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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

To throw a boomerang. Toronto. 2 -. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. E. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. distant. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . --Contributed by J. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 1. apart. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. as shown in Fig. 1. Noble. A piece of plank 12 in. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. with the hollow side away from you. away. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. long will make six boomerangs. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. 2. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. Fig. 1. grasp it and hold the same as a club. as shown in Fig. wide and 2 ft. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. The pieces are then dressed round. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. Ontario.Fig. It is held in this curve until dry. until it is bound as shown in Fig. 2.

it is not essential to the support of the walls. or rather no bottom at all. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. forcing it down closely. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. made of 6-in. blocks . The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. If the snow is of the right consistency. the block will drop out.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. however. one inside of the circle and the other outside. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. First. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. but about 12 in. A wall. minus the top. 6 in. high and 4 or 5 in. A very light. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. thick. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. dry snow will not pack easily. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. and it may be necessary to use a little water. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. which makes the building simpler and easier. and with a movable bottom. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. long. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack.

2. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. Union. Ore. --Contributed by Geo. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . Fig. or an old safe dial will do. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. 1. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. D. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. and the young architect can imitate them. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. Goodbrod. a. 1. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. 3. It also keeps them out. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. 3 -. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. Fig. which is about 1 ft. The piece of wood. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. There is no outward thrust. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. A nail. long and 1 in. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. which can be made of wood. C. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. is 6 or 8 in. Fig.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. 2. wide. above the ground. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations.

he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. the box locked . If ordinary butts are used. S. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. --Contributed by R. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. as the weight always draws them back to place. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. New York. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. says the Sphinx. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. Merrill. Syracuse. one pair of special hinges. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes.

proceed as follows: First. on drawing paper. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. as shown in Fig. 1. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. If the measuring has been done properly. smooth surface. Ga.and the performer steps out in view. -Contributed by L. It remains to bend the flaps. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. about 1-32 of an inch. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. Augusta. All . it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Alberta Norrell. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. as shown. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Fig. 2. If they do not. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. as shown in Fig. To make a design similar to the one shown. allowing each coat time to dry. draw one-half of it. When the sieve is shaken. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. one for each corner. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. With the metal shears. 3. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Place the piece in a vise. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation.

a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. heats the strip of German-silver wire. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. Denver. long. R. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. When the current is turned off. as shown at AA. in passing through the lamp. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . H. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. The current. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. 25 German-silver wire. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. In boring through rubber corks. in diameter. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. of No. should be in the line. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. To keep the metal from tarnishing. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. 25 gauge German-silver wire.the edges should be left smooth. --Contributed by R. about 6 in. causing it to expand. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. is fitted tightly in the third hole. from the back end. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. B. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. and in the positions shown in the sketch. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. A piece of porcelain tube. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. If a touch of color is desired. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. Galbreath. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. The common cork. if rolled under the shoe sole. Colo. After this has dried. used for insulation. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. which is about 6 in. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. C. A resistance.

bottom ring. leaving a space of 4 in. Fig. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. 3. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. Mo. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Purchase two long book straps. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. with thin strips of wood. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. as shown in Fig. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. 1. --Contributed by David Brown. Kansas City. 2. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. between them as shown in Fig. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. . When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole.

Fig. 2. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. one weighing 15 lb.. --Contributed by Katharine D. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. C. to form a handle. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Two strips of brass. long. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood.An ordinary electric bell. just the right weight for a woman to use. and tack smoothly. in diameter. as . Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. and a pocket battery. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. --Contributed by James M. 1. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Doylestown. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. 1. The folds are made over the string. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. A. 1. The string is then tied. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Fig. having a gong 2-1/2 in. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. When the aeroplane tips. Pa. Syracuse. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. 4. N. Kane.. 36 in. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. Fig. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. and one weighing 25 lb. which is the right weight for family use. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. 3. are mounted on the outside of the box. Y. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. Morse. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. These are shown in Fig.

Y. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. --Contributed by Louis J. Frame Made of a Rod . which can be purchased at a local hardware store. machine screws. 2. 3/32 or 1/4 in. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. Day.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. bent as shown in Fig. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. 1. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. in diameter. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. 2. long. such as brackets. Floral Park. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. four washers and four square nuts. N. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. two 1/8 -in. AA. The saw. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. if once used. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. and many fancy knick-knacks. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest.

five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. green and browns are the most popular. treat it with color. For etching. Scranton. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. A. of course. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. of water in which dissolve. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. 1 part sulphuric acid. the most expensive. of water. Of the leathers. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Drying will cause this to change to purple. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. Apply two coats. The buckle is to be purchased. allowing each time to dry. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. using a swab and an old stiff brush. Rub off the highlights.. as well as the depth of etching desired.may be made of either brass. Watch Fob For coloring silver. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. Silver is the most desirable but. it has the correct strength. if copper or brass. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. File these edges. though almost any color may be obtained. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. copper. Detroit. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. --Contributed by W. If it colors the metal red. In the design shown. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. or silver. Michigan. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. An Austrian Top [12] . be covered the same as the back. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. as well as brass and copper. use them in place of the outside nuts. 1 part nitric acid. therefore. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. after breaking up. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer.

F. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. hole. Tholl. 5-1/4 in. wide and 3/4 in. allowing only 1-1/4 in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. A handle. When the shank is covered. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. Parts of the Top To spin the top. 1-1/4 in. long. hole in this end for the top. Ypsilanti. --Contributed by J. Bore a 3/4-in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. A 1/16-in. long. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. Michigan. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. pass one end through the 1/16-in. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. thick. set the top in the 3/4 -in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. is formed on one end. in diameter. The handle is a piece of pine. . 3/4 in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand.

Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. . Alberta Norrell. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Ga. Mich. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Augusta. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. The baking surface. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Northville. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Houghton. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. having no sides. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. --A. tarts or similar pastry. For black leathers. A. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. --Contributed by Miss L. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length.

obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. When you desire to work by white light. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. glass fruit jar. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Mo. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. then solder cover and socket together.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. two turns will remove the jar. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Centralia. the same as shown in the illustration. says Studio Light. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. Stringing Wires [13] A. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . The weight of the broom keeps it in position. --Contributed by Irl Hicks.

Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. so it can be folded up. 1-1/4 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 4 Braces. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. 1-1/4 in.for loading and development. 16 Horizontal bars. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. Janesville. as shown in the cross-section sketch. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. 4 Vertical pieces. . and not tip over. They are fastened. Wis. square by 62 in. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. square by 12 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws.

and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. Phillipsburg. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. Cincinnati. The whole. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. If the loop is tied at the proper place. The front can be covered . O. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. from scrap material. -Contributed by Charles Stem. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. New York. Rosenthal. after filling the pail with water. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. --Contributed by Dr. C. and a loop made in the end. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. After rounding the ends of the studs. H. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth.

by all rules of the game. the mouth of which rests against a. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. The results will be poor. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. thoroughly fix. either for contact printing or enlargements. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. Develop them into strong prints. By using the following method. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. if you try to tone them afterward. --Contributed by Gilbert A. The . It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. Md. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. the color will be an undesirable. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. In my own practice. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. you are. Wehr. sickly one. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. principally mayonnaise dressing. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. 1 FIG. FIG. Baltimore. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. If the gate is raised slightly. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. and.

. preferably the colored kind. --Contributed by T. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.. long to admit the angle support... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print." Cyanide of potassium .... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. to make it 5 by 5 in. but.. 20 gr.... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. wide and 4 in... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder.. San Francisco. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.. A good final washing completes the process. as it will appear clean much longer than the white. Gray.. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison...... Water . transfer it to a tray of water.... thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.... in size. 2 oz.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. 1 and again as in Fig. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. etc. without previous wetting. 5 by 15 in.. when it starts to bleach. The blotting paper can . With a little practice.. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. It will bleach slowly and evenly. Place the dry print. 2... Cal. in this solution.. 16 oz.. Iodide of potassium . three times.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.......... where it will continue to bleach. When the desired reduction has taken place. L........ being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper...... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.

Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. having a width of 2-1/4 in. wide. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Corners complete are shown in Fig. the shaft 1 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled.J. --Contributed by L. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. --Contributed by J. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. and a length of 5 in. Monahan. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. 20 gauge. Canada. Wisconsin. wide below the . Wilson Aldred Toronto. the head of which is 2 in. Oshkosh. Make a design similar to that shown. 3.

deep. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. Fig. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. For coloring olive green. Apply with a small brush. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke.FIG. being held perpendicular to the work. With the metal shears. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. Do not put the hands in the solution. using turpentine. The metal must be held firmly. After this has dried. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. then trace the other half in the usual way. 4. 3. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. Allow this to dry. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. using a small metal saw. as shown in Fig. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. which gives the outline of the design Fig. Pierce a hole with a small drill. then coloring. 2. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. using carbon paper. but use a swab on a stick. freehand. then put on a second coat. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. . Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. 1 Fig. 1. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. With files. after folding along the center line. Make one-half of the design. Trace the design on the metal. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. 1 part nitric acid. 1 part sulphuric acid. After the sawing.

--Contributed by H. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. attach brass handles. East Hartford. . A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. then stain it a mahogany color. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Carl Cramer. as shown. Cal. --Contributed by M. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. on a chopping board. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Ii is an ordinary staple. New York. Syracuse. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. Richmond. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. M. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Conn. After the stain has dried. When this is cold. --Contributed by Katharine D. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. Burnett. thick. Morse. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. it does the work rapidly.

. indicating the depth of the slots. 1. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. some pieces of brass. WARNECKE Procure some brass. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. --Contributed by W. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. one shaft. Fig. and several 1/8-in. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. A. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. Cal. H. machine screws. in width at the shank. Atwell. about 3/16 in. L.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. 1/4 in. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. saucers or pans. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Jaquythe. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. thick and 4 in. Richmond. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. holes. also locate the drill holes. brass.. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. as shown at A. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. --Contributed by Mrs. thick. as shown in Fig. Florida. 4. 53 steel pens. two enameled. square. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. or tin. not over 1/4 in. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. Kissimmee. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in.

When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. hole. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. 6. a square shaft used. Fig. 5. These are connected to a 3/8-in. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. There should be a space of 1/16 in. lead should be run into the segments. as shown in Fig. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. hole in the center. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. 2. with the face of the disk. with a 3/8-in. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. as in Fig. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. 7. The shaft hole may also be filed square. with 1/8-in. If metal dishes. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . A 3/4-in. about 1/32 in. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. 1. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. thick. hole is drilled to run off the water. can be procured. using two nuts on each screw. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. as shown. The driven shaft should have a long bearing.. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. machine screws. supply pipe. 3. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. thick. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. and the ends filed round for the bearings. 2. Fig. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. wide. in diameter and 1/32 in. If the shaft is square. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. into the hole. 3. long and 5/16 in. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. brass and bolted to the casing. long by 3/4 in. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. and pins inserted. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Bend as shown in Fig. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. each about 1 in. Fig. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. machine screws and nuts. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing.

high and 15 in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. Fasten with 3/4-in. Canada. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Cooke. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Hamilton. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. 8-1/2 in. When assembling. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. make these seams come between the two back legs. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. V. --Contributed by S. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. The lower part. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. Stain the wood before putting in the . to make the bottom. screws. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. from the bottom end of the legs. square and 30-1/2 in. deep and 1-1/4 in. from the top of the box. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. long. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. using four to each leg. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. we will call the basket. three of which are in the basket. Be sure to have the cover. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Ill. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. Smith. deep over all.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. La Salle. --Contributed by F. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Now you will have the box in two pieces. or more in diameter. With a string or tape measure.

Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. Mass. The side. Boston. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. -Contributed by Stanley H. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. wide. Fig. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. 1.2 Fig. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. --also the lower edge when necessary.lining. Md. Baltimore. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. If all the parts are well sandpapered.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. Sew on to the covered cardboards. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. 2. and gather it at that point. Packard. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. Cover them with the cretonne. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. When making the display. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. sewing on the back side. you can. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. wide and four strips 10 in.

3. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Crockett. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Orlando Taylor. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. N. saving all the solid part. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. with slight modifications. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Y. --Contributed by H. When through using the pad.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. It is cleanly. Fig. Mo. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. L. and. --Contributed by B. Gloversville. It is not difficult to . Cross Timbers.

Mass. El Paso. Lowell. -Contributed by C. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. After this is done. Texas. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. across the face. it should be new and sharp. Lane. and scrape out the rough parts. and secure it in place with glue or paste.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Bourne. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. S. are shown in the diagram. If a file is used. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. or if desired. --Contributed by Edith E. remove the contents. After stirring. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Both of these methods are wasteful. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center.

Those having houses . --Contributed by Loren Ward. F. Des Moines. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. Ill. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. As these were single-faced disk records. The insects came to the light. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Iowa. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Ill. Greenleaf. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Oak Park. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler. After several hours' drying. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Oregon. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. Turl. --Contributed by Geo. A Postcard Rack [25]. Canton. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. circled over the funnel and disappeared. He captured several pounds in a few hours. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper.cooking utensil. The process works well and needs no watching. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label.

Worcester. Dobbins. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also.. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner.. not even with the boards themselves. Lay the floor next. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Conn. but for cheapness 3/4 in. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Only three pieces are required. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. Both sides can be put together in this way. the best material to use being matched boards. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. thick. 6 in. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. --Contributed by Wm. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. 6 in. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. and both exactly alike. boards are preferable. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. material. Mass. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Glenbrook. plane and pocket knife. by 2 ft. --Contributed by Thomas E. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. the bottom being 3/8 in. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. and the second one for the developing bench. The single boards can then be fixed. Rosenberg. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. one on each side of what will be the . will do as well.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. and as they are simple in design. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light.

6. At the top of the doorway.. by screwing to the floor. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. so that it will fit inside the sink.. is cut. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. and act as a trap for the light. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. of the top of the door for the same reason. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. 6 and 9. 2 in section. nailing them to each other at the ridge. 3 and 4. and to the outside board of the sides. Fig. 7. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. In hinging the door. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. and the top as at C in the same drawing. hinged to it. 6. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 11. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces.doorway. the closing side as at B. 10). 8. etc. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. and should be zinc lined. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door.. brown wrapping paper. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. which is fixed on as shown . These are all in section and are self-explanatory. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. It is shown in detail in Fig. 9). and in the middle an opening. The roof boards may next be put on. 9 by 11 in. below which is fixed the sink. The developing bench is 18 in. wide. as shown in Figs. 5. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room.

Details of the Dark Rook .

The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. 1. For beating up an egg in a glass. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. Fig. 18. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. mixing flour and water. 16. 15. though this is hardly advisable. which makes it possible to have white light. or the room may be made with a flat roof. and a tank stand on it. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. if desired. 13. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. as in Fig. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. Fig. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. --Contributed by W. Karl Hilbrich. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. In use. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. Fig. A circular piece about 2 in. 13. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. these being shown in Fig. it is better than anything on the market. 16. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. 6. as shown in the sections. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. The handle should be at least 12 in. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. as at I. 17. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle.in Fig. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. as at M. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. 20. Erie. but not the red glass and frame. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. and a 3/8-in. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. Fig. are fastened in the corners inside. 2. preferably maple or ash. Pennsylvania. 19. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. The house will be much strengthened if strips. four coats at first is not too many. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . screwing them each way into the boards. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. after lining with brown paper. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. hole bored in the center for a handle. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. 14. or red light as at K. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. as shown in Fig.

Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Ark. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. --Contributed by Wm. Kansas City. L.copper should be. G. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. long. Mo. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. Schweiger. --Contributed by L. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. as shown in the sketch. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. To operate. D. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Smith. when put together properly is a puzzle. Yonkers. Mitchell. about 3/8 in. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. for a handle. Eureka Springs. -Contributed by E. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. which. New York.

the rustic work should be varnished. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. Having completed the bare box. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. . The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. the box will require a greater height in front.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. The corks in use are shown in Fig. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. as shown in Fig. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. as shown in Fig. to make it set level. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. as well as improve its appearance. which binds them together. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. for the moment. After the box is trimmed. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. holes should be drilled in the bottom. 3. 1. Each cork is cut as in Fig. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. If the sill is inclined. need them. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. A number of 1/2-in. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. as is usually the case. in order to thoroughly preserve it. The design shown in Fig. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. especially for filling-in purposes. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. 3. 2. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable.

cabbages. Each long projection represents a leg. as shown in Fig. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. 2. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. . The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. Traps do no good. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. 3. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. When the corn is gone cucumbers. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. and observe results.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. F. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. drilled at right angles. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. 1. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place.. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. too dangerous. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. life in the summer time is a vexation. But I have solved the difficulty. etc. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. it's easy. can't use poison. share the same fate. 4. being partly eaten into. the squirrels come in droves from far and near.

my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. -. by trial. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. of No. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. cut in 1/2-in. Iowa. the coil does not heat sufficiently. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. . If. long. and made up and kept in large bottles. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. cut some of it off and try again. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. strips. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. About 9-1/2 ft. The solution can be used over and over again. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store.

Syracuse. --Contributed by James M. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. coffee pot. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. as shown in the sketch. and a strip. to cause the door to swing shut. Doylestown. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. N. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Texas. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. Stir and mix thoroughly. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. but with unsatisfactory results. C. it falls to stop G. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. hot-water pot. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. Y. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Dallas.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. . Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. --Contributed by Katharine D. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Pa. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Knives. D. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. of gasoline. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. Fig 2. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. 1) removed. Do not wash them. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. forks. is a good size--in this compound. of oleic acid with 1 gal. of whiting and 1/2 oz. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. In cleaning silver. Morse. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Kane.

Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. --Contributed by Theodore L. but unfixed. negatives. later fixed and washed as usual. of course. Fisher. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. Harrisburg. using the paper dry. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. Pa. Ill.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. New Orleans. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. . which is. La. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Sprout. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. --Contributed by Oliver S. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Waverly. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film.

Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. metal. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. Fig. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The harmonograph. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. To obviate this difficulty. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. 1. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. then . In this uncertainty lies the charm. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. a harmonograph is a good prescription. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings.

as shown in Fig. The length of the short pendulum H. for instance. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. as shown in the lower part of Fig. Arizona. exactly one-third. of about 30 or 40 lb. 1. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. Gaffney. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. ceiling. such as a shoe buttoner. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. provides a means of support for the stylus. J. Another weight of about 10 lb. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. --Contributed by Wm. Holes up to 3 in.. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. K. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths.. --Contributed by James T. A small table or platform. Rosemont. A weight. makes respectively 3. or the lines will overlap and blur. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. A length of 7 ft. one-fifth. is about right for a 10-ft. that is. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Chicago. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. A small weight. etc. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . as long as the other. with a nail set or punch. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. 1-3/4 by 2 in. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. in the center of the circle to be cut. is attached as shown at H. in diameter. G. to prevent any side motion. which can be regulated. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. 1. Punch a hole.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. one-fourth. Ingham. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. and unless the shorter pendulum is. what is most important. R. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. A pedestal. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings.

5. distributing them over the whole card. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 4. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. 1.H. The capacity of the vise. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. one for the sender and one for the receiver. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Fig. then 3 as in Fig. Morey. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. then put 2 at the top.J. Chicago. 3. 6. Fig. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. -Contributed by W. N. --Contributed by J.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. dividing them into quarters. a correspondent of . Cape May City. Cruger. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. and 4 as in Fig. 2.J. The two key cards are made alike. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. and proceed as before. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. of course. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter.

If constructed of the former. of 18-per-cent No. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. from the top and bottom. drill 15 holes. wood-screws. 1/4 in. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Ga. Cut through the center. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. 1/2 oz. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. says Popular Electricity. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. of ferricyanide of potash. of water. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. Wind the successive turns of . Asbestos board is to be preferred. To assemble. of the uprights. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Alberta Norrell. After preparing the base and uprights. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. acetic acid and 4 oz. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. 6 gauge wires shown. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. 22 gauge German-silver wire.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. long. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. the portion of the base under the coil. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. sheet of well made asbestos paper. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. After securing the tint desired. deep. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. 30 gr. respectively. Augusta. remove the prints. citrate of iron and ammonia. --Contributed by L. into the inside face of each upright to support the No.

white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. then fasten the upright in place. if one is not a smoker. Small knobs may be added if desired. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . as they are usually thrown away when empty. Labels of some kind are needed. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head.. Ward. The case may be made of 1/2-in. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. N. screws. which. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. but these are not necessary. rivets. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. square. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Ampere. 16 gauge copper wire. Y. etc. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. 14 gauge. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. --Contributed by Frederick E. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage.

being careful about the heat. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. galvanized iron. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. lead.14 oz. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. A. zinc. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. especially if a large tub is used.. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. Copper. tin. then to the joint to be soldered. tinner's acid. . Eureka Springs. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. D. If the soldering copper is an old one. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. In soldering galvanized iron. particularly so when the iron has once been used. --C. B. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. The material can be of any wood. of water. a piece of solder. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. Heat it until hot (not red hot). and one made of poplar finished black. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. of glycerine to 16 oz. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. S. brass. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. G. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. Larson. C. Kenosha. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. --Contributed by W. or has become corroded. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. Jaquythe. the pure muriatic acid should be used. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. --Contributed by A. as shown in the sketch. E and F. and rub the point of the copper on it. Richmond." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. California. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. sandpaper or steel wool. Ark. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Wis. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. The parts are put together with dowel pins. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. it must be ground or filed to a point. This is considerable annoyance. and labeled "Poison.

I bind my magazines at home evenings. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Six issues make a well proportioned book. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. in diameter. Take a 3/4-in. C. however. with good results. round iron. wide.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. This completes the die. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Y. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. Fig. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. 1. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. The dimensions shown in Fig. 7/8 in. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. thick and 1-1/4 in. The punch A. a ring may be made from any metal. B. The disk will come out pan shaped. and drill out the threads. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Hankin. such as copper. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Place the band. nut. N. Brass rings can be plated when finished. in diameter. Troy. Fig. D. brass and silver. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. which gives two bound volumes each year. This will leave a clear hole. The covers of the magazines are removed. 2. W. -Contributed by H. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Apart from this.

Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. 1. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. The covering can be of cloth. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 1/8 in. deep. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. and then to string No. size 16 or larger. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. of the ends extending on each side. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. After drawing the thread tightly. The covering should be cut out 1 in. on all edges except the back. is used for the sewing material. 2. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. The sections are then prepared for sewing. The string No. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. and a third piece. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. C. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. then back through the notch on the right side. Start with the front of the book. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. 1 in Fig. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections.4. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. . pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. is nailed across the top. using . 2. as shown in Fig. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. through the notch on the left side of the string No. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. 5. 1. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. which is fastened the same as the first. Coarse white thread. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. and place them against the strings in the frame. allowing about 2 in. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. threaded double. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. If started with the January or the July issue. 1. Place the cardboard covers on the book. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. Five cuts.

after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Divine. round iron. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. at opposite sides to each other.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. For the blade an old talking-machine . Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. --Contributed by Clyde E. College View. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Nebr. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Place the cover on the book in the right position. and mark around each one. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. Tinplate. Encanto. and. Cal. on which to hook the blade. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge.

E. and a long thread plug. thick. thick.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. B. with 10 teeth to the inch. Then on the board put .. with a steel sleeve. C. F. Moorhead. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. bore. or double extra heavy. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. as shown. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. by 4-1/2 in. in order to drill the holes in the ends. as it is sometimes called. Make the blade 12 in. and file in the teeth. at the same end. by 1 in. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. and 1/4 in. fuse hole at D. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. A. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. and 1/4 in. long. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Summitville. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. -Contributed by Willard J. hydraulic pipe. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. On the upper side. Hays. Ohio.. Miss. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. and another piece (B) 6 in. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in.

raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. of wire to each coil. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Boyd. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. If you are going to use a current of low tension. high around this apparatus. H. some sheet copper or brass for plates.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . 18 gauge wire for the wiring. and some No. Connect up as shown. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Philadelphia. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. of rubber-covered wire. about 5 ft. as from batteries. 4 jars. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. using about 8 in. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. --Contributed by Chas. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. A lid may be added if desired. the jars need not be very large. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch.

gives full current and full speed. steel rod makes a good steering rod. oak boards. 3. is used to reduce friction. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft.. and four pieces 14 in. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. At the front 24 or 26 in. however... For the brass trimmings use No. First sandpaper all the wood. two pieces 34 in. two pieces 30 in. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. See Fig.. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. 5 on switch. B and C. Construct the auto front (Fig. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. by 1-1/4 in. A variation of 1/16 in. 1 is connected to point No. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. 1 on switch. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against.the way. 2. square by 14 ft. or source of current. wide and 2 in. C. and plane it on all edges. 4 in.. long. sheet brass 1 in. 15-1/2 in. by 2 in. 16-1/2 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. by 5 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. For the front runners these measurements are: A. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. 3 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. The current then will flow through the motor. 34 in. apart. long. long. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. B. 4. with the cushion about 15 in. by 6 in. 11 in. by 1-1/4 in. No. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 1. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. two pieces 14 in.. The stock required for them is oak. are important. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. above the ground. and bolt through. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. 3 and No. Use no nails. long by 22 in. direct to wire across jars. Use no screws on the running surface. thick. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. The top disk in jar No. 30 in. 2. Their size also depends on the voltage. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. by 2 in. The illustration shows how to shape it. A 3/4-in. as they "snatch" the ice. The sled completed should be 15 ft. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. B. wide. In proportioning them the points A. Put arm of switch on point No. beginning at the rear. 1 and so on for No. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. & S. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. Equip block X with screw eyes. . The connection between point No. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. by 1 in. 7 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. Z. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. making them clear those in the front runner. An iron washer. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 2 and 3. and for the rear runners: A. 27 B. then apply a coat of thin enamel. long. by 5 in. thick. 2 is lower down than in No. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. 1 and make contact with wire above jars.. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. Fig. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. two for each jar. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. C. wide and 3/4 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 2 in. as they are not substantial enough. 4) of 3/4-in. 2. on No. wide by 3/4 in. To wire the apparatus. On the door of the auto front put the . Next cut out eight copper or brass disks.

brass plated. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. such as used on automobiles. such as burlap. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. cheap material. parcels. which is somewhat moist. If desired. by 1/2 in. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. Then get some upholstery buttons. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. The best way is to get some strong. fasten a cord through the loop. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. may be stowed within. to the wheel. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. a number of boys may share in the ownership. overshoes. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. etc. by 30 in. to improve the appearance. cutting it out of sheet brass. long. If the expense is greater than one can afford. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. a brake may be added to the sled. lunch. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. If desired. or with these for $25. Fasten a horn.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled.

Lexington. Ill. Leland. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. --Contributed by Stewart H. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. . The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.tree and bring.

say 1 in. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. which. when flat against it. made from 1/16-in. CD. from F to G. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. 3. The first tooth may now be cut. 2. First take the case of a small gearwheel. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. London. FC. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. outside diameter and 1/16 in. A small clearance space. by drawing diameters. Draw a circle on paper. 1. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. a compass. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . Fig. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. This guide should have a beveled edge. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. though more difficult. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. some files. mild steel or iron. The straight-edge. will be over the line FG. with twenty-four teeth. Fig. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. thick. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. E. The Model Engineer. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. Fig. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. so that the center of the blade. With no other tools than a hacksaw. the same diameter as the wheel. 4). must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. sheet metal. the cut will be central on the line. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file.

or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. A bright. as shown in Fig. . B. R. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. or several pieces bound tightly together. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. 1. Make a hole in the other. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. Focus the camera in the usual manner. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. as shown in Fig. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. either the pencils for arc lamps. No shock will be perceptible. transmitter. B. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. as shown in Fig. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. and the other outlet wire. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. 1. some wire and some carbons. Then take one outlet wire. hold in one hand. If there is no faucet in the house. ground it with a large piece of zinc.Four Photos on One Plate of them. 2. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. each in the center. electric lamp.

