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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

E. away. wide and 2 ft. Noble. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. grasp it and hold the same as a club. until it is bound as shown in Fig. 1. apart. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. as shown in Fig. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. with the hollow side away from you. 2. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . Ontario. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. To throw a boomerang. --Contributed by J. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. Fig. 1. Toronto. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. A piece of plank 12 in. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. 2 -. 2. as shown in Fig. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. It is held in this curve until dry. long will make six boomerangs. The pieces are then dressed round. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. 1. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm.Fig. distant.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in.

and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. long. 6 in. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. First. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. blocks . The top will then have a uniform inward slant. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. minus the top. one inside of the circle and the other outside. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. forcing it down closely. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. If the snow is of the right consistency. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. which makes the building simpler and easier. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. it is not essential to the support of the walls. high and 4 or 5 in. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. dry snow will not pack easily. but about 12 in. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. and it may be necessary to use a little water. A wall. thick. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. made of 6-in. A very light. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. however. and with a movable bottom. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. or rather no bottom at all. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. the block will drop out.

The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. wide. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. C. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. or an old safe dial will do. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. long and 1 in. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. A nail. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. 2. It also keeps them out. and the young architect can imitate them. which is about 1 ft. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. above the ground. There is no outward thrust. is 6 or 8 in. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. 3. 3 -. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. Fig. 2. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. --Contributed by Geo. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. 1. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. which can be made of wood. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. Ore. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. Union. Fig.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. Goodbrod. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. Fig. The piece of wood. 1. D. a.

allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. S. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. New York. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. Merrill. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. If ordinary butts are used. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. --Contributed by R. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. one pair of special hinges. the box locked . as the weight always draws them back to place. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. says the Sphinx. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person.When taking hot dishes from the stove. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. Syracuse. and the other back of the stove and out of the way.

Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. proceed as follows: First. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. To make a design similar to the one shown. as shown. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. Place the piece in a vise. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. as shown in Fig. smooth surface. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Ga. on drawing paper. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. All . then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. When the sieve is shaken. 2. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. allowing each coat time to dry. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. about 1-32 of an inch. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. With the metal shears. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. draw one-half of it. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. If they do not. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. 3. Augusta. as shown in Fig. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. one for each corner. Alberta Norrell. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. -Contributed by L. Fig. It remains to bend the flaps. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. If the measuring has been done properly. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly.and the performer steps out in view. 1.

which is about 6 in. and in the positions shown in the sketch. used for insulation. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. Galbreath. To keep the metal from tarnishing. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. The common cork. A piece of porcelain tube. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. 25 gauge German-silver wire. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. in passing through the lamp. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. After this has dried. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. 25 German-silver wire. in diameter. should be in the line. is fitted tightly in the third hole. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. if rolled under the shoe sole. The current. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. causing it to expand. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F.the edges should be left smooth. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. When the current is turned off. A resistance. about 6 in. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. heats the strip of German-silver wire. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. B. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. If a touch of color is desired. as shown at AA. R. C. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. Colo. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. of No. In boring through rubber corks. --Contributed by R. from the back end. long. H. Denver.

A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Kansas City. as shown in Fig. Fig. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. with thin strips of wood. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. . When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. 3. between them as shown in Fig. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. 1. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Purchase two long book straps. Mo. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering.bottom ring. 2. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. --Contributed by David Brown. leaving a space of 4 in. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole.

Place three paving bricks inside of the box. 2. Fig. 1.. --Contributed by James M. 3. and one weighing 25 lb. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. These are shown in Fig. Morse. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. Kane. just the right weight for a woman to use. are mounted on the outside of the box. Two strips of brass. Pa. long. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. When the aeroplane tips. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. 4. 1. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. and a pocket battery. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. The string is then tied. Fig. to form a handle. The folds are made over the string. Fig. C. 1. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag.. having a gong 2-1/2 in. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. --Contributed by Katharine D. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. in diameter. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. N. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Syracuse. which is the right weight for family use. and tack smoothly. 36 in. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. as .An ordinary electric bell. A. one weighing 15 lb. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. Y. Doylestown.

in diameter. four washers and four square nuts. if once used. Floral Park. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Y. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. The saw. two 1/8 -in. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. machine screws. long. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. Frame Made of a Rod . and many fancy knick-knacks. AA. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. 2. 2. such as brackets. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. --Contributed by Louis J. N. 3/32 or 1/4 in. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. Day. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. 1. bent as shown in Fig.

cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. File these edges. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. 1 part nitric acid. The buckle is to be purchased. treat it with color. if copper or brass. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges.may be made of either brass. of water in which dissolve. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. Silver is the most desirable but. of course.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. after breaking up. or silver. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. the most expensive. If it colors the metal red. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Apply two coats. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. Watch Fob For coloring silver. green and browns are the most popular. --Contributed by W. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Michigan. of water. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. Scranton. it has the correct strength. using a swab and an old stiff brush. use them in place of the outside nuts. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. For etching. Rub off the highlights. therefore.. copper. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. though almost any color may be obtained. as well as brass and copper. 1 part sulphuric acid. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. as well as the depth of etching desired. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. A. Detroit. In the design shown. be covered the same as the back. allowing each time to dry. An Austrian Top [12] . Drying will cause this to change to purple. Of the leathers.

