide . wide and 5 in. thick and 3 in. square. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. about 3/8 in. forming an eye for a screw. wide and 3 ft. Louis. long. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. C. 6-1/2 in. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. soaked with water and blown up. Another piece. When the glue is set. The sides are 3-1/4 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. wide and 6-1/2 in. B. --Contributed by W. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. long. Glue a three cornered piece. long. the mechanical parts can be put together. 3/8 in. wide and 4-1/2 in. are rounded. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. F. as well as the edges around the opening. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. but can be governed by circumstances. 2 and 3. the top and bottom. wide and 6-3/4 in. After the glue. and make a turn in each end of the wires.once. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. then centered. of each end unwound for connections. pieces 2-5/8 in. Cut another piece of board. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. C. leaving a small opening at one corner. and the four outside edges. is set. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. A. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. Fig. thick. D. and take care that the pieces are all square. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. 3 in. long. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. long. wide and 2-3/4 in. Figs. this square box is well sandpapered. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. long. A. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. The bag is then turned inside out. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. 3-1/4 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. 1-1/4 in. Mo. Wind three layers of about No. wide and 2-1/2 in. 5 from 1/16-in. square. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. St. thick. long. Bliss.

A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. showing a greater defection of the pointer. F. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. Fig. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. The resistance is now adjusted to show . The stronger the current. G.R. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. The instrument is now ready for calibrating.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. 5. 1/16 in. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. so it will just clear the tin. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. from the spindle. The base is a board 5 in. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply.S. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. Chapman. These wires should be about 1 in. Fig.and 2-5/8 in. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. bored in the back. the same size as the first. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. --Contributed by George Heimroth. thick. Yorkshire. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. from one end. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. long. I. board. the part carrying the pointer moves away. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. 4.A. Another strip of tin. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. in diameter. Richmond Hill. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. L. Place the tin. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. 4. wide and 9 in. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. wide and 2-1/2 in. long. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. W. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. long. 1/4 in. and as the part Fig. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. and the farther apart they will be forced. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. The end of the polar axis B. A pointer 12 in. Austwick Hall. 5-1/2 in. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. 4 is not movable. R. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. When the current flows through the coil. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. hole is fastened to the pointer. that has the end turned with a shoulder. C. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. Like poles repel each other. and fasten in place. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig.

The following formula will show how this may be found. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. at 9 hr. and vice . You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. 10 min. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. M. 10 min. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. say Venus at the date of observation. 30 min. A. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. thus: 9 hr. shows mean siderial.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 1881. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south.

.f. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. --Contributed by Robert W. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. and then verify its correctness by measurement. owing to the low internal resistance. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. or. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Conn. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. New Haven. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Hall. if one of these cannot be had.m. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e.

long. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Then. of alum and 4 oz. cover up with the same. The boring bar. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. fresh grass. Wet paper will answer. and heap the glowing coals on top. put the fish among the ashes. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. 1. arsenic to every 20 lb. especially for cooking fish. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. Fig. leaves or bark.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. as shown in the accompanying picture. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. thick. 3/8 in. 1-3/4 in. inside diameter and about 5 in. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . When the follower is screwed down. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes.

fastened with a pin. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. when they were turned in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. and threaded on both ends. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. turned to the same diameter as the flanges.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. pipe. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. pipe. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. thick. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. about 1/2 in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the .

It . angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. was then finished on an emery wheel. then it should be ground to a fit. Fig. If the valve keeps dripping. The rough frame. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. 30 in. Fig. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. and which gave such satisfactory results. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. This plate also supports the rocker arms. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. but never one which required so little material. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. A 1-in. the float is too high. 5. long. Iowa. Fig. labor and time. 4. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. 3. 2. a jump spark would be much better. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Clermont. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. wide. bent in the shape of a U. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. however. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off.valve stems. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. square iron. as the one illustrated herewith. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. thick and 3 in.

square and 2 ft. long is the pivot. long. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. and a little junk. in diameter and 15 in. for the "motive power" to grasp. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. Use a heavy washer at the head. butting against short stakes. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. 12 ft. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. with no trees or buildings in the way. from the center. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. being held in position by spikes as shown. extending above. in the ground with 8 ft. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. square. Nieman." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. A malleable iron bolt. As there is no bracing. long. This makes an easy adjustment. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. The crosspiece is 2 in. If it is to be used for adults. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . no matter what your age or size may be. --Contributed by C. from all over the neighborhood. rope is not too heavy. hole bored in the post. The seats are regular swing boards. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. and. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. strong clear material only should be employed.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. set 3 ft. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. completes the merry-go-round. W. 3/4 in. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. in fact. The illustration largely explains itself. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. A 3/4 -in. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. It looks like a toy. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. so it must be strong enough. strengthened by a piece 4 in. timber. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. long. square and 5 ft. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile." little and big.

long. and sent to earth. a wreck. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. one for the backbone and one for the bow. as shown in Fig. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. 1.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. These ends are placed about 14 in. and 18 in. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The bow is now bent. square. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries.the fingers. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. Both have large reels full of . all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. 4.2 emery. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. The backbone is flat. A reel is next made. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. away. 2. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. Having placed the backbone in position. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. light and strong. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. 1/4 by 3/32 in. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. if nothing better is at hand. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. then it is securely fastened. To wind the string upon the reel.

common packing thread. he pays out a large amount of string.string. Mass. the balance. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. or glass-covered string. Moody. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull.-Contributed by S. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Bunker. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. often several hundred yards of it. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The handle end is held down with a staple. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Newburyport. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. If the second kite is close enough. --Contributed' by Harry S. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. N. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Y. Brooklyn. First. C.

length of 2-in. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Vt. Corinth. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. must be attached to a 3-ft. then a dust protector. If the table is round. square (Fig. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Hastings. then draw the string up tight. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. --Contributed by Earl R. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. such as mill men use. each the size of half the table top. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. make the pad as shown in the illustration. lengths (Fig. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle .

from E to F. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. . This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Use a smooth. and E to G. G to H. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. 17-1/2 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. E. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern..Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. 6-1/4 in.-Contributed by H. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. 2-1/4 in. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Wharton. Oakland. which spoils the leather effect. Calif. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. from C to D.. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. hard pencil. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. Moisten the .9-1/4 in. trace the design carefully on the leather. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions.. 16-1/4 in. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.

H-B.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. about 1/8 in. G-J. get something with which to make a lining. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. is taken off at a time. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. Trace the openings for the handles. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. and corresponding lines on the other side. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. apart. with the rounded sides of the tools. place both together and with a leather punch. To complete the bag. if not more than 1 in. and lace through the holes. also lines A-G. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Now cut narrow thongs. Cut it the same size as the bag. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. I made this motor . and E-G. wide.

1. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth.M. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. 24 gauge magnet wire. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. D. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. 2. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. --Contributed by J. Calif. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. 1. in length. Pasadena. as shown in Fig. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. iron. long. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Shannon. each being a half circle. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. B. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. . 2-1/4 in. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. of No.

pasted in alternately. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. balloon should be about 8 ft. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. 1. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. and the gores cut from these. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. near the center. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. high. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The gores for a 6-ft. are the best kind to make. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . from the bottom end. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass.

Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. saturating it thoroughly. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. 4. The boat soon attains considerable speed. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. In starting the balloon on its flight. These are to hold the wick ball. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . after which the paint will adhere permanently. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. coming through the small pipe A. Fig. Staunton. A. After washing. 1. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. as shown in Fig. The steam. E. lap on the edges. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. 2. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. in diameter. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. so it will hang as shown in Fig. leaving the solution on over night. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. as shown in Fig. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. 5. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. somewhat larger in size. B. leaving a long wake behind. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. using about 1/2-in. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. As the boat is driven forward by this force. 3. In removing grease from wood. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. --Contributed by R.widest point. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. If the gores have been put together right. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water.

the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. In using either of the two methods described. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The blocks are about 6 in. long and each provided with a handle. There are three ways of doing this: First. as is shown in Fig. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. 1. in bowling form. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. if you have several copies of the photograph. wide by 6 in. high and 8 in. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. long. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. apart on these lines.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. Third. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. Second.

being careful not to dent the metal. Fig. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch.Fig. Rinse the plate in cold water. --Contributed by John A. Y. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. not pointed down at the road at an angle. N. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. 2. thick. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Albany. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Hellwig. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque.

is fastened to a common camera tripod. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. S. CC. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. A. With this device. long for the base. In Fig. wide and of any desired height. 6 in. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims.upon any particular object. A. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. and not produce the right sound. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. and Fig. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Richmond. Break off the frame. --Contributed by R. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. B. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. in diameter. 2 the front view. and. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. with a set screw. thick. Corner irons. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. which is 4 in. Va. 1 Fig. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. 5 in. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. through which passes the set screw S. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. Paine. wide and 8 in. These corner irons are also screwed to. are screwed to the circular piece. A circular piece of wood. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D.

Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. This will make a very compact electric horn. . This horn. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. -1. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. thus producing sound waves. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. pine boards. Kidder. in diameter of some 1-in. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. S. Ill. I made a wheel 26 in. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Lake Preston. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. La Salle. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. R. D.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. as only the can is visible. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine.

and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . B. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Ghent. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. --Contributed by C. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Kane. thick and 12 in. Fig. Feet may be added to the base if desired. 1. A. 2. If there is a large collection of coins. Purdy. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. The frame is made of a heavy card. --Contributed by James R. O. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. If the collection consists of only a few coins. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. square. the same thickness as the coins. 1. Doylestown.

J. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. several large nails. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. It will hold 4 oz. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Canada. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much.E. cut and grooved. of developer. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Toronto. --Contributed by R. border all around. Smith. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. A lead pencil. and then glued together as indicated. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. into which to place the screws . and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. Neyer. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. A rivet punch is desirable. a hammer or mallet. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. though not absolutely necessary. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. they become uninteresting. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. Cal. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Milwaukee. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. thick. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. --Contributed by J. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. for after the slides have been shown a few times. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. The material required is a sheet of No. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. melted and applied with a brush. plus a 3/8-in. --Contributed by August T. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Wis. Noble. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. One Cloud. If desired.

The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. and file it to a chisel edge. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. using 1/2-in. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. like the one shown. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. Take the nail. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. never upon the metal directly. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. both outline and decoration. There are several ways of working up the design. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. screws placed about 1 in. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Remove the screws. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . draw one part.

The lower rails are fitted in the same way. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. l-1/8 in. 1. of 11-in. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. long. . The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. 3. Rivet the band to the holder. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. square. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail.wall. as shown in Fig. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. each 1 in. About 1/2 yd. two lengths. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. square and 11 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. being ball bearing. in the other. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. using a 1/2in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. long. and two lengths. long. square and 181/2 in. for the top. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. 2. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. Do not bend it over or flatten it. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. Provide four lengths for the legs. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. up from the lower end. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. for the lower rails. The pedal.

Quackenbush. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Attalla. F. Ala. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. --Contributed by W. New York City. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. --Contributed by John Shahan. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. having quite a length of threads. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] .

from the end. --Contributed by C. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. in depth. using class. and two holes in the other. Mich. Ironwood. Purchase a 1/2-in. D. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. one about 1 in. college or lodge colors. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. stitched on both edges for appearance. The desired emblem. and the other 2-3/4 in. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . long. Two pieces of felt. long. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. making a lap of about 1 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. something that is carbonated.. the end of the other piece is folded over. Luther. and 3/8 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. wide and 4-1/4 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. initial. each 1-1/4 in. long. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. from one end. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. wide and 8-1/4 in.

the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. as shown in the sketch.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. 1/4 in. Schatz. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Ind. Fig. as shown at B. from the center and opposite each other. or more in height. A piece of lead. which can be procured from a plumber. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. if desired by the operator. Punch two holes A. in diameter and 2 in. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. or a pasteboard box. 1. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. and the cork will be driven out. --Contributed by John H. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. 2. about 2 in. in the cover and the bottom. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . This method allows a wide range of designs. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. Indianapolis.

O. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. 3. allowing the two ends to be free. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. are turned up as in Fig. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. on both top and bottom. . A piece of thick glass. 5. as shown in Fig. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. putting in the design. metal. 1. or marble will serve. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. so that it will indent without cutting the leather.Rolling Can Toy lead. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. Fig. and the ends of the bands looped over them. 4. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The pieces of tin between the holes A. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. it winds up the rubber band. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. When the can is rolled away from you. Columbus.

I secured a board 3/4 in. thick. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. long and bored a 1/2-in. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. and. 1 in. wide and 20 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. deep in its face. If it is desired to "line" the inside. mark over the design. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. Next place the leather on the glass. 3 in. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. A pencil may be used the first time over. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. or more thick on each side. The edges should be about 1/8 in. face up. After this has been done. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. New York City. hole through it. from each end. thicker than the pinion.

and fit it in place for the side vise. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 2 end rails. 1 piece for clamp. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 1 top board. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1 top board. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Now fit up the two clamps. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. M. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time.in the board into the bench top. lag screws as shown. much of the hard labor will be saved. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. thick top board. 2 side rails. in diameter. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Y. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1 by 12 by 77 in. --Contributed by A. 1 piece for clamp. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1 screw block. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 4 guides. Make the lower frame first. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 1 piece. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Brooklyn. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 3 by 3 by 36. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. pieces for the vise slides. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Fig. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Rice. New York. 1. 2 crosspieces. Syracuse. 1 back board. Cut the 2-in. 2. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. N. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time.

The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 2 screwdrivers. 1 monkey wrench. 24 in. The bench is now complete. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 wood scraper. in diameter. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 pair dividers. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. . 24 in. 1 set gimlets. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 compass saw.. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise.. it can be easily found when wanted. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 nail set. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 rip saw. The amateur workman. 1 marking gauge.. 1 countersink. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 pair pliers. rule. If each tool is kept in a certain place. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. Only the long run. 1 cross cut saw. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 set chisels. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 claw hammer. 1 pocket level.screws. 1 2-ft. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. as well as the pattern maker. 3 and 6 in. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work.

after constant use. Pa. Fig. being softer. 2. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Fig. 1. 1 oilstone. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. 1. 2 and 00 sandpaper. Doylestown. No. ---Contributed by James M. 3. will sink into the handle as shown at D. becomes like A. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin.1 6-in.1. try square. Fig. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. the projecting point A. Kane. but will not make . will be easier to work. The calf skin. Fig.

but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. After the outlines are traced. such as copper or brass. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. which steam. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. and the length 6-5/8 in. -Contributed by Julia A. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. First draw the design on paper. cover it completely with water enamel and.as rigid a case as the cow skin. secure a piece of modeling calf. but a V-shaped nut pick. the same method of treatment is used. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. when dry. New York City. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. Turn the leather. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. water or heat will not affect. . The form can be made of a stick of wood. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. White. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. If calf skin is to be used. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. will do just as well. If cow hide is preferred. lay the design on the face. Having prepared the two sides. Two pieces will be required of this size. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. then prepare the leather. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct.

On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Richmond. --Contributed by Chas. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. --Contributed by W. C. Maine. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. --Contributed by Chester L. . New York City. as shown in the sketch. Jaquythe. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Cobb. Cal.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Herrman. Portland. and an adjustable friction-held loop. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. A. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest.

B. Mass. A thick piece of tin. Conn. for instance. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Middletown. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Roberts.. an inverted stewpan.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. was marked out as shown. This was very difficult. --Contributed by Geo. . as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Cambridge. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. --Contributed by Wm. Wright.

Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. well calcined and powdered. --Contributed by C. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. apply powdered calcined magnesia. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. The next morning there was no trace of oil. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. Illinois. Herbert. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. . F. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Ind. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. pulverized and applied. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. used as part of furniture. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. Indianapolis. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. L. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. so some bones were quickly calcined. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. There was no quicklime to be had. and quite new. If the article is highly polished. and the grease will disappear. such as chair seats. of boiling water. but not running over. Bone. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. --Contributed by Paul Keller. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. which has been tried out several times with success. If any traces of the grease are left. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. face down. as shown. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. on a clear piece of glass.. When dry. but only an odor which soon vanished. Chicago. A beautifully bound book. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass.

A. the pieces . and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. long. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. Howe. deep and 5 in. thick. soft steel with the opening 6 in. 6 in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. This coaster is simple and easy to make. set and thumbscrews. Tarrytown. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. high and are bolted to a block of wood. If properly adjusted. It is constructed of a good quality of pine.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The pieces marked S are single. says Scientific American.. 2 in. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. New York. --Contributed by Geo. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. wide and 12 in.. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in.

Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. If the letters are all cut the same height. A sharp knife. no doubt. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. E. they will look remarkably uniform. for sending to friends. says Camera Craft. The seat is a board. to the underside of which is a block. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. albums and the like. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Their size depends on the plate used. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown.

trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. pasting the prints on some thin card. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. and." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. for example. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. In cutting out an 0. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. mount them on short pieces of corks. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. The puzzle is to get . do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. photographing them down to the desired size. So made. after. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. So arranged. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. using care to get it in the right position. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year.

square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. with the longest end outside. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. Cape May Point. of its top. G. Bayley.-Contributed by I. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in.J. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. snow or anything to hide it. says the American Thresherman. Old-Time Magic . long that will just fit are set in. He smells the bait. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. N. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. A hole 6 or 7 in. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. squeezes along past the center of the tube. so they will lie horizontal. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . hung on pivots. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals.

With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Pocatello. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. then spread the string. Idaho. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Press the hands together. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . N. Rhode Island. then expose again. Parker. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Pawtucket. --Contributed by L. --Contributed by Charles Graham. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. E. Brooklyn. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. --Contributed by L. Szerlip. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole.faced up. Y.

1 Fig. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. says the English Mechanic. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw..Genuine antique swords and armor. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. When the whole is quite dry. 1. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. in building up his work from the illustrations. wide and 2 in. using a straightedge and a pencil. thick. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. wipe the blade . remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. long. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. end of the blade. whether he requires a single sword only. 2 Fig. or a complete suit of armor. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make.. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. full size. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. they will look very much like the genuine article. dark red. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. if any. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. near the point end. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. The handle is next made. narrower. in width. and if carefully made. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. 3 Fig. Glue the other side of the blade. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. The pieces. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. 4 on the blade. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. or green oil paint. The blade should be about 27 in.

with light strokes up and down several times. should be about 9 in. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. thick and 5 in. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. shows only two sides. long. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. the other is flat or halfround. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. in diameter. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. In the finished piece. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. 3. In making this scimitar. as it is . in the widest part at the lower end. 1/8 in. preferably of contrasting colors. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. the length of the blade 28 in. 2. the other is flat or half-round. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration.. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side.. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. follow the directions as for Fig. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. 1. In making. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. about 1-1/2 in. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. 1. The length of the handle. 2. of course. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. and 3 in. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. Both edges of the blade are sharp. This sword is about 68 in. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. take two pieces of wood. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. allowing for a good hold with both hands. 4. 1. the other two are identical. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. 3. 1. Fig. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. square and of any length desired. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. the illustration.

causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. N. and if so.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. long. The thinness of the plank. On each edge of the board. in an attempt to remove it. however. each about 1 ft. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. at the lower end. and. Y. It is made of a plank. piping and jackets by hard water. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Morse. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. --Contributed by Katharine D. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. about 3/8 in. as there was some at hand. A cold . Both can be made easily. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Franklin. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. Mass. as can the pitch bed or block. or an insecure fastening. A piece of mild steel. --Contributed by John Blake. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Doctors probed for the button without success. square. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. as shown in the sketch. 2 in. Syracuse. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward.

a file to reduce the ends to shape. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. To remedy this. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. secure a piece of brass of about No. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. 5 lb. tallow. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. Trim up the edges and file them . For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. on the pitch. When the desired form has been obtained. design down. 18 gauge. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. using a small metal saw. When this has been done. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. To put it in another way. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees.. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. 5 lb. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow.. plaster of Paris.

smooth. --Contributed by Harold H. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. make an unusual show window attraction. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Fill the 3-in. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. 3. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. in one minute or 550 lb. 2). in the center. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. lb. 1 ft. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height.000 lb. Fig.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. in diameter (Fig. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. per minute. one 18 in. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. A. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. using powdered pumice with lye. Cutter. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. but not to stop it. The smaller is placed within the larger. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. per second. space between the vessels with water. This in turn divided by 33. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. 1 ft. over the smaller vessel. Before giving the description. Clean the metal thoroughly. 30 ft. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. in diameter (Fig. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. That is lifting 33. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. . lb. to keep it from floating. 1) and the other 12 in.000 ft. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. in one second. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. and still revolve. or fraction of a horsepower. or 550 ft. and hang a bird swing.

A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Szerlip. N. Brooklyn. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Y. or on a pedestal. Somerville. F. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Diameter Fig. Diameter 12 in.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. 2 Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. --Contributed.3 Fig. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet.18 in. 1 Fig. --Contributed by J. The effect is surprising. Campbell. Mass. by L.

the same as removing writing from a slate. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. away from the edge. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. and then. keeping the center high. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. after which it is ready for use. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. as a rule. using any of the common metal polishes. In riveting. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. Do not be content merely to bend them over. which. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. then by drawing a straightedge over it. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Polish both of these pieces. to keep the metal from tarnishing. often render it useless after a few months service. This compound is impervious to water. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. with other defects. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. and cut out the shape with the shears. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. with the pliers. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine.copper of No. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. which may be of wood or tin. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. Rivet the cup to the base. and the clay . is. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. unsatisfactory. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces.

Dunlop. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. long. 1. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Grand Rapids. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. 2. Scotland.can be pressed back and leveled. --Contributed by A. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. --Contributed by John T. Northville. Mich. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. A. It is made of a glass tube. Houghton. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Mich. -Contributed by Thos. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. in diameter and 5 in. The siphon is made of glass tubes. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. the device will work for an indefinite time. 3/4 in. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. . The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. Shettleston. DeLoof. as shown in Fig.

stilettos and battle-axes. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. This sword is 4 ft. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. put up as ornaments. long. 1. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in.FIG. London. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper.1 FIG. in width and 2 in. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. As the handle is to .

The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. with both edges of the blade sharp. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. 3 is shown a claymore. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. In Fig. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. narrower. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. paint it a dark brown or black. small rope and round-headed nails. the axe is of steel. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. long with a dark handle of wood. This axe is made similar to the one . in length. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. 4. 7. 6. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. 11 were used. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. firmly glued on. A German poniard is shown in Fig. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. the upper part iron or steel. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. This stiletto has a wood handle. The ball is made as described in Fig. in length. The lower half of the handle is of wood. which is about 2-1/2 ft. These must be cut from pieces of wood. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. long. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. Both handle and axe are of steel. When the glue is thoroughly dry. When dry. The handle is of wood. 5. Cut two strips of tinfoil. in width.represent copper. sometimes called cuirass breakers. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. 20 spike. the same as used on the end of the handle. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. This weapon is about 1 ft. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The crossbar and blade are steel. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. A German stiletto. string. wood with a keyhole saw. When the whole is quite dry. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. glue and put it in place. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. is shown in Fig. studded with brass or steel nails. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. with wire or string' bound handle. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. In Fig. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. Three large. 8. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. very broad. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The sword shown in Fig. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. This sword is about 4 ft. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. sharp edges on both sides. then glued on the blade as shown. 9. with both edges sharp. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. This weapon is also about 1 ft. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. In Fig. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. one about 1/2 in.

such as braided fishline. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. This will make a very good flexible belt. together as shown in Fig. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. Old-Time Magic . Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. will pull where other belts slip. . 2. --Contributed by E. 10. so the contents cannot be seen. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. Chicago. the ends are tied and cut off. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. When wrapped all the way around.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. high. W.described in Fig. Davis.

Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Oakland. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . apparently. These wires are put in the jar. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. There will be no change in color. Bridgeton. an acid. 1 and put together as in Fig. The dotted lines in Fig.J. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. some of the liquid. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. S.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. four glass tumblers. --Contributed by A. To make the flowers grow in an instant. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Macdonald. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Before the performance. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. with the circle centrally located. causing the flowers to grow. N. filled with water. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Calif. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. or using small wedges of wood. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. about one-third the way down from the top. As zinc is much lighter than iron. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. 2. in a few seconds' time. held in the right hand.

2 for height. not only because of the fact just mentioned. Cal. which are numbered for convenience in working. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. Jaquythe. and equally worthy of individual treatment. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. says a correspondent of Photo Era. This outlines the desired opening. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. If the size wanted is No. and kept ready for use at any time. A. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. unless some special device is used. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. Richmond. --Contributed by W. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. practical and costs nothing. When many slides are to be masked. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. 4 for width and No. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide.

Secure a sheet of No. too. which is dangerous. using the carbon paper. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. This done. or. The decoration. With a stick. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. 16 gauge. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. not the water into the acid. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. The one shown is merely suggestive. is about right for the No. When etched to the desired depth. paint the design. and the extreme length 7 in. Draw a design. the paper is folded along the center line. a little less acid than water. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. about half and half. and do not inhale the fumes. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. but they can be easily revived. or a pair of old tongs. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. possibly.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. may be changed. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. the margin and the entire back of the metal. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water.

Fig. about 8 in. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. or more wide. in diameter and 1/4 in. Paint the table any color desired. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. C and D. as at H. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. long. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. repeat as many times as is necessary. high. long and 1 ft. It may be either nailed or screwed down. about 3 ft. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. the bell will ring. Then get two posts. J is another wire attached in the same way. as shown in Fig. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Fig. A. When the button S is pressed. 5. about 2-1/2 in. 2. 4. to the table. thick. through it. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. so that when it is pressed down. as shown in the illustration. 5. about 1 in. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. wide. 0 indicates the batteries. attached to a post at each end. with the wires underneath. 2. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. 3. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. as in Fig. 24 parts water. 1. it will touch post F. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. Cut out a piece of tin. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. and bore two holes. wide and of the same length as the table. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. . A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Fig. Fig. and about 2-1/2 ft. 3/8 in. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. The connections are simple: I. Nail a board. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. Fig. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. 2.

The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth.Imitation Arms and Armor .. long. This weapon is about 22 in. The entire weapon. The circle is marked out with a compass. The imitation articles are made of wood. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. is to appear as steel. 2. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. 1. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. A wood peg about 2 in. handle and all. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. says the English Mechanic. long serves as the dowel. These rings can be carved out. but they are somewhat difficult to make. After the glue is dry. thick. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. the wood peg inserted in one of them. such as . It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel.

Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. as shown. This weapon is about 22 in. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. 2. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The handle is of steel imitation. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. All of these axes are about the same length. The handle is of wood. etc. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The entire handle should be made of one piece. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The upper half of the handle is steel. or the amateur cannot use it well. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. 6. 8. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. . The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued.ornamental scrolls. The axe is shown in steel. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. flowers. leaves. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. Its length is about 3 ft. the hammer and spike. with a sharp carving tool. used at the end of the fifteenth century. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. as before mentioned. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The spikes are cut out of wood. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. 3. 5. long. is shown in Fig. as described in Fig. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. covered with red velvet. The lower half of the handle is wood. If such a tool is not at hand. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. also. studded with large brass or steel nails.

2. 1. The knife falling on its side (Fig. . A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. 4). calls for a home run. as shown in Fig. Fig. the knife resting on its back. and so on for nine innings. 3. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. then the other plays. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. as in Fig. 6. 7) calls for one out.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. Each person plays until three outs have been made. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 5. Chicago. a three-base hit. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn.

When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. F.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. while the committee is tying him up. of the rope and holds it. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. as shown in Fig.-Contributed by J.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. This he does. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. If it is spotted at all. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. hypo to 1 pt. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. one of them burning . 3. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. Old-Time Magic . As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. of water for an hour or two. with the rope laced in the cloth. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. Mass. 2. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. Campbell. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. 1. Somerville. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen.

A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. of sugar. of water and 1 oz. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. Ky. Louisville. thick. and. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. B. etc. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. bolt. 4 oz. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. Thome. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. thus causing it to light. the other without a light.. He then walks over to the other candle.brightly. --Contributed by C. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. of plumbago. The magician walks over to the burning candle. New York City. of turpentine. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Lebanon. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. Drill Gauge screw. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. 4 oz. with which he is going to light the other candle. Evans. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. Brown. shades the light for a few seconds. . Ky. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. 3/4 in. invisible to them (the audience). --Contributed by L. showing that there is nothing between them. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands.Contributed by Andrew G. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush.

Its current strength is about one volt. Denniston. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. 5 in. --Contributed by C. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. for the material. Y. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. into a tube of several thicknesses. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Pulteney. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. diameter. which will give a strong. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . about 5 in. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. steady current. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. N. or blotting paper. but is not so good. thick. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. long. H. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. To make the porous cell. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Do not add water to the acid. In making up the solution.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money.

A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. As to thickness. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. One hole was bored as well as possible. one drawing them together.station. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. but somewhat lighter. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. carrying the hour circle at one end. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. steel. a positive adjustment was provided. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. After much experimentation with bearings. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. while the other end is attached by two screws. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. The . To insure this. Finally. the other holding them apart. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. long with a bearing at each end. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. steel. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. steel.) may be obtained. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in.

axis is adjusted by turning these screws. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg.." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . excepting those on the declination axis. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg." When this is done. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. subtract 24. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. save the one in the pipe. is provided with this adjustment. Point it approximately to the north star. The pole is 1 deg. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. All these adjustments. Cassiopiae. apart. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. Declination is read directly. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. Instead. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. turn the pointer to the star. 45 min. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. All set screws. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. once carefully made. and if it is not again directed to the same point. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. need not be changed. To find a star in the heavens. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. Each shaft. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye." Only a rough setting is necessary. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. and 15 min. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. Set the declination circle to its reading. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. When properly set it will describe a great circle. If the result is more than 24 hours. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. are tightened. It is. The pointer is directed to Alpha. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. To locate a known star on the map.. in each direction from two points 180 deg. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. The aperture should be 1/4 in. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes.

and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. the others . Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. The ball is found to be the genuine article. then add 1 2-3 dr. -Contributed by Ray E. Plain City. The dance will begin.. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. a great effect will be produced. is folded several times. 3 or 4 in. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. If this will be too transparent. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. add a little more benzole. In reality the first ball. cannon balls. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. long. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. which is the one examined. is the real cannon ball. Ohio. of ether. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. La. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. Strosnider. as shown in the sketch. New Orleans. taking care not to add too much. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. benzole. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr.

The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. Return the card to the pack. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. etc. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Mass. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. San Francisco. F. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. In boxes having a sliding cover. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Campbell. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . as shown in the illustration. small brooches. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. without taking up any great amount of space. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band.. Wis. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Milwaukee. Somerville. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. taps. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. --Contributed by J. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. 1). 2. Cal. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Fig. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article.

This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. as shown in the illustration. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Beller. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Hartford. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. . round pieces 2-1/4 in. This box has done good service. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. thus giving ample store room for colors. from the bottom of the box. slides and extra brushes. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Connecticut. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. prints. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B.

Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. will answer the purpose. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. Fill the upper tub. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. FIG. . and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. -Contributed by C. costing 5 cents. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Mass.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. with well packed horse manure. O. 1). When the ends are turned under. about threefourths full. 2). West Lynn. Darke.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. tacking the gauze well at the corners. holes in the bottom of one. or placed against a wall. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. and especially are the end pieces objectionable.

he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. when they are raised from the pan. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. they should be knocked out. --Contributed by L. If the following directions are carried out. Eifel. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. M. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. if this is not available. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. If plugs are found in any of the holes. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. cutting the cane between the holes. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. Chicago. and each bundle contains . If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. oil or other fluid. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position.

after having been pulled tight. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. as it must be removed again. it should be held by a plug. put about 3 or 4 in. held there by inserting another plug. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. In addition to the cane. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. then across and down. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. 1. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. and. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. a square pointed wedge. as shown in Fig. No plugs .

5 in. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. 1. When cool. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. Michigan. D. as the height of the line BC for lat. --Contributed by M.42 in. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. is the horizontal dial. 1 lat. we have 4. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. It consists of a flat circular table. is the base (5 in. 41°-30'. 42° is 4. Their difference is . and the one we shall describe in this article. called the gnomon. 1. Detroit.15 in. lat. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. as shown in Fig.2+. Patrick. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. 1. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. Even with this lubrication. it is 4. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. The style or gnomon.2 in. This will make three layers. as it always equals the latitude of the place. If you have a table of natural functions. 41 °-30'. All added to the lesser or 40°. as for example. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. the height of the line BC. but the most common. trim off the surplus rosin. the next smallest. After completing the second layer. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. 3. in this case) times the . and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. 4. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. 3. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes.5 in. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. using the same holes as for the first layer. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. or the style. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. No weaving has been done up to this time. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. R. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through.= 4. There are several different designs of sundials. -Contributed by E. and for lat. and for 1° it would be . From table No.15+. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig.3 in. 5.075 in. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. stretch the third one. During the weaving.075 in. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. If handled with a little care. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. the height of which is taken from table No. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. Fig. 40°. as shown in Fig.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. Fig. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. for 2°. W.

may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.89 50° 5. Its thickness.55 46° 5.30 1.12 52° 6.07 4. Fig.79 4.44 44° 4.66 latitude.59 2.38 .46 3.19 1. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.64 4 8 3. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.57 3. an inch or two. using the points A and C as centers. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. gives the 6 o'clock points. according to the size of the dial. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.76 1.06 2. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.03 3.14 5. 2 for given latitudes.46 .42 45 .00 40° 4. if of metal. and for this size dial (10 in. .66 1. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.30 2. Chords in inches for a 10 in.28 .42 .85 1.tangent of the degree of latitude.16 1.87 1.94 1.77 2. Table NO.42 1.85 35 .40 1.37 5.55 30° 2. base.10 6. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.49 3.33 42° 4.41 38° 3.88 36° 3.87 4.40 34° 3. and perpendicular to the base or style. long. or if of stone. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. Draw the line AD. 2.20 60° 8.37 54° 6. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. circle Sundial.83 27° 2. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. or more.39 .82 3.16 40 . For latitudes not given.56 . A line EF drawn through the points A and C.81 4. which will represent the base in length and thickness.23 6.68 5-30 6-30 5. 1.93 2.26 4.29 4-30 7-30 3.97 5 7 4.55 5.82 2.93 6.50 26° 2.33 .32 6. with a radius of 5 in.99 2.82 5.63 56° 7. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .57 1.27 2. and intersecting the semicircles.96 32° 3. Draw two semi-circles.49 30 .18 28° 2. To layout the hour circle.66 48° 5.11 3. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.55 4.91 58° 8.02 1. 2.