If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. by 12 in. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. a transmitter which induces no current is used. A is a wooden block. as indicated by E E. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. serves admirably. Dry batteries are most convenient. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. But in this experiment. Several battery cells. J. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Pa. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Emsworth. leaving about 10 in. at each end for terminals. If desired. of course. They have screw ends. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Ashland. or more of the latter has been used. Wrenn. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. one at the receiver can hear what is said. and again wind the wire around it. B. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. --Contributed by Geo. under the gable. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. by 1 in. are also needed. as shown. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. One like a loaf of bread.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. 36 wire around it. and about that size. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Then set the whole core away to dry. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Ohio. Slattery. and will then burn the string C. D D are binding posts for electric wires. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A.

How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. as shown. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Newark. F. Turn on switch. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. Fig.. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. From the other set of binding-posts. The oven is now ready to be connected. in parallel. the terminal of the coil. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. in series with bindingpost. 12 or No. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. and one single post switch. The apparatus is now ready for operation. 14 wire. These should have hollow ends. and switch. C. At one side secure two receptacles. E. C. 1. as shown. The coil will commence to become warm. while C is open. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. connecting lamp receptacles. and the lamps. D. First make a support. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. Connect these three to switch. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. B B. B B. Jr. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. D. 2. Place 16-cp.wire. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. Ohio. run a No. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. Fig. until the hand points to zero on the scale. for the .

If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. D. Fig. 3. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. This may be made of wood. and D. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. It is 1 in. B. 2. long. The pointer or hand. 4. although copper or steel will do. At a point a little above the center. as shown in the cut. Fig. Dussault. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. 36 magnet wire instead of No.or 4-way valve or cock. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. where A is the homemade ammeter. wide and 1/8 in. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. high. etc. If for 3-way. remove the valve. 4 amperes.. a battery. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. deep. After drilling. is made of iron. 1/2 in. E. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. from the lower end. 14 wire. to prevent it turning on the axle. 3 amperes. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. The box is 5-1/2 in. is made of wire. 1/4 in. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. The core. 6. C. a variable resistance. long. 7. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. until the scale is full. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. inside measurements. although brass is better. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . Mine is wound with two layers of No. To make one. drill in only to the opening already through. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. 1. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. 5. wide and 1-3/4 in. drill through the entire case and valve. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. --Contributed by J. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. thick. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. D. long and make a loop. Montreal.E. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. drill a hole as shown at H. 10 turns to each layer. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. 5. A wooden box. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. Fig. 1.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. Fig. but if for a 4way. This is slipped on the pivot. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. wind with plenty of No. is then made and provided with a glass front. a standard ammeter. 14. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. 4 in.

E. A. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. One wire runs to the switch. F. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. which is used for reducing the current. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. provided with a rubber stopper. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. high. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. in thickness . Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. This stopper should be pierced. in diameter. and a metal rod. B.performing electrical experiments. as shown. making two holes about 1/4 in. To start the light. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. and the other connects with the water rheostat. By connecting the motor. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. D. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. and the arc light. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases.

--Contributed by Harold L. as shown in C. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. Fig. 1. Fig. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. 1. 2. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. 1. where he is placed in an upright open . When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Jones. A piece of wood. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Having finished the interrupter. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. Fig. as shown in B. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. If all adjustments are correct. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Turn on the current and press the button. Having fixed the lead plate in position. N. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. long. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. 2. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Y. A. Fig. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. As there shown. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. B. Carthage. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. To insert the lead plate. If the interrupter does not work at first.

inside dimensions. from which the gong has been removed. the illusion will be spoiled. A. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again.. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. by 7 in. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. as the entire interior. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. figures and lights. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. All . The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. and must be thoroughly cleansed. which can be run by three dry cells. giving a limp. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. and can be bought at Japanese stores. The skeleton is made of papier maché. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. L and M. until it is dark there. should be miniature electric lamps. within the limits of an ordinary room. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. Its edges should nowhere be visible. The lights. loosejointed effect. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. If everything is not black.coffin. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. by 7-1/2 in. to aid the illusion. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. with the exception of the glass. is constructed as shown in the drawings. could expect from a skeleton. A white shroud is thrown over his body. especially L. The model. and wave his arms up and down. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. light-colored garments. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. They need to give a fairly strong light. high. should be colored a dull black. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. dressed in brilliant. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. especially the joints and background near A. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The glass should be the clearest possible. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. If it is desired to place the box lower down.

placed about a foot apart. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. fat spark. --Contributed by Geo. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. If a gradual transformation is desired. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for .that is necessary is a two-point switch. square block. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. Cal. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. as shown in the sketch. after which it assumes its normal color. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. Two finishing nails were driven in. W. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. Fry. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. San Jose.

which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. with two tubes. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. into the receiver G. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. A (see sketch). which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. One of these plates is connected to metal top. In Fig. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. and should be separated about 1/8 in. to make it airtight. or a solution of sal soda. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. The plates are separated 6 in. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. soldered in the top. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. as shown. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. This is a wide-mouth bottle. the remaining space will be filled with air. hydrogen gas is generated. 1. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. B and C. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. Cohen. New York. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. If a lighted match . and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. -Contributed by Dudley H. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. by small pieces of wood. In Fig. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. F. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. which is filled with melted rosin or wax.

It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. should be only 5/16 of an inch. P. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. by means of the clips. 1/2 in. B. 2 shows the end view. One row is drilled to come directly on top. of No. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. then a suitable burner is necessary. N. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. Fig. or by direct contact with another magnet. 1-5/16 in. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. is made by drilling a 1/8in. and the ends of the tube. copper pipe. London. A. 36 insulated wire. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. N. long. is then coiled around the brass tube. A. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. copper pipe. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. 1. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. as is shown in the illustration. A nipple. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. If desired. which is plugged up at both ends. which forms the vaporizing coil.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. A. A 1/64-in. in diameter and 6 in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. A. Fig. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. says the Model Engineer. from the bottom. C C. either by passing a current of electricity around it. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. long. The distance between the nipple. A piece of 1/8-in. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside.

cut to the size of the pages. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Fig. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. boards and all. about 8 or 10 in. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. Take two strips of stout cloth. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. larger all around than the book. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Fig. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. leaving the folded edge uncut. fold and cut it 1 in.lamp cord. at the front and back for fly leaves. duck or linen. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. trim both ends and the front edge. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. 2). narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Fig. longer and 1/4 in. 1. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. 3. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . A disk of thin sheet-iron. Cut four pieces of cardboard. 1/4 in. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. smoothly. taking care not to bend the iron. with a fine saw. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. this makes a much nicer book.

Bedford City. Toronto. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. and a little can. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. pasting them down (Fig. or rather the top now. In the bottom. as shown. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. B. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. the joint will be gas tight. Noble. is soldered onto tank A. E. C. deep. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. --Contributed by Joseph N. is turned on it. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. 18 in. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. A gas cock. Va. A. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. H. Ont. as shown in the sketch. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. but its diameter is a little smaller. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. is perforated with a number of holes. Another can. of tank A is cut a hole. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. Another tank. in diameter and 30 in. D. . without a head. This will cause some air to be enclosed. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. 4). which will just slip inside the little can. is made the same depth as B. is fitted in it and soldered. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. --Contributed by James E. Parker. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it.

are shown in detail at H and J. which moves to either right or left. fastened in the bottom. If the pushbutton A is closed. should be cut a little too long. exactly 12 in.. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. basswood or white pine. square by 42 in. and sewed double to give extra strength. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. E. Beverly. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. -Contributed by H. to prevent splitting. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. by 1/2 in. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. H is a square knot. thus adjusting the . tacks. B. which may be either spruce. J. B. The diagonal struts. shows how the connections are to be made. The armature. C. should be 3/8 in. The small guards. when finished. and the four diagonal struts. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. D. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. Bott. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. as shown at C. B. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. 2. with an electric-bell magnet. S. A A. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. long. A. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. making the width. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. The longitudinal corner spines. and about 26 in. The bridle knots. N. Fig. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. The wiring diagram. long. If the back armature. should be 1/4 in. Fig. D. 1.

that refuse to slide easily. --Contributed by Edw. for producing electricity direct from heat. Kan. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. as shown. Clay Center. If the kite is used in a light wind. thus shortening G and lengthening F. with gratifying results. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. can be made of a wooden . E. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. Harbert. D. the batteries do not run down for a long time. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. A bowline knot should be tied at J. and. Closing either key will operate both sounders. Stoddard. and if a strong wind is blowing. however. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with.lengths of F and G. shift toward F. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Chicago. --Contributed by A. to prevent slipping.

C. in position. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. 14 or No. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. A. Chicago.frame. C. B. to the cannon. A. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. Fasten a piece of wood. C. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. and also holds the pieces of wood. Then. with a pocket compass. 16 single-covered wire. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after .. which conducts the current into the cannon. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. spark. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. When the cannon is loaded. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. placed on top. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. by means of machine screws or. A. E. or parallel with the compass needle. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. D. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. --Contributed by A. F. A and B. The wood screw. and the current may then be detected by means. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. E. with a number of nails.

thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. To unlock the door. A and S. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. Fig. B. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. but no weights or strings. Mich. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Keil. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. Bend the strips BB (Fig. To lock the door. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Marion. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. L. H. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Chicago. in this position the door is locked. 1. press the button. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. to receive the screw in the center. 1. In Fig. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. within the reach of the magnet. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. now at A' and S'. A. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. where there is a staple. --Contributed by Joseph B. Ohio. . 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. square and 3/8 in. A hole for a 1/2 in. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. A and S. To reverse. Big Rapids. requiring a strong magnet. --Contributed by Henry Peck. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Connect as shown in the illustration. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense.the current is shut off. 1. with the long arm at L'. when in position at A'. screw is bored in the block. Fig.

long.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. or for microscopic work. --Contributed by C. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. and C is a dumbbell. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. about 18 in. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. if enameled white on the concave side. Rand. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. and may be made at very slight expense. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. J. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. put in the handle. Mass. are enameled a jet black. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. When the holes are finished and your lines set. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. Thread the other end of the pipe. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. and if desired the handles may . The standard and base. pipe with 1-2-in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. gas-pipe. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. When ready for use. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. West Somerville. hole.

Fig. 1. as shown at A in the sketch. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. 1. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. Warren. This peculiar property is also found in ice. E. Fig. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. North Easton. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . Make a cylindrical core of wood. M. across. high by 1 ft. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Mass. while a new one will cost about 80 cents.be covered with leather. inside the pail. with a cover. across. --Contributed by C. 8 in. long and 8 in. A.. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. B. D. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. which shall project at least 2 in. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C.

3) with false top and bottom. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. 60%. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. and 3/8 in.-G. wider than the kiln. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. in diameter. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. The 2 in. C. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. strip of sheet iron. Fit all the parts together snugly. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. which is the hottest part. Cover with paper and shellac as before. 1). If the cover of the pail has no rim. and on it set the paper wrapped core. Fig. 1390°-1410°. as dictated by fancy and expense. long. sand. such . 2. 25%. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. the point of the blue flame. It is placed inside the kiln. but will be cheaper in operation. make two wood ends. projecting from each end (Fig. diameter. pipe. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. if you have the materials. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. let this dry thoroughly. C. layer of the clay mixture. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. pipe 2-ft. After removing all the paper. cutting the hole a little smaller. When lighted. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. to hold the clay mixture. thick. about 1 in. thick. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. say 1/4 in. This done. E. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. pack this space-top. and graphite. hard porcelain. or make one yourself. hotel china. and your kiln is ready for business. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. in diameter. but it will burn a great deal of gas. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. passing wire nails through and clinching them. long over the lid hole as a chimney.. W. and with especial caution the first time.mixture of clay. bottom and sides. Set aside for a few days until well dried. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. carefully centering it. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. as is shown in the sketch. and cut it 3-1/2 in. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. Whatever burner is used. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. full length of iron core. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. Line the pail. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. 1330°. of fine wire. if there is to be any glazing done. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. and varnish. Wind about 1/8 in.. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. 15%. L. C. and 3/4 in. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends.. the firing should be gradual. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. 2 in. 1). These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. After finishing the core.

Of course. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. leaving long terminals. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. A. C. 2. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. red and black. Next restore all the cards to one pack. as in Fig. and so on.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. as in Fig. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. taking care to have the first card red. Then. Chicago. all cards facing the same way. Take the red cards. overlaps and rests on the body. around the coil. The funnel. Then take the black cards. R. every alternate card being the same color. procure a new deck. C. bind tightly with black silk. 2. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. You can display either color called for. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. T. . square them up. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. square them up and place in a vise. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. 1. Washington. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. length of . and discharges into the tube. 8 in. diameter. --Contributed by J. C. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. the next black. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. as shown in the sketch herewith. and plane off about 1/16 in. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. B. with a plane. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum.. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. 2). about 1/16 in.53 in. D. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. and divide it into two piles.

When the glass is put in the frame a space. To find the fall of snow. and then the frame is ready to assemble. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. B. so that when they are assembled. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. angle iron for the frame. C. F. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement.. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. the first thing to decide on is the size. B. of the frame. The bottom glass should be a good fit. Fig. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file.J.C. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. thus making all the holes coincide. 1 gill of fine white sand. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. The upright pieces. and this is inexpensive to build. The cement. Let . First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. through the holes already drilled. Drill all the horizontal pieces. about 20 in. All the horizontal pieces. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. E. It should be placed in an exposed location. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. to form a dovetail joint as shown. N. A. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. Long Branch. 1. E. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. stove bolts. the same ends will come together again. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. D. A. 1 gill of litharge. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. B. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. as the difficulties increase with the size. stove bolts. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents.

if desired.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. to the door knob. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. a centerpiece (A. and. having a swinging connection at C. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . D. on the door by means of a metal plate. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. B. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Fasten the lever. A. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Aquarium Finished If desired. Fig.

4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Fig. D. to keep the frame from spreading. Cut two of them 4 ft. 2 at GG. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. F. for the top. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. Fig. approximately 1 ft. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Fig. with a water pressure of 70 lb. Y. 1 is the motor with one side removed. B. another. but mark their position on the frame. 2 is an end view. N. 3 shows one of the paddles. long. 2 ft. Two short boards 1 in. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. to form the slanting part. according to the slant given C. Do not fasten these boards now. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. To make the frame. Cut two pieces 30 in. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. long. long. E. another. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. Fig. showing the paddle-wheel in position. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. several lengths of scantling 3 in. wide by 1 in.. and another. to form the main supports of the frame. 26 in. They are shown in Fig. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. which is 15 in. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. will open the door about 1/2 in. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. PAUL S. soldered to the end of the cylinder. 1. A small piece of spring brass. C. wide . The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. long. Fig. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Fig. Buffalo. 1. from the outside top of the frame. 6 in. as at E. 1 . After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. thus doing away with the spring. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. screwed to the door frame. White. and Fig.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. AA. --Contributed by Orton E. I referred this question to my husband.

Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. hole through their sides centrally. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. hole to form the bearings. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. 2) and another 1 in. 24 in. steel shaft 12 in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. 1. pipe. When it has cooled.burlap will do -. with the wheel and shaft in place. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. (I. 2) form a substantial base. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. long to the wheel about 8 in. Fig. in diameter. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). iron 3 by 4 in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. Fig. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. hole from the tops to the 1-in. from one end by means of a key. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. Next secure a 5/8-in. to a full 1/2 in. Drill 1/8-in. remove the cardboard. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. as shown in Fig. hole through its center.along the edges under the zinc to form . Take the side pieces. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. Fasten them in their proper position. Tack one side on. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. 2) with a 5/8-in. thick (HH. and drill a 1-in. Fig. 4. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. tapering from 3/16 in. that is. Make this hole conical. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. holes. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. and a 1/4 -in. GG. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. These are the paddles. and drill a 1/8-in. thick. take down the crosspieces. by 1-1/2 in. Now block the wheel. then drill a 3/16-in. hole through them. iron. after which drill a 5/8 in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole.

and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. as this makes long exposure necessary. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. The best plate to use is a very slow one. sewing machine. remove any white curtains there may be. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. but as it would have cost several times as much. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. and leave them for an hour or so. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. any window will do. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. and as near to it as possible. Drill a hole through the zinc. Correct exposure depends. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. Raise the window shade half way. shutting out all light from above and the sides. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. as shown in the sketch at B. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. place the outlet over a drain. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Do not stop down the lens. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. If sheet-iron is used. light and the plate.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. drill press. It is obvious that. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. of course. . dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. on the lens. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. Focus the camera carefully. it would be more durable. If the bearings are now oiled. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. or what is called a process plate. ice-cream freezer. Darken the rest of the window. says the Photographic Times. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. but now I put them in the machine. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction.a water-tight joint. start the motor. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. and the subject may move.

until the core slowly rises. The glass tube may be a test tube. a glass tube. which is made of iron and cork. without detail in the face. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. The core C. the core is drawn down out of sight. by twisting. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. or can be taken from an old magnet. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. a core. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. an empty pill bottle may be used. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. D. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. The current required is very small. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. 2. With a piece of black paper. full of water. or an empty developer tube. On completing . as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. and a base. 2. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. A. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. B. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. and without fog. as shown in Fig. hard rubber. with binding posts as shown. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. as a slight current will answer. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. or wood. C.

Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. whale oil. white lead. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. according to his control of the current. This is a mysterious looking instrument. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. 1 pt. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. is Benham's color top. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. The colors appear different to different people. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. and one not easy to explain. and are changed by reversing the rotation. and make a pinhole in the center. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. finest graphite. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . 1.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. 1 lb. water and 3 oz.

but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. In prize games. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. before cutting. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. deuce. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. A. Chicago. B. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner.. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. nearly every time. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. thus partly filling bottles A and C. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. especially if the deck is a new one. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. -Contributed by D. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. As this device is easily upset. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. fan-like. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . In making hydrogen. or three spot. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose.B. C.L. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. when the action ceases. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water.

Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. 9 in. (Fig. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. that will fit loosely in the tube A. 12 in. --Contributed by F. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. 2. S. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. J. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. as shown in Fig. . 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Form a cone of heavy paper. Dak. Detail of Phonograph Horn . making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Huron. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. in length and 3 in. 4. long. Fig. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Detroit.. 10 in. 3). long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Bently. Fig. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. S. Jr. W. --Contributed by C.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. Make a 10-sided stick. in diameter. 1. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal.. long and 3 in.

so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. A. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. long. about the size of a leadpencil. Fortunately. and walk in. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. Remove the form. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. on one side and the top. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. making it three-ply thick. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. A piece of tin.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. will cause an increased movement of C. Denver. allowing 1 in. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. push back the bolt. it is equally easy to block that trick. bend it at right angles throughout its length. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. --Contributed by Reader. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. but bends toward D. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. 6. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. E. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. Cut out paper sections (Fig. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. with a pin driven in each end. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. Fig. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. C. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. A second piece of silk thread.

S S. Two wood-base switches.. posts. Jr. S.. or left to right. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . West St. B. By this arrangement one. The reverse switch. Paul. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. is connected each point to a battery. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. Fremont Hilscher. The 2 by 4-in. The upper switch.strip. The feet. will last for several years. B. are 7 ft. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. long. S. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. --Contributed by J. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. Minn. 4 ft. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. A. put together as shown in the sketch. are made 2 by 4 in. while the lower switch. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. W. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. as shown. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. R. long. and rest on a brick placed under each end.

is an old bicycle pump. Fig.every house. The valve motion is shown in Figs. 1. either an old sewing-machine wheel. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. cut in half. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. with two washers. or anything available. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. pulley wheel. and the crank bearing C. The base is made of wood. 3/8 in. E. the size of the hole in the bearing B. 2. FF. In Fig. and valve crank S. which will be described later. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. H and K. thick. The hose E connects to the boiler. and in Fig. and has two wood blocks. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. 2 and 3. The steam chest D. Fig. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. which is made of tin. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The piston is made of a stove bolt. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. and a cylindrical .

The valve crank S. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. at that. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. 1. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. using the positive wire as a pen. and the desired result is obtained. San Jose. This is wound with soft string. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. G. and a very amusing trick. is cut out of tin. or galvanized iron. Fig. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. can be an old oil can. The boiler.piece of hard wood. Fig. --Contributed by Geo. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Fry. and saturated with thick oil. 3. to receive the connecting rod H. This engine was built by W. as shown in Fig. W. J. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. of Cuba. . Eustice. as it is merely a trick of photography. G. C. powder can. 4. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. First. Wis. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Schuh and A. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Cal.

and Fig. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. and pass ropes around . They may be of any size. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. and place a bell on the four ends. as shown. 1 will be seen to rotate. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. Fig. Cut half circles out of each stave. to cross in the center. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. C. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. The smaller wheel. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Fig. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. as shown at AA. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. When turning. B. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Fig. diameter. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. 1 by covering up Figs. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. B.

but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. To make this lensless microscope. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. A (a short spool. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer.G. such as clothes lines.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B.. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. from the transmitter. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. Louis. long. --Contributed by H. but not on all. St.M. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. produces a higher magnifying power). DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. which allows the use of small sized ropes. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. W. From a piece of thin . procure a wooden spool. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. as shown in the illustration. Mo. This in turn will act on the transmitter. which accounts for the sound. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E.

and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. A. if the distance is reduced to one-third. To use this microscope. H. B. held at arm's length. 2. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. which costs little or nothing to make. as in all microscopes of any power. The spring. is made of iron. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. 3. (The area would appear 64 times as large. and look through the hole D. The pivot. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. cut out a small disk. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. otherwise the image will be blurred. is fastened at each end by pins. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. and at the center. 1. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. by means of brads. The lever. darting across the field in every direction. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. which are pieces of hard wood. the object should be of a transparent nature. .Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. if the distance is reduced to one-half. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters.. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. can be made of brass and the armature. An innocent-looking drop of water. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. the diameter will appear twice as large. i.) But an object 3/4-in. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. C. D. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after.. B. and so on. Fig. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. E. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. C. in which hay has been soaking for several days. or 64 times. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. e. Viewed through this microscope. D. fastened to a wooden base. the diameter will appear three times as large. place a small object on the transparent disk. bent as shown.

Cut the top. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. 16 in. can be made panel as shown. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. Each side. or a single piece. D. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. The door. The back. E. which are made to receive a pivot. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. connection of D to nail. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. A. Fig. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. in length and 16 in. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. . by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. long. wood: C. thick. 26 wire: E. D. binding posts: H spring The stop. wood: F. 1. KEY-A. C. 16 in. long and 14-1/2 in.SOUNDER-A. wide. brass: B. between the armature and the magnet. should be about 22 in. HH. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. FF. K. 2. The base of the key. C. wide. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. nail soldered on A. wide. F. K. The binding posts. B. Fig. wide. B. is cut from a board about 36 in. D. DD. or taken from a small one-point switch. similar to the one used in the sounder. and are connected to the contacts. wood. wide and set in between sides AA. fastened near the end. A switch. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. AA. brass. long by 16 in. brass or iron soldered to nail. wide and about 20 in. coils wound with No. brass: E. soft iron.

as shown in the sketch. Make 12 cleats. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Garfield. material. long. 13-1/2 in. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. 2 and made from 1/4-in. In operation. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. cut in them. the only materials necessary being a glass tube.. Ill. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . --Contributed by Carl Formhals. E. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. brads. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. AA. with 3/4-in. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. as shown.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. When the electrical waves strike the needle. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle.

J. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. E. Ridgewood. F. N. Pushing the wire. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. through which a piece of wire is passed. N. A (see sketch). Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. C. in order to increase the surface. --Contributed by John Koehler. A. and thus decreases the resistance. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. pulls down the armature. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. A fairly stiff spring. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. The cord is also fastened to a lever. When the pipe is used. A. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . filled with water. --Contributed by R. will give a greater speed. Y. and. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. down into the water increases the surface in contact. B. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. the magnet. Brown.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. Fairport. when used with a motor.

may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. Of course. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. thus discharging the contents of the hopper.for the secret contact. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. --Contributed by Perry A. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Gachville. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. N. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. B. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Borden. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. if desired. even those who read this description. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time.

and on both sides of the middle shelf. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. A. as shown in Fig. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. wide. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. wide. East Orange. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. --Contributed by Dr. in a semicircle 2 in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. C. C. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. H. The top board is made 28-in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. where the other end of wire is fastened. From a piece of brass a switch. long and 5 in. N. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. Compton. 1. D. Connect switch to post B. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. deep and 3/4 in. Mangold. Jr. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. Cal. wide. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. as shown in Fig. records. for 10in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. wide. from the bottom.. thick and 12-in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. wide. --Contributed by H. apart. 2.whenever the bell rings. Washington. long and full 12-in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. J. Dobson. With about 9 ft. The three shelves are cut 25-in. E. . long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. for 6-in. records and 5-5/8 in.

which in operation is bent. to which is fastened a cord. as shown by the dotted lines. Va. Roanoke. E. When the cord is passed over pulley C. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. B. A. as shown in Fig. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . --Contributed by Douglas Royer. 1. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. closed. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel.

long. Put the rubber tube. but a larger one could be built in proportion. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. deep and 1/2 in. in diameter. in diameter. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. in diameter. wide. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. CC.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. deep. is compressed by wheels. Cut two grooves. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. one in each end. 1 in. thick. 5) when they are placed. In the sides (Fig. it too loose. 3). D. in diameter. E. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. 3. wide. apart. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Fig. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. holes (HH. square and 7/8 in. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. through one of these holes. 4 shows the wheel-holder. they will bind. Fig. they will let the air through. Fig. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. 1 in. excepting the crank and tubing. as shown in the illustration. If the wheels fit too tightly. In these grooves place wheels. Figs. 1. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Notice the break (S) in the track. Do not fasten the sides too . Now put all these parts together. E. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. Figs. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. thick (A. The crankpin should fit tightly. These wheels should be 3/4 in. which should be about 1/2 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. to turn on pins of stout wire. against which the rubber tubing. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. B. Bore two 1/4 in.

iron. 17-1/2 in. the other wheel has reached the bottom. from each end. because he can . For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. is all the expense necessary. of material. If the motion of the wheels is regular. and mark for a hole.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. The three legs marked BBB. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. beyond each of these two. Kan. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. Two feet of 1/4-in. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. 2. AA. costing 10 cents. The screen which is shown in Fig. Fig. Idana. mark again. The animal does not fear to enter the box. In the two cross bars 1 in. though a small iron wheel is better. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. and 3-1/2 in. AA. 1. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. Fig. Cut six pieces. as it gives steadiness to the motion. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. 1. B.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. tubing. A in Fig. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. 15 in. 1. 1. long. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. and are 30 in. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. Take the center of the bar. from that mark the next hole. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. a platform should be added. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. stands 20 in. the pump will give a steady stream. Then turn the crank from left to right. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. Hubbard. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. mark for hole and 3 in. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. --Contributed by Dan H. from each end. 2. 1. from the bottom and 2 in. Fig. as shown in Fig. To use the pump. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. Fig. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. For ease in handling the pump. from each end.

the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. If the solution touches the zinc. until it is within 3 in. Meyer.see through it: when he enters. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. add slowly. The battery is now ready for use. of the top. The battery is now complete. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. Place the carbon in the jar. When the bichromate has all dissolved. --Contributed by H. If the battery has been used before. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. but if one casts his own zinc. . and the solution (Fig. 2). 14 copper wire. shuts him in. Philadelphia. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. The truncated. potassium bichromate. long having two thumb screws. The mercury will adhere. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. silvery appearance. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. stirring constantly. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. there is too much liquid in the jar. or small electric motors. acid 1 part). it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. C. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. some of it should be poured out. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. rub the zinc well. giving it a bright. sulphuric acid. 4 oz. If it is wet. however. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. 1) must be prepared. When through using the battery. It is useful for running induction coils. or. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. dropping. To cause a flow of electricity. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. and touches the bait the lid is released and. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. of water dissolve 4 oz. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's.

one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. Wis. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. with slight changes. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. If. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. pressing the pedal closes the door. the jump-spark coil .Fig. e. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Madison. After putting in the coal. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. however. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. while the coal door is being opened. The price of the coil depends upon its size. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. the battery circuit. which opens the door. i..

while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. W W. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. 6. in a straight line from top to bottom. Now for the receiving apparatus. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. This coil. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. in a partial vacuum. the full length of the coil. apart. while a 12-in. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. which is made of light copper wire. 6. 7. being a 1-in. W W. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals.described elsewhere in this book. Fig. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. made of No. .7. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. 7. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. diameter. coil. 5. This will make an excellent receiver. as shown in Fig. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. and closer for longer distances. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. 7). uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. After winding. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. as shown in Fig. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. Change the coil described. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver.

I run my lathe by power. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. where A is the headstock. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. after all. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. 1). are analogous to the flow of induction. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. as it matches the color well. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. being vertical. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. may be easily made at very little expense. but it could be run by foot power if desired.6 stranded. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. 90°. 1 to 4. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. . 90°. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). being at right angles. The writer does not claim to be the originator. Figs. A large cone pulley would then be required. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. No. and hence the aerial line. at any point to any metal which is grounded. These circles. to the direction of the current. only. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. A. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. above the ground.The aerial line. which will be described later. B the bed and C the tailstock. For an illustration. but simply illustrates the above to show that. Run a wire from the other binding post. using an electric motor and countershaft. in the air. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. wireless is very simple when it is once understood.

The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. which pass through a piece of wood. and runs in babbitt bearings. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. on the under side of the bed. Fig.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. 2 and 3. 4. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. 6. 5. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. If the bearing has been properly made. To make these bearings. too. The bolts B (Fig. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. deep. but not hot enough to burn it. Heat the babbitt well. The bearing is then ready to be poured. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. and it is well to have the shaft hot. 5. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. tapered wooden pin. A. pitch and 1/8 in. thick. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . and Fig. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. 4. Fig. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. B. Fig. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Fig. just touching the shaft. 6 Headstock Details D. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. After pouring. which are let into holes FIG. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. The headstock. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. one of which is shown in Fig. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. steel tubing about 1/8 in.

they may be turned up after assembling.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. of the walk .other machines. embedded in the wood. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. the alarm is easy to fix up. This prevents corrosion. lock nut. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. A. B. FIG. N. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. If one has a wooden walk. The tail stock (Fig. Oak Park. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. Newark. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. so I had to buy one. and a 1/2-in. Ill. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. Take up about 5 ft. If not perfectly true. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. --Contributed by Donald Reeves.J.

Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. add potassium cyanide again. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. --Contributed by R. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Jackson. silver or other metal. to remove all traces of grease. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Finally. save when a weight is on the trap. and the alarm is complete. Minn. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. to roughen the surface slightly. 2). then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. water. before dipping them in the potash solution. Do not touch the work with the hands again. leaving a clear solution. (A. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Then make the solution . of water. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. clean the articles thoroughly.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. Minneapolis. Fig. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. S. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. so that they will not touch. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. hang the articles on the wires. Connect up an electric bell. To avoid touching it.

1). Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. which is held by catch B. 18 wire. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. long. also. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. In rigging it to a sliding door. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. Fig. If accumulators are used. from the lower end. if one does not possess a buffing machine. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. of clothesline rope and some No. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. Fig. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. pewter. an old electric bell or buzzer. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. B should be of the same wood. with the pivot 2 in. copper. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. about 25 ft. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. If more solution is required. shaking.5 to 4 volts. light strokes. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. which is advised. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. Repeat six times. --Model Engineer. as at F. hole in its center. 1 not only unlocks. 3) strikes the bent wire L. but opens the door. zinc. silver can be plated direct. 3. a hand scratch brush is good. must be about 1 in. Make a somewhat larger block (E. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. Take quick. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. Having finished washing the precipitate. and 4 volts for very small ones. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. make a key and keyhole. nickel and such metals. To provide the keyhole. with water. A 1/4 in. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. when the point of the key touches the tin. Where Bunsen cells are used. This is best done by filling the bottle with water.up to 2 qt. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. 10 in. A (Fig. Can be made of a 2-in. as shown in Fig. 1). this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. with water. will serve for the key. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. a circuit is completed. Fig. This solution. With an electric pressure of 3. Screw the two blocks together. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. On brass. I. square. 1 in. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. and then treated as copper. such metals as iron. Then. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. of water. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. German silver. The wooden block C. which . saw a piece of wood. long. 1. thick by 3 in. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. piece of broomstick. and the larger part (F. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. lead. When all this is set up. 3) directly over the hole. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. use 2 volts for large articles. The wooden catch. Fig. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Before silver plating. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts.

Klipstein. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. shows catch B. to throw the light toward the audience. spoons and jackknives. and black art reigns supreme. no painting inside is required. In front of you. top. Next. is the cut through which the rope runs. should be cut a hole. and plenty of candles. The interior must be a dead black. some black cloth. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. the illumination in front must be arranged. Thus. which unlocks the door. a few simple tools. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. and hands its contents round to the audience. Heavy metal objects. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. although a little more trouble. Fig.. New Jersey. or cave. half way from open end to closed end. H. The box must be altered first. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. One end is removed. . which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. between the parlor and the room back of it. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. the requisites are a large soap box. he tosses it into the cave. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. Fig. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. H. 3. enlarged. 1. H. 0. 2. One thing changes to another and back again. one-third of the length from the remaining end. the box should be painted black both inside and out. and a slit. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. such as forks. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. East Orange. surrounding a perfectly black space. floor. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. B. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. in his shirt sleeves. He removes the bowl from the black box. with a switch as in Fig. Receiving the bowl again. cut in one side. he points with one finger to the box. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. with the lights turned low. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. 1. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. so much the better. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. Fig. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. 2. --Contributed by E. heighten the illusion. Next. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. and finally lined inside with black cloth. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. The magician stands in front of this. To prepare such a magic cave. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. some black paint. On either side of the box. Fig. 116 Prospect St. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. sides and end. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. Objects appear and disappear. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house.

But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. if. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. the room where the cave is should be dark. The audience room should have only low lights. was identical with this. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. of course. which are let down through the slit in the top. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. and several black drop curtains. one on each side of the box. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. The exhibitor should be . had a big stage. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. of course. as presented by Hermann. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. Consequently. in which are oranges and apples. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. which can be made to dance either by strings. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. is on a table) so much the better. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. The illusion. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. But illusions suggest themselves.Finally. and if portieres are impossible. his confederate behind inserts his hand. a screen must be used. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. and pours them from the bag into a dish. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. only he. into the eyes of him who looks. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. you must have an assistant.

and c2 to the zinc. held down on disk F by two other terminals. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. as shown in Fig. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. c3. if you turn handle K to the right. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. b2. b3. b2. at L. e1 and e2. respectively. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. Fig. respectively. and c1 – electricity. 2). terminal c3 will show . f2. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. 1. or binding posts. b3. A represents a pine board 4 in. when handle K is turned to one side. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. square. 1. and c4 + electricity. FIG. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . respectively. held down on it by two terminals. Then. b1. is shown in the diagram. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. terminal c3 will show +. and a common screw. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. d. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. by means of two wood screws.. c1.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. by 4 in. making contact with them as shown at y. c2. c4. or b2. held down by another disk F (Fig. their one end just slips under the strips b1. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. with three brass strips. About the center piece H moves a disk. making contact with them. so arranged that. vice versa. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. On the disk G are two brass strips.a boy who can talk. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. 2. A. Finally. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. 2. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch).

Joerin. Newark. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). you have the current of one battery. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. from three batteries. Ohio. 5. Tuttle. 1. When switch B is closed and A is on No. 3. -Contributed by A. and C and C1 are binding posts. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. from four batteries.. and when on No. . E. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. B is a onepoint switch. and then hold the receiver to your ear.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. Jr. when on No. when A is on No. 4. from five batteries. --Contributed by Eugene F. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. when on No. jump spark coil. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna.

A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. New Orleans. as shown in the sketch. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. over the bent portion of the rule. traveled by the thread. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. mark. which may be a button or other small object. P. per second for each second. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. Redmond. is the device of H. La. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in.. Wis. rule. Handy Electric Alarm . When you do not have a graduate at hand. per second. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. A. A. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. and supporting the small weight. B. of Burlington. E. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. so one can see the time. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. and placed on the windowsill of the car. The device thus arranged.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. A. mark. Thus.

thus turning on the small incandescent light G. Then if a mishap comes. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. and with the same result. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. . attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. --Contributed by Gordon T. wrapping the wire around the can several times. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. Pa. --C. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. which illuminates the face of the clock. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. Instead. When the alarm goes off. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. soldered to the alarm winder. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. for a wetting is the inevitable result. C. but may be closed at F any time desired. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. S. Lane. B.which has a piece of metal. Crafton.

1 . and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. BE. ornaments of various kinds. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. With the easily made devices about to be described. as shown. which may. If there is no foundry Fig. and duplicates of all these. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. New York City. A. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. but it is a mistake to try to do this.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. --Contributed by A. AA. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. cannons. models and miniature objects. bearings. small machinery parts. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. It is possible to make molds without a bench. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. C. when it is being prepared. battery zincs. and many other interesting and useful articles. Two cleats. engines. whence it is soon tracked into the house. Macey. 1. The first thing to make is a molding bench. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. binding posts. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. as shown in Fig. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. L.

near at hand. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. which can be made of a knitted stocking. Fig. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. try using sand from other sources. The rammer. The dowels. by 6 in. makes a very good sieve. which should be nailed in. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. J. D. will be required. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. and this. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. which can be either aluminum. G. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. high. and saw it in half longitudinally. A slight shake of the bag Fig. A wedge-shaped piece.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. 1. E." or upper half. DD. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together.How to Make a Mold [96] . H. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. It is made of wood and is in two halves. a little larger than the outside of the flask. as shown. is about the right mesh. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. If desired the sieve may be homemade. and a sieve. is nailed to each end of the cope. CC. and the "drag. as shown. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. II . Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. Fig. If the box is not very strong. CC. by 8 in. F. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. previous to sawing. An old teaspoon. is shown more clearly in Fig. 2. the "cope. The flask. 2 . thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. 1. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. say 12 in. is filled with coal dust. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. The cloth bag. white metal. but this operation will be described more fully later on. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. is made of wood. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. A A. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. and the lower pieces. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds." or lower part.

After ramming. In finishing the ramming. as shown. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. in order to remove the lumps. where they can watch the molders at work. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. as it is much easier to learn by observation. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. It is then rammed again as before. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. and scatter about 1/16 in. as described. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. or "cope. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. the surface of the sand at . scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. as shown at C. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. The sand is then ready for molding. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. turn the drag other side up. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. and thus judge for himself. and by grasping with both hands. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. as shown at E. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. and if water is added. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. or "drag. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. and then more sand is added until Fig. as shown at D. everything will be ready for the operation of molding." in position. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. Place another cover board on top. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope.

striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. as shown at G. This is done with a spoon. after being poured. III. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. wide and about 1/4 in. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. as shown at H. thus holding the crucible securely. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. After drawing the pattern. Fig. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. it shows that the sand is too wet. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. as shown at F. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. .Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. in order to prevent overheating. to give the air a chance to escape. Place a brick or other flat. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. made out of steel rod. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. as shown at H. deep. from the surface of the mold to the pattern.E should be covered with coal-dust. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. as shown at J. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. is next cut. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. and then pour. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern." or pouring-hole. as shown in the sketch. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. in diameter. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. The "sprue. thus making a dirty casting. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. place the cope back on the drag.

aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. Referring to the figure. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. and. In my own case I used four batteries. If a good furnace is available. or from any adjacent pair of cells. used only for zinc. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. white metal and other scrap available. is very desirable. although somewhat expensive. but any reasonable number may be used. --Contributed by Harold S. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. babbitt. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. Minneapolis. Although the effect in the illustration . 15% lead. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. and the casting is then ready for finishing. may be used in either direction. the following device will be found most convenient. Morton. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. battery zincs. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling.

Then replace the table. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. backward. If desired. To make it take a sheet-iron band. The bearings. B. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. 3/4 in. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. as shown in the illustration. By replacing the oars with paddles. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. B. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. as shown at A. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. shaft made. Make one of these pieces for each arm. Fig. A. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. which will be sufficient to hold it. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. The brass rings also appear distorted.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. Then walk down among the audience. may be made of hardwood. --Contributed by Draughtsman. connected by cords to the rudder. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. 2. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. Chicago. outward. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. Put a sharp needle point. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight.

is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. but when in motion. 1. 3. or under pressure. The covers. In the same way. W. The hubs. as shown in Fig. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. and a weight. spoiling its appearance. 1. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. 1. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. 2. 2 and 3. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. or the paint will come off. C. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. It may seem strange that ice . being simply finely divided ice. A block of ice. If galvanized iron is used. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. should be made of wood. If babbitt is used. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. D. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. when it will again return to its original state. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. E. Fig. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. Snow. as shown in Fig. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. A.melted babbitt. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig.

sometimes only one or two feet a day. by 1/4. and assume the shape shown at B.should flow like water. Crafton. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. Pressing either push button. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. The rate of flow is often very slow. as shown on page 65. by 1/2 in. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. which resembles ice in this respect. or supporting it in some similar way. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. B. no matter how slow the motion may be. as per sketch. but by placing it between books. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. Pa. by 5 in. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. --Contributed by Gordon T. by 2 in. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. in. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. P. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. it will gradually change from the original shape A. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. square. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends.. but. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. thus giving a high resistance contact. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. whenever there is any connection made at all. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. Lane. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. brass.

vertical lever. K . Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. B. pulleys. about the size used for automobiles. A is the circuit breaker. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. The parts are: A. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. B. alarm clock. draft chain. G. and C. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. Indianapolis. and five dry batteries. furnace. Pa. J. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. weight. I. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. In the wiring diagram. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. The success depends upon a slow current. E. horizontal lever. draft.000 ft. G. --Contributed by A. as shown. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. as shown. the battery. Ward. the induction coil. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. --Contributed by Coulson Glick.thumb screws. wooden supports. D. C. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. cord. H. F. Wilkinsburg. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time.

The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. Artistic Window Boxes The top. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . 3. as well as the bottom. 2 are dressed to the right angle. The frame (Fig. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. Mich. such as used for a storm window. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. where house plants are kept in the home. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. material framed together as shown in Fig. which will provide a fine place for the plants.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. Kalamazoo. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. will fit nicely in them.

More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. Halifax. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. as if drawn upon for its total output. by connecting them in series.. is something that will interest the average American boy. multiples of series of three. 1 each complete with base. However. This is more economical than dry cells. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. S. in diameter.. since a battery is the most popular source of power. i. which sells for 25 cents. Canada. in any system of lamps. Thus. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. a cork and a needle. Push the needle into the cork. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. after a rest. can be connected up in series. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. It must be remembered. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. e. W. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. as indicated by Fig. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. However. one can regulate the batteries as required.. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. but maintain the voltage constant. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. for some time very satisfactorily. --Contributed by Wm. N. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. The 1/2-cp. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. so as to increase the current. and will give the . By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. 1 cp. Grant. and a suitable source of power. A certain number of these. in this connection. and cost 27 cents FIG. this must be done with very great caution. 1. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. and the instrument will then be complete. where they are glad to have them taken away. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage.

and for Christmas trees. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. which is the same as that of one battery. generates the power for the lights. Thus. for display of show cases. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. making. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. If wound for 10 volts. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. according to the water pressure obtainable. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. double insulated wire wherever needed. although the first cost is greater. Chicago. 2 shows the scheme. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. especially those of low internal resistance. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. . 11 series. So. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. if wound for 6 volts. These will give 3 cp. to secure light by this method. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. as in Fig. by the proper combination of these. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. and running the series in parallel. where the water pressure is the greatest. However. In conclusion. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. FIG. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. lamps. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt.. and diffused light in a room. lamp. Thus. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. 18 B & S.proper voltage. 1-cp. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. we simply turn on the water. or 22 lights. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. Fig. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. lamps. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and then lead No. 3. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. each.

and the sides. outside points of switch. A. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. simply change the switch. DD. Cal. brushes of motor. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. bars of pole-changing switch. Santa Clara. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. or a tempting bone. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. To reverse the motor. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Ind. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. Plymouth. --Contributed by Leonard E. After I connected up my induction coil. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. thus reversing the machine. AA. --Contributed by F. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. we were not bothered with them. switch. a bait of meat. Emig. or from one pattern. are cut just alike. CC. BB. as shown in the sketch. A indicates the ground. B. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. B. field of motor. and C. center points of switch. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Parker. . The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes.

Melchior. Minn. 903 Vine St. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. a piece of string. as it is the key to the lock.. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. or would remain locked. merely push the button E. The button can be hidden. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. A. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. If it is not. Hutchinson. When the circuit is broken a weight. San Jose. and a table or bench. The experiment works best . Cal. W.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. thus locking the door. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. one cell being sufficient. -Contributed by Claude B. which is in the door. Fry. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. attached to the end of the armature B. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. a hammer. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. To unlock the door.

2. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Culebra. which pulls the draft open. releasing the weight. as shown in Fig. Crawford Curry. . C. W. Brockville. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. --Contributed by Geo. the stick falls away.. Wis. P. Porto Rico. Ontario. 4). To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. 1). A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. the key turns. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. A. Tie the ends of the string together. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. 18 Gorham St. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Canada. run through a pulley. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. I. where it will remain suspended as shown. in the ceiling and has a window weight. -. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block.Contributed by F. the current flows with the small arrows. 3. forming a loop. Madison. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. attached at the other end. When the alarm rings in the early morning. D. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Schmidt. 3.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock.

or tree. and the other to the battery. R. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. get two pieces of plate glass. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. J. Connect two wires to the transmitter. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. Farley. N.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. thence to a switch. D. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Jr. J. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. Use a barrel to work on. running one direct to the receiver. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. --Contributed by Wm. square and 1 in. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. Camden. or from a bed of flowers. and break the corners off to make them round. and then to the receiver. and . thick. The cut shows the arrangement. made with his own hands. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver.. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. 6 in. which fasten to the horn. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. First. S. including the mouthpiece.

in length. 2. and label. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. Fig. or it will not polish evenly. When dry. Then warm and press again with the speculum. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. When polishing the speculum.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. also rotate the glass. L. while walking around the barrel. with 1/4-in. a round 4-in. Fig. of water. as in Fig. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. Fasten. or less. Use a binger to spread it on with. wet till soft like paint. and spread on the glass. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. twice the focal length away. and the under glass or tool convex. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. and is ready for polishing.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. When done the glass should be semitransparent. unless a longer focal length is wanted. 2. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. wetting it to the consistency of cream. In a dark room. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. then take 2 lb. so the light . then 8 minutes.. set the speculum against the wall. spaces. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. by the side of the lamp. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. Have ready six large dishes. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. 30 minutes and 90 minutes.. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. and a large lamp. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. melt 1 lb. with pitch. the coarse grinding must be continued. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. wide around the convex glass or tool. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. using straight strokes 2 in. A. 1. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife.

so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade.. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. 25 gr. with distilled water. Two glass or earthenware dishes. the speculum will show some dark rings. 4 oz. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. With pitch. 100 gr.. 39 gr.……………. 840 gr. Place the speculum S.. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. from the lamp.. Then add solution B.………………………………. Solution D: Sugar loaf . When dry. Place the speculum. 4 oz.. When the focus is found. longer strokes. cement a strip of board 8 in. fill the dish with distilled water. 2. then ammonia until bath is clear. Nitric acid . Silver nitrate ……………………………. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. long to the back of the speculum. or hills. Now add enough of the solution A. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. Then add 1 oz. The knife should not be more than 6 in. as in K. also how the rays R from a star . Fig.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way.100 gr. and pour the rest into the empty dish. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. the speculum is ready to be silvered. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. deep.. if a hill in the center.…………………………….. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. 2. that was set aside. Fig. The polishing and testing done. face down.. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. must be procured. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. Fig. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. If not. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke.. touched with rouge.

but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. and proceed as for any picture. with an outlay of only a few dollars.John E. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. which proves to be easy of execution. The flatter they are the less they will distort. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. two glass prisms. using strawboard and black paper. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. slightly wider than the lens mount. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret.. . long and cost me just $15. Make the tube I of sheet iron. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. Then I made the one described. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Mellish. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. is a satisfactory angle. About 20. stop down well after focusing. deg. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. cover with paper and cloth.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. telescope can be made at home. Place over lens. My telescope is 64 in. Thus an excellent 6-in.

which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. says the Master Painter. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. Zimmerman. A. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. D. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. The paper is exposed. instead of the contrary. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. then add a little sulphate of potash. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. 2. 1. To unlock. B. . Do not stir it. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. unobstructed light strike the mirror. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. but will not preserve its hardening. add the plaster gradually to the water. Ill. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. Fig. The rays of the clear. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. complete the arrangement. as shown in Fig. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. and reflect through the negative. or powdered alum. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. through the lens of the camera and on the board. push the button D. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. -Contributed by A. Boody. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion.

2. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. throw . I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. 2. Then blow through the spool. use a string. To reverse. but will remain suspended without any visible support.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Fig. as shown in the sketch. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. so that it can rotate about these points. 3. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 1). and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. as at A and B. also provide them with a handle. as in Fig. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Fasten on the switch lever. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card.

a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Tex. Go McVicker. A is the electricbell magnet. Thomas. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. binding posts. North Bend. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. San Marcos. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. carbons. although this is not necessary. B. C C. --Contributed by R. and E E. rinse in alcohol. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. the armature. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. as shown in the sketch. -Contributed by Morris L. L. carbon sockets. wash in running water. Neb. San Antonio. and rub dry with linen cloth. Tex.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Take out. Push one end of the tire into the hole. D. Levy. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. In the sketch. . --Contributed by Geo.

wound evenly about this core. Bell. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. --Contributed by Joseph B. long or more. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. 14 or No. Brooklyn. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. By means of two or more layers of No. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. 36 magnet wire. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. 16 magnet wire. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch.

This makes a condenser which may be folded. about 6 in. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. After the core wires are bundled. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. diameter. which is an important factor of the coil. and finally the fourth strip of paper. 2 yd.which would be better to buy ready-made. and the results are often unsatisfactory. in diameter. long and 2-5/8 in. coil illustrates the general details of the work. Beginning half an inch from one end. 1. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. hole is bored in the center of one end. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. making two layers. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. as shown in Fig. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. The primary is made of fine annealed No. at a time. The following method of completing a 1-in. No. but if it is not convenient to do this work. A 7/8-in. The condenser is next wrapped . which is desirable. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. When cut and laid in one continuous length. or 8 in. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. one piece of the paper is laid down. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. a box like that shown in Fig. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. long and 5 in. In shaping the condenser. then the strip of tin-foil. wide. with room also for a small condenser. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. as the maker prefers. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. in length. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. 4. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. the entire core may be purchased readymade.

flange turned on one side. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. long to key. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. A. B. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. I. which allows wiring at the back. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. copper lever with 1-in. long and 12 in. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. which is insulated from the first. switch. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. E. and the other sheet. G. lines H. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. bell. forms the other pole or terminal. whole length. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. and one from battery. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. F. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. round so that the inside . go. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. shows how the connections are made. spark. to the door. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. by 12 in. battery . then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. shelf for clock. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. 3. The alarm key will turn and drop down. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. 4 in. open switch C. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. B. D. wide. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. V-shaped copper strip. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell.securely with bands of paper or tape. Fig. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. C. ready for assembling.. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell.) The wiring diagram. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. the letters indicate as follows: A. one from bell. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in.

That is what they are for. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. from the bottom. but add 5 or 6 oz. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. This is for blowing. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. but with the circuit. 2 in. and then rivet the seam. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. . Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. do not shortcircuit. instead of close to it. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. of blue stone. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. says the Model Engineer.. Line the furnace. London. of zinc sulphate. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. If desired for use immediately.diameter is 7 in. Short-circuit for three hours. and the battery is ready for use. The circuit should also have a high resistance. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. Use a glass or metal shade.

Try it and see. If any or your audience presume to dispute. for others the opposite way. square and about 9 in. 1. the second finger along the side. porcelain and paper. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. affects . changes white phosphorus to yellow. imparting to them a violet tinge. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. grip the stick firmly in one hand.. Outside of the scientific side involved. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. and then. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. If too low. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. below the bottom of the zinc. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. thus producing two different vibrations. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. while for others it will not revolve at all. Enlarge the hole slightly. At least it is amusing." which created much merriment. but the thing would not move at all. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right.9 of a volt. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. Ohio. herein I describe a much better trick. 2. for some it will turn one way. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. as in the other movement. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. or think they can do the same let them try it. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and therein is the trick. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. oxygen to ozone. To operate the trick. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. This type of battery will give about 0. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. g. long.

carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. if possible. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. but small flowers. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. a short-focus lens. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. earth. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. says the Photographic Times. an old tripod screw. and. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. chemicals.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. To the front board is attached a box. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. insects. but not essential. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. and one of them is photomicrography. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. a means for holding it vertical. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. however. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. but this is less satisfactory.

7-1/2 in. Divide one-quarter of the circle . Mass. Cap. 5 ft. If the balloon is 10 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. which is 15 ft. 1. long and 3 ft. or 31 ft. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 5 in. CD. 11 ft. 179 11 lb. 381 24 lb. 12 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 697 44 lb. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. while it is not so with the quill.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. in diameter. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 8 ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. Boston. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. AB. 7 ft. 6 ft. Ft Lifting Power. 268 17 lb. Madison. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. in Cu. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 7-1/2 in. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. A line.--Contributed by George C. 65 4 lb. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 113 7 lb. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. 9 ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. balloon. Fig. The following table will give the size. or 3 ft. 905 57 lb. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. and a line.

of beeswax and boil well together. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. 3. on the curved line from B to C. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. The cloth segments are sewed together. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. cutting all four quarters at the same time. 2. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. The amounts necessary for a 10- . This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. The pattern is now cut. keeping the marked part on the outside. This test will show if the bag is airtight. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. Procure 1 gal. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. making a double seam as shown in Fig. Repeat this operation four times. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. of the very best heavy body. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. 70 thread. using a fine needle and No. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. 4. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. and so on. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts.