from Sundial lime. says the English Mechanic.means that the dial is faster than the sun.50 55 . Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.19 2.14 1. This correction can be added to the values in table No.30 2. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. June 15.46 4. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. 3.24 5.57 1. then the watch is slower. will enable one to set the dial. each article can be labelled with the name. April 16.89 3. London. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.87 6.50 .37 2.46 5. 2 and Dec.53 1. and for the difference between standard and local time. The + means that the clock is faster. if west. --Contributed by J. E.34 5. Iowa.63 1.54 60 .52 Table No. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.60 4. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.49 3.01 1.77 3.72 5.06 2. Sun time to local mean time. 900 Chicago. Sept. adding to each piece interest and value. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.21 2. Mitchell. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.93 6.add those marked + subtract those Marked . changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached..79 6. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . 25. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.68 3. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.82 3. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.12 5. 3.71 2.08 1.10 4. Each weapon is cut from wood.98 4. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. it will be faster. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. Sioux City. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. after allowing for the declination. As they are the genuine reproductions. and the . An ordinary compass. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.49 5. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.

and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. 3. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. the length of which is about 5 ft. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century.. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. 1.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. When putting on the tinfoil. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. . Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. Partisan. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side.

which are a part of the axe. It is about 6 ft. The edges are sharp. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. A gisarm or glaive. . An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. 5. the holes being about 1/4 in. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. press it well into the carved depressions. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. about 4 in. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. 8. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. This weapon is about 6 ft. long. 7. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. long with a round staff or handle. 6 ft.. The length of this bar is about 5 in. used about the seventeenth century. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. long with a round wooden handle. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. sharp on the outer edges. The extreme length is 9 ft. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side.which is square. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. in diameter. The spear is steel. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. long. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century.

This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Substances such as straw. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Loudonville. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results.-Contributed by R. Cut all the cords the same length. apart. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. are put in place. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. the most durable being bamboo. B. In Figs. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. are less durable and will quickly show wear. as shown in Fig. the cross cords. 5. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. H. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. 1. They can be made of various materials. Workman. 4. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. Ohio. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. used for spacing and binding the whole together. or in holes punched in a leather strap. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 2 and 3. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. The twisted cross cords should . This is important to secure neatness. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove.

The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. This was turned over the top of the other can. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . To remedy this. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. 3 in. of the bottom. for a length extending from a point 2 in. New Orleans. below the top to within 1/4 in. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. Harrer. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. M. as shown at B. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. shaped as shown at C. The first design shown is for using bamboo. in which was placed a piece of glass. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. wide. Lockport. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. -Contributed by Geo. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. A slit was cut in the bottom. La.be of such material. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. New York. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. Four V-shaped notches were cut. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. bamboo or rolled paper. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin.

A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Shay. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. --Contributed by Chas. giving the appearance of hammered brass. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. Schaffner. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. and two along the side for attaching the staff. Newburgh. It would be well to polish the brass at first. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. about 1/16 in. Pasadena. N. Maywood. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Sanford. Ill. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. --Contributed by W. turned over but not fastened. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. --Contributed by Joseph H. the brass is loosened from the block. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. H. Y. is shown in the accompanying sketch. This should be done gradually. After this is finished. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. This plank. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. do not throw away the gloves.tape from sticking to the carpet. wide. Cal.

Cal. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. the pendulum swings . Marshall. Unlike most clocks. Jaquythe.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Richmond. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. A. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Oak Park. --E. bent as shown. K. in diameter. Ill. -Contributed by W. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration.

The construction is very simple. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. away. and the other two 2-5/8 in. thick. Two uprights. A. Now place the board to be joined.. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. says the Scientific American. Secure a board. only have the opposite side up. in diameter. long and at each side of this. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. by 1-5/16 in. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. 7-1/2 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. are secured in the base bar. wide that is perfectly flat. Fasten another board. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. is an electromagnet. C. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. high. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. about 6 in. . bar. 6 in. high. high and 1/4 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. 5/16 in. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Metzech. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. Chicago. on the board B. about 12 in. bearing on the latter. such as this one. to the first one with screws or glue. high. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. wide. 3/4 in. In using this method. --Contributed by V. B. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally.

wide and 5 in. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. . The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. Fig. wide and 1 in. Phoenixville. The trigger. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. or more. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. square. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. from one end. by driving a pin through the wood. whose dimensions are given in Fig. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. 1. 4. 1. square inside. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. --Contributed by Elmer A.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. 2. is fastened in the hole A. as shown at A. Vanderslice. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. plates should be made 8 in. Fig. long. 1. Pa. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. 3. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray.

3 parts of stiff keg lead. Ohio. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. Simonis. Fostoria. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. if only two bands are put in the . one-half the length of the side pieces. square. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. 5 parts of black filler. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. -Contributed by J. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position.A.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. 2 parts of whiting. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. which allows 1/4 in. as shown in the illustration. by weight. rubbing varnish and turpentine.

If you wish to make a pencil drawing. keeps the strong light out when sketching. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. which may be either of ground or plain glass. 8 in. DeLoof. G. preferably copper. as shown in Fig. is set at an angle of 45 deg.lower strings. and the picture can be drawn as described. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. Mass. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. A mirror. long. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. Dartmouth. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. in the opposite end of the box. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. Grand Rapids. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. --Contributed by Thos. If a plain glass is used. and it may be made as a model or full sized. No. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. Michigan. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. says the English Mechanic. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. London. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. A double convex lens. wide and about 1 ft. It must be kept moist and well . In constructing helmets. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. II. place tracing paper on its surface. A piece of metal. 1. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. deep. is necessary. In use.

This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. with a keyhole saw. and the deft use of the fingers.kneaded. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. joined closely together. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . and over the crest on top. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. the clay model oiled. This being done. 1. as shown in Fig. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. a few clay-modeling tools. will be necessary. take. and continue until the clay is completely covered. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. 3. brown. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. shown in Fig. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. 2. as in bas-relief. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. Scraps of thin. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. The clay. on which to place the clay. All being ready. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. and left over night to soak. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. or some thin glue. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. 1. After the clay model is finished.

trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. a few lines running down. In Fig. They are all covered with tinfoil. and so on. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. This contrivance should be made of wood. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. then another coating of glue. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward.as possible. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. Before taking it off the model. The whole helmet. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. 9. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. 5. When dry. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. a crest on top. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. owing to the clay being oiled. the piecing could not be detected. When perfectly dry. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. the skullcap. Indianapolis. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. or. The band is decorated with brass studs. 7. will make it look neat. The center of the ear guards are perforated. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. should be modeled and made in one piece. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. and the ear guards in two pieces. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. with the exception of the vizor. square in shape. as seen in the other part of the sketch. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. one for each side. which should be no difficult matter. Indiana. as shown: in the design. --Contributed by Paul Keller. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. When the helmet is off the model. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. In Fig. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. 1.

If asbestos is used. thick. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. one fuse block. one small switch. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. and C. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. about 1/4 in. 2. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. 4 lb. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. FF. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. of the top. JJ. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. the holes leading to the switch. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. of fire clay. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. for connections. 4. of mineral wool. 3. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. 1. A round collar of galvanized iron. Fig. Fig. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. German-silver wire is better. long. 4. as shown in Fig. AA. if this cannot be obtained. as it stands a higher temperature. Fig. of No. AA. if the measurements are correct. should extend about 1/4 in. 4. when they are placed in opposite positions. 4. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. high. 2. The reverse side of the base. Fig. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. are allowed to project about 1 in. two ordinary binding posts. above the collar. long. one glass tube. the fuse block. 3 in. and two large 3in. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. 1. wide and 15 in. 1. If a neat appearance is desired. 22 gauge resistance wire. Fig. 4. about 1 lb.same size. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. one oblong piece of wood. in diameter and 9 in. GG. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. with slits cut for the wires. This will allow the plate. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. Fig. long. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 1. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. 1. or. The two holes. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. also the switch B and the fuse block C. each 4-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. Fig. AA. and. which can be bought from a local druggist. Fig. 4. is shown in Fig. 12 in. The holes B and C are about 3 in. about 80 ft. 1 in. The mineral wool. screws. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. as shown in Fig. until it is within 1 in. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. is then packed down inside the collar. The plate. Fig. thick sheet asbestos. Fig. Fig. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. E and F. 4. to receive screws for holding it to the base. 2. This will make an open space between the plates. 1. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. Fig. Fig.

The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. It should not be left heated in this condition. A file can be used to remove any rough places. As these connections cannot be soldered. --Contributed by W. causing a short circuit. It should not be set on end. St. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. --Contributed by R. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . Richmond. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. Cnonyn. H. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. when heated. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. The clay. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. KK. When the tile is in place. Cal. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. This completes the stove. Can. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. 2. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. as the turns of the wires. and pressed into it. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. While the clay is damp. more wire should be added. II. deep. so that the circuit will not become broken. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Next. If it is not thoroughly dry. steam will form when the current is applied. Cover over about 1 in. When this is done. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. apart. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. Cut a 1/2-in. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. will slip and come in contact with each other. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. Fig. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. 4. Jaquythe. above the rim. Fig. If this is the case. A. then. allowing a space between each turn. using care not to get it too wet. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. when cool. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. Catherines. it leaves a gate for the metal. This point marks the proper length to cut it. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail.

If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. but 12 by 24 in. and the frame set near a window. constructed of 3/4-in. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. the air can enter from both top and bottom. is large enough. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. and the prints will dry rapidly. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. the pie will be damaged. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. says the Photographic Times." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. as shown. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Ky. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Then clip a little off the . Thorne. Louisville.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. --Contributed by Andrew G. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. square material in any size. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser.

Le Mars. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. 22 gauge magnet wire. Two supports. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. wide. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. 2. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. The connecting rod E. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. Figs. thereby saving time and washing. thick and 3 in. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. high. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. 1/2 in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. long. long. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. 1. slip on two cardboard washers. causing a break in the current. 1/2 in. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. as shown. at GG. which are fastened to the base. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. in diameter and about 4 in. 14 in. thick. which gives the shaft a half turn. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. wide and 7 in. 1 and 3. open out. allowing each end to project for connections. Fig. Iowa. in diameter. W. each 1/2 in. The connections are made as shown in Fig. long. Fig. As the shaft revolves. -Contributed by S. wide and 3 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. 4 in. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. An offset is bent in the center. 1. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. long. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. each 1 in. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. thick and 3 in. 1. Fig. The upright B. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. Herron.Paper Funnel point. The board can be raised to place . 3. A 1/8-in. The driving arm D. high. 2-1/2 in. high. for the crank. 1.

The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Mass. in height. --Contributed by William F.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. bottom side up. In designing the roost. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. Stecher. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. 3 in. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. as shown in the sketch. . making a framework suitable for a roost. on a board. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. Place the pot. Dorchester. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. One or more pots may be used. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird.

will produce the pattern desired. grills and gratings for doors. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. and give it time to dry. as shown in Fig. windows. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. F. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. without any corresponding benefit. 1. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. odd corners. 1. ordinary glue. in diameter. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. if it is other than straight lines. preferably. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. paraffin and paint or varnish. shelves.. The materials required are rope or. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. that it is heated. Fig. adopt the method described. etc. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. Wind the . common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. when combined. F.. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. The bottom part of the sketch.

cut and glue them together. Fig. M. N. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. six designs are shown. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Y. -Contributed by Geo. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] .Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. 2. Lockport. Harrer.