The 3/4-in. with 3/4in. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. of iron borings and 125 lb. Vegetable oils should never be used. . oil the spindle holes carefully. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand.. The outlet. this should be repeated frequently. of water will make 4 cu. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. 1 lb. which may sound rather absurd. but if any grease remains on the hand. as shown in Fig. of sulphuric acid. or dusting with a dry brush. should not enter into the water over 8 in. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. balloon are 125 lb. 1 lb. B. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. 150 gr. A. to the bag. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. capacity and connect them. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. using a fine brush. of iron. 5 . C. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. 5. of gas in one hour. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. A. In the barrel. a clean white rag. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. After washing a part. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. When the clock has dried. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. Water 1 oz. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. ].Green Iron ammonium citrate . Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. About 15 lb. B. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. it is not fit to use. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. Fill the other barrel. above the level of the water in barrel A. until no more dirt is seen. All FIG. C. with water 2 in. A. leaving the hand quite clean. with the iron borings. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. pipe. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. . if it is good it will dry off. B. ft. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. by fixing. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel.ft. or a fan.

Port Melbourne. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. .Water 1 oz. 20 to 30 minutes. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. or zinc. This aerial collector can be made in . but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. says the Moving Picture World.000 ft. The miniature 16 cp. Dry the plates in the dark. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Dry in the dark. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. . fix in hypo. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. A longer exposure will be necessary. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. or carbon. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. at the time of employment. Exposure. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. keeping the fingers out of the solution. of any make. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. and a vigorous negative must be used.. dry atmosphere will give best results. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Printing is done in the sun. The positive pole. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. A cold. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. and keep in the dark until used. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. or battery. to avoid blackened skin. The negative pole. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. toning first if desired.

To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. holes . and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. forming a cup of the pipe. As the telephone offers a high resistance. and have the other connected with another aerial line. long. 5 in. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. as described below. If the wave ceases. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. and as less current will flow the short way. This will complete the receiving station. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. a positive and a negative. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. the resistance is less. both positive and negative. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. when left exposed to the air. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. will soon become dry and useless. in diameter. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. lead pipe. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. If the waves strike across the needle.various ways. lay a needle. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. The storage cell. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. making a ground with one wire. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in.

The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. When mixing the acid and water. an oblong one and a triangular one. or tube B. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. This support or block. This box can be square. The other plate is connected to the zinc. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. a round one. B. does not need to be watertight. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. Two binding-posts should be attached. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust.as possible. This. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. or tube C. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. and the other to the negative. D. on each end. says the Pathfinder. of course. by soldering the joint. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . namely: a square hole. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. one to the positive. except for about 1 in.

The third piece of brass. were fitted by this one plug. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. leaving about 1/16 in. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. Only galvanized nails should be used. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. wide. Chicago. deep and 4 ft. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. A and B. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. C. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. back and under. in place on the wood. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. as shown in Fig. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. Ill. .Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. as shown in Fig. 2. thick cut two pieces alike. long. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. 2. 3. and match them together. wide. is built 15 ft. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. This punt. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. all around the edge. 1. as it is not readily overturned. 1. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. C. about 20 in. and has plenty of good seating capacity.

Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. In Fig. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. A piece of 1/4-in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Wash. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. thick and 3-1/2 in. Tacoma. gas pipe. A. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. is cut 1 in. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. square (Fig 2). Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . B. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C.

and to consume. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit.--Contributed by Charles H. no more current than a 16-cp. which the writer has made." has no connection with the outside circuit. H. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. which can be developed in the usual manner. without auxiliary phase. Wagner. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. The winding of the armature. no special materials could be obtained.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. In designing. it had to be borne in mind that. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. lamp. with the exception of insulated wire. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. says the Model Engineer. or "rotor. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. may be of interest to some of our readers. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. if possible.

the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. in diameter were drilled in the corners. and filled with rivets. 3. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. 5. B. were then drilled and 1/4-in. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. bolts put in and tightened up. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. 1. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. The stator is wound full with No.the field-magnet. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. They are not particularly accurate as it is. Holes 5-32 in. to be filed out after they are placed together. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. thick. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. about 2-1/2 lb. A. this little machine is not self-starting. After assembling a second time. as shown in Fig. C. as shown in Fig. with the dotted line. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. holes. or "stator. 4. wrought iron. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. no steel being obtainable. 2. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. Unfortunately. being used. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. and all sparking is avoided. while the beginnings . and is shown with dimensions in Fig. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. also varnished before they were put in. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron.

film to film. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. No starting resistance is needed. having no commutator or brushes. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. and would not easily get out of order. as a means of illustrating songs. if applied immediately. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. This type of motor has drawbacks. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. E. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. One is by contact. 2. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. The image should . and especially of colored ones. a regulating resistance is not needed. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. The rotor is wound with No. 1. The lantern slide is a glass plate. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. Jr. McKinney. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. as before stated. and as the motor runs at constant speed. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. N. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open.. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. and as each layer of wire was wound. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. and all wound in the same direction. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. Newark. J. it would be very simple to build. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. In making slides by contact. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. 3-Contributed by C. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. If too late for alcohol to be of use.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. as shown in Fig. and the other by reduction in the camera.

Contrasty negatives make the best slides. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. also. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. 4. Draw lines with a pencil. they are much used by travelers. Fig. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing.appear in. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. and then a plain glass. except that the binding is different. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. C. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . 3. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. 2. if possible. D. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. to use a plain fixing bath. If the exposure has been correct. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. Being unbreakable. a little extra work will be necessary. 1. A. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. B. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. the formulas being found in each package of plates. and development should be over in three or four minutes. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. 5. It is best. about a minute. These can be purchased from any photo material store. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. as shown in Fig. Select a room with one window. as shown in Fig. over the mat. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame.

or other stout cloth. Fig. as shown at B. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. long. as shown at A. A piece of canvas. Vt. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. 2. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Hastings. in diameter and 40 in. wide and 50 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. 16 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. is to be used for the seat. Corinth. known as rods and cones. long. from the ends. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. These longer pieces can be made square. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. from the end piece of the chair. in diameter and 20 in. 1. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Fig. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. long. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. If the star is in front of the left eye. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. holes bored in the end pieces. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. as shown in Fig. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. 1. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. from the center of this dot draw a star.

A pitman was attached to the large pulley. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. Cal. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all.-Contributed by P. in thickness and 10 in. O'Gara. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. . J. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. per square inch. as shown in Fig. A belt. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. 2. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. as shown in Fig. as well as to operate other household machines. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. A disk 1 in. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. 1. Auburn. made from an ordinary sash cord. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans.

and counting the threads in an inch of its length. A simple. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Bore a 1/4-in. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. The part of a rotation of the bolt. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Put the bolt in the hole. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. . and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. and the construction is complete. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. will be the thickness of the object. or inconvenient to measure. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. leaving it shaped like a bench. fairly accurate. thick and 2-1/2 in. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. long. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. screwing it through the nut. it serves a very useful purpose. to the top of the bench. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. with as fine a thread as possible. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. 3/4 in. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. wide. says the Scientific American. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. direction. then removing the object. divided by the number of threads to the inch. square for a support. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood.

Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. which show up fine at night. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Bore a 3/4-in. long. long is used for the center pole. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. piece of wood 12 ft. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. beyond the end of the wood. Place a 3/4-in. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Oal. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. The wheel should be open .Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. bolt in each hole. material 12 ft. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Santa Maria. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets.

The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. P. L. A cross bar. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. thick. 1/2 in. long. thick is used for the armature. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. Graham. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. wide and 1/8 in. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. long. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. The coil. The boards may be nailed or bolted. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. at the bottom. to be operated by the magnet coil. A. Fort Worth. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. C. long. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. made of the same material. B. thick. in diameter. pieces used for the spokes. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. O. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. C. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. at the top and 4 in. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. from the top end. square and 3 or 4 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. long.Side and Top View or have spokes. which should be 1/4 in. Tex. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. is soldered. from the ends. The spool . and the lower part 61/2 in. H and J.-Contributed by A. A piece of brass 2 in. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. and on its lower end a socket. wide and 1/8 in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. of the ends with boards.

then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. long. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. B. and place it against a door or window casing. At the bottom end of the frame. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. for insulating the brass ferrule. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. is drilled. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. When you slide the pencil along the casing. 2. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. The armature. then with a firm. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. and directly centering the holes H and J. Mass. do it without any apparent effort. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. which may be had by using German silver wire. A.J. C. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. --Contributed by Arthur D. or a water rheostat heretofore described.is about 2-1/2 in. 1. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. This tie can be used on grain sacks. This is a very neat trick if performed right.--A. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. 2 the hat hanging on it. . that holds the lower carbon. and in numerous other like instances. A soft piece of iron. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. by soldering.000 for irrigation work. F.000. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. S. Bradlev. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. S. one without either rubber or metal end. R. Randolph. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post.E. D and E.

thick. D. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. long. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. The core of the coil. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. leaving the projections as shown. 1. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. long and 1 in. and then 1. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. The vibrator. mixed with water to form a paste. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. Fig. A. in diameter. S. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. Experiment with Heat [134] . where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The switch. in diameter and 2 in. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. about 3/16 in. from the core and directly opposite. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. S. for the secondary. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. The vibrator B. B. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. for the primary. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. wide. about 1/8 in. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. is constructed in the usual manner. 1. for adjustment. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. may be made from a 3/8-in. Fig. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. in diameter and 1/16 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. About 70 turns of No. The coil ends are made from cardboard. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. about 1 in. 2.500 turns of No.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. hole in the center. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. is connected to a flash lamp battery. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. with a 3/16-in. in diameter. F. C.

and then well clinched. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. and the same distance inside of the new board. The knob on the dial extends out too far. wide. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. The tin is 4 in. thick on the inside. The lock. Fig. as shown. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. 16 in. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. which seemed to be insufficient. was to be secured by only three brass screws. between the boards. board. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. it laps down about 8 in. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. 2 to fit the two holes. in an ordinary water glass. long and when placed over the board. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. with which to operate the dial. 1. The three screws were then put in the hasp. .Place a small piece of paper. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. which is only 3/8-in. brass plate. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. which is cut with two holes. The hasp. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. 1. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. as shown in the sketch. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. lighted.

clear glass as shown. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. and the back left dark. If the box is made large enough. any article placed therein will be reflected in. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. high for use in window displays. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. one in each division. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. square and 10-1/2 in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. not shiny. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. which completely divides the box into two parts. or in the larger size mentioned. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . When making of wood. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. square and 8-1/2 in. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. When the rear part is illuminated. the glass. but when the front part is illuminated. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. black color. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in.

as shown in the sketch. When there is no electric current available. a tank 2 ft. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. into the other. and with the proper illumination one is changed.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. alternately. wide will be about the right size. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. . as it appears.. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. long and 1 ft. When using as a window display. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. above the top of the tank. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. as shown at A in the sketch. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

Columbus. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. and boring two holes with a 1-in. hole. Iron sulphate. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. bit. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. 6 in. hole bored the full length through the center. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. wide. gauge for depth. 1 in. bore from each end. or ferrous sulphate. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. long. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. one for each side. This hole must be continued . and 6 ft. is the green vitriol. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. Shape the under sides first. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. however. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. then use a red-hot iron to finish. The 13-in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. and a solution of iron sulphate added. lines gauged on each side of each. from the ground.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. wide. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. and a door in front. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. square and 40 in. Three windows are provided. is built on the front. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. If a planing mill is near. as shown. O. 2 ft. under sides together. with a length of 13 in. 5 ft. long. thick and 3 in. radius. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. using a 3/4-in. high. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. The pieces can then be taken out. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. This precipitate is then washed. two pieces 1-1/8 in. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. A small platform. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. but with a length of 12 in. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. square. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. each.

three or four may be attached as shown. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. When this is dry." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. A better way. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. square and drawing a diagonal on each. apply two coats of wax. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. if shade is purchased. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in.through the pieces forming the base. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. hole in each block. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. Electric globes--two. If the parts are to be riveted. For art-glass the metal panels are . Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Directions will be found on the filler cans. The sketch shows one method of attaching. When the filler has hardened. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. thick and 3 in. Saw the two blocks apart.

as brass. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.Construction of Shade . such as copper. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.The Completed Lamp cut out. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. METAL SHADE .

Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . Figure 1 shows the side. 2 the front view of this stand. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. the object and the background. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The arms holding the glass. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. as in ordinary devices. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. one way and 1/2 in. the other. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. and Fig. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. as shown in the sketch. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera.

Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. long. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. channel in the circumference of the ring. as shown in the cut. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. outside diameter. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. An ordinary pocket compass. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . thus forming a 1/4-in. as shown in the sketch. as it is very poisonous. and an inside diameter of 9 in. in diameter. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. wide and 11 in. If the light becomes dim. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. in diameter for a base. pointing north and south. and swinging freely. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. thick 5/8-in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. Cut another circular piece 11 in. Before mounting the ring on the base. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. uncork and recork again. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Put the ring in place on the base. wide and 6-5/16 in. about 1-1/4 in. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire.

B. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.715 .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. 1 oz. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in.088 . AA. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. and north of the Ohio river. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. and mirrors. above the half can. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.865 1. into these cylinders. EE. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. Place on top the so- . black oxide of copper. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.420 . For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. Corresponding mirrors. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.289 .600 . are mounted on a base.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. in diameter and 8 in. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. CC. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second.500 . The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. of the top. from the second to the third. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. The results given should be multiplied by 1.182 .

lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. When renewing. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. little crystals forming in the liquid. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. alcohol. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . of pulverized nitrate of potassium. University Park. then they will not rust fast. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. which otherwise remains clear. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. Put the solution in a long. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. Colo. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. In Fig. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. always remove the oil with a siphon. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. says Metal Worker. of pulverized campor. 62 gr. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. 31 gr. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. slender bottle. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz.

If two of them are floating on the same solution. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. --Contributed by C. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. about 1-1/4 in. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. will allow the magnet to point north and south. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. Lloyd Enos. floating on a solution. If zinc and carbon are used. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. Attach to the wires. A paper-fastener box. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. Solder in the side of the box . A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. on the under side of the cork. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. This is used in place of the spoon. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. If zinc and copper are used.

Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight.in. C. Take a small piece of soft iron. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. can be made of oak. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. Put ends. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. The base. Bore holes for binding-posts. away. If the hose is not a tight fit. B. A circular piece of cardboard. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. D.1-in. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. wide and 6 in. 1. E. The standard. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. Wind evenly about 2 oz. as shown in Fig. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. D. G--No. E. thick. brass tubing. wide and 2-1/2 in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. 10 wire about 10 in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way.in. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. long that has about 1/4-in. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. A. Use a board 1/2. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. A.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. H. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. 1/2. C.not shorter than 18 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. . stained and varnished. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. long. long. of No. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. 1-1/4 in.Contributed by J. The spring should be about 1 in. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. 14 wire will do. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. C. B. and then solder on the cover. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. F. Rhamstine. The bottom of the box. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. 3 in. and on the other around the glass tube. to it. piece of 1/4-in. is made from a piece of No. or made with a little black paint. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. glass tubing . This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Thos. hole. D. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . of wire on each end extending from the coil. one on each side of the board.

30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. Milwaukee. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft.of the coil. long. 3 in. is drawn nearer to the coil. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. J. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale.--Contributed by Edward M. from the right hand. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. of mercury will be sufficient. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig.--Contributed by R. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. of No. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. long. about 1 in. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. as shown in Fig. making a support as shown in Fig. Smith. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. long. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. 2. E. canvas. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. long are used for the legs. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. 5. long. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. Teasdale. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. About 1-1/2 lb. Cuba. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. Y. The iron plunger. long. . When the glass becomes soft. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. four hinges. in diameter. two pieces 2 ft. of 8-oz. N. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. 3-in. 1. D. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. Wis. 3.

At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. --Contributed by David A. Take 1/2 in. Break off the piece of glass. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. 3. thus leaving a... 4. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Fig. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. long. 6. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. leaving 8 in. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. 5. Can. holding in the left hand. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. The tube now must be filled completely. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. of vacuum at the top. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. expelling all the air. 2. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. small aperture in the long tube. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. This tube as described will be 8 in. Keys. Toronto. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. Measure 8 in. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube.

as shown in Fig. in diameter. wide and 12 in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. FIG. and the single projection 3/4 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. as in Fig. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. wide and 5 ft. 6. from the end of same. thick. This forms a slot. 1 in. thick. and 1/4 in. 1. long. A crosspiece 3/4-in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the .6 -. Fig. 1 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. 3 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. joint be accurately put together. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. 5. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. 4. thick. wood screws. wide and 3 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. The large pulley is about 14 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. Four blocks 1/4 in. thick. 9 in. 4 in. long. material 2 in. 3. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. wide and 5 ft. These are bent and nailed. 3 in. cut in the shape shown in Fig. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. long. thick. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. wide and 5 ft. long. 7. with each projection 3-in. 2. but yellow pine is the best. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this.

. says Photography. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. --Contributed by C. Welsh. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Kan. Manhattan. above the runner level. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. Water 1 oz. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. R. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. first removing the crank. attach runners and use it on the ice. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. by 1-in.

as shown in Fig. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. as shown in Fig. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. also. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. --Contributed by Wallace C. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Mass. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. The print is washed. Printing is carried rather far. Newton. 1. 1 oz. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. . This is done with a camel's hair brush. Treasdale. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. --Contributed by Edward M. from an ordinary clamp skate. Leominster. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. and very much cheaper. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. 3. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. of water. 2.

is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. which represents the back side of the door. high. The thread is broken off at the . The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. Then. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. 1. and to the bottom. Church. wide and 4 in. long. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. Va. hole. about 10 in. 1-1/2 ft. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. Place a 10-in. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. 2. The swing door B. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. --Contributed by H.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. causing the door to swing back and up. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. 1 ft. and bend them as shown in the sketch. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. F. A. Fig. wide. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. fasten a 2-in. too. with about 1/8-in. Alexandria. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. from one end. Fig. 1. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. as shown in the sketch. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. square piece. say. extending the width of the box. Take two glass tubes. high for rabbits. and 3 ft.

Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. plates. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. Crilly. This opening. Fig. wide. long. and go in the holder in the same way.proper place to make a small hole. Chicago. shorter at each end. -Contributed by William M. 1 in. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage.by 7-in. Jr. high and 12 in. says Camera Craft. wide and 5 in. D. shorter. from the edge on each side of these openings. but cut it 1/4 in. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Cut an opening in the other piece. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. 10 in. as shown in Fig. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. horses and dogs. C. in size. A and B. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. black surfaced if possible. in size. 1. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. inside of the opening. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. camera and wish to use some 4. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools.. Fig. Take two pieces of pasteboard. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. and exactly 5 by 7 in. say 8 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. long. trolley cars. wide. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. 2. . make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. to be used as a driving pulley. B. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge.by 5-in. Out two rectangular holes. 3. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. automobiles. being 1/8 in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool.

and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2.in. A cell of this kind can easily be made. long and 6 in. into which the dog is harnessed.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. making a . and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. The needle will then point north and south.. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. wide will be required. in diameter. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. if it has previously been magnetized.

fodder. with narrow flanges. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. short time. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan.watertight receptacle. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. of rosin and 2 oz. one that will hold about 1 qt. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. This makes the wire smooth. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. . Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. leaving about 1/2-in. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. Place the pan on the stove. Do not paint any surface. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. filter. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. of water. fuel and packing purposes. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. of the top. Pack the paste in. zinc oxide. for a connection. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. only the joints. Form a 1/2-in. 1 lb. when the paraffin is melted. in diameter and 6 in. 1/4 lb. in which P is the pan. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. long which are copper plated. A is a block of l-in. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. sal ammoniac. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. beeswax melted together. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. F is a spool. pull out the wire as needed. pine. B is a base of 1 in. under the spool in the paraffin. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. says Electrician and Mechanic. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. File the rods to remove the copper plate. of the plate at one end. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a.in. 3/4 lb. plaster of paris. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. and a notch between the base and the pan. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it.

enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee." which created much merriment. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Try it and see. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. or think they can do the same. but the thing would not move at all. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. long. Toledo. and then. by the Hindoos in India. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. 2. and he finally. At least it is amusing. and one friend tells me that they were . Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. thus producing two different vibrations. for some it will turn one way. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Enlarge the hole slightly.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Ohio. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. g. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. as in the other movement. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics.. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. for others the opposite way. square and about 9 in. and therein is the trick. from vexation. while for others it will not revolve at all. let them try it.

If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. 4. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. A square stick with notches on edge is best. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. p. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. Speeds between 700 and 1. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. 3. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. 5. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. 6. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. no rotation resulted. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. If the pressure was upon an edge. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. 2. secondly. and I think the results may be of interest. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. 7. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first.100 r. rotation was obtained. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. by means of a center punch. The experiments were as follows: 1. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. the rotation may be obtained. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. Thus a circular or . but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. gave the best results. and. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. m. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. To operate.

and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops.D. Duluth. C. A. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. as shown. Minn. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. it will be clockwise. and the resultant "basket splash. or greasy. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. Lloyd. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. so far as can be seen from the photographs. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Sloan. unwetted by the liquid. if the pressure is from the left. forming a handle for carrying.. Ph. and the height of the fall about 6 in. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. Washington. A wire is tied around the can. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. at first. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. . graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. --Contributed by M." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. G. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. --Contributed by G. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. is driven violently away. D. the upper portion is.. a piece of wire and a candle. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

about 2-5/8 in. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. with a 1/16-in. in diameter. as shown in Fig. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. hole drilled in the center. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. as shown. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. long. axle. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. 1. flange and a 1/4-in. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. thick and 1 in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. Each wheel is 1/4 in.

wood. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. 1 from 1/4-in. The parts. put together complete. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. with cardboard 3 in. or main part of the frame. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. of No. 3. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. and the locomotive is ready for running. 3. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. bent as shown. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. is made from brass. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. lamp in series with the coil. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. A trolley.50. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. The motor is now bolted. Fig. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. San Antonio. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. holes 1 in. The current. Texas. 2. Fuller. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. If the ends are to be soldered. 4.brass. --Contributed by Maurice E. which must be 110 volt alternating current. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. These ends are fastened together. each in its proper place. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. This will save buying a track. long. is made from a piece of clock spring. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. bottom side up. are shown in Fig. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. as shown in Fig. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. 2. 5. as shown in Fig. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. 3/4 in. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. The first piece. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. wide and 16 in. 6. Fig.

Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. O. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. 2. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. When cold treat the other end in the same way. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. 1. as shown in Fig. 3. then continue to tighten much more. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. but do not heat the center. as shown in Fig. Fig 1. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. and as this end . Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. and holes drilled in them. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. Cincinnati. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. The quarter will not go all the way down. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. the length of a paper clip. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Fig.

the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. A pair of centers are fitted. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. When the cutter A. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. has finished a cut for a tooth. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. and adjusted . at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. When the trick is to be performed. In the sketch. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. 2 and 1 respectively. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. or should the lathe head be raised. or apparent security of the knot.

Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. Bott. swing lathe. above the surface. such as brass or marble. In this manner gears 3 in. --Contributed by Howard S. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. gentleman's card case or bill book. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. (2. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. and a nut pick. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. note book. tea cosey. or one-half of the design. at the same time striking light. (4. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. lady's card case. An ordinary machine will do. (6. if four parts are to be alike. When connecting to batteries. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. trace the outline. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). dividing it into as many parts as desired.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. (1. 2.to run true. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . draw center lines across the required space. watch fob ready for fastenings. lady's belt bag. long. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. twisted around itself and soldered. coin purse. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Second row: -Two book marks. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. blotter back. Y. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Fold over along these center lines. 1. holding it in place with the left hand.) Make on paper the design wanted. Bunker. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. book mark. tea cosey.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. (5. Fig.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. --Contributed by Samuel C. N. Brooklyn. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. (3. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. if but two parts. about 1-1/2 in.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. Make free-hand one quarter of the design.) Place the paper design on the leather and. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. The frame holding the mandrel.

and an ordinary bottle. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose.

and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. and push it through a cork. If the needle is not horizontal. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. and bore a hole through the center. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp.C. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. C. from Key West. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. where it condenses. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. B. The electrodes are made . Florida. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. A.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. D. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. into which fit a small piece of tube. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. Thrust a pin. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. a distance of 900 miles. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites.. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes.

which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. use 10-ft. as shown in Fig. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft.in. 2. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. long for the body of the operator. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. lengths and splice them. thick. long. 1. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. Powell. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. take the glider to the top of a hill. wide and 3 ft. several strips 1/2 in. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. Washington. If 20-ft. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. Four long beams 3/4 in. wide and 3 ft. --Contributed by Edwin L. both laterally and longitudinally. square and 8 ft long. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. long. 12 uprights 1/2 in. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. C. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. free from knots. All wiring is done with No. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. Connect as shown in the illustration. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. The operator can then land safely and . 1/2. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. To make a glide. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. wide and 20 ft. which is tacked to the front edge. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. thick. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. slacken speed and settle. 3/4 in. 3.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. 2 arm sticks 1 in. long. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. D. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. as shown in Fig. thick. as shown in Fig. thick. or flying-machine. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. by 3/4 in. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. long. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. wide and 4 ft long. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. and also to keep it steady in its flight. lumber cannot be procured. wide and 4 ft. 2. 2 in. apart and extend 1 ft. using a high resistance receiver. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. 16 piano wire. 1. 1-1/2 in. long. thick. 1-1/4 in. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. 1. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. wide and 4 ft. the rudder sticks 3/4 in.

but this must be found by experience. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Of course. Great care should be .gently on his feet. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Glides are always made against the wind. and the balancing is done by moving the legs.

hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. a creature of Greek mythology.exercised in making landings. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by L. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. 2. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. Olson. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. Bellingham. When heated a little. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. half man and half horse. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. M. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. which causes the dip in the line. 1.

in diameter. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. at the other. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. outside the box. a piece of brass or steel wire. about the size of door screen wire. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. of small rubber tubing. While at the drug store get 3 ft. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. long. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. this will cost about 15 cents. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. long and about 3/8 in. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. 14 in. making it 2-1/2 in. square. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. The light from the . will complete the material list. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. about the size of stove pipe wire. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in.

door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. 2. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. Dayton. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. as shown in the sketch. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. while others will fail time after time. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. --Photo by M. as shown in Fig. . If done properly the card will flyaway. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. 1. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. This is very simple when you know how.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. as shown in Fig. M. Hunting. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. O.

then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. as described. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. This game is played by five persons. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. Cool in water and dry. closing both hands quickly. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. When the desired shape has been obtained. place the other two. as shown. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve." or the Chinese students' favorite game. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. then put it on the hatpin head. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. as before. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. hold the lump over the flame. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. If a certain color is to be more prominent.

Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. or more in width. passing through neutralizing brushes. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. these sectors. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. distribute electric charges . Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface.

the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. Fig. wide at one end. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. The drive wheels. and of a uniform thickness. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. long and the shank 4 in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. 2. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. in diameter and 15 in. Two pieces of 1-in. long. are made from 7/8-in. in diameter. Fig. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. the side pieces being 24 in. after they are mounted. to which insulating handles . Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. or teeth. from about 1/4-in. and the outer end 11/2 in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. C C. and this should be done before cutting the circle. and pins inserted and soldered. Two solid glass rods. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. EE. in diameter. long and the standards 3 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. These pins. long. are made from solid. in diameter. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. D. in diameter. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. 3. brass tubing and the discharging rods. at the other. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. wide. in diameter. as shown in Fig. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. and 4 in. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. free from wrinkles. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. as shown in Fig. turned wood pieces. The plates are trued up. material 7 in. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. The two pieces. 1. 3/4 in. GG. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. 1-1/2 in. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. 4. The plates. in diameter. RR. 3. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. The collectors are made. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. 1 in. The fork part is 6 in.

Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. KK. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. D. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. one having a 2-in. Colorado City. and the work was done by themselves. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. ball and the other one 3/4 in. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Colo. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. --Contributed by C. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Lloyd Enos. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. in diameter.are attached. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. wide and 22 ft. which are bent as shown.. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. 12 ft. long.

making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. yet such a thing can be done. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork.is a good one. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. pens . "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. and bore a hole 1/2 in. The key will drop from the string. deep. as at A. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. bit. They can be used to keep pins and needles. string together. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. using a 1-in. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. the boards are then put in a vise as shown.

Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. flat and round-nosed pliers. about 3/4-in. 8. very rapid progress can be made. using a nail filed to chisel edge.. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Use . Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. inside the second on all. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. 9. stamp the background promiscuously.and pencils. 4. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. 7. sharp division between background and design. 23 gauge. 3. Having determined the size of the tray. The second oblong was 3/4 in. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. extra metal on each of the four sides. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. slim screw. they make attractive little pieces to have about. and the third one 1/4 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. This is to make a clean. 2. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. unless it would be the metal shears. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined.. Raise the ends. two spikes. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. or cigar ashes. When the stamping is completed. Inside this oblong. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. 6. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. also trace the decorative design. then the other side. above the metal. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. They are easily made. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. file. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. etc. 5. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. inside the first on all. Proceed as follows: 1. etc. Draw one-half the design free hand.

The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 10. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. third fingers. and the effect will be most pleasing. first fingers. 7. 9. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. 6. 8. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. In the first numbering. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. and fourth fingers.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. The eyes. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. second fingers. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations.

thumbs. 25 times 25. viz. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. 12. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired.. above 20 times 20. as high as you want to go. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. but being simple it saves time and trouble. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. At a glance you see four tens or 40. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. Let us multiply 12 by 12. Put your thumbs together. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. 600. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Still. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. or the product of 6 times 6. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. .. which tens are added. etc. which would be 16. etc. or the product of 8 times 9. first fingers. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. or numbers above 10. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. 400. Two times one are two. In the second numbering. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. or 60. the product of 12 times 12. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. and the six lower fingers as six tens. 2 times 2 equals 4. 11. renumber your fingers. above 15 times 15 it is 200. if we wish. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right.. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. which would be 70. or 80. there are no fingers above. etc.

which is the half-way point between the two fives. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. thirties. For example. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. or from above or from below. 8. The inversion and reversion did not take place. about a vertical axis. not rotation. whether the one described in second or third numbering. the value of the upper fingers being 20. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. 7. any two figures between 45 and 55. It takes place also. the inversion takes place against his will. Proceed as in the second lumbering. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. 21. in the case of a nearsighted person. forties. adding 400 instead of 100. lastly. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. . 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. twenties.. first finger 17. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. 3. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. first fingers 22. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. the value which the upper fingers have. For figures ending in 6. when he removes his spectacles. or what. further. beginning the thumbs with 16. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. the revolution seems to reverse. 2. etc. and so on. 75 and 85. and. the lump sum to add. And the lump sum to add. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. at the will of the observer. thumbs. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. however. as one might suppose. being 80). but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. Take For example 18 times 18.

the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. The ports were not easy to make. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. Looking at it in semidarkness. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. sometimes the point towards him. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. the other appearance asserts itself. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. A flat slide valve was used. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. and putting a cork on the point. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. as . The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. when he knows which direction is right. tee.

pipe. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. across and 1/2 in. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. -Contributed by W. bottom side up. . as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. apart. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. and make in one end a hollow. Beating copper tends to harden it and. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. about 2 in. Next take a block of wood. Kutscher. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. The tools are simple and can be made easily. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. such as is shown in the illustration. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. Springfield. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. The eccentric is constructed of washers. pipe 10 in. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. saw off a section of a broom handle. it is easily built. across the head. deep. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. Fasten the block solidly. if continued too long without proper treatment. Ill.. H. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. While this engine does not give much power. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. as in a vise. If nothing better is at hand. in diameter. inexpensive. secure a piece of No. The steam chest is round. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block.

Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. To produce color effects on copper. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. Vinegar. and. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. O. --Contributed by W. Hay. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. Camden. To overcome this hardness. C. S. the other to the left. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. This process is called annealing. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. especially when the object is near to the observer. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. as it softens the metal. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand.will cause the metal to break. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object.

Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. the one for the left eye being blue. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. from the stereograph. and lies to the right on the picture. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. disappears fully. So with the stereograph.stereoscope. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. they must be a very trifle apart. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. in the proper choice of colors. the further from the card will the composite image appear. diameter. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. not two mounted side by side. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. while both eyes together see a white background. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. and without any picture. But they seem black. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. In order to make them appear before the card. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. because. it." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. although they pass through the screen. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. however. as for instance red and green. The red portions of the picture are not seen. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. only the orange rays may pass through. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. the left eye sees through a blue screen. It is just as though they were not there. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. because of the rays coming from them. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. orange. The further apart the pictures are. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. that for the right. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. with the stereograph. would serve the same purpose. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. .

Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. This should only be bored about half way through the block. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Place a NO. in the shape of a crank. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. 1/4 in. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. long and a hole drilled in each end. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. wide and 1 in. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. Cal.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. or the middle of the bottle. The weight of the air in round . Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. wireless. 12 gauge wire. etc. thick. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. in diameter. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. A No. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. San Francisco.

thick. or a column of mercury (density 13. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. Only redistilled mercury should be used. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made.. inside diameter and 2 in. In general. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. long. high. wide and 40 in. the instrument. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. long. But if a standard barometer is not available. a glass tube 1/8 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. pine 3 in. a bottle 1 in. but before attempting to put in the mercury. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. high. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. and a slow fall. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. long. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. The 4 in. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. square. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. or. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. high. internal diameter and about 34 in. if accurately constructed. . This may be accomplished with a paper funnel.6) 1 in. 34 ft. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. square. will calibrate itself. 30 in. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. the contrary.numbers is 15 lb. wide and 4 in. if you choose. Before fastening the scale.

thick. the size of the outside of the bottle. 3. Number the pieces 1. and place them as shown in Fig. 1. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . Mark out seven 1-in. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. 6 and 7. which is slipped quickly over the end. long. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. wide and 10 in. 5. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. a cover from a baking powder can will do. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. 2. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. Procure a metal can cover.

6 into No. 6. 3. N. Move 6-Move No. Move 14-Jump No. 3. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 6 over No. Move 13-Move No. Move 12-Jump No. 5 over No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Move 2-Jump No.J. Move ll-Jump No. shaped like Fig. Move 10-Move No. Woolson. 2's place. 3 into No. using checkers for men. which is the very best material for the purpose. 6 to No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 2 over No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. L. in diameter. Move 5-Jump No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 6 in. 1 into No. Move 9-Jump No. 6. procure unbleached tent duck. Move 3-Move No. Move 7-Jump No. 2. 2 . each 10 ft. 7's place. 1. as shown in Fig. 7 over No. l over No. 3 to the center. 1. 2 over No. 2. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years.Position of the Men move only one at a time. Cape May Point. 2's place. 5's place. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. To make such a tent. long and 2 ft. 3 over No. 3.-Contributed by W. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 7 over No. Move 15-Move No. Move 8-Jump No. This can be done on a checker board. Move 4-Jump No. 5. 1 to No. 7. Make 22 sections. 5's place. 5 over No.

Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. 9 by 12 in. long. Nail a thin sheet of brass. After transferring the design to the brass. made in two sections. about 9 in. leaving the rest for an opening. --Contributed by G. Tress. 6. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. 2. Emsworth. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. round galvanized iron. 3 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Fig. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. long and 4 in. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. in diameter. Fig.in. Have the tent pole 3 in. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in.J. as in Fig. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. to a smooth board of soft wood. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. 2 in. Use blocks. 5. 5) stuck in the ground.. In raising the tent. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. wide by 12 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. Pa. 6-in. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. wide at the bottom. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. from the top. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. As shown in the sketch. These are ventilators. added. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. will do. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. high. Punch holes in the brass in . making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. fill with canvas edging. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. diameter. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. wide at the bottom.

Corr. cut out the brass on the outside lines. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The pattern is traced as before. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. around the outside of the pattern. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. apart. When the edges are brought together by bending. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty.the spaces around the outlined figures. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. It will not. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. When all the holes are punched. Chicago. bend into shape. but before punching the holes. excepting the 1/4-in. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. . The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in.

square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. E. G. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. pipe is used for the hub. Oregon. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Dunham. partially filled with cream. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Badger. --Contributed by H. between which is placed the fruit jar.. If a wheel is selected. better still. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. pipe. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. or less. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. --Contributed by Geo. Que. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. These pipes are . The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. A 6-in. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Mayger. allowing 2 ft.however. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Stevens. or. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. or center on which the frame swings. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. A cast-iron ring.

and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. bent to the desired circle. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. pipe clamps. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity.

then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. 1. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. and the guide withdrawn. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. 3.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. while doing this. The performer. as shown in Fig. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. which was placed in an upright position. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. and dropped on the table. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig.

White. Louis. -Contributed by C. Denver. D. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Mo. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. The box can be made of selected oak or . 2. in diameter on another piece of tin. 1. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. in a half circle. F.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. --Contributed by H. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Harkins. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. Colo. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. St. first. it requires no expensive condensing lens. and second.

The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. long. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. If a camera lens is used. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. high and must . The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. An open space 4 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. 5-1/2 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. wide by 5 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. This will be 3/4 in. focal length. wide and 5 in. long and should be placed vertically. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. as shown in Fig. The door covering this hole in the back. and. wide. AA. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. 2. from each end of the outside of the box. long. is made from a board 4-1/2 in.mahogany. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. 3-1/2 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. wide and 6-1/2 in. and 2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. Two or three holes about 1 in. 1. high and 11 in. from each end. wide and 6-1/2 in. fit into the runners. but not tight. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing.

the article may be propped up . Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. calling that knuckle January.. Bradley. April. West Toledo. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece." etc. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. then the second knuckle will be March. C. calling this February. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. This process is rather a difficult one. --Contributed by Chas. provided it is airtight. and extending the whole height of the lantern. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. 1. Ohio. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. and so on. as it requires an airtight case. June and November. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown.

In both Fig. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. the lid or cover closed. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. 1. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. but waxed. taking care to have all the edges closed. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. --Contributed by J. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. or suspended by a string. 2. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. . Crawford. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. in. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. running small motors and lighting small lamps. Pour in a little turpentine. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. 1 and 2. N. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. one of lead and one of aluminum. Y. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. and set aside for half a day.with small sticks. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. fruit jars are required. H. in. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. Schenectady. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. The top of a table will do. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. and the lead 24 sq. In each place two electrodes. giving it an occasional stir. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries.

The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will .. He.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. which you warm with your hands. O. You have an understanding with some one in the company. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. you remove the glass. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. as well as others. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. After a few seconds' time. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. he throws the other. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. as you have held it all the time. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Cleveland. This trick is very simple. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick.

Pull the ends quickly. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded.take the handiest one. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. . one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. if any snags are encountered. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. but in making one. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. on a table. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. Crocker. near a partition or curtain. J. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Be sure that this is the right one. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. put it under the glass. but by being careful at shores. in diameter in the center. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again.-Contributed by E. Colo. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Victor. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out.

and. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. long. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. ducking. by 15 ft. of 1-1/2-yd. for the stern piece. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. Paint. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. and the other 12 in.. 1 in. clear pine. thick and 3/4 in. screws and cleats. Fig. The keelson. 7 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in.. 1/8 in. by 16 ft. 3 in. Both ends are mortised. 8 in. at the ends. 2 gunwales. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. wide and 12 ft. 1 in. square by 16 ft. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. 2 in. 14 rib bands. the smaller is placed 3 ft. by 16 ft. and is removed after the ribs are in place. from the bow and the large one. and fastened with screws. 9 ft. 11 yd. wide. by 10 ft. 1. 1 in. 1 piece.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. of rope. of 1-yd. from each end to 1 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 1/4 in. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. 50 ft. for cockpit frame. long. long. selected pine. apart. wide 12-oz. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 1 mast. 3 and 4. 2 and braced with an iron band. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 1 piece. is 14 ft. long. one 6 in. drilled and fastened with screws. by 2 in. by 12 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. wide unbleached muslin. from the stern. 4 outwales. by 8 in. are as follows: 1 keelson. 3 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. for center deck braces. wide and 12 ft. as illustrated in the engraving. by 2 in. 1 in. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 8 yd. for the bow. Two forms are made as shown in Figs.

The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. 4 in. 9. apart. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 7 and 8. A piece of oak. wide and 24 in. long. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. wide. 6 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. wide and 14 in. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. is a cube having sides 6 in. Figs. also. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. wood screws. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. A 6-in. 6 and 7. doubled. screws. in diameter through the block. gunwales and keelson. thick and 1/2 in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. thick. The deck is not so hard to do. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. 1 in. and fastened to them with bolts. thick 1-1/2 in. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. long. The 11-yd. This block. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. a piece 1/4 in. Braces. from the bow. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. 5. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. wide. corner braces. Before making the deck. long is well soaked in water. 1 in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. These are put in 6 in. wide and 3 ft. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. . 6. long. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. The block is fastened to the keelson. thick. They are 1 in. length of canvas is cut in the center.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. A block of pine. 3-1/2 ft. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. 1/4 in. thick and 12 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. A seam should be made along the center piece. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. Fig. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. Fig. The trimming is wood.

Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. 10 with a movable handle. Fig. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. --Contributed by O. A strip 1 in. are used for the boom and gaff. apart in the muslin. 12. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. 11. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. long. . The inside of the rooms should be stained black. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The keel. each 1 in. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The house will accommodate 20 families. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. at the other. thick by 2 in. Ill. wide at one end and 12 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. in diameter and 10 ft. Tronnes. is 6 in. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. wide. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. The mast has two side and one front stay. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. long. Wilmette. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. The sail is a triangle. E.

2 in. 2. wide and 2 ft. and the other 18 in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. long and five 1/2-in.into two 14-in. 1. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. thick. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. Cut the maple. 2-1/2 in. E. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. flat-headed screws. wide. long. Fig. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. Tronnes. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. square. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. five 1/2-in. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. Ill. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. 4. wide and 30 in. Bevel both sides of the pieces. thick. long. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. thick. long. wide. flat headed screws. Take this and fold it over . --Contributed by O. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. and 3 ft. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. Wilmette. 5. about 5/16 in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. 1 yd. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. with the ends and the other side rounding. one 11-1/2 in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. 2-1/2 in. 3. flat on one side.

thick. as well as the edges around the opening. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. long. About 1/2 in. A. 3 in. are rounded. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. 1. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. and take care that the pieces are all square. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. Glue a three cornered piece. is set. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. Cut another piece of board. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. F. 5 from 1/16-in. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. 2 and 3. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. long. Mo. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. soaked with water and blown up. square. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. wide and 4-1/2 in. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. wide and 6-1/2 in. about 3/8 in. 3/8 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. and the four outside edges. --Contributed by W. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. thick. leaving a small opening at one corner. long. 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. the top and bottom. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. C. When the glue is set. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. of each end unwound for connections. long. wide and 3 ft. After the glue. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. 3-1/4 in. but can be governed by circumstances. The sides are 3-1/4 in. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. 6-1/2 in. D. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. Louis. Make a double stitch all around the edge. long. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. wide and 5 in. Fig. wide and 6-3/4 in. Figs. E. St. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. pieces 2-5/8 in. Bliss. and make a turn in each end of the wires. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. wide . The front. the mechanical parts can be put together. Another piece. The bag is then turned inside out. long.once. C. Wind three layers of about No. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. A. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. long. forming an eye for a screw. this square box is well sandpapered. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. If carefully and neatly made. thick and 3 in. square. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. then centered. long. B.

The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. and as the part Fig. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. from the spindle. showing a greater defection of the pointer. bored in the back. Chapman. board.R.A. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. Austwick Hall. 4. I. thick. from one end.S.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. Place the tin. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. Like poles repel each other. and the farther apart they will be forced. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. Fig. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. F. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. 5-1/2 in. 5. wide and 9 in. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. L. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. R. Richmond Hill. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. long. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. The resistance is now adjusted to show . When the current flows through the coil. Fig. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The base is a board 5 in. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The end of the polar axis B. in diameter. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. G. W. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. long. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. Yorkshire. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H.and 2-5/8 in. 1/16 in. A pointer 12 in. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. 4 is not movable. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. hole is fastened to the pointer. These wires should be about 1 in. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. --Contributed by George Heimroth. C. the part carrying the pointer moves away. and fasten in place. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The stronger the current. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. 1/4 in. so it will just clear the tin. that has the end turned with a shoulder. long. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. the same size as the first. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. 4. wide and 2-1/2 in. Another strip of tin.

thus: 9 hr. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. at 9 hr. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. 30 min. 1881. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. say Venus at the date of observation. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. A. M. 10 min. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. The following formula will show how this may be found. shows mean siderial. 10 min. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. and vice . Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object.

f. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. . get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Conn.m. and then verify its correctness by measurement. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Hall. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. New Haven. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. owing to the low internal resistance. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. --Contributed by Robert W. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. if one of these cannot be had. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. or.

the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. fresh grass. and heap the glowing coals on top. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. arsenic to every 20 lb. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . leaves or bark. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Wet paper will answer. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. 1. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Then. 3/8 in. of alum and 4 oz. When the follower is screwed down. put the fish among the ashes. inside diameter and about 5 in. 1-3/4 in. thick. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Fig. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. as shown in the accompanying picture. long. The boring bar. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. especially for cooking fish. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. cover up with the same.

The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. fastened with a pin. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. and threaded on both ends. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. pipe. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. turned to the same diameter as the flanges.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. pipe. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. when they were turned in. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. thick. about 1/2 in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the .

Fig. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. This plate also supports the rocker arms. a jump spark would be much better. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. A 1-in. 4. thick and 3 in. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. bent in the shape of a U. Clermont. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. Iowa. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. wide. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. If the valve keeps dripping. It . Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. then it should be ground to a fit. long. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. the float is too high. The rough frame. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. Fig. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. 2. square iron. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. but never one which required so little material. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. 3. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. Fig. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. as the one illustrated herewith. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. 30 in. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. however. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. labor and time. 5. was then finished on an emery wheel. and which gave such satisfactory results. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts.valve stems.

square. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. It looks like a toy. in the ground with 8 ft. in diameter and 15 in. long. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. --Contributed by C. 12 ft. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. timber. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. square and 5 ft. so it must be strong enough. from the center. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. Use a heavy washer at the head. long. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. Nieman. extending above. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. for the "motive power" to grasp. long. and a little junk. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. As there is no bracing. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. being held in position by spikes as shown. set 3 ft. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. hole bored in the post. from all over the neighborhood. 3/4 in. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. W. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. The illustration largely explains itself." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. The crosspiece is 2 in." little and big. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. A malleable iron bolt. in fact. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. rope is not too heavy. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. long is the pivot. butting against short stakes. strengthened by a piece 4 in. and.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. no matter what your age or size may be. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. with no trees or buildings in the way. A 3/4 -in. square and 2 ft. strong clear material only should be employed. The seats are regular swing boards. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. If it is to be used for adults. This makes an easy adjustment. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . completes the merry-go-round. which adds greatly to the flying sensation.

he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. 1. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. and sent to earth. if nothing better is at hand. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. 1/4 by 3/32 in. Having placed the backbone in position. a wreck. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. square. long.the fingers. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. A reel is next made. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. one for the backbone and one for the bow. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. away. as shown in Fig. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. The bow is now bent. 2. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. then it is securely fastened. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. and 18 in. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. These ends are placed about 14 in. 4. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. To wind the string upon the reel.2 emery. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. The backbone is flat. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. Both have large reels full of . This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. light and strong. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries.

The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. N. --Contributed' by Harry S. Bunker. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. First. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. If the second kite is close enough. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw.string. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. often several hundred yards of it. the balance. he pays out a large amount of string. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Newburyport. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The handle end is held down with a staple. common packing thread. or glass-covered string. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . C.-Contributed by S. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. Y. Mass. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. Moody. Brooklyn. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite.

make the pad as shown in the illustration. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. cutting the circular piece into quarters.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. If the table is round. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Corinth. then draw the string up tight. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Vt. length of 2-in. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. --Contributed by Earl R. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. such as mill men use. Hastings. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. then a dust protector. square (Fig. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. must be attached to a 3-ft. each the size of half the table top. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. lengths (Fig.

A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Oakland.. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. which spoils the leather effect. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. 2-1/4 in. Use a smooth. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless.. G to H. trace the design carefully on the leather. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. hard pencil.9-1/4 in.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. 16-1/4 in. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. E. 17-1/2 in. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. . trace this or some other appropriate design on it. from E to F. Calif. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Moisten the . and E to G. If leaves are wanted in extending the table.-Contributed by H. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. from C to D. 6-1/4 in. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Wharton..

G-J. and corresponding lines on the other side. Trace the openings for the handles. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. about 1/8 in. with the rounded sides of the tools. apart. Now cut narrow thongs. To complete the bag. if not more than 1 in.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. Cut it the same size as the bag. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. also lines A-G. wide. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. and lace through the holes. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. place both together and with a leather punch. is taken off at a time. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. H-B. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. I made this motor . and E-G. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. get something with which to make a lining.

B. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. in length. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. 1. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. 24 gauge magnet wire. Shannon. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. each being a half circle.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. long.M. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Calif. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. D. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. Pasadena. iron. . 2. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. 1. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. 2-1/4 in. of No. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. as shown in Fig. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. --Contributed by J. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax.

are the best kind to make. near the center. balloon should be about 8 ft. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. high. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. and the gores cut from these. 1. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The gores for a 6-ft. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. pasted in alternately. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. from the bottom end. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far.

Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. --Contributed by R. 3. If the gores have been put together right. After washing. 4. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. saturating it thoroughly. somewhat larger in size. lap on the edges. 2.widest point. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. E. so it will hang as shown in Fig. Staunton. coming through the small pipe A. 5. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. after which the paint will adhere permanently. The boat soon attains considerable speed. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. In removing grease from wood. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. As the boat is driven forward by this force. 1. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. In starting the balloon on its flight. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. The steam. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. Fig. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. using about 1/2-in. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. leaving a long wake behind. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. B. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. A. leaving the solution on over night. These are to hold the wick ball. in diameter.

The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. Third. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. high and 8 in. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. There are three ways of doing this: First. In using either of the two methods described. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. as is shown in Fig. in bowling form. if you have several copies of the photograph. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. wide by 6 in. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. apart on these lines. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The blocks are about 6 in. 1. long and each provided with a handle. Second. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. long.

Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. N. being careful not to dent the metal. not pointed down at the road at an angle. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Fig. thick. --Contributed by John A. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Y. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Hellwig. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed .Fig. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. 2. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Albany. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Rinse the plate in cold water.

Break off the frame. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. With this device. Corner irons. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. through which passes the set screw S. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. 2 the front view. A.upon any particular object. 6 in. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. --Contributed by R. with a set screw. In Fig. wide and of any desired height. A circular piece of wood. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Va. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . Richmond. S. A. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. 1 Fig. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. are screwed to the circular piece. 5 in. thick. in diameter. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. is fastened to a common camera tripod. wide and 8 in. and not produce the right sound. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. long for the base. which is 4 in. These corner irons are also screwed to. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Paine. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. CC. and. and Fig. B. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand.

shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. as only the can is visible. This horn. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. -1. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. in diameter of some 1-in. La Salle. This will make a very compact electric horn. . The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. Lake Preston. thus producing sound waves. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. Ill. pine boards. D. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. I made a wheel 26 in. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. S. R.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Kidder. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw.

1. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. the same thickness as the coins. A. Fig. Doylestown. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. 2. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Purdy. Ghent. --Contributed by C. B. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. The frame is made of a heavy card. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Kane. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. square. O. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . thick and 12 in. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. --Contributed by James R. If there is a large collection of coins. Feet may be added to the base if desired. 1. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. If the collection consists of only a few coins.

though not absolutely necessary. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. several large nails. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. One Cloud. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. cut and grooved. Milwaukee. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. A lead pencil. A rivet punch is desirable. --Contributed by J.E. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. of developer. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. If desired. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Smith. Neyer. border all around. Cal. Noble. they become uninteresting. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Canada. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. for after the slides have been shown a few times. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. It will hold 4 oz. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. and then glued together as indicated. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by August T. melted and applied with a brush. Toronto. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. --Contributed by R. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight.J. Wis. thick. a hammer or mallet. The material required is a sheet of No. into which to place the screws . plus a 3/8-in.

The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. using 1/2-in. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . like the one shown. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. both outline and decoration. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. and file it to a chisel edge. There are several ways of working up the design. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. draw one part. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Take the nail. Remove the screws. never upon the metal directly. screws placed about 1 in. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth.

2. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. for the lower rails. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. being ball bearing. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. 3. The pedal. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in.wall. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. Provide four lengths for the legs. 1. square and 11 in. of 11-in. in the other. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. and two lengths. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. long. l-1/8 in. square. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. Rivet the band to the holder. two lengths. About 1/2 yd. Do not bend it over or flatten it. up from the lower end. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. long. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. each 1 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. square and 181/2 in. . as shown in Fig. for the top. long. using a 1/2in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in.

--Contributed by W. Attalla. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. having quite a length of threads. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. F. Ala. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . Quackenbush. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. --Contributed by John Shahan. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. New York City. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way.

long. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. Luther. something that is carbonated. Purchase a 1/2-in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob.. Mich. using class. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Ironwood. and the other 2-3/4 in. --Contributed by C. long. initial. from the end. stitched on both edges for appearance. one about 1 in. Assemble as shown in the sketch. long. the end of the other piece is folded over. college or lodge colors. The desired emblem. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. each 1-1/4 in. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. and 3/8 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. making a lap of about 1 in. and two holes in the other. in depth. Two pieces of felt. D. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. from one end. wide and 4-1/4 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes.

as shown at B. 1/4 in. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Punch two holes A. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. --Contributed by John H. from the center and opposite each other. 1. A piece of lead. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. about 2 in. Ind. or a pasteboard box. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. 2. in diameter and 2 in. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. if desired by the operator. Fig. which can be procured from a plumber.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. and the cork will be driven out. or more in height. in the cover and the bottom. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Schatz. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . Indianapolis. This method allows a wide range of designs. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé.