Pour the water in until the filter is filled. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay.. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. and the sides do not cover the jaws. London. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. etc.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers.. 1. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. chips of iron rust. As the . says the English Mechanic.. This piece of horse armor. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. will be retained by the cotton. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. but no farther. etc. when it will be observed that any organic matter. which was used in front of a horse's head.

This being done. and therefore it is not described. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. except the thumb and fingers. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. then another coat of glue. but the back is not necessary. In Fig. which can be made in any size. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. An arrangement is shown in Fig. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. The armor is now removed from the model. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. 2. 6 and 7. 2. as shown in the sketch. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. with the exception of the thumb shield. as the surface will hold the clay. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. This will make the model light and easy to move around. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. the rougher the better. This can be made in one piece. All being ready. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. the same as in Fig. 4. and the clay model oiled. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. which is separate. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. This triangularshaped support. and will require less clay. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. 8. but for . Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter.

the foils will not move. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. When locating the place for the screw eyes. Calif. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. two in each jaw. two for the jaws and one a wedge. If it does not hold a charge. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. 2. Goshen. each about 1/4 in. are better shown in Fig. and the instrument is ready for use. --Contributed by John G. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Redondo Beach. but 3-1/2 in. long. running down the plate. --Contributed by Ralph L.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. N. 9. wide and 1/2 in. . will be about right. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. A piece of board. cut into the shape shown in Fig. the top of the rod. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. fastened to the rod. Fasten a polished brass ball to. La Rue. Y. the two pieces of foil will draw together. are glued to it. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Buxton. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. 1/2 in. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. in depth. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. The two pieces of foil.

as indicated in the . about 15 in. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. as this will cut under the water without splashing. M. At a point 6 in. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. When a fish is hooked. long. Texas. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. silvered. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. is made of a 1/4-in. 2-1/2 in. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Corsicana. --Contributed by Mrs. The can may be bronzed.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. A. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. enameled or otherwise decorated. from the smaller end. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. hole bored through it. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. pine board. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Bryan. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. as shown in the illustration. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other.

A good size is 5 in. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Basswood or butternut. Polish the metal. wide by 6 in. and trace upon it the design and outline. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. 22 is plenty heavy enough. will do as well as the more expensive woods. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. 3/8 or 1/4 in.Match Holder accompanying sketch. If soft wood. punch the holes." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. using powdered pumice and lye. Any kind of wood will do. put a coat or two of wax and polish . using a piece of carbon paper. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. or even pine. take a piece of thin wood. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. thick. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. When it has dried over night. long over all. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. then with a nail. as shown. Having completed the drawing. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. Next prepare the metal holder. such as basswood or pine was used.

tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. thick. Richmond. long. long. 1/2 in. can be made on the same standards. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Two wire nails. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. the whole being finished in linseed oil. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Instead of the usual two short ropes. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. If carving is contemplated. Jaquythe. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. . If one has some insight in carving. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. are used for the cores of the magnets. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. wide and 5 in. A. each 1 in. is used for the base of this instrument. --Contributed by W. of pure olive oil. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. It is useful for photographers. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. Cal. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. 2 in. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in.

The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. All of the parts for the armor have been described. cut in the shape of the letter T. as shown by the dotted lines. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. the paper covering put on. 3. London. cloth or baize to represent the legs. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. at A. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. says the English Mechanic. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. A piece of tin. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. when the key is pushed down. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. Lynas. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. except that for the legs. in the shape shown in the sketch. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. About 1 in. A rubber band. 1. --Contributed by W. then covered with red. H. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. similar to that used in electric bells. as shown in Fig. 25 gauge. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. . about No. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. leaving about 1/4 in. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. acts as a spring to keep the key open.

The two pieces are bolted together. So set up. completes the equipment. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position.. A 1/4-in. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. or ordinary plaster laths will do. one to another . hole in the center. 1 and drill a 1/4in. By moving the position of the bolt from. These can be purchased at a stationery store. 2. says Camera Craft. 1 in. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. Secure two strips of wood. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. can be made in a few minutes' time. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. make the same series of eight small holes and. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. apart. Cut them to a length or 40 in. In one end of the piece. 3 in. in the other end. apart. Silver paper will do very well. holes. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. drill six 1/4-in. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. long. for the sake of lightness. Instead of using brass headed nails. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. flat headed carriage bolt. at each end. and eight small holes. Take the piece shown in Fig. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. about 1 in. Fig. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. not too tight.

for instance. of the ends remain unwoven. 2.of the larger holes in the strip. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. but instead of reversing . leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. in Fig. the one marked A. A round fob is made in a similar way. taking the same start as for the square fob. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. and lay it over the one to the right. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. D over A and C. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Start with one end. Then take B and lay it over A. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. then B over C and the end stuck under A. 1. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. 2. Then draw all four ends up snugly. lay Cover B and the one under D. and the one beneath C. doubled and run through the web of A. as shown in Fig. In this sketch. C over D and B. A is the first string and B is the second. long. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. as in portraiture and the like. Fig. 2. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. 4.

--Contributed by John P. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. 5. is left out at the center before starting on one side. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. especially if silk strings are used. Ohio. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. Other designs can be made in the same manner. A loop. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. long. always lap one string. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. The round fob is shown in Fig. Monroeville. the design of which is shown herewith. 3. over the one to its right. Rupp. is to be made of leather. as at A in Fig. as in making the square fob. as B. 1-1/2 in.

door facing or door panel. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. A. using the reverse side. When the supply of wax is exhausted. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. beeswax or paraffin. Houghton. Any smooth piece of steel. Northville. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. pressing it against the wood. filling them with wax. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. -Contributed by A. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. Mich. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. it can be easily renewed.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. such as a nut pick. .

and after wetting. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. place it face down in the dish. J. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. D. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Fold together on lines C. Y. Enough plaster should. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Thompson. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. apart and driven in only part way. Petersburg. --Contributed by O. long. although tin ones can be used with good success. N.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. thick. E and F. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. those on matte paper will work best. remaining above the surface of the board. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. The tacks should be about 1 in. says Photographic Times. if blueprints are used. New York. it is best to leave a plain white margin. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. . --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. leaving about 1/4 in. Ill. but any kind that will not stick may be used. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. and about 12 in. Select the print you wish to mount. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available.

violets. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. without mixing the solutions. will be rendered perfectly white. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. roses. as shown at the left in the sketch. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. as shown in the right of the sketch. bell flowers. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. Lower into the test tube a wire. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. etc. One of the .Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water.. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. filling the same about onehalf full.

The sound box. or delicate tints of the egg. about 1/8s in. made of heavy tin. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. as shown. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. 3. to keep the core from coming off in turning. Shabino.. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . 2. thick. The diaphragm. L. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. in diameter and 1 in. as shown in the sketch. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. and at the larger end. long. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. 1-7/8 in. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. turned a little tapering. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. Fig. The first point should be ground blunt. not too tightly. but which will not wobble loose. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. is about 2-1/2 in. which should be of thin ferrotype tin.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. long and made of wood. --Contributed by L. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. shading. A rod that will fit the brass tube. should be soldered to the box. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The tin horn can be easily made. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. South Dakota. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. Millstown. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. 1. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. When soldering these parts together.

open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. Gold. and weighted it with a heavy stone. and. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Jr. E. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. put a board on top. wondering what it was. Chicago.Contributed by E. Ill. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. says the Iowa Homestead. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. Victor. mice in the bottom. Colo.

Pereira. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. N. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Buffalo. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. Can. Ottawa.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. Y. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. . There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers.

each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. longer than the length of the can. --Contributed by W. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. cut round. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Jaquythe. De Loof.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Cal. Put a small nail 2 in. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. by means of a flatheaded tack. through which several holes have been punched. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Richmond. A. Grand Rapids. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . --Contributed by Thos. Mich. a piece of tin. as shown. above the end of the dasher. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. This cart has no axle. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. as it can be made quickly in any size. and at one end of the stick fasten. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration.

The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. apart. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. 2 in. Kane. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. 2. New Orleans. of course. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. The candles. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. wide and 3 ft. La. 1-1/2 in. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. board. The baseboard and top are separable. 2. deep and 3 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 1 ft. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. wide and 1/8 in. Doylestown. Notches 1/8 in. long. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. thick. wide and as long as the box. 2. --Contributed by James M. I reversed a door gong. wide. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. A wedge-shaped piece of . 1.1. Pa. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. Fig. as shown. screwed it on the inside of a store box. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. 1/4 in. were below the level of the bullseye.

the shelf could not be put on the window. For the handle.Book Back Holders metal. etc. can be picked up without any trouble. it can be removed without marring the casing. A. When not in use. 3. the blade is put back into the groove . when placed as in Fig. stone or wood. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. scissors. --Contributed by G. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. wide rubber bands or felt. The block can also be used as a paperweight. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. West Union. will. take two pieces of hard wood. the reason being that if both were solid. Wood. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. This device is very convenient for invalids. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. 1.. Needles. Mass. by cutting away the ends. to prevent its scratching the desk top. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. dressing one surface of each piece. as shown in Fig. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. Ia. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. wide into each side of the casing. After the glue has dried. Cover the block with rubber. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Worcester. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. After completing the handle.

1 in. 1. Malden. A notch is cut in one side. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Ohio. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. is shown in the accompanying sketch.and sharpened to a cutting edge. S. Jacobs. 2. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Cleveland. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. --Contributed by H. long. thus carrying the car up the incline. Erie. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Hutchins. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. . If desired. square and 4 in. Each one is made of a hardwood block. as shown in Fig. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. Pa. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Mass. as shown in Fig. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. -Contributed by W. A.

. One sheet of metal.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions.J. Prepare a design for the front. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. a board on which to work it. will be needed. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. The letters can be put on afterward.. This will insure having all parts alike. and an awl and hammer. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. If one such as is shown is to be used. N. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. 6 by 9-1/2 in. Cape May Point.

says Master Painter. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. in the waste metal. varnish. as shown. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. The stick may be placed by the side of. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. turpentine. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. flat brush. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. Remove the metal. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. On the back. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. One coat will do. applied by means of a brush. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. 1/4 part. if desired. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. which is desirable. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. placed on a table. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal." In all appearance. mandolin or guitar. a violin.Fasten the metal to the board. but weird and distant. The music will not sound natural. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. 3/4 part. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. or. behind or through the center of a table leg. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. only the marginal line is to be pierced. that can be worked in your own parlor. 1 part. paste the paper design right on the metal. If any polishing is required. . Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. to right angles. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. 2 parts white vitriol. So impressive are the results.

long and spread about 8 in. long. each 6 in. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. square bar iron. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. long and measuring 26 in. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. across the top. Two pairs of feet. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. are shaped as shown in Fig. each 28 in. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. 2. says Work. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. is bent square so as to form two uprights. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. without them. thick by 1/2 in.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. 3. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. The longest piece. wide. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. and is easy to construct. round-head machine screws. . Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. it might be difficult. apart. London. With proper tools this is easy.

in the grooves of the borders. 5. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. After the joints are soldered. the latter being tapped to . and the base border. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. The brads are then removed. cut a long piece of lead. using rosin as a flux. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. as shown in Fig. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. B. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. Fig. special flux purchased for this purpose. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. Place the corner piece of glass. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. on it as shown. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. is held by the brads.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. lead. While the piece of lead D. C. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. or. D. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. The glass. A. 5. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. After the glass is cut. better still. 4. Fig. 6. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. 7. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The design is formed in the lead. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. This method is pursued until the glass is complete.

then flatten its end on the under side. square and of the length given in the drawing. bolt. Two styles of hand holds are shown. 8. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. long.the base of the clip. in diameter and about 9 in. Fasten the plates to the block B. H. holes through their centers. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Bore a 3/4-in. --Contributed by W. long. plates. A and B. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. Jr. bolt. This ring can be made of 1-in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. and two wood blocks. rocker bolt. plank about 12 ft.. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. then drill a 3/4-in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. Make three washers 3-in. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Dreier. N. wood screws in each washer. J. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. thick and drill 3/4-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. Camden. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. This . strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. The center pin is 3/4-in. and round the corners of one end for a ring. as shown in Fig. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Secure a post. not less than 4 in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. in diameter and 1/4 in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. rounded at the top as shown. long. one on each side and central with the hole. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Bore a 5/8-in.