These tools can be bought for this special purpose. or marble will serve. A piece of thick glass. . Fig. are turned up as in Fig. 3. O. and the ends of the bands looped over them. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. on both top and bottom. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. 5. putting in the design. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. metal. 1. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. The pieces of tin between the holes A. Columbus. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. 4. When the can is rolled away from you. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. allowing the two ends to be free. as shown in Fig. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in.Rolling Can Toy lead. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. it winds up the rubber band.

A pencil may be used the first time over. If it is desired to "line" the inside. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. 3 in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. face up. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. Next place the leather on the glass. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. New York City. or more thick on each side. I secured a board 3/4 in. long and bored a 1/2-in. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. thick. deep in its face. hole through it. 1 in. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. and. wide and 20 in. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. After this has been done. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. mark over the design. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. thicker than the pinion. from each end. The edges should be about 1/8 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform.

in the board into the bench top. lag screws as shown. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 1 by 9 by 80 in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Fig. 1 back board. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. much of the hard labor will be saved. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. M. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1 piece for clamp. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 2 by 12 by 77 in. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 1 piece for clamp. Syracuse. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Cut the 2-in. New York. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. thick top board. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 1 top board. 2 crosspieces. in diameter. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 3 by 3 by 6 in. and fit it in place for the side vise. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. 1 piece. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. Brooklyn. 1. 1 top board. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. --Contributed by A. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 4 guides. Make the lower frame first. 2. Y. N. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. 3 by 3 by 36. Now fit up the two clamps. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. pieces for the vise slides. 2 end rails. 2 side rails. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. countersinking the heads of the vise end. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. Rice. 1 screw block.

it can be easily found when wanted. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 set gimlets. The amateur workman. . As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 marking gauge. 2 screwdrivers. 1 brace and set of bits. Only the long run.. 24 in. 24 in. 1 wood scraper. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 pair dividers. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 1 compass saw. 1 jack plane or smoother. in diameter. 1 monkey wrench. 1 pocket level. They can be purchased at a hardware store. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools.. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 set chisels. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 cross cut saw. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 2-ft. 1 nail set. as well as the pattern maker.screws.. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. The bench is now complete. 1 pair pliers. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 countersink. 1 rip saw. 1 claw hammer. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. rule. 3 and 6 in.

1. ---Contributed by James M. Fig. Pa. 3. becomes like A. Kane. 1. The calf skin. being softer. will be easier to work. 1 oilstone. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. will sink into the handle as shown at D. No. Fig. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. the projecting point A. after constant use. 2 and 00 sandpaper.1 6-in. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 2. but will not make . Doylestown. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Fig.1. try square. Fig. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump.

if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. lay the design on the face. If cow hide is preferred. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. Two pieces will be required of this size. which steam. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand.as rigid a case as the cow skin. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. -Contributed by Julia A. but a V-shaped nut pick. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. Turn the leather. will do just as well. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. cover it completely with water enamel and. New York City. Having prepared the two sides. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. . There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. The form can be made of a stick of wood. White. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. After the outlines are traced. then prepare the leather. the same method of treatment is used. such as copper or brass. when dry. First draw the design on paper. If calf skin is to be used. water or heat will not affect. and the length 6-5/8 in. secure a piece of modeling calf. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster.

New York City. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Maine. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Cal. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. as shown in the sketch. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. --Contributed by W. and an adjustable friction-held loop. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. --Contributed by Chas. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Herrman. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Jaquythe. Richmond. Cobb. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. --Contributed by Chester L. Portland. A. C. .

in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well.. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. --Contributed by Wm. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. Roberts.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Mass. B. A thick piece of tin. for instance. This was very difficult. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. --Contributed by Geo. Cambridge. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Wright. Middletown. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. an inverted stewpan. was marked out as shown. Conn. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. . The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface.

Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. Indianapolis. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. A beautifully bound book. If the article is highly polished. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. well calcined and powdered. used as part of furniture. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. as shown. Illinois. and quite new. If any traces of the grease are left. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. face down. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. pulverized and applied. of boiling water. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Ind. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. Chicago. apply powdered calcined magnesia. --Contributed by Paul Keller. but only an odor which soon vanished. L. and the grease will disappear. --Contributed by C. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. The next morning there was no trace of oil. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. such as chair seats. F. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. which has been tried out several times with success. . I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. but not running over. Herbert. so some bones were quickly calcined. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. There was no quicklime to be had. on a clear piece of glass. Bone. When dry..

thick. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. New York. high and are bolted to a block of wood. This coaster is simple and easy to make. It is constructed of a good quality of pine.. deep and 5 in. The pieces marked S are single. soft steel with the opening 6 in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. --Contributed by Geo.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. 6 in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. long.. If properly adjusted. A. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. Howe. Tarrytown. set and thumbscrews. 2 in. the pieces . How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. wide and 12 in. says Scientific American. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in.

Their size depends on the plate used. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. If the letters are all cut the same height. says Camera Craft. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. The seat is a board. no doubt. A sharp knife. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. E. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. albums and the like. they will look remarkably uniform. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. to the underside of which is a block. for sending to friends. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are.

and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. pasting the prints on some thin card. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. and. using care to get it in the right position. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. photographing them down to the desired size. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. In cutting out an 0. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. mount them on short pieces of corks. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. for example. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. after. The puzzle is to get . Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. So made. So arranged.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center.

so they will lie horizontal. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand.J. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . the tube righting itself at once for another catch. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. Cape May Point. of its top. squeezes along past the center of the tube. He smells the bait. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. with the longest end outside. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. N. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. G. hung on pivots. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals.-Contributed by I. snow or anything to hide it.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. long that will just fit are set in. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. Bayley. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. A hole 6 or 7 in. says the American Thresherman. Old-Time Magic .

Rhode Island.faced up. Brooklyn. then spread the string. Szerlip. Idaho. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. E. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Pawtucket. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Y. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. --Contributed by Charles Graham. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. Parker. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. N. --Contributed by L. then expose again. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. --Contributed by L. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Press the hands together. Pocatello.

if any. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. When the glue is thoroughly dry. narrower. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them.. When the whole is quite dry. full size. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. 1. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. in building up his work from the illustrations. The handle is next made. thick. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. end of the blade. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in.. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. wipe the blade . and if carefully made. The blade should be about 27 in. using a straightedge and a pencil. 4 on the blade. near the point end. or green oil paint. 3 Fig. dark red. or a complete suit of armor. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. wide and 2 in. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. whether he requires a single sword only. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel.Genuine antique swords and armor. says the English Mechanic. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. Glue the other side of the blade. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. they will look very much like the genuine article. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. in width. 2 Fig. long. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. The pieces. 1 Fig. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip.

has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. about 1-1/2 in. square and of any length desired. thick and 5 in. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side.. 3. the other is flat or half-round. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig.. 1. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. In the finished piece. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. should be about 9 in. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. in diameter. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig.with light strokes up and down several times. The length of the handle. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. follow the directions as for Fig. the illustration. 4. shows only two sides. This sword is about 68 in. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. 1. the length of the blade 28 in. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. Fig. 2. 1/8 in. the other two are identical. and 3 in. the other is flat or halfround. as it is . 2. in the widest part at the lower end. In making this scimitar. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. 3. preferably of contrasting colors. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. 1. 1. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. take two pieces of wood. allowing for a good hold with both hands. of course. long. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. In making. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. Both edges of the blade are sharp. not for use only in cases of tableaux.

had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. about 3/8 in. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. as can the pitch bed or block. The thinness of the plank. Mass. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. On each edge of the board. as there was some at hand. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. A piece of mild steel.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. piping and jackets by hard water. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. and if so. Morse. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. 2 in. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. square. Doctors probed for the button without success. and. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. A cold . --Contributed by Katharine D. at the lower end. Franklin. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. or an insecure fastening. Both can be made easily. however. each about 1 ft. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. Syracuse. --Contributed by John Blake. N. It is made of a plank. Y. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. long. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. in an attempt to remove it. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. as shown in the sketch. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired.

To remedy this. Trim up the edges and file them . tallow. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. To put it in another way. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. a file to reduce the ends to shape. 5 lb. 18 gauge. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again..chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. secure a piece of brass of about No. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. using a small metal saw. on the pitch. When this has been done. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. design down. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. 5 lb. When the desired form has been obtained. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened.. plaster of Paris.

Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. it may be well to know what horsepower means. 1) and the other 12 in. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. space between the vessels with water. The smaller is placed within the larger. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. in diameter (Fig. Fig. per second. 1 ft. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. That is lifting 33. using powdered pumice with lye. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. over the smaller vessel. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen.000 lb. in one second. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. 3. 1 ft.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Clean the metal thoroughly. This in turn divided by 33. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. make an unusual show window attraction. but not to stop it. in the center. Before giving the description. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. --Contributed by Harold H. Fill the 3-in. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. A. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. 30 ft.000 ft. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Cutter. one 18 in. lb. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. and still revolve. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. 2). lb. in diameter (Fig. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. or 550 ft. or fraction of a horsepower. which divided by 1/6 gives 180.smooth. in one minute or 550 lb. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. per minute. to keep it from floating. and hang a bird swing. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. .000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. living together in what seems like one receptacle.

--Contributed by J. Diameter 12 in.18 in. The effect is surprising. N. 2 Fig. Brooklyn. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. by L. Y. F. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. or on a pedestal. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes.3 Fig. Campbell. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Somerville. 1 Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Diameter Fig. --Contributed. Mass. Szerlip.

Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. after which it is ready for use. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. and the clay . as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. keeping the center high. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. In riveting. away from the edge. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. which.copper of No. then by drawing a straightedge over it. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. is. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. This compound is impervious to water. as a rule. the same as removing writing from a slate. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. Rivet the cup to the base. using any of the common metal polishes. with other defects. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. with the pliers. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. unsatisfactory. Polish both of these pieces. often render it useless after a few months service. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. to keep the metal from tarnishing. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. and cut out the shape with the shears. which may be of wood or tin. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. and then. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. Do not be content merely to bend them over. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad.

Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. A. 2. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. --Contributed by A. --Contributed by John T. long. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. 3/4 in. DeLoof. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. It is made of a glass tube. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. -Contributed by Thos. Scotland. the device will work for an indefinite time. Mich. as shown in Fig. Shettleston. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. 1. in diameter and 5 in. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Northville. .can be pressed back and leveled. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Mich. Houghton. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Grand Rapids. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. Dunlop.

stilettos and battle-axes. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. in width and 2 in. long. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. As the handle is to .1 FIG.FIG. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. 1. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. This sword is 4 ft. put up as ornaments. London.

10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. glue and put it in place. In Fig. in length. in length. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. in width. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. with both edges of the blade sharp. Three large. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. long. In Fig. 3 is shown a claymore. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. 20 spike. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. The lower half of the handle is of wood. sharp edges on both sides. very broad. is shown in Fig. then glued on the blade as shown. narrower. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. small rope and round-headed nails. The ball is made as described in Fig. The handle is of wood. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. the axe is of steel. wood with a keyhole saw. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. 9. string. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. Both handle and axe are of steel. 11 were used. This axe is made similar to the one . Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. This weapon is about 1 ft. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. sometimes called cuirass breakers. 7. firmly glued on. 5. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. 4. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. studded with brass or steel nails. The crossbar and blade are steel. When the whole is quite dry. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. one about 1/2 in. This sword is about 4 ft. which is about 2-1/2 ft. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. 6. with wire or string' bound handle. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. the upper part iron or steel. This stiletto has a wood handle. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. When dry. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. A German stiletto. The sword shown in Fig. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape.represent copper. 8. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. paint it a dark brown or black. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. In Fig. This weapon is also about 1 ft. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. When the glue is thoroughly dry. A German poniard is shown in Fig. with both edges sharp. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. the same as used on the end of the handle. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. These must be cut from pieces of wood. long with a dark handle of wood.

Davis.described in Fig. the ends are tied and cut off. . 2. such as braided fishline. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. Old-Time Magic . W. will pull where other belts slip.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. together as shown in Fig. so the contents cannot be seen. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. Chicago. high. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. When wrapped all the way around. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. 10. --Contributed by E. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. This will make a very good flexible belt.

in a few seconds' time. --Contributed by A. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Calif. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. N. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. causing the flowers to grow. The dotted lines in Fig. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. held in the right hand. 2. or using small wedges of wood. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Before the performance. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. There will be no change in color. apparently. These wires are put in the jar. Oakland. about one-third the way down from the top. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. S.J. Macdonald. an acid. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. 1 and put together as in Fig. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Bridgeton. some of the liquid. four glass tumblers. filled with water. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. As zinc is much lighter than iron. with the circle centrally located.

and kept ready for use at any time. which are numbered for convenience in working. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. says a correspondent of Photo Era. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. practical and costs nothing. and equally worthy of individual treatment. --Contributed by W. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. unless some special device is used. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. 2 for height. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. Cal. not only because of the fact just mentioned. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. A. This outlines the desired opening. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. If the size wanted is No. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. Jaquythe. Richmond. When many slides are to be masked. 4 for width and No. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides.

Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. Secure a sheet of No. but they can be easily revived. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. When etched to the desired depth. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. The decoration. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. or a pair of old tongs. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. or. a little less acid than water. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. and do not inhale the fumes. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. using the carbon paper. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. which is dangerous. This done. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. 16 gauge. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. Draw a design. possibly.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. may be changed. paint the design. too. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. about half and half. the margin and the entire back of the metal. is about right for the No. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. The one shown is merely suggestive. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. the paper is folded along the center line. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. not the water into the acid. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. and the extreme length 7 in. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. With a stick.

but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. 2. 3. . Buttons for the bells may be purchased. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. and bore two holes. Fig. The connections are simple: I. about 3 ft. Fig. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. 5. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Nail a board. through it. Paint the table any color desired. thick. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. about 2-1/2 in. 3/8 in. and about 2-1/2 ft. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. Fig. or more wide. to the table. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. A. as at H. 2. 2. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. as shown in Fig. It may be either nailed or screwed down. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. as in Fig. about 8 in. Then get two posts. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Cut out a piece of tin. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. 0 indicates the batteries. 5. C and D. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. 1.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. When the button S is pressed. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. with the wires underneath. in diameter and 1/4 in. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. so that when it is pressed down. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. it will touch post F. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. as shown in the illustration. Fig. wide and of the same length as the table. attached to a post at each end. 4. Fig. about 1 in. J is another wire attached in the same way. long. high. wide. repeat as many times as is necessary. 24 parts water. long and 1 ft. the bell will ring. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next.

The imitation articles are made of wood. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. The circle is marked out with a compass. the wood peg inserted in one of them. but they are somewhat difficult to make. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. thick. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. long. 2. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. A wood peg about 2 in. says the English Mechanic. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. These rings can be carved out. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. such as . An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. long serves as the dowel. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. is to appear as steel. After the glue is dry. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. This weapon is about 22 in. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in.. The entire weapon. 1.Imitation Arms and Armor . An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. handle and all. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in.

These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. also. . 2. The entire handle should be made of one piece. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The spikes are cut out of wood. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in.ornamental scrolls. This weapon is about 22 in. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The lower half of the handle is wood. 5. long. is shown in Fig. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. If such a tool is not at hand. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is of steel imitation. or the amateur cannot use it well. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. with a sharp carving tool. covered with red velvet. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. studded with large brass or steel nails. 6. leaves. as shown. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. Its length is about 3 ft. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. All of these axes are about the same length. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. used at the end of the fifteenth century. 8. The axe is shown in steel. The handle is of wood. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. as before mentioned. flowers. as described in Fig. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. the hammer and spike. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. 3. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. etc. The upper half of the handle is steel. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved.

A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. . Chicago. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. as in Fig. calls for a home run. 7) calls for one out. 5. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. 3. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. The knife falling on its side (Fig. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. a three-base hit. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. 4). 6. and so on for nine innings. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 2. then the other plays. the knife resting on its back. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Each person plays until three outs have been made. 1.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. Fig.

When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. of water for an hour or two. 1. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo.-Contributed by J. 3. Mass. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. F. one of them burning . This he does. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. as shown in Fig. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. as shown in Fig. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. hypo to 1 pt. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. If it is spotted at all. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. Old-Time Magic . He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. while the committee is tying him up. Somerville. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. Campbell. It may be found that the negative is not colored. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. 2.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. of the rope and holds it. with the rope laced in the cloth.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant.

The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. 4 oz. thick. invisible to them (the audience).Contributed by Andrew G. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. B. Brown. Louisville. 4 oz. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. with which he is going to light the other candle. and. Ky. etc. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. The magician walks over to the burning candle. He then walks over to the other candle. Evans. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. Drill Gauge screw.. Lebanon. of water and 1 oz. of sugar. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. New York City. the other without a light. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. showing that there is nothing between them. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. thus causing it to light.brightly. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Ky. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. --Contributed by C. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. 3/4 in. --Contributed by L. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Thome. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. shades the light for a few seconds. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. bolt. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. of plumbago. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. . of turpentine.

roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. diameter. Denniston. or blotting paper.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. about 5 in. but is not so good. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. thick. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. for the material. Do not add water to the acid. steady current. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. Pulteney. To make the porous cell. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. H. which will give a strong. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. long. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. --Contributed by C. into a tube of several thicknesses. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. Y. 5 in. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Its current strength is about one volt. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. N. In making up the solution.

As to thickness. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. while the other end is attached by two screws. long with a bearing at each end. a positive adjustment was provided. The . By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. To insure this. steel.) may be obtained. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. but somewhat lighter. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. Finally. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. One hole was bored as well as possible. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in.station. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. After much experimentation with bearings. steel. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. steel. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. the other holding them apart. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. carrying the hour circle at one end. one drawing them together. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in.

axis is adjusted by turning these screws. Cassiopiae. All these adjustments. To find a star in the heavens. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. Set the declination circle to its reading. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. To locate a known star on the map. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. The pointer is directed to Alpha.. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. save the one in the pipe. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. Point it approximately to the north star. Each shaft. and 15 min. The aperture should be 1/4 in. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. If the result is more than 24 hours." When this is done. It is. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. in each direction from two points 180 deg. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. excepting those on the declination axis. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The pole is 1 deg. need not be changed. All set screws.. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. turn the pointer to the star. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. subtract 24. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration." Only a rough setting is necessary. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. apart. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. Instead. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. once carefully made. and if it is not again directed to the same point. Declination is read directly. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. When properly set it will describe a great circle. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. is provided with this adjustment. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. are tightened. 45 min. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up.

a great effect will be produced. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. long. In reality the first ball. taking care not to add too much. If this will be too transparent. of ether. Plain City. is the real cannon ball. Strosnider. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. -Contributed by Ray E. 3 or 4 in. The dance will begin. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. is folded several times. the others . of gum sandarac and 4 gr. La. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. which is the one examined. as shown in the sketch. Ohio. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. benzole. then add 1 2-3 dr. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands.. New Orleans. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. add a little more benzole. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. The ball is found to be the genuine article. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. cannon balls. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes.

small brooches. as shown in the illustration. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. 1). 2. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. Mass. Cal. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. Return the card to the pack. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. F.. Campbell. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . Somerville. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Fig. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. San Francisco. In boxes having a sliding cover. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. taps. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Milwaukee.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. --Contributed by J. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Wis. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. without taking up any great amount of space. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. etc. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag.

I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. thus giving ample store room for colors. as shown in the illustration. Beller. round pieces 2-1/4 in. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. slides and extra brushes. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Connecticut. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. prints. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. from the bottom of the box. This box has done good service. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. Hartford. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. .

will answer the purpose. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. . When the ends are turned under. 1). The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. Mass. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. -Contributed by C. holes in the bottom of one. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. West Lynn.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. 2). and especially are the end pieces objectionable. costing 5 cents. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. or placed against a wall. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. with well packed horse manure. O. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. tacking the gauze well at the corners. Fill the upper tub. FIG. Darke. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. about threefourths full. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use.

new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. --Contributed by L. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. Eifel. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. when they are raised from the pan.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. they should be knocked out. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. If the following directions are carried out. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. cutting the cane between the holes. If plugs are found in any of the holes. M. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. Chicago. if this is not available. and each bundle contains . oil or other fluid. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge.

after having been pulled tight. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. as shown in Fig. No plugs . and. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. 1. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. In addition to the cane. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. a square pointed wedge. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. held there by inserting another plug.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. put about 3 or 4 in. it should be held by a plug. then across and down. as it must be removed again.

The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. When cool. All added to the lesser or 40°. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. it is 4. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. Fig. If handled with a little care. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. No weaving has been done up to this time. 40°. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. 41°-30'. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. called the gnomon. and for lat. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. 1. R. as it always equals the latitude of the place. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. is the base (5 in. 5. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. Patrick. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. From table No. 1. Michigan. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. 5 in. 3. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. the height of the line BC. and for 1° it would be . They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. 4. lat. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. we have 4.3 in. There are several different designs of sundials. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. D. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. During the weaving. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. Fig. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. as shown in Fig. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. If you have a table of natural functions. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. 42° is 4. for 2°. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. It consists of a flat circular table. Their difference is . This will make three layers.2+. using the same holes as for the first layer. as shown in Fig. trim off the surplus rosin. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. as for example. 41 °-30'.075 in. the height of which is taken from table No. the next smallest.42 in. Even with this lubrication. or the style. as the height of the line BC for lat. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . in this case) times the . is the horizontal dial. The style or gnomon. and the one we shall describe in this article. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed.= 4.075 in. 1 lat. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. stretch the third one. but the most common.15 in. W.15+. 3.5 in. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. After completing the second layer. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. --Contributed by M. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. Detroit. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day.2 in. -Contributed by E. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. 1.

if of metal.16 40 .28 .37 54° 6. 1. which will represent the base in length and thickness.83 27° 2. Draw the line AD.19 1. base. Draw two semi-circles.91 58° 8.32 6. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.23 6. 2. For latitudes not given.88 36° 3. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. an inch or two.07 4.tangent of the degree of latitude. long.94 1. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.44 44° 4.00 40° 4.33 . and intersecting the semicircles. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.41 38° 3.55 4.27 2.66 latitude.87 1.97 5 7 4.76 1.66 1. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .26 4. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.50 26° 2. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.37 5.46 3.57 3.55 46° 5.40 34° 3.40 1.89 50° 5.20 60° 8.81 4. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.42 1.64 4 8 3. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.66 48° 5.93 6.03 3.14 5.82 3. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.68 5-30 6-30 5.38 .06 2.87 4. using the points A and C as centers.99 2. or more.42 45 .96 32° 3. 2.49 30 . 2 for given latitudes.55 30° 2. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.30 2. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.02 1. .56 .12 52° 6. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.79 4.82 5.82 2. Chords in inches for a 10 in. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.85 35 .29 4-30 7-30 3. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. and for this size dial (10 in.18 28° 2.49 3.57 1.42 .59 2. and perpendicular to the base or style.30 1.77 2.10 6.55 5. gives the 6 o'clock points.33 42° 4.16 1. or if of stone. Table NO. Fig.63 56° 7.93 2.85 1. Its thickness.46 . with a radius of 5 in. according to the size of the dial. circle Sundial.39 .11 3. To layout the hour circle.

98 4.01 1. The + means that the clock is faster. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.10 4. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.63 1.79 6. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time.72 5. after allowing for the declination. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.53 1.57 1. then the watch is slower.50 . London. --Contributed by J.24 5. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. An ordinary compass. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.60 4. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.21 2.50 55 . Sept. will enable one to set the dial. As they are the genuine reproductions. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.87 6. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.77 3. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.46 5.54 60 . Sioux City. if west. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.68 3.30 2.add those marked + subtract those Marked . The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.19 2. Iowa.means that the dial is faster than the sun. 2 and Dec. it will be faster.49 3.from Sundial lime.34 5. Sun time to local mean time. 3.08 1. adding to each piece interest and value. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. and for the difference between standard and local time. Each weapon is cut from wood.49 5. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.82 3. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. Mitchell. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.93 6..12 5. 25. E. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . 3. and the .46 4. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.14 1.37 2.52 Table No.89 3. each article can be labelled with the name.71 2. This correction can be added to the values in table No. says the English Mechanic. 900 Chicago.06 2. April 16. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. June 15.

Partisan. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. 1. . 3. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel..swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. When putting on the tinfoil. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. the length of which is about 5 ft. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft.

This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. A gisarm or glaive. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. about 4 in. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. in diameter. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. This weapon is about 6 ft. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The length of this bar is about 5 in.which is square. long with a round wooden handle. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. 8. used about the seventeenth century. long. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. press it well into the carved depressions. which are a part of the axe. is shown in Fig. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The spear is steel. the holes being about 1/4 in. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. 5. long. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. long with a round staff or handle. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color.. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. It is about 6 ft. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. 6 ft. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. . long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. sharp on the outer edges. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. The extreme length is 9 ft. 7. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The edges are sharp.

This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. In Figs. They can be made of various materials. Workman. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. Cut all the cords the same length. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. the most durable being bamboo. are put in place. The twisted cross cords should . This is important to secure neatness. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. as shown in Fig. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. 5. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. the cross cords. are less durable and will quickly show wear. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. H. Substances such as straw. 2 and 3. Loudonville. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. used for spacing and binding the whole together. or in holes punched in a leather strap.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove.-Contributed by R. Ohio. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. B. 1. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. apart. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. 4.

below the top to within 1/4 in. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. This was turned over the top of the other can. -Contributed by Geo. shaped as shown at C. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. New York. New Orleans. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. 3 in. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. A slit was cut in the bottom. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The first design shown is for using bamboo. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. To remedy this. Four V-shaped notches were cut. of the bottom. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. La. Harrer. as shown at B. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. in which was placed a piece of glass. bamboo or rolled paper. Lockport. wide. M. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair.be of such material. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw.

An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. and two along the side for attaching the staff. Shay. Sanford.tape from sticking to the carpet. After this is finished. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. Cal. do not throw away the gloves. turned over but not fastened. is shown in the accompanying sketch. giving the appearance of hammered brass. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. This should be done gradually. about 1/16 in. Y. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. wide. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. Schaffner. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. H. Newburgh. Maywood. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. This plank. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. the brass is loosened from the block. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. It would be well to polish the brass at first. N. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Ill. --Contributed by W. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Pasadena. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. --Contributed by Chas. --Contributed by Joseph H. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one.

Unlike most clocks. -Contributed by W. Jaquythe. --E. K. Cal. in diameter. the pendulum swings . Oak Park. Richmond. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Ill. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Marshall. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. A. bent as shown.

C. bar. away. A. about 12 in. Now place the board to be joined. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. thick. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. the center one being 2-3/4 in. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts.. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. The construction is very simple. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. wide. and the other two 2-5/8 in. 6 in. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Secure a board. B. says the Scientific American.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. --Contributed by V. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. long and at each side of this. 5/16 in. bearing on the latter. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. such as this one. high. wide that is perfectly flat. 3/4 in. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. high. Fasten another board. by 1-5/16 in. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. Two uprights. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. high. only have the opposite side up. In using this method. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. . in diameter. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. 7-1/2 in. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. to the first one with screws or glue. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. Chicago. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Metzech. are secured in the base bar. high and 1/4 in. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. on the board B. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. is an electromagnet. about 6 in.