9 in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. shanks. 2-1/2 in. New Orleans. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 3/4 by 3 in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 1. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. To substitute small. 1 by 7 in. 16 screws. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. because it will not stand the weather. in diameter and 7 in. screws. by 2 ft. The four 7-in. from one edge.will make an excellent cover for a pot. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 4 in. La. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. by 6-1/2 ft. chestnut or ash. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. bolts and rope. square by 5 ft. 1/2 in. long. 1-1/4in. long. maple. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. 4 pieces. long. long and 1 piece. square by 9-1/2 ft. If trees are convenient. long. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. horse and rings. 2 by 4 in. by 3 ft. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. Draw a line on the four 7-in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. 7 in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. can make a first class gymnasium. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 4 in. long. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. of 1/4-in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. 50 ft. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. 4 pieces. hickory. long. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. bit. straight-grained hickory. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 4 filler pieces. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 3 in. and some one can swing an axe. boards along the side of each from end to end.

2. boards coincide. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. each 3 ft. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. Bore a 9/16-in. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result.. so the 1/2-in. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. deep and remove all loose dirt. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter.. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. from the end. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. apart. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. 8 in. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. piece of wood. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . at each end. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. apart. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place.bored. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in.

platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. He stretched the thread between two buildings. in an endless belt. was at its height. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance." which skimmed along the distant horizon. it is taken to the edge of the foot. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. the effect is very striking. W. When the interest of the crowd. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. apart. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. which at once gathered. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. . If the tumbler is rotated. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. but most deceptive at dusk. disappearing only to reappear again. and then passes in a curve across the base. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. and ascends the stem. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. about 100 ft.. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. it follows the edge for about 1 in. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. not much to look at in daytime. and materially heightened the illusion. And all he used was a black thread. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. not even the tumbler. passing through a screweye at either end. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. just visible against the dark evening sky.

8 in. La. 1. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 8 bolts. so the point will be on top. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. deep. square and 51/2 ft. 6 in. 2 cross braces. by 10 ft. New Orleans. Bevel the ends of . Chisel out two notches 4 in. 2 in. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. from either side of the center. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 4 knee braces. long. A wire about No. 2 base pieces. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. 2 side braces. by 2 ft. 4 in. beginning at a point 9 in. by 3 ft. 4 bolts. 2 by 4 in. preferably cedar. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. To make the apparatus. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 4 wood screws. 7 in. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. long. large spikes. square and 6 ft. The cork will come out easily. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. long. 2 by 4 in. Fig. 2 by 4 in. long. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. wide and 1 in. long. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 4 in. and turned in a spiral D. 8 in. by 7 ft. long and 1 doz. 8 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 2 by 3 in. long.

Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. equipped with a strainer. but even unpainted they are very durable. A. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. which face each other. jellies. After the trenches are dug. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. so the bolts in both will not meet. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. save the bars. of 7 ft. and countersinking the heads. using four of the 7-in bolts. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. leaving the strainer always in position. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. A large sized ladle. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. additional long. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. Two endpieces must be made. The wood so treated will last for years.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves.the knee braces. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. Cal. leave it undressed. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. etc. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. except the bars. If using mill-cut lumber. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. --Contributed by W.. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. . The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. These will allow the ladle to be turned. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. Richmond. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. screws. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Jaquythe. ( To be Continued. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. as shown in the diagram.

it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. of sufficient 1ength. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. it is necessary to place a stick. which seems impossible. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. milling machine. Oil. A. drill press or planer. thus holding the pail as shown. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. or various cutting compounds of oil. partly a barrier for jumps. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. In order to accomplish this experiment. . If a little turpentine is added to the oil.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool.

bolt. by 3 ft. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. bolts. apart in a central position on the horse. long.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. bolts. 2 bases. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. bolts. These are well nailed in place. two 1/2-in. is a good length. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in.. To construct. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. projections and splinters. wood yard or from the woods. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. but 5 ft. ten 1/2-in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. in diameter--the larger the better. 1 cross brace. 4 knee braces. long. by 3 ft. 4-1/2 in. long. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 2 by 4 in. 4 in. long. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in.. stud cut rounding on one edge. by 3 ft. long. Procure from a saw mill. long. apart. long. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. 4 in. in the ground. 2 adjusting pieces. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. 7 in. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. 4 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. 2 by 4 in. The round part of this log must be planed. square by 5-1/2 ft. The material required is as follows: Two posts. Hand holds must be provided next. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. from each end. beginning 1-1/2 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. piece of 2 by 4-in. square by 5 ft. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. 3 in. 1 in. 2 by 4 in. long. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. and free from knots. These are placed 18 in.

but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. etc. Also. Richmond. water. but nevertheless. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder.horse top. snow. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. pipe and fittings. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Jaquythe. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. then bending to the shape desired. no one is responsible but himself. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way.--Contributed by W. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. it is caused by some obstruction. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. over and around. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. it is caused by an overloaded shell. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. A. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. such as a dent. Cal. says the Sporting Goods Dealer.

is much better than a wood sled. will give the length. Toronto. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. --Contributed by J. --Contributed by James E. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Joerin. 2. France. when straightened out. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. W. 1/4 or 3/16 in. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Noble. Boston. when complete. . This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. in width and 1/32 in. 1. thick. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. at E and F. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. The end elevation. Mass. Vener. These. which. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. are all the tools necessary. Paris. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. then run a string over each part. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Ontario. --Contributed by Arthur E.

After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. . It is best to use soft water. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The method shown in Figs. are nailed. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. AA and BB. 4. and the latter will take on a bright luster. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. 3. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. nor that which is partly oxidized. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig.

2. or unequal widths as in Fig. Percy Ashley in Rudder. 3. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. . If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. 1). 2. Broad lines can be made. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. as shown in Fig. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 8 and 9. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. class ice-yacht. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. as shown in Fig. 4. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. or various rulings may be made. The materials used are: backbone. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

pins to keep them from turning. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. a larger size of pipe should be used. Both the lower . The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. It can be made longer or shorter. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. A good and substantial homemade lathe. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. a tee and a forging. bent and drilled as shown. out from the collar. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow.Fig. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The point should extend about 11/2 in. pipe. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The headstock is made of two tees. about 30 in. 1. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. long. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. but if it is made much longer.

a straight line should be scratched Fig. It is about 1 in. a corresponding line made on this. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Musgrove. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. To do this. 3/4 or 1 in. . 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. --Contributed by M. 1. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Man. thick as desired. Laporte. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Fruitvale. UpDeGraff. --Contributed by W. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Cal. M. 2. but also their insulating properties. or a key can be used as well. Boissevain. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. and will answer for a great variety of work. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. Indiana. W. 2. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. else taper turning will result. Held. 2. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. as shown in Fig. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig.

Cline. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Smith. Ft. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . To obviate this. J. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. In use. --Contributed by E. long. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. Ark. as shown. The handle is of pine about 18 in.

White. which should be backed out of contact. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. take . This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. if this method is followed: First. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. After being entered. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. and when once in true up to its size. on starting the lathe. centering is just one operation too many. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. New Orleans. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Colo. Denver. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. --Contributed by Walter W. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. This prevents the drill from wobbling. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. La. the drill does not need the tool. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. face off the end of the piece. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs.

so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. says the Sphinx.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. is put into the paper tube A. shown at C. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. and can be varied to suit the performer. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. In doing this. unknown to the spectators. as shown in D. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. the cap is placed over the paper tube. The handkerchief rod. a bout 1/2 in. all the better. vanishing wand. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. It can be used in a great number of tricks. shorter t h a n the wand. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. The glass tube B. a long piece of glass tubing. after being shown empty. and this given to someone to hold. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. by applying caustic soda or . After the wand is removed. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief.

1 End. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 2 Sides. and glue it to the neck at F. Glue strips of soft wood. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. as shown by K. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. can be made by the home mechanic. long. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. End. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 1 Bottom. 1. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 3/16. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. across the front and back to strengthen them. cut to any shape desired. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. and if care is taken in selecting the material. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. The brace at D is 1 in. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. As the cement softens. This dimension and those for the frets .potash around the edges of the letters. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. With care and patience. Glue the neck to the box. The sides. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. by 14 by 17 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. preferably hard maple. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. square and 1-7/8 in. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. 1/4 in. 1 Neck. thick. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. Cut a piece of hard wood. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. with the back side rounding. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine.

3/16 in. Carbondale. thick and about 1 ft. E. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. in diameter. Frary. O. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. When it is completed you will have a canoe. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. Norwalk. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat.Pa.should be made accurately. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Six holes. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Stoddard. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. long is used for a keel. or backbone. A board 1 in. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. and beveled . but it is not. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. toward each end. H. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. -Contributed by J. --Contributed by Chas.

Fig. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Fig. by means of a string or wire. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. 3/8 in. . wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. 1. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. procure at a carriage factory. but twigs of some other trees. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. The cross-boards (B. as before described. the loose strips of ash (b. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. B. Fig. as they are apt to do. 4. 1 and 2. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. thick. 3). two twigs may be used to make one rib. long are required. when made of green elm. but before doing this. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. twigs 5 or 6 ft. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. probably. or similar material. Osiers probably make the best ribs. Fig. slender switches of osier willow. two strips of wood (b. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. long. 2). Fig. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. as shown in Fig. 4). b. such as is used for making chairbottoms. in such cases. such as hazel or birch. and. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. which are easily made of long. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. 2. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. with long stout screws. 2). a. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. in thickness and should be cut. Any tough. C. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 3. Fig. b. The ribs. C. and so. and notched at the end to receive them (B. Fig. Fig. Green wood is preferable. buy some split cane or rattan. b. are next put in. some tight strips of ash. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. 3. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. will answer nearly as well. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. as shown in Fig. For the gunwales (a. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. or other place. These are better. For the ribs near the middle of the boat.) in notches.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. and are not fastened. 13 in.. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Fig. In drying. Shape these as shown by A. 3). thick. wide by 26 in. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. apart.

Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. If the paper be 1 yd. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. When the paper is dry. You may put in . where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. The paper is then trimmed.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. and very tough. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. but neither stiff nor very thick. and light oars. Being made in long rolls. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. wide. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. It should be drawn tight along the edges. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. of very strong wrapping-paper. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. tacking it to the bottom-board. If not. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. preferably iron. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. and as soon as that has soaked in. Then take some of the split rattan and. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. It should be smooth on the surface. and steady in the water. and held in place by means of small clamps. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. but with less turpentine. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. When thoroughly dry. 5). lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Fig. if it has been properly constructed of good material. however. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. B. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. after wetting it. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. For this purpose buy about 18 yd.

and if driven as shown in the cut. 1 and the end in . For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. fore and aft. 5). 2. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. Fig. We procured a box and made a frame. 1. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. to fit it easily. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. and make a movable seat (A. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. Drive the lower nail first. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. Fig. they will support very heavy weights. 5.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. Fig. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries.

Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. Close the other end with the same operation. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. being softer where the flame has been applied. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. This is an easy . 4. and the result is. Pittsburg. 3. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. A good way to handle this work. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. this makes the tube airtight. 5. This way has its drawbacks. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. Pa. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. and the glass. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest.Fig. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass.

the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass.way to make a thermometer tube. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. Seventh. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. second. Sixth. flat and round-nosed pliers. then reverse. fourth. metal shears. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. or six arms. rivet punch. Oswald. above the metal. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. After the bulb is formed. -Contributed by A. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . three. 23 gauge. with a piece of carbon paper. The candle holders may have two. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. Give the metal a circular motion. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. extra metal all around. also trace the decorative design. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. very rapid progress can be made. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. thin screw. four. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. above the work and striking it with the hammer. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. fifth. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. third. file. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block.

The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Having pierced the bracket. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Metal polish of any kind will do. Small copper rivets are used. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . and holder. drip cup.

using a steel pen. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. is a broomstick. and in a week . the stick at the bottom of the sail. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. and other things as they were needed. Fifty. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. and brace and bit were the tools used. The gaff. if it has not absorbed too much ink. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. all the rest I found. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. I steer with the front wheel. Soak 1 oz. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. The boom. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. sugar 1 part. N. Heat 6-1/2 oz. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. and it will be ready for future use. and add the gelatine. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. and water 24 parts. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. A saw. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. Twenty cents was all I spent. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. except they had wheels instead of runners. J. Mother let me have a sheet. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. hammer. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. Shiloh. winding the ends where they came together with wire. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. glycerine 4 parts. smooth it down and then remove as before. deep. on a water bath. F. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. when it will be ready for use. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. alcohol 2 parts. thus it was utilized.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. of glycerine to about 200 deg.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.

long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. This ring is made up from two rings. or a lens of 12-in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. and the work carefully done. 1/2 to 3/4 in. about 2 ft. above the center. H. slide to about 6 ft. G. at a point 1 in. 1. 3. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. 8 in. as desired. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. high. are . and a projecting lens 2 in. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in.. The slide support. If a small saw is used. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. A and B. at a distance of 24 ft. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. DD. and 14 in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. wide and 15 in. A table. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. wire brads. Fig. long. wide. well seasoned pine. but if such a box is not found. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. and. E. thick. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. focus enlarging a 3-in. describe a 9-in. or glue. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. provided the material is of metal. The board is centered both ways. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. and the lens slide.

Minn. To reach the water.-Contributed by G. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. but not long enough. A sheet . All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. apply two coats of shellac varnish. the water at once extinguishes the flame. light burning oil.constructed to slip easily on the table. B. P. The arrangement is quite safe as. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. St. the strips II serving as guides. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. and when the right position is found for each. placed on the water. JJ. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. of safe. E. Small strips of tin. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. should the glass happen to upset. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. Paul.

Fig.. --Contributed by J. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. from a tent company. 4. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. by 12 ft. I ordered a canvas bag. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. 3 in. 3. form a piece of wire in the same shape. 12 ft. then the corners on one end are doubled over. N. to cover the mattresses. Crawford. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 3. Schenectady.H. Y. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 1. 9 in. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 2. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. If one of these clips is not at hand. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. Fig. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid.

Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. for amperes and the other post. Colo. C. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. 2. 1/2 in. Pa. as shown in Fig. 2.each edge. open on the edges. long. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. V. Teasdale. insulating them from the case with cardboard. 1. 3/4 in. D. Fig. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Denver. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. 3/4 in. so as to form two oblong boxes. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. To calibrate the instrument. Warren. to keep it from unwinding. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Walter W. thick. Do not use too strong a rubber. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. in the center coil. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. An arc is cut in the paper. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. and insert two binding-posts. A Film Washing Trough [331] . A rubber band. long and 3/16 in. 3 to swing freely on the tack. White. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. first mark the binding-post A. 1/2 in. 1. Fig. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. --Contributed by Edward M. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. 2. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. drill two 3/16 in. Attach a piece of steel rod. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. apart. Fold two strips of light cardboard. wide. to the coil of small wire for volts. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. holes in the edge. through which the indicator works.

apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. O. Hunting. Wood Burning [331] . Place this can on one end of the trough. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. --Contributed by M. as shown. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. M. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. with the large hole up. Cut a 1/4-in. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Dayton. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet.

Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. then into this bottle place. mouth downward. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the .Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays.

thick. --Contributed by Fred W. If the cork is adjusted properly. but not very thick. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system .Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. long. Whitehouse. N. 1. --Contributed by John Shahan. If the small bottle used is opaque. Auburn. 2. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. 3/4 in. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. as shown in the sketch. provided the bottle is wide. many puzzling effects may be obtained. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in.Y. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. wide and 4 in. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. Place the small bottle in as before. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. Upper Troy. This will make a very pretty ornament. Ala. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water.

K. long. in diameter and 1 in. pulley. Fig. high without the upper half. The 21/2-in. --Contributed by D. G. thick and 3 in. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. The bearing blocks were 3 in. 4. 1. to the shaft. or ordinary telephone transmitters. A staple. thick. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. 3. wide. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. Both bearings were made in this manner. were constructed of 1-in. Milter. 1. The wire L was put . Fig. thick. Fig. If a transmitter is used. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. On a 1000-ft. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. Its smaller parts. 1. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. 2. I. pulley F. Fig. iron rod. such as blades and pulleys. was 1/4in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. which extended to the ground. which was nailed to the face plate. as shown in Fig. The shaft C.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. which gave considerable power for its size. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. 1 in. B. 1. was keyed to shaft C. W. Fig. 1. even in a light breeze. 2 ft. sugar pine on account of its softness. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. line. by the method shown in Fig. which was 6 in. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in.

thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. square to the board P at the top of the tower. The smaller one. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. The bed plate D. 2. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. was 2 ft. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. with all parts in place. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Fig. a 1/2-in. If you have no bell. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. long. There a 1/4-in. This fan was made of 1/4-in. as. 1. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. G. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. 0. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. The other lid. 3 in.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Fig. Fig. long and 3 in. Fig. in diameter. 6. long and bend it as . The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. H. pine 18 by 12 in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. in the center of the board P. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. apart in the tower. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. across the thin edge of a board. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. so that the 1/4-in. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. hole for the shaft G was in the center. 1. This completes the receiver or sounder. wide and 1 in. and was cut the shape shown. for instance. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. with brass headed furniture tacks. 5. hole was bored for it. 6. 1. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. The power was put to various uses. cut out another piece of tin (X. strips. 1. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. 1) 4 in. washers were placed under pulley F. 25 ft. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. long and 1/2 in. Fig. long and bend it as shown at A. when the windmill needed oiling. To make the key. top down also. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. Fig. was tacked. R. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. To lessen the friction here. Two washers were placed on shaft C. Fig. through the latter. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. providing one has a few old materials on hand. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. This board was 12 in. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. long.

through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. leaving the other wire as it is. -Contributed by John R. Now. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. causing a buzzing sound. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. after the manner of bicycle wheels. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it.shown. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. fitted with paddles as at M. McConnell. like many another device boys make. The rear barrels are. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. Before tacking it to the board. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. By adjusting the coils. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. as indicated. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. When tired of this instrument. using cleats to hold the board frame. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. 2. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. as shown at Water. Going back to Fig. 1. at the front. although it can be made with but two. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. and. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Thus a center drive is made. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle.

The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . which will give any amount of pleasure. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. 1. 3. If the journals thus made are well oiled. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. The speed is slow at first. or even a little houseboat. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. can be built. To propel it. copper piping and brass tubing for base.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. as shown in Fig. feet on the pedals. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. there will not be much friction. There is no danger. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair.

Shape small blocks of boxwood. D. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector.of pleasure for a little work. 2. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . 1. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. C. Then melt out the rosin or lead. Fig. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. and so creating a false circuit. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. B. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Fig. Turn a small circle of wood. Fig. or it may be put to other uses if desired. 1. If magnifying glass cannot be had. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. 1. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. A. Fig. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. 2. then the glass disc and then the other ring. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. 2. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. Place one brass ring in cylinder. If it is desired to make the light very complete. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder.

The contact post may be of 1/4-in. after two turns have been made on the key. I. When alarm goes off. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. if too small. while lying in bed. wide and 1/16 in. C. E. J. To operate this. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. F. set alarm key as shown in diagram. thick. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. shelf. copper tubing. brass strip. In placing clock on shelf. wire from bell to switch. brass rod.. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. near the bed. contact post. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. dry batteries. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. long. after setting alarm. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. To get the cylinder into its carriage. Ogden. some glue will secure them. wire from batteries to switch. Utah. T. --Contributed by C. The parts indicated are as follows: A. 3/8 in. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. S. X. or 1/4in. bell. such as is used for cycle valves. long. --Contributed by Geo. Brinkerhoff. by having the switch on the baseboard. H. 4 in. To throw on light throw levers to the left. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. D. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . B. 5-1/4 by 10 in. Swissvale. G. switch. key of alarm clock. and pulled tight. Throw lever off from the right to center.india rubber tubing. Chatland. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. which stops bell ringing. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. Pa. bracket. C. 4-1/2 in. wire from light to switch.

for instance. being careful not to get the sand in it. in diameter.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. A small lamp of about 5 cp. S. from one end. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. as in Fig. which can be made of an old can. Make a shoulder. 3. All that is required is a tin covering. as . Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. will do the heating. A flannel bag. place stick and all in a pail of sand. 2. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. letting it extend 3/4 in. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. as at B. 1. making it as true and smooth as possible. Fig. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. This is to form the fuse hole. Pull out the nail and stick. 2. wide. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. in diameter. beyond the end of the spindle. Lanesboro. Having finished this. as at A. 1. a bed warmer. Fig. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. gives the heater a more finished appearance. 1/4 in. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. long. 4 in. Fig. Chapman. --Contributed by Chas. Make the spindle as in Fig. Minn. about 3-1/2 in. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. about 6 in. as at A.

1 in. spring and arrows. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. wide and 3 ft. or hickory.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. ash. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. thick. 5/8 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. long. The material must be 1-1/2 in. thick. The illustration shows how this is done. 3/8 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. wide and 6 ft. 11/2 in. wide and 3/8 in. good straight-grained pine will do. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. A piece of tin. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. deep. 1. this is to keep the edges from splitting. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . --Contributed by Arthur E. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. thick. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. long. long. A piece of oak. Joerin. 6 in.

The stick for the bow. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. 4. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. it lifts the spring up.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. To shoot the crossbow. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. Wilmette. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. from the opposite end. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. in diameter. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. 6. and one for the trigger 12 in. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. 7. having the latter swing quite freely. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. Trownes. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. thick. from the end of the stock. Such a temporary safe light may be . 2. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Ill. 9. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. wide at each end. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. which is 1/4 in. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. A spring. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. To throw the arrow. The trigger. or through the necessity of. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. 8. When the trigger is pulled. --Contributed by O. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. The bow is not fastened in the stock. better still. E. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Fig. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. place the arrow in the groove. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. as shown in Fig. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. Fig. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. 3. Fig. as shown in Fig.

a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. Remove one end. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. apart. Moreover. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. from the ground. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. By chopping the trunk almost through. C. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. says Photo Era. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. is used as a door. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. or only as a camp on a short excursion. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. Remove the bottom of the box. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. the bark lean-to is a . Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. This lamp is safe. respectively. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. The hinged cover E. make the frame of the wigwam. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. making lighting and trimming convenient. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. and nail it in position as shown at A. it is the easiest camp to make. The cut should be about 5 ft. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. from the ground. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. since the flame of the candle is above A. and replace as shown at B.

wide and 6 ft. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. are a convenient size for camp construction. long. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. For a permanent camp. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. piled 2 or 3 ft. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. Sheets of bark. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. makes a good pair of tongs.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. 3 ft. wide. selecting a site for a camp. and cedar. spruce. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Tongs are very useful in camp. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. will dry flat. 6 ft. deep and covered with blankets. For a foot in the middle of the stick. and split the tops with an ax. a 2-in. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. nails are necessary to hold it in place. and when the camp is pitched. . A piece of elm or hickory. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. Where bark is used. thick. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. In the early summer. long and 1-1/2 in. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. make the best kind of a camp bed. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. long and 2 or 3 ft.

hinges. and affording accommodation for several persons. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. .Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats.

wide. changing the water both morning and night. 1. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. Doylestown. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. A. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. Fig. B. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. about 4 in. the interior can. deep and 4 in.. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. to another . Pa. Kane. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. and provide a cover or door. I drove a small cork. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. B. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. --Contributed by James M.

Fig. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1.glass tube. fused into one side. limit. The diagram. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. E. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. if necessary. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. which project inside and outside of the tube. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. for instance. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. The current is thus compelled. a liquid. This makes . This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. 2. 4 and 5). The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. 3. until. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. to pass through an increasing resistance. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. C. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. for instance. 2. such as ether. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5.

is composed of wrought sheet iron. The bearing studs are now made. Alpena. in diameter. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. 1. 3-3/8 in. assemble and rivet them solidly. which will make it uniform in size. Michigan. These holes are for the bearing studs. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. as shown in Fig. two holes. 3-3/8 in. A 5/8in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. on a lathe. and for the outside of the frame. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. or pattern. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. between centers. set at 1/8 in. brass or iron. Fig. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. but merely discolored. which may be of any thickness so that. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. in diameter. as shown in the left-hand sketch. 4-1/2 in. When the frame is finished so far. larger than the dimensions given. they will make a frame 3/4 in. After the template is marked out. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. screws. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. Then the field can be finished to these marks. or even 1/16 in. thick. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. clamp the template. Before removing the field from the lathe. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. thicker. bent at right angles as shown. by turning the lathe with the hand. making it 1/16 in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. hole is . 3. thick. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. If the thickness is sufficient. 2. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. Fig. drill the four rivet holes. mark off a space. therefore. when several pieces are placed together. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. brass. tap. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. to allow for finishing. cannot be used so often. A. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. After cleaning them with the solution.

The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. is turned up from machine steel.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. solder them to the supports. The shaft of the armature. and build up the solder well. When the bearings are located. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. brass rod is inserted. into which a piece of 5/8-in. 4. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. or otherwise finished. Fig. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . and drilled to receive the armature shaft. file them out to make the proper adjustment. soldered into place.

Rivet them together. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 8. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. and held with a setscrew. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. The sides are also faced off and finished. as shown in Fig.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. 9. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. The pins are made of brass. wide. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. to allow for finishing to size. thick.. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. brass rod. as shown in Fig. wide. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. as shown in Fig. 3. then drill a 1/8-in. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. Make the core 3/4 in. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. After they . rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. 5. 1-1/8 in. thick. sheet fiber. or segments. 3/4 in. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. washers. being formed for the ends. 3. inside diameter. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. When annealed. threaded. Procure 12 strips of mica. 3/4 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. 6. thick. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. by 1-1/2 in. 1/8 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. 7. as shown in Fig. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. thick are cut like the pattern. hole and tap it for a pin. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. thick and 1/4 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. Find the centers of each segment at one end. deep and 7/16 in. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. holes through them for rivets. 6. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. After the pieces are cut out. When this is accomplished. Armature-Ring Core. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. and then they are soaked in warm water. as shown m Fig.

through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. When the glue is set. Fig. are soldered together. In starting to wind. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. after the motor is on the stand. sheet fiber. The two ends are joined at B. about 100 ft. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. of No. Fig. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. 5. After one coil. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. 1. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. wide and 1 in. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. The winding is started at A. shown at B. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. sheet fiber. long. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. Run one end of the field wire. being required. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. To connect the wires. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. This winding is for a series motor. The field is wound with No. shown at A. or side. 8 in. and bring the end of the wire out at B. which will take 50 ft. of the end to protrude. of the wire. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. 1. thick. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. by bending the end around one of the projections. they are glued to the core insulation. and wind on four layers. The source of current is connected to the terminals.have dried. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. 6 in. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. the two ends of the wire. until the 12 slots are filled. All connections should be securely soldered. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. yet it shows a series of .

and one. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. A 1/2-in. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. is fastened to the metallic body. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. still more simply. Nine wires run from the timer. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. as in the case of a spiral. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of .The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. which serves as the ground wire. or. one from each of the eight contacts. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started.

The Wind Vane. thus giving 16 different directions. It should be . perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. circle. board. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. Without this attachment. 6 in. long. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. of the dial. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. 45 deg. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. Covering these is a thin.

if not too high. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom.about 6 ft. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. is most satisfactory. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. Before tacking the fourth side. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Place the leather on some level. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. will answer the purpose just as well. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. To work these outlines. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. though a special knife. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. will be enough for the two sides. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. Blackmer. To make it. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. thus making a universal joint. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. -Contributed by James L. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Y. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. called a chip carving knife. will be sufficient. and about 6 in. long to give the best results. also a piece of new carpet. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. or. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. . Buffalo. N. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. according to who is going to use it. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. high. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. Cut 3-in. however. Fill the box with any handy ballast. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. and securely nail on the top of the box. 14 by 18 in. making it heavy or light.

fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. A good leather paste will be required. An ordinary sewing-machine . being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.

or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Morse. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. of water. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Syracuse. of common salt and 10 lb. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. --Contributed by Katharine D. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. N. and tie them together securely at the bottom. and fasten the feathers inside of it. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. rather than the smooth side. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. or a hip that has been wrenched. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. a needle and some feathers. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. B. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. temporary lameness. square and tying a piece of .will do if a good stout needle is used. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Y. away from it. can be thrown away when no longer needed. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. If a fire breaks out. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use.

board all around the bottom on the inside. One end is removed entirely. Ashland. and a coil of wire. The end is filed to an edge. G. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. deep. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. is cut on the wood. Wis. laying poisoned meat and meal. Gordon Dempsey. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume.J. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. The diaphragm C. Albany. B.. --Contributed by J. Y. The body of the receiver. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. setting traps. Hellwig. long. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. Paterson. A. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. but not sharp. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. which is the essential part of the instrument. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. This not only keeps the rats out. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. and the receiver is ready for use. letting it go at arm's length. There is a 1-in. wide and 1/16 in. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool.string to each corner. etc. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. 1/8 in. The coil is 1 in. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. F. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. E. N. thus helping the rats to enter. A small wooden or fiber end. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. . I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. high. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. wound on the head end. as shown. --Contributed by John A. long. and tacked it to the boards. commonly called tintype tin. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. N. made up of four layers of No. cut to the length of the spool. The strings should be about 15 in. the corners being wired. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft.

begin with the smallest scrolls. to . a piece of small wire. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. Take a piece of string or. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. A single line will be sufficient. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. The vase is to have three supports. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. better still. and bend each strip in shape. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. wide. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. then dry and polish with a linen cloth.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. gold. To clean small articles.

wide when stitching up the purse. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. thus raising it. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B.. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. 3-1/4 in. 4-1/4 in. 6-3/8 in. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H.which the supports are fastened with rivets.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. About 1 in. Work down the outside line of the design. . making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Fold the leather on the line EF. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. using a duller point of the tool. from E to F.. from C to D. and does not require coloring. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. sharp pencil. 3-1/2 in. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Press or model down the leather all around the design. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. from the lines EF on the piece. as shown in the sketch. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. After taking off the pattern. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Trace also the line around the purse. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. through which to slip the fly AGH. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1.

First. b. 2. It is neat and efficient. and cut out a wheel. and the projections B. It can be made without the use of a lathe. leaving the lug a. and tack the other piece slightly. the "open" side. being cast in wooden molds.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. then nail it. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. as well as useful. by 12 ft. as shown in Fig. with pins or small nails. and a model for speed and power. Cut off six pieces 12 in. with a compass saw. square. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. all the way around. thick. with the largest side down. Fit this to the two . 1. Now take another piece of wood. then place the square piece out of which Fig. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. with the open side down. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. around the wheel. long. and which will be very interesting. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. When it is finished. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. 1 was cut. deep. Make the lug 1/4 in. This also should be slightly beveled. 1/2 in. deep. and. Then nail the wheel down firmly. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. following the dotted lines. 3. and cut it out as shown in Fig.

hole bored through its center. one of which should have a 3/8-in. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. deep. square pieces of wood.pieces just finished. and cut it out as shown in Fig. slightly beveled. holes through it. 1. hole entirely through at the same place. bolts. then bolt it together. hole 1/4 in. and clean all the shavings out of it. After it is finished. Now put mold No. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and lay it away to dry. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. 4.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. as shown by the black dots in Fig. in the center of it. and boring a 3/8-in. square pieces of wood. Take the mold apart. place it between two of the 12-in. Now take another of the 12-in. as shown by the . and bore six 1/4-in.

Put this together in mold No. Now take mold No. 4. After it is fitted in. wide and 16 in. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. b. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. and the exhaust hole in projection b. 6. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. as shown in illustration. This is for a shaft. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and drill it entirely through. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. holes at d. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. This is the same as Fig. and pouring metal in to fill it up. This is mold No. and the other in the base. and connect to the boiler. Then bolt the castings together.2. Now cut out one of the 12-in. take an ordinary brace. only the one is left-handed. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. d. and drill them in the same manner. place the entire machine in a vise. Commencing 1-1/2 in. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. A piece of mild steel 5 in.2. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. 6. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. 1. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. holes. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing.1. and lay it away to dry. Using the Brace . so that it will turn easily. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. B. Pour metal into mold No. over the defective part. and 3/8-in.1. long. screw down. 5. where the casting did not fill out. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. the other right-handed. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. fasten a 3/8-in. instead of the right-handed piece. one in the lug. lay it on a level place.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. and pour babbitt metal into it. Fig. put the top of the brace through this hole. and bore three 1/4-in. and two 1/4-in. true it up with a square. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. until it is full. and run in babbitt metal again. drill in it. from the one end.black dots in Fig. long. in diameter must now be obtained. one in the projections. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. place it under the drill. see that the bolts are all tight. Let it stand for half an hour. This will cast a paddle-wheel.

How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular.. while it is running at full speed. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Plan of Ice Boat . one 6 ft. long. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. and the other 8 ft.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. with a boss and a set screw. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. At each end of the 6ft. will do good service. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. and if instructions have been carefully followed. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. piece and at right angles to it. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Then take a knife or a chisel. and.

in diameter. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. where they often did considerable damage. long. distant. long. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. 2 by 3 in. which may come in handy in heavy winds. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . Fig. so much the better will be your boat. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. 3. The tiller. This fits in the square hole. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. in diameter at the base. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. boards to make the platform. at the butt and 1 in. The spar should be 9 ft. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. Run the seam on a machine. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. in diameter in the center. leaving 1 ft. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. bolt the 8-ft. piece and at right angles to it. should be of hardwood. To the under side of the 8-ft. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. One of the boys thought he wou