A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. or more. square inside. Vanderslice. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. square. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. long. 4. whose dimensions are given in Fig. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Fig. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. from one end. by driving a pin through the wood. is fastened in the hole A. . 1. wide and 1 in. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. 1. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. Fig. The trigger.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Pa. 2. wide and 5 in. Phoenixville. plates should be made 8 in. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. 1. as shown at A. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. 3. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. --Contributed by Elmer A.

Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. as shown in the illustration.A. Ohio. Fostoria. square. by weight. if only two bands are put in the . The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. 5 parts of black filler. -Contributed by J. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Simonis. one-half the length of the side pieces. which allows 1/4 in. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. 2 parts of whiting. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. rubbing varnish and turpentine.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks.

is set at an angle of 45 deg. is necessary. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. and it may be made as a model or full sized. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. --Contributed by Thos. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. A piece of metal. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. G. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. -Contributed by Abner B. A mirror. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. as shown in Fig. in the opposite end of the box. Mass. which may be either of ground or plain glass. Michigan.lower strings. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. If a plain glass is used. In use. says the English Mechanic. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. and the picture can be drawn as described. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. A double convex lens. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. Grand Rapids. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. No. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. DeLoof. In constructing helmets. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. 1. London. keeps the strong light out when sketching. deep. wide and about 1 ft. long. Dartmouth. 8 in. II. Shaw. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. It must be kept moist and well . preferably copper. place tracing paper on its surface. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass.

is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. or some thin glue. take. brown. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. the clay model oiled. will be necessary. shown in Fig. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. All being ready. After the clay model is finished. and over the crest on top. and continue until the clay is completely covered. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. The clay. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue.kneaded. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. 1. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. a few clay-modeling tools. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. as in bas-relief. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. and the deft use of the fingers. as shown in Fig. 2. on which to place the clay. This being done. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . cut out the shape from a piece of wood. with a keyhole saw. and left over night to soak. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. Scraps of thin. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. joined closely together. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. 3. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. 1.

In Fig. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. They are all covered with tinfoil. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. and so on. as shown: in the design. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig.as possible. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. owing to the clay being oiled. then another coating of glue. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. --Contributed by Paul Keller. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. 1. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. When the helmet is off the model. Before taking it off the model. When perfectly dry. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. When dry. The center of the ear guards are perforated. a few lines running down. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. Indianapolis. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. square in shape. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. which should be no difficult matter. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. will make it look neat. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. Indiana. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. the piecing could not be detected. as seen in the other part of the sketch. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. This contrivance should be made of wood. 7. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. In Fig. and the ear guards in two pieces. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. one for each side. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. 9. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. with the exception of the vizor. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. or. The whole helmet. should be modeled and made in one piece. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. The band is decorated with brass studs. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. the skullcap. a crest on top. 5.

The points marked BB are the glass tubes. This will make an open space between the plates. one small switch. for connections. each 4-1/2 in. 4 lb. long. This will allow the plate. of fire clay. which can be bought from a local druggist. 3. until it is within 1 in. as shown in Fig. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. the fuse block. is shown in Fig. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. about 1/4 in.same size. high. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. If a neat appearance is desired. 4. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. 1. The plate. if the measurements are correct. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. 2. A round collar of galvanized iron. 1 in. of No. Fig. 1. long. and C. German-silver wire is better. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. above the collar. is then packed down inside the collar. Fig. as shown in Fig. in diameter and 9 in. 2. Fig. of mineral wool. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. AA. two ordinary binding posts. if this cannot be obtained. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. 1. 3 in. Fig. as it stands a higher temperature. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . 1. should extend about 1/4 in. AA. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. and two large 3in. GG. Fig. Fig. Fig. The reverse side of the base. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. one fuse block. one oblong piece of wood. or. 4. when they are placed in opposite positions. AA. The holes B and C are about 3 in. The mineral wool. The two holes. E and F. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 2. 12 in. If asbestos is used. the holes leading to the switch. screws. 1. 4. 4. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. and. 4. also the switch B and the fuse block C. 1. FF. to receive screws for holding it to the base. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. Fig. Fig. with slits cut for the wires. 22 gauge resistance wire. thick. as shown in Fig. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. are allowed to project about 1 in. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. thick sheet asbestos. of the top. 4. about 80 ft. long. Fig. JJ. about 1 lb. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. 4. wide and 15 in. Fig. one glass tube. Fig. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. Fig. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D.

It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. above the rim. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. The clay. Cnonyn. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. deep. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. If it is not thoroughly dry. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. If this is the case. --Contributed by W. using care not to get it too wet. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . so that the circuit will not become broken. 2. KK. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. will slip and come in contact with each other. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. when cool. Next. causing a short circuit. H. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. Cut a 1/2-in. Can. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. This point marks the proper length to cut it. St. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. As these connections cannot be soldered. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. it leaves a gate for the metal. then. steam will form when the current is applied. When the tile is in place. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Jaquythe. Cover over about 1 in. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. as the turns of the wires. --Contributed by R. more wire should be added. 4. apart. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. when heated. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. It should not be set on end. Richmond. While the clay is damp. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. Catherines. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. allowing a space between each turn. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Cal. Fig. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. Fig. II. It should not be left heated in this condition. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. and pressed into it. A. This completes the stove. A file can be used to remove any rough places. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. When this is done.

the pie will be damaged. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. says the Photographic Times. as shown. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. constructed of 3/4-in. but 12 by 24 in. the air can enter from both top and bottom. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. is large enough. and the frame set near a window. square material in any size.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Thorne. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. Louisville. --Contributed by Andrew G. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. and the prints will dry rapidly." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Then clip a little off the . Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. Ky. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center.

The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. 1. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. thick and 3 in. causing a break in the current. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. which are fastened to the base. slip on two cardboard washers. As the shaft revolves. long. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. wide. for the crank. The driving arm D. which gives the shaft a half turn. each 1 in. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. wide and 7 in. 1/2 in. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. Le Mars. The upright B. 1/2 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running.Paper Funnel point. The board can be raised to place . 1. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. in diameter and about 4 in. at GG. each 1/2 in. Two supports. 1. Figs. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. long. long. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. 2-1/2 in. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. 14 in. thereby saving time and washing. Iowa. thick and 3 in. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. 22 gauge magnet wire. Fig. 1. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. The connecting rod E. A 1/8-in. allowing each end to project for connections. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. in diameter. W. 3. Herron. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. 1 and 3. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. high. Fig. thick. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. high. open out. long. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. -Contributed by S. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. Fig. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. The connections are made as shown in Fig. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. wide and 3 in. high. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. as shown. 2. An offset is bent in the center. 4 in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B.

One or more pots may be used. as shown in the sketch. in height. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. bottom side up. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. making a framework suitable for a roost. Dorchester. . The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Mass. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. Stecher. 3 in. In designing the roost. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Place the pot. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. --Contributed by William F. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. on a board.

that it is heated. 1. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. paraffin and paint or varnish. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. when combined. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. Wind the . will produce the pattern desired. etc. in diameter. and give it time to dry. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Fig. 1. if it is other than straight lines. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. F. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. as shown in Fig. The materials required are rope or. odd corners. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. without any corresponding benefit. preferably. adopt the method described.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. grills and gratings for doors. windows. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. The bottom part of the sketch.. ordinary glue. F. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg.. shelves.

These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Fig. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . cut and glue them together. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Y.Fig. -Contributed by Geo. M. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. 2. Harrer. six designs are shown. Lockport. N.

etc.. when it will be observed that any organic matter. will be retained by the cotton.. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. This piece of horse armor. chips of iron rust. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. 1. etc. As the . but no farther. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in.. says the English Mechanic. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. which was used in front of a horse's head. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. and the sides do not cover the jaws. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. London. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords.

2. the same as in Fig. This triangularshaped support. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. and will require less clay. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. The armor is now removed from the model. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. but the back is not necessary. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. but for . Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. 6 and 7. This can be made in one piece. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. In Fig. 4. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. 2. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. All being ready. and the clay model oiled. then another coat of glue. An arrangement is shown in Fig. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. This being done. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. which can be made in any size. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. which is separate. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. as the surface will hold the clay. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. the rougher the better. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. with the exception of the thumb shield. except the thumb and fingers. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. and therefore it is not described. 8. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. as shown in the sketch. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This will make the model light and easy to move around. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used.

Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. but 3-1/2 in. Buxton.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. 1/2 in. Goshen. the two pieces of foil will draw together. are better shown in Fig. The two pieces of foil. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. If it does not hold a charge. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. long. cut into the shape shown in Fig. and the instrument is ready for use. in depth. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. fastened to the rod. 9. will be about right. . The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. La Rue. wide and 1/2 in. running down the plate. two for the jaws and one a wedge. --Contributed by John G. each about 1/4 in. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. the top of the rod. Redondo Beach. are glued to it. N. Y. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. 2. When locating the place for the screw eyes. two in each jaw. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. --Contributed by Ralph L. the foils will not move. A piece of board. Calif.

as shown in the illustration. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. A. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. --Contributed by Mrs. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. When a fish is hooked. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Bryan. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. pine board. hole bored through it. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. The can may be bronzed. as indicated in the . At a point 6 in. about 15 in. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. is made of a 1/4-in. long. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. from the smaller end. as this will cut under the water without splashing. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. 2-1/2 in.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. M. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Corsicana. silvered. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Texas. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. enameled or otherwise decorated.

Having completed the drawing. A good size is 5 in. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Polish the metal. will do as well as the more expensive woods. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Any kind of wood will do. wide by 6 in. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Next prepare the metal holder. Basswood or butternut. long over all. 3/8 or 1/4 in. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. If soft wood. such as basswood or pine was used. thick. punch the holes. put a coat or two of wax and polish . using a piece of carbon paper. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. then with a nail. or even pine. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No.Match Holder accompanying sketch. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. When it has dried over night. using powdered pumice and lye. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. 22 is plenty heavy enough. take a piece of thin wood. as shown. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. and trace upon it the design and outline.

Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. If carving is contemplated. long. It is useful for photographers. can be made on the same standards. Instead of the usual two short ropes. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. are used for the cores of the magnets. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. wide and 5 in. 2 in. Richmond. A. thick. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. is used for the base of this instrument. 1/2 in. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Jaquythe. of pure olive oil. --Contributed by W. Cal. each 1 in. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. long. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. the whole being finished in linseed oil. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. yet protects the skin from the chemicals.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. . Two wire nails. If one has some insight in carving. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state.

passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. acts as a spring to keep the key open. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. 25 gauge. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. when the key is pushed down. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. about No. A rubber band. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. leaving about 1/4 in. A piece of tin. the paper covering put on. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. in the shape shown in the sketch.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. as shown by the dotted lines. About 1 in. similar to that used in electric bells. --Contributed by W. cut in the shape of the letter T. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. says the English Mechanic. then covered with red. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. cloth or baize to represent the legs. . H. Lynas. at A. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. 3. 1. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. as shown in Fig. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. All of the parts for the armor have been described. London. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. except that for the legs. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters.

Instead of using brass headed nails. can be made in a few minutes' time. apart. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. for the sake of lightness. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. Silver paper will do very well. and eight small holes. By moving the position of the bolt from. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. completes the equipment. at each end. make the same series of eight small holes and. brass paper fasteners will be found useful.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. Secure two strips of wood. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. or ordinary plaster laths will do. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. A 1/4-in. In one end of the piece. holes. Take the piece shown in Fig. long. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. about 1 in. not too tight. 1 and drill a 1/4in. 1 in.. These can be purchased at a stationery store. The two pieces are bolted together. Cut them to a length or 40 in. says Camera Craft. in the other end. So set up. apart. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. flat headed carriage bolt. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. 3 in. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. hole in the center. 2. drill six 1/4-in. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Fig. one to another .

as in portraiture and the like. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. A is the first string and B is the second. Start with one end. Then take B and lay it over A. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. then B over C and the end stuck under A. 1. 2. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. A round fob is made in a similar way. but instead of reversing . 2. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. taking the same start as for the square fob. of the ends remain unwoven.of the larger holes in the strip. 4. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. and the one beneath C. for instance. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. doubled and run through the web of A. In this sketch. C over D and B. as shown in Fig. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. long. and lay it over the one to the right. in Fig. the one marked A. Then draw all four ends up snugly. D over A and C. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. lay Cover B and the one under D. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. Fig. 2. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes.

Rupp. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. as in making the square fob. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. as at A in Fig. Monroeville. Ohio. 1-1/2 in. long. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. Other designs can be made in the same manner. The round fob is shown in Fig. 3. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. always lap one string. the design of which is shown herewith. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . A loop. is to be made of leather. 5.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. --Contributed by John P. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. as B. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. over the one to its right. especially if silk strings are used.

The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. Mich. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. Northville. A. such as a nut pick. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. filling them with wax. using the reverse side. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. -Contributed by A. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. beeswax or paraffin. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. . The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. it can be easily renewed. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. When the supply of wax is exhausted. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. Any smooth piece of steel. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. door facing or door panel. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. pressing it against the wood. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. Houghton.

E and F. those on matte paper will work best. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. and after wetting. long. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. New York. Select the print you wish to mount. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. Ill. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. if blueprints are used. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. place it face down in the dish. N. D. although tin ones can be used with good success. remaining above the surface of the board. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. The tacks should be about 1 in. Thompson. J. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. says Photographic Times. and about 12 in. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. . Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Fold together on lines C. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. Enough plaster should. thick. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Y. --Contributed by O. Petersburg. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. it is best to leave a plain white margin. apart and driven in only part way. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. but any kind that will not stick may be used. leaving about 1/4 in. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. After the plaster has thoroughly dried.

Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. as shown in the right of the sketch. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. One of the . etc. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. without mixing the solutions. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. roses. violets. as shown at the left in the sketch. filling the same about onehalf full. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. Lower into the test tube a wire. will be rendered perfectly white. bell flowers. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool..

and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. should be soldered to the box. as shown in the sketch. The tin horn can be easily made. shading. and at the larger end. A rod that will fit the brass tube. When soldering these parts together. Millstown. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . 1. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. about 1/8s in. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. is about 2-1/2 in. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. Fig. to keep the core from coming off in turning. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube.. turned a little tapering.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The sound box. --Contributed by L. in diameter and 1 in. made of heavy tin. as shown. or delicate tints of the egg. not too tightly. 1-7/8 in. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The diaphragm. thick. Shabino. 2. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The first point should be ground blunt. long and made of wood. South Dakota. 3. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. but which will not wobble loose. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. long. L.

while playing in the yard close to a grain house.Contributed by E. Ill. and. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. mice in the bottom. Jr. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Chicago. and weighted it with a heavy stone. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Gold. put a board on top. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Victor. says the Iowa Homestead. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. wondering what it was. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Colo. E. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn.

Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Buffalo. . There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. --Contributed by Lyndwode. N. Can. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Ottawa. Y. Pereira.

as it can be made quickly in any size. as shown. through which several holes have been punched. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . and at one end of the stick fasten. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. a piece of tin. Mich. --Contributed by Thos. Jaquythe. Put a small nail 2 in. A. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. longer than the length of the can. by means of a flatheaded tack. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. --Contributed by W. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. above the end of the dasher. De Loof. cut round. Richmond. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. This cart has no axle. Cal. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Grand Rapids. on the side and at the lower edge of the box.

A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. A wedge-shaped piece of . The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. wide. Kane. apart. 1-1/2 in. 2. 1. 2 in. The baseboard and top are separable. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. La. deep and 3 in. Doylestown. Fig. as shown. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. wide and 1/8 in. 2. --Contributed by James M. long. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. were below the level of the bullseye.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. thick. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. board. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. I reversed a door gong. New Orleans. The candles. of course. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. Pa. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. 1/4 in. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Notches 1/8 in. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. wide and 3 ft. 2.1. wide and as long as the box. screwed it on the inside of a store box. 1 ft.

West Union. scissors. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Needles. wide rubber bands or felt. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. For the handle. A. Cover the block with rubber. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. etc. Worcester. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. Wood. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. This device is very convenient for invalids. When not in use. 3. --Contributed by G. The block can also be used as a paperweight.Book Back Holders metal. by cutting away the ends.. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. wide into each side of the casing. the reason being that if both were solid. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. to prevent its scratching the desk top. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. dressing one surface of each piece. After completing the handle. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. can be picked up without any trouble. stone or wood. when placed as in Fig. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. as shown in Fig. it can be removed without marring the casing. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. Mass. will. the shelf could not be put on the window. After the glue has dried. 1. Ia. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. the blade is put back into the groove . take two pieces of hard wood.

and sharpened to a cutting edge. A. 1. If desired. long. Pa. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Ohio. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Cleveland. 1 in. square and 4 in. . Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Erie. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. thus carrying the car up the incline. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Hutchins. 2. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Malden. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by W. A notch is cut in one side. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Mass. Jacobs. --Contributed by Maud McKee. is shown in the accompanying sketch. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. S. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by H.

J. Prepare a design for the front. One sheet of metal. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. a board on which to work it. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. If one such as is shown is to be used. and an awl and hammer. .The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing.. Cape May Point. N. This will insure having all parts alike. will be needed. The letters can be put on afterward. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. 6 by 9-1/2 in.

or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. If any polishing is required. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. or. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. The stick may be placed by the side of. but weird and distant. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. The music will not sound natural. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. only the marginal line is to be pierced. a violin. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. as shown.Fasten the metal to the board. placed on a table. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. . that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. So impressive are the results. in the waste metal. applied by means of a brush. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. says Master Painter. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. 2 parts white vitriol. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color." In all appearance. mandolin or guitar. On the back. varnish. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. 1/4 part. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. 1 part. if desired. that can be worked in your own parlor. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. which is desirable. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. Remove the metal. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. 3/4 part. One coat will do. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. flat brush. to right angles. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. paste the paper design right on the metal. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. behind or through the center of a table leg. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. turpentine.

1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. square bar iron. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. long and measuring 26 in. London. round-head machine screws.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. long and spread about 8 in. Two pairs of feet. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. With proper tools this is easy. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. 3. The longest piece. are shaped as shown in Fig. is bent square so as to form two uprights. each 6 in. . Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. across the top. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. long. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. and is easy to construct. 2. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. says Work. wide. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. apart. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. each 28 in. it might be difficult. thick by 1/2 in. without them.

A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. The glass. The design is formed in the lead. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. C. D. 5. B. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. as shown in Fig. and the base border. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. Fig. on it as shown. 4. cut a long piece of lead. or. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. While the piece of lead D. The brads are then removed. 6. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. A. 5. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. Place the corner piece of glass. 7. better still. using rosin as a flux. the latter being tapped to . is held by the brads.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. special flux purchased for this purpose. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. Fig. in the grooves of the borders. After the joints are soldered. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. After the glass is cut. lead.

bolt. then flatten its end on the under side. long. as shown in Fig. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. wood screws in each washer. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. holes through their centers. Fasten the plates to the block B. not less than 4 in. Bore a 5/8-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin.. Jr. and round the corners of one end for a ring. N. rounded at the top as shown. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. A and B. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. H. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. long. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. This ring can be made of 1-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. bolt. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends.the base of the clip. one on each side and central with the hole. thick and drill 3/4-in. long. This . plank about 12 ft. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. in diameter and 1/4 in. Secure a post. Camden. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Two styles of hand holds are shown. Dreier. J. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. The center pin is 3/4-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. in diameter and about 9 in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. then drill a 3/4-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. --Contributed by W. plates. Bore a 3/4-in. rocker bolt. Make three washers 3-in. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. and two wood blocks. 8.

2-1/2 in. long. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 1 by 7 in. of 1/4-in. boards along the side of each from end to end. horse and rings. square by 5 ft. 4 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. by 2 ft. To substitute small. shanks. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 1-1/4in. If trees are convenient. 4 pieces. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. from one edge. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. 2 by 4 in. 50 ft. 4 pieces. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. bolts and rope. long. long. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 9 in. long. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. the money outlay will be almost nothing. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 3 in. New Orleans. in diameter and 7 in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. maple.will make an excellent cover for a pot. screws. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 4 in. La. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. 3/4 by 3 in. straight-grained hickory. 16 screws. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. The four 7-in. by 3 ft. and some one can swing an axe. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. long. hickory. by 6-1/2 ft. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. long. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 1/2 in. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. chestnut or ash. square by 9-1/2 ft. bit. long and 1 piece. because it will not stand the weather. 7 in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. can make a first class gymnasium. 4 filler pieces. 1. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. apart for a distance of 3 ft. Draw a line on the four 7-in.

and once tightened the bar will be rigid. boards coincide. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones.. apart. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. from the end. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each.. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. deep and remove all loose dirt. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. piece of wood. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. apart. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. each 3 ft. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. so the 1/2-in. Bore a 9/16-in. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. 8 in. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. at each end. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. 2. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed.bored. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground.

one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. not much to look at in daytime. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. When the interest of the crowd. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. apart. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. it follows the edge for about 1 in." which skimmed along the distant horizon. it is taken to the edge of the foot. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. just visible against the dark evening sky. And all he used was a black thread. not even the tumbler. He stretched the thread between two buildings. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. passing through a screweye at either end. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. If the tumbler is rotated. in an endless belt. and then passes in a curve across the base. about 100 ft. disappearing only to reappear again.. which at once gathered. the effect is very striking. . Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. and materially heightened the illusion. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. but most deceptive at dusk. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. was at its height. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. and ascends the stem. W. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible.

1. 2 by 4 in. from either side of the center. by 2 ft. long. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 6 in. 2 in. preferably cedar. To make the apparatus. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 2 side braces. and turned in a spiral D. long. Fig. by 10 ft. long. square and 51/2 ft. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 2 by 4 in. large spikes. 4 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. square and 6 ft. by 7 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. New Orleans. long. A wire about No. Bevel the ends of . deep. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 4 knee braces. wide and 1 in. 7 in. long and 1 doz. long. by 3 ft. 4 bolts. long. 8 in. 2 base pieces. beginning at a point 9 in. 8 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. long. 2 cross braces. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 2 by 3 in. long. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. The cork will come out easily. 2 by 4 in. so the point will be on top. 4 wood screws. 4 in. 8 bolts. La. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 8 in.

bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. . from the bottom of the base up along the posts. A. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. The wood so treated will last for years. equipped with a strainer. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. Jaquythe. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. but even unpainted they are very durable. Richmond. jellies. which face each other. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. A large sized ladle. of 7 ft. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. --Contributed by W. save the bars. If using mill-cut lumber. ( To be Continued. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. etc. additional long. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. Cal. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. as shown in the diagram. except the bars. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft.. Two endpieces must be made. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. using four of the 7-in bolts. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. These will allow the ladle to be turned. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. and countersinking the heads. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. leaving the strainer always in position. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. leave it undressed. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. screws. so the bolts in both will not meet.the knee braces. After the trenches are dug. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees.

Oil. A. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. . partly a barrier for jumps. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. or various cutting compounds of oil. milling machine. it is necessary to place a stick. thus holding the pail as shown. which seems impossible. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. In order to accomplish this experiment. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. If a little turpentine is added to the oil.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. of sufficient 1ength. drill press or planer. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over.

long. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. 4 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in.. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. apart. square by 5 ft. from each end. piece of 2 by 4-in. long. long. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in.. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. to fasten the knee braces at the top. bolts. long. 3 in. 1 cross brace. long. by 3 ft. bolt. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. two 1/2-in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. long. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. 4 in. is a good length. by 3 ft.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. bolts. but 5 ft. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 2 by 4 in. 7 in. in the ground. 4 knee braces. square by 5-1/2 ft. 1 in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. and free from knots. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. stud cut rounding on one edge. 2 by 4 in. long. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. wood yard or from the woods. These are placed 18 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. 4 in. 4-1/2 in. bolts. beginning 1-1/2 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 2 bases. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. Procure from a saw mill. Hand holds must be provided next. projections and splinters. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. These are well nailed in place. long. The round part of this log must be planed. by 3 ft. To construct. 2 adjusting pieces. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. ten 1/2-in. apart in a central position on the horse. 2 by 4 in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. in diameter--the larger the better.

Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. water. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. then bending to the shape desired. it is caused by some obstruction. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. Cal. but nevertheless. over and around. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. such as a dent. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition.horse top.--Contributed by W. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Also. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Richmond. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. etc. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Jaquythe. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. pipe and fittings. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. it is caused by an overloaded shell. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. A. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. no one is responsible but himself. snow. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard.

when straightened out. W. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. 2. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Toronto. which. are all the tools necessary. The end elevation. These. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. --Contributed by James E. . --Contributed by Arthur E. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. will give the length. Mass. Paris. 1. France. then run a string over each part. Ontario. is much better than a wood sled. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. --Contributed by J. thick. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. in width and 1/32 in. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. Joerin. when complete.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. at E and F. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Noble. Vener. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Boston. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock.

3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. 3.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. The method shown in Figs. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. are nailed. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. . The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. and the latter will take on a bright luster. nor that which is partly oxidized. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. It is best to use soft water. 4. AA and BB. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked.

3. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 8 and 9. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. Percy Ashley in Rudder. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. . 4. Broad lines can be made. class ice-yacht. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. as shown in Fig. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. as shown in Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 1). How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. 2. 2. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. or various rulings may be made. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. The materials used are: backbone. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. or unequal widths as in Fig.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

about 30 in. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. out from the collar. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. but if it is made much longer.Fig. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. 1. bent and drilled as shown. Both the lower . The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The point should extend about 11/2 in. long. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The headstock is made of two tees. a tee and a forging. A good and substantial homemade lathe. pipe. pins to keep them from turning. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. It can be made longer or shorter. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. a larger size of pipe should be used. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it.

2. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 1. 3/4 or 1 in. 2. . square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. Fruitvale. 2. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Boissevain. To do this. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. but also their insulating properties. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. It is about 1 in. W. or a key can be used as well. Held. Musgrove. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. Indiana. a corresponding line made on this. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. Laporte. --Contributed by W. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. thick as desired. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. UpDeGraff. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Man. and will answer for a great variety of work. a straight line should be scratched Fig. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by M. Cal. M. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. else taper turning will result. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient.

The handle is of pine about 18 in. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. In use. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. To obviate this. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . as shown. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Smith. Cline. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. --Contributed by E. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. Ark. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. Ft. J. long. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. and the two loops are made of heavy wire.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth.

Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. --Contributed by Walter W. if this method is followed: First. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Colo. take . bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. La. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. This prevents the drill from wobbling. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. the drill does not need the tool. White. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. on starting the lathe. and when once in true up to its size. After being entered. which should be backed out of contact. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. centering is just one operation too many. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. face off the end of the piece. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. New Orleans. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Denver.

the cap is placed over the paper tube. vanishing wand. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. as shown in D. a bout 1/2 in. unknown to the spectators. shorter t h a n the wand. says the Sphinx. The handkerchief rod. It can be used in a great number of tricks. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. After the wand is removed. by applying caustic soda or . and this given to someone to hold. shown at C. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. is put into the paper tube A. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. after being shown empty. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. a long piece of glass tubing. and can be varied to suit the performer. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. In doing this. all the better. The glass tube B. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish.

Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. square and 1-7/8 in. As the cement softens. as shown by K. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. With care and patience. Glue the neck to the box. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. This dimension and those for the frets . Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. by 14 by 17 in. 1 End. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. with the back side rounding. can be made by the home mechanic. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces.potash around the edges of the letters. preferably hard maple. The sides. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 1/4 in. and glue it to the neck at F. 1 Bottom. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 1. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. and if care is taken in selecting the material. thick. cut to any shape desired. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. Glue strips of soft wood. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. long. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. across the front and back to strengthen them. End. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. 1 Neck. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 2 Sides. The brace at D is 1 in. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. Cut a piece of hard wood. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 3/16.

When it is completed you will have a canoe. in diameter. and beveled . Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. --Contributed by Chas. E. Carbondale. 1) on which to stretch the paper. O. Frary. wide and 11-1/2 ft. A board 1 in. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Stoddard. or backbone. Norwalk. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. long is used for a keel. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat.should be made accurately. -Contributed by J. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. Six holes. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. thick and about 1 ft. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place.Pa. but it is not. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. toward each end. H. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. 3/16 in.

Fig. Fig. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. The ribs. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. long. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. thick. b. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. two strips of wood (b.. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. Fig. B. Any tough. b. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Green wood is preferable. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. These are better. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. the loose strips of ash (b. . but twigs of some other trees. Fig. or other place. Fig. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. in such cases. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. such as hazel or birch. a. some tight strips of ash. 1 and 2. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. C. two twigs may be used to make one rib. procure at a carriage factory. which are easily made of long. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. buy some split cane or rattan. 3). For the gunwales (a.) in notches. b. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. with long stout screws. Osiers probably make the best ribs. and are not fastened. wide by 26 in. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. The cross-boards (B. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. in thickness and should be cut. Fig. 13 in. as shown in Fig. 3). Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. slender switches of osier willow. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. long are required. are next put in. such as is used for making chairbottoms. In drying. 1. apart. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. probably. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. twigs 5 or 6 ft. as before described. 2). 3. 4). 2. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. C. as shown in Fig. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. thick. Fig. and. Fig. Shape these as shown by A. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. and so. or similar material. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. 2). will answer nearly as well. but before doing this. by means of a string or wire. 4. as they are apt to do. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. and notched at the end to receive them (B. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. Fig. when made of green elm. 3/8 in. 3. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board.

until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. and as soon as that has soaked in. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. The paper is then trimmed. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. If not. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. preferably iron. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Fig. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. if it has been properly constructed of good material. You may put in . This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. If the paper be 1 yd. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. Then take some of the split rattan and. When thoroughly dry. and very tough. and light oars. wide. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. of very strong wrapping-paper. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. and steady in the water. and held in place by means of small clamps. It should be drawn tight along the edges. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. B. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. but neither stiff nor very thick. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. It should be smooth on the surface. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. tacking it to the bottom-board. When the paper is dry. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. but with less turpentine. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. after wetting it. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. apply a second coat of the same varnish. 5). trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. however.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Being made in long rolls.

Fig. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. to fit it easily. and make a movable seat (A. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. they will support very heavy weights. 5. Fig. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. 1 and the end in . and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. and if driven as shown in the cut. 2. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. fore and aft. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. Fig. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. Drive the lower nail first. 5). We procured a box and made a frame. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. 1.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience.

A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig.Fig. Close the other end with the same operation. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. This way has its drawbacks. This is an easy . Pittsburg. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. 4. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. A good way to handle this work. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. and the result is. Pa. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. 3. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. and the glass. being softer where the flame has been applied. 5. this makes the tube airtight. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest.

drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. fourth. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. extra metal all around. above the work and striking it with the hammer. then reverse. -Contributed by A. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. or six arms. 23 gauge. very rapid progress can be made.way to make a thermometer tube. also trace the decorative design. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. rivet punch. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. The candle holders may have two. metal shears. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. four. thin screw. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. fifth. third. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. file. Sixth. with a piece of carbon paper. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. above the metal. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. flat and round-nosed pliers. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. second. Give the metal a circular motion. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. three. After the bulb is formed. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. Seventh. Oswald.

The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Metal polish of any kind will do. Small copper rivets are used. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Having pierced the bracket. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . drip cup.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. and holder.

Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. and in a week . Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. and add the gelatine. The boom. on a water bath. of glycerine to about 200 deg. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. and brace and bit were the tools used. deep. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Fifty. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. using a steel pen. F. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. glycerine 4 parts. when it will be ready for use. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. winding the ends where they came together with wire. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. except they had wheels instead of runners. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. and it will be ready for future use. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. The gaff. A saw. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. I steer with the front wheel. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. smooth it down and then remove as before. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. N. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. hammer. Twenty cents was all I spent. Soak 1 oz. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. alcohol 2 parts. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. is a broomstick. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. the stick at the bottom of the sail. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. and water 24 parts. sugar 1 part. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. J. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. thus it was utilized. and other things as they were needed. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. Mother let me have a sheet. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Shiloh. Heat 6-1/2 oz. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. all the rest I found.

a projecting lens . Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

thick. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. and 14 in. but if such a box is not found. are . and a projecting lens 2 in. If a small saw is used.. 3. or a lens of 12-in. above the center. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. Fig. E. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. DD. at a distance of 24 ft. wide. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. wide and 15 in. describe a 9-in. H. well seasoned pine. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. and the lens slide. at a point 1 in. or glue. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. high. and. and the work carefully done. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. 1/2 to 3/4 in. G. slide to about 6 ft. provided the material is of metal. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. about 2 ft. as desired. long. 8 in. focus enlarging a 3-in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. This ring is made up from two rings. wire brads. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. 1. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. The board is centered both ways. A and B. A table. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. The slide support. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping.

placed on the water. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. and when the right position is found for each. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. E. should the glass happen to upset. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. the water at once extinguishes the flame. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. the strips II serving as guides. A sheet . The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. P. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. B. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. apply two coats of shellac varnish.constructed to slip easily on the table. JJ. The arrangement is quite safe as. Paul. St. To reach the water. Small strips of tin. Minn. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations.-Contributed by G. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. light burning oil. of safe. but not long enough.

N.H. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. by 12 ft. to cover the mattresses. --Contributed by J. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. If one of these clips is not at hand. 3. from a tent company. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. then the corners on one end are doubled over.. Fig. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 2. 9 in. Crawford. 3 in. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 12 ft. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. I ordered a canvas bag. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. 3. 4. Y. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. 1. Schenectady. form a piece of wire in the same shape. Fig.

Pa. holes in the edge. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. and insert two binding-posts. C. Fig. as shown in Fig. apart. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Fig. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. D. 1/2 in. first mark the binding-post A. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. through which the indicator works. White. for amperes and the other post. To calibrate the instrument. 2. insulating them from the case with cardboard. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. 1. Denver. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. so as to form two oblong boxes. --Contributed by Edward M. to the coil of small wire for volts. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. 3/4 in. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. Attach a piece of steel rod. wide. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. A Film Washing Trough [331] . open on the edges. Warren. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Colo. 3/4 in. thick. A rubber band. Fasten the wire with gummed label. in the center coil. V. An arc is cut in the paper. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. long. drill two 3/16 in. 3 to swing freely on the tack. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. --Contributed by Walter W. Do not use too strong a rubber. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. 1. 2.each edge. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Teasdale. long and 3/16 in. 1/2 in. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. to keep it from unwinding. 2. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth.

Place this can on one end of the trough. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Dayton. M. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. --Contributed by M. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Cut a 1/4-in. as shown. O. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Wood Burning [331] . A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. with the large hole up. Hunting.

a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. then into this bottle place. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. mouth downward.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle.

The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. 2. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle.Y. 1. 3/4 in. If the cork is adjusted properly. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. thick. provided the bottle is wide. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Whitehouse. Place the small bottle in as before. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. This will make a very pretty ornament. wide and 4 in. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. If the small bottle used is opaque. as shown in the sketch. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Auburn.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. --Contributed by Fred W. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. N. Upper Troy. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. but not very thick. Ala. --Contributed by John Shahan. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . many puzzling effects may be obtained. long. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split.

B. long. A staple. W. wide. thick. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. which gave considerable power for its size. --Contributed by D. G. If a transmitter is used. 2 ft. 2. Fig. Milter.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. The 21/2-in. or ordinary telephone transmitters. 3. line. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. were constructed of 1-in. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Fig. The wire L was put . Fig. Fig. to the shaft. 1 in. Fig. pulley. by the method shown in Fig. pulley F. high without the upper half. which was 6 in. Its smaller parts. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. was keyed to shaft C. The bearing blocks were 3 in. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. On a 1000-ft. 1. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. sugar pine on account of its softness. 1. I. as shown in Fig. The shaft C. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. thick. 4. 1. in diameter and 1 in. such as blades and pulleys. Both bearings were made in this manner. which extended to the ground. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. iron rod. K. which was nailed to the face plate. 1. thick and 3 in. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. 1. even in a light breeze. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. was 1/4in.

when the windmill needed oiling. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. The other lid. long and 1/2 in. Fig. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. pine 18 by 12 in. To lessen the friction here. square to the board P at the top of the tower. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. across the thin edge of a board. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. 1. This completes the receiver or sounder. Two washers were placed on shaft C. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. with brass headed furniture tacks. through the latter. long and bend it as . which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. 0. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. This board was 12 in. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. and was cut the shape shown. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. long. If you have no bell. in diameter. 1. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. 1. apart in the tower. The power was put to various uses. 5. 6. strips. cut out another piece of tin (X. so that the 1/4-in. Fig. 1. The bed plate D. for instance. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. H. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. washers were placed under pulley F. G. 25 ft. To make the key. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. There a 1/4-in. Fig. Fig. long and 3 in. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. Fig. The smaller one. R. long and bend it as shown at A. wide and 1 in. top down also. long. hole for the shaft G was in the center. 3 in. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. was tacked. a 1/2-in. 6. was 2 ft. 2. Fig. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. This fan was made of 1/4-in. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Fig. in the center of the board P. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. as. hole was bored for it. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. with all parts in place. 1) 4 in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. providing one has a few old materials on hand.

connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Going back to Fig. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. like many another device boys make. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K.shown. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. McConnell. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. as indicated. Before tacking it to the board. using cleats to hold the board frame. The rear barrels are. causing a buzzing sound. as shown at Water. 1. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. at the front. although it can be made with but two. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. Now. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. By adjusting the coils. -Contributed by John R. 2. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. fitted with paddles as at M. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. leaving the other wire as it is. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. When tired of this instrument. and. Thus a center drive is made.

3. feet on the pedals. There is no danger. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. as shown in Fig. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. or even a little houseboat. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. copper piping and brass tubing for base. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. there will not be much friction. 1. To propel it. which will give any amount of pleasure. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. The speed is slow at first. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. If the journals thus made are well oiled. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. can be built. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount .

and so creating a false circuit. If it is desired to make the light very complete. 2. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Place one brass ring in cylinder. 1. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. D. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. 1. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. 2. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. then the glass disc and then the other ring. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Fig. Turn a small circle of wood. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. or it may be put to other uses if desired. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Then melt out the rosin or lead. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Shape small blocks of boxwood. 1. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig.of pleasure for a little work. Fig. B. If magnifying glass cannot be had. A. 2. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Fig. C. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Fig.

bell. after setting alarm. Brinkerhoff. F. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. dry batteries. wire from light to switch. which stops bell ringing. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. some glue will secure them. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. C. long. thick. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. and pulled tight. set alarm key as shown in diagram. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. wire from batteries to switch. such as is used for cycle valves. Throw lever off from the right to center. The parts indicated are as follows: A. G. To operate this. 4 in. T. by having the switch on the baseboard. H. brass strip. Ogden. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. D. bracket. Chatland. To throw on light throw levers to the left. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. copper tubing. Pa. In placing clock on shelf. shelf. E. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. Swissvale. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. key of alarm clock. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. 4-1/2 in. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . after two turns have been made on the key. long. 3/8 in. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . wide and 1/16 in. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. near the bed. or 1/4in. switch.. while lying in bed. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone.india rubber tubing. J. 5-1/4 by 10 in. X. B. To get the cylinder into its carriage. wire from bell to switch. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. I. C. Utah. if too small. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. brass rod. contact post. When alarm goes off. --Contributed by C. S. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. --Contributed by Geo.

3. for instance. Make the spindle as in Fig. This is to form the fuse hole. Minn. will do the heating. S. gives the heater a more finished appearance. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. wide. as in Fig. in diameter. Having finished this. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. as at A. Fig. Lanesboro.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. Chapman. from one end. Fig. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. 4 in. about 3-1/2 in. 1. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. as . as at B. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. 2. 1. making it as true and smooth as possible. as at A. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. being careful not to get the sand in it. A flannel bag. 1/4 in. Fig. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. All that is required is a tin covering. in diameter. Pull out the nail and stick. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. a bed warmer. letting it extend 3/4 in. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. which can be made of an old can. Make a shoulder. about 6 in. 2. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. beyond the end of the spindle. --Contributed by Chas. place stick and all in a pail of sand. long.

spring and arrows. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. 5/8 in. long. --Contributed by Arthur E. The material must be 1-1/2 in. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . will be sufficient to make the trigger. this is to keep the edges from splitting. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. 1 in.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. thick. wide and 3/8 in. thick. 6 in. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. good straight-grained pine will do. A piece of oak. deep. wide and 6 ft. 3/8 in. long. The illustration shows how this is done. thick. wide and 3 ft. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. 11/2 in. or hickory. 1. but if this wood cannot be procured. long. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. A piece of tin. Joerin. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. ash.

wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. from the end of the stock. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. The stick for the bow. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. 4. which is 1/4 in. When the trigger is pulled. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 7. as shown in Fig. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. 3. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. 2. The bow is not fastened in the stock. To throw the arrow. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. The trigger. 8. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. E. place the arrow in the groove. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. better still. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. it lifts the spring up. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. from the opposite end. wide at each end.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. To shoot the crossbow. --Contributed by O. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. 9. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. in diameter. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. Ill. or through the necessity of. 6. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. Wilmette. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. and one for the trigger 12 in. as shown in Fig. Such a temporary safe light may be . Trownes. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. thick. Fig. having the latter swing quite freely. Fig. Fig. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. A spring.

This lamp is safe. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. The Indian camp is the easiest to make.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. respectively. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. C. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. from the ground. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. since the flame of the candle is above A. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. from the ground. and replace as shown at B. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. it is the easiest camp to make. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. is used as a door. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Remove one end. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. making lighting and trimming convenient. says Photo Era. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. make the frame of the wigwam. Remove the bottom of the box. By chopping the trunk almost through. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. or only as a camp on a short excursion. The hinged cover E. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. apart. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. and nail it in position as shown at A. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Moreover. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. The cut should be about 5 ft. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. the bark lean-to is a .

Where bark is used. long and 1-1/2 in. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. thick. make the best kind of a camp bed. selecting a site for a camp. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. In the early summer. a 2-in. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. long. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. wide and 6 ft. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. and split the tops with an ax. Tongs are very useful in camp. deep and covered with blankets. and cedar. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. wide. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. will dry flat. Sheets of bark. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. spruce. long and 2 or 3 ft. 6 ft. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. makes a good pair of tongs. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. . A piece of elm or hickory. and when the camp is pitched. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. For a permanent camp. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. are a convenient size for camp construction. piled 2 or 3 ft. nails are necessary to hold it in place. For a foot in the middle of the stick.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. 3 ft. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp.

or even a rough lock for the camp larder. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. hinges.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. . and affording accommodation for several persons. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard.

deep and 4 in. Kane. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. Doylestown. B.. I drove a small cork. to another . The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. wide. Fig. Pa. about 4 in. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. --Contributed by James M. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. B. and provide a cover or door. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. changing the water both morning and night. A. the interior can. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. 1. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day.

and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. The current is thus compelled. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. This makes . C. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises.glass tube. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. 2. such as ether. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. if necessary. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. which project inside and outside of the tube. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. The diagram. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. Fig. E. 3. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. fused into one side. limit. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. 2. for instance. until. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. 4 and 5). a liquid. to pass through an increasing resistance. for instance. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1.

making it 1/16 in. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. between centers.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. Michigan. or pattern. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. they will make a frame 3/4 in. which will make it uniform in size. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. Fig. tap. when several pieces are placed together. 4-1/2 in. brass or iron. assemble and rivet them solidly. on a lathe. 3-3/8 in. A. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. therefore. screws. bent at right angles as shown. If the thickness is sufficient. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. thicker. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. which may be of any thickness so that. When the frame is finished so far. by turning the lathe with the hand. mark off a space. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. drill the four rivet holes. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. larger than the dimensions given. in diameter. brass. and for the outside of the frame. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. 2. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. is composed of wrought sheet iron. clamp the template. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. set at 1/8 in. Before removing the field from the lathe. After the template is marked out. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. as shown in Fig. 3. Fig. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. in diameter. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. two holes. thick. Alpena. These holes are for the bearing studs. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. as shown in the left-hand sketch. to allow for finishing. thick. A 5/8in. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. but merely discolored. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. or even 1/16 in. 3-3/8 in. After cleaning them with the solution. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. Then the field can be finished to these marks. 1. cannot be used so often. The bearing studs are now made. hole is .

The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. soldered into place. file them out to make the proper adjustment. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . brass rod is inserted. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. or otherwise finished. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The shaft of the armature. solder them to the supports. 4. is turned up from machine steel. When the bearings are located. into which a piece of 5/8-in. and build up the solder well. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. Fig.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports.

When this is accomplished. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. threaded. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. to allow for finishing to size. and held with a setscrew. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. The sides are also faced off and finished. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. Find the centers of each segment at one end. washers. 8. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. sheet fiber. or segments. holes through them for rivets. thick are cut like the pattern. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. being formed for the ends. 9.. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. 7. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. thick. The pins are made of brass. 3/4 in. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. After they . 3. then drill a 1/8-in. wide. inside diameter. thick. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. After the pieces are cut out. 1-1/8 in. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. as shown in Fig. Procure 12 strips of mica. 6. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. as shown in Fig. thick. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. hole and tap it for a pin. as shown m Fig. Make the core 3/4 in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. as shown in Fig. brass rod. 3. by 1-1/2 in. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. 3/4 in. deep and 7/16 in. thick and 1/4 in. When annealed. Rivet them together. 1/8 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. wide.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. and then they are soaked in warm water. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 5. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. Armature-Ring Core. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. 6.

run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. After one coil. which will take 50 ft. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. of the wire. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. are soldered together. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. The two ends are joined at B. shown at A. 8 in. The source of current is connected to the terminals. and bring the end of the wire out at B. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. until the 12 slots are filled. and wind on four layers. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. The field is wound with No. about 100 ft. Fig. 1. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. Fig. after the motor is on the stand. All connections should be securely soldered. Run one end of the field wire. 5. sheet fiber. they are glued to the core insulation. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. This winding is for a series motor. or side. When the glue is set. of the end to protrude.have dried. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. being required. the two ends of the wire. shown at B. thick. To connect the wires. by bending the end around one of the projections. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. wide and 1 in. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. of No. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. long. 1. In starting to wind. yet it shows a series of . sheet fiber. The winding is started at A. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. 6 in.

as in the case of a spiral. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. is fastened to the metallic body. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. or. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. A 1/2-in. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. which serves as the ground wire. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. Nine wires run from the timer. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . one from each of the eight contacts. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. and one. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. still more simply. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle.

circle. Covering these is a thin. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. board. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. It should be . two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. thus giving 16 different directions. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. 45 deg. of the dial. long. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. Without this attachment.The Wind Vane. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. 6 in. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button.

thus making a universal joint. will be enough for the two sides. if not too high. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. Buffalo. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. . A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. N. Fill the box with any handy ballast. 14 by 18 in. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. however. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. also a piece of new carpet. Blackmer. will be sufficient. and about 6 in. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. Before tacking the fourth side. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. Place the leather on some level. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. To make it. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. will answer the purpose just as well.about 6 ft. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. long to give the best results. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. -Contributed by James L. and securely nail on the top of the box. called a chip carving knife. or. according to who is going to use it. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. though a special knife. Cut 3-in. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. To work these outlines. Y. high. is most satisfactory. making it heavy or light. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find.

Paste the silk plush to the inner side. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. An ordinary sewing-machine .Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. A good leather paste will be required. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.

away from it. square and tying a piece of . as in cases of a sprained ankle. of common salt and 10 lb. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. --Contributed by Katharine D. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. and put the solution in thin glass bottles.will do if a good stout needle is used. and tie them together securely at the bottom. Morse. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. temporary lameness. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. or a hip that has been wrenched. and fasten the feathers inside of it. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. can be thrown away when no longer needed. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. Y. N. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. rather than the smooth side. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. B. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. If a fire breaks out. a needle and some feathers. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Syracuse. of water. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place.

I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. is cut on the wood. This not only keeps the rats out. N. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange.J. F. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. The strings should be about 15 in. There is a 1-in. but not sharp. Paterson. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. the corners being wired. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. A. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. long. thus helping the rats to enter. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. and a coil of wire. wound on the head end. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind.. A small wooden or fiber end. One end is removed entirely.string to each corner. --Contributed by J. Hellwig. The coil is 1 in. G. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. board all around the bottom on the inside. The body of the receiver. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. made up of four layers of No. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. and tacked it to the boards. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. . E. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. high. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. wide and 1/16 in. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. and the receiver is ready for use. N. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. Gordon Dempsey. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. Albany. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. letting it go at arm's length. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. which is the essential part of the instrument. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. The end is filed to an edge. long. --Contributed by John A. deep. as shown. Y. laying poisoned meat and meal. The diaphragm C. setting traps. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. commonly called tintype tin. etc. B. Ashland. cut to the length of the spool. Wis. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. 1/8 in.

dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. and bend each strip in shape. to . bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. To clean small articles. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. a piece of small wire.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. Take a piece of string or. A single line will be sufficient. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. begin with the smallest scrolls. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. gold. better still. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. wide. The vase is to have three supports. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase.

sharp pencil. About 1 in. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool.which the supports are fastened with rivets. from C to D. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. through which to slip the fly AGH. After taking off the pattern. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side... Fold the leather on the line EF. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. from E to F. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. thus raising it. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. using a duller point of the tool. from the lines EF on the piece. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. and does not require coloring. 3-1/2 in. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. Work down the outside line of the design. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. . wide when stitching up the purse. Press or model down the leather all around the design.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. 3-1/4 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. 6-3/8 in. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. 4-1/4 in. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Trace also the line around the purse. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily.

and cut out a wheel. 2. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. It can be made without the use of a lathe. and which will be very interesting. then nail it. First. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. Fit this to the two . then place the square piece out of which Fig. with a compass saw. being cast in wooden molds. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. This also should be slightly beveled. 1/2 in. the "open" side. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. long. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. as shown in Fig. around the wheel. by 12 ft.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. Cut off six pieces 12 in. leaving the lug a. and the projections B. 1. and a model for speed and power. deep. with the largest side down. with pins or small nails.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. square. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. b. Now take another piece of wood. thick. all the way around. and cut it out as shown in Fig. Then nail the wheel down firmly. with the open side down. 1 was cut. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. and tack the other piece slightly. 3. Make the lug 1/4 in. and. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. When it is finished. following the dotted lines. as well as useful. It is neat and efficient. deep. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. place it on one of the square pieces of wood.

Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. as shown by the black dots in Fig. hole entirely through at the same place. place it between two of the 12-in. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. in the center of it. square pieces of wood. bolts. hole bored through its center. 4. Now take another of the 12-in. hole 1/4 in. After it is finished. and bore six 1/4-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and lay it away to dry. deep. as shown by the . one of which should have a 3/8-in. then bolt it together. and clean all the shavings out of it. and boring a 3/8-in. 1.pieces just finished. Take the mold apart. square pieces of wood. Now put mold No. slightly beveled. and cut it out as shown in Fig. holes through it.

see that the bolts are all tight. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. drill in it. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. and drill it entirely through. and pour babbitt metal into it. Using the Brace . take an ordinary brace. This will cast a paddle-wheel. Pour metal into mold No. d. Now cut out one of the 12-in. A piece of mild steel 5 in. lay it on a level place. screw down. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. the other right-handed. Now take mold No. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. and the other in the base. and bore three 1/4-in. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Commencing 1-1/2 in. This is for a shaft. Let it stand for half an hour. as shown in illustration. place it under the drill. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings.black dots in Fig. instead of the right-handed piece. Put this together in mold No. and the exhaust hole in projection b. After it is fitted in. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. 1. one in the projections. holes at d. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. only the one is left-handed.2. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. in diameter must now be obtained. and two 1/4-in. long. place the entire machine in a vise. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting.1. fasten a 3/8-in.1. so that it will turn easily. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. true it up with a square. and run in babbitt metal again. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. This is mold No. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. and lay it away to dry. 6. and connect to the boiler. Fig. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. one in the lug.2. 4. 5. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. long. from the one end. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. over the defective part. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. Then bolt the castings together. until it is full. and 3/8-in. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. holes. wide and 16 in. b. This is the same as Fig. and drill them in the same manner. 6. B. and pouring metal in to fill it up. put the top of the brace through this hole. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. where the casting did not fill out.

Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. piece and at right angles to it. At each end of the 6ft. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. with a boss and a set screw. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. long. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Then take a knife or a chisel. and if instructions have been carefully followed.. while it is running at full speed. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. will do good service. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. and with three small screw holes around the edge. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Plan of Ice Boat . or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. one 6 ft. and the other 8 ft. turn the wheel to the shape desired.

at the end. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. so much the better will be your boat. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. 1. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. Fig. leaving 1 ft. as the runners were fastened. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. should be of hardwood. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. plank. The tiller. at the butt and 1 in. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. 3. in diameter in the center. at the top. 2 by 3 in. projecting as in Fig. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. 8 a reef point knot. long. where they often did considerable damage. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. To the under side of the 8-ft. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. and about 8 in. 1. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. This fits in the square hole. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. plank nail 8-in. distant. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. in front of the rudder block. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. The spar should be 9 ft. which may come in handy in heavy winds. piece and at right angles to it. Make your runners as long as possible. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. in diameter.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. Run the seam on a machine. long and 2-1/2 in. in diameter at the base. in the top before the skate is put on. bolt the 8-ft. Fig. Over the middle of the 6-ft. long. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. boards to make the platform.

another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. P. P. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. R. small piece of wood. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. --Contributed by John D. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. Adams. Ariz. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. S S. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. wide. and place it behind a stove. Comstock. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. block of wood nailed to A. The arrangement proved quite too effective. --Contributed by J. bent into a hook at each end. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. Phoenix. Pa. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. Mechanicsburg. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. Its parts are as follows: A. to block B. B. so that they come in contact at C. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. allowing the springs to contact at C. and the alarm bell will ring. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. The .

The center pole should be 10 ft. 1. including the . Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. high. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. and make it into a clock to hang on the wall. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. says the American Boy. The seat arms may be any length desired. 2. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. Gild the pan all over. Then get a 10-cent frying pan. in diameter. The stump makes the best support.