A 1/16-in. Michigan. --Contributed by J. 3/4 in. A handle. Parts of the Top To spin the top. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. 1-1/4 in. in diameter. is formed on one end.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. allowing only 1-1/4 in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. long. long. set the top in the 3/4 -in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. Bore a 3/4-in. hole in this end for the top. hole. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. . hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. wide and 3/4 in. The handle is a piece of pine.F. thick. Tholl. 5-1/4 in. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. Ypsilanti. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. pass one end through the 1/16-in. When the shank is covered.

This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Northville. --Contributed by Miss L. --A. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Alberta Norrell. Mich. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. tarts or similar pastry. A. having no sides. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Augusta. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. . For black leathers. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. The baking surface. Ga. Houghton.

and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. Stringing Wires [13] A. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. says Studio Light. Mo. then solder cover and socket together. two turns will remove the jar. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. glass fruit jar. Centralia. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. the same as shown in the illustration. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. When you desire to work by white light. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . The weight of the broom keeps it in position.

1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. 4 Vertical pieces. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 1-1/4 in. . By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. and not tip over. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot.for loading and development. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. They are fastened. 1-1/4 in. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. so it can be folded up. square by 12 in. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. 4 Braces. square by 62 in. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. Wis. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. 16 Horizontal bars. Janesville. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue.

The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. C. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. Rosenthal. The front can be covered . The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. Cincinnati. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. New York. H. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. Phillipsburg. After rounding the ends of the studs. and a loop made in the end. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. --Contributed by Dr. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. from scrap material. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. If the loop is tied at the proper place. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. -Contributed by Charles Stem. after filling the pail with water. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. O. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. The whole.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time.

The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. The . by all rules of the game. 1 FIG. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. either for contact printing or enlargements. thoroughly fix. you are. if you try to tone them afterward. the color will be an undesirable. FIG. By using the following method. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. Md. --Contributed by Gilbert A. Baltimore. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. principally mayonnaise dressing. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. Wehr. If the gate is raised slightly. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. and. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. The results will be poor. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. In my own practice.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. sickly one. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. Develop them into strong prints. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. the mouth of which rests against a. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints.

5 by 15 in. 16 oz... With a little practice. three times.. Iodide of potassium .... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete... The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. long to admit the angle support... The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone... --Contributed by T.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. L. transfer it to a tray of water. when it starts to bleach... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. in size... being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. where it will continue to bleach.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. 2.. The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.... in this solution. but. The blotting paper can . wide and 4 in. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. When the desired reduction has taken place.. Cal. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.. preferably the colored kind. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. Water . etc. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. 1 and again as in Fig.... as it will appear clean much longer than the white... An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.... A good final washing completes the process. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print.." Cyanide of potassium . Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig... 2 oz. It will bleach slowly and evenly. without previous wetting.......... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder....... San Francisco.. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. 20 gr....... Gray.. Place the dry print.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. to make it 5 by 5 in.

Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Canada. 20 gauge.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. 3. --Contributed by L. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Corners complete are shown in Fig. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Wisconsin. the head of which is 2 in. --Contributed by J. the shaft 1 in. wide. Monahan. wide below the . and a length of 5 in. Wilson Aldred Toronto. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Oshkosh. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. Make a design similar to that shown. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments.J.

1 Fig. being held perpendicular to the work. deep. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. With files. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. 1 part nitric acid. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. which gives the outline of the design Fig. freehand. using carbon paper. Fig. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. Pierce a hole with a small drill. The metal must be held firmly. Make one-half of the design. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. then coloring. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. . using a small metal saw. as shown in Fig. 3.FIG. 2. but use a swab on a stick. after folding along the center line. then put on a second coat. With the metal shears. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. Allow this to dry. Do not put the hands in the solution. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. 1 part sulphuric acid. For coloring olive green. After this has dried. Trace the design on the metal. 1. After the sawing. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. then trace the other half in the usual way. using turpentine. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. 4. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. Apply with a small brush.

. thick. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. --Contributed by Katharine D. Carl Cramer. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Burnett. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. Morse. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. as shown. After the stain has dried. on a chopping board. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. East Hartford. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Ii is an ordinary staple. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. M. When this is cold. Cal. Syracuse. New York. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Conn. Richmond. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. then stain it a mahogany color. it does the work rapidly. --Contributed by H. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. attach brass handles. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. --Contributed by M. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show.

and several 1/8-in. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. Atwell. Richmond. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. 1. L. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. as shown at A. 4. one shaft. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. as shown in Fig. . H. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. --Contributed by W. holes. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. A. Fig. machine screws. brass. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. Kissimmee. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. also locate the drill holes. thick. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. Jaquythe. about 3/16 in. saucers or pans. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. thick and 4 in. or tin. two enameled. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. in width at the shank.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. Cal.. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Florida. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. square. not over 1/4 in. indicating the depth of the slots. 1/4 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. --Contributed by Mrs. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. 53 steel pens. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. some pieces of brass.

The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. 3. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. hole in the center. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. each about 1 in. 3. machine screws and nuts.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. as in Fig. If the shaft is square. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. a square shaft used. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. Fig. long by 3/4 in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. 5. 7. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. 2. with the face of the disk. lead should be run into the segments. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. long and 5/16 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. Fig. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. There should be a space of 1/16 in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. wide and bend as shown in Fig. and the ends filed round for the bearings. If metal dishes. These are connected to a 3/8-in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. Fig. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. about 1/32 in. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. as shown in Fig. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. and pins inserted. 2. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Bend as shown in Fig. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in.. thick. wide. 1. using two nuts on each screw. A 3/4-in. as shown. machine screws. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. into the hole. thick. hole is drilled to run off the water. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. with 1/8-in. brass and bolted to the casing. can be procured. supply pipe. in diameter and 1/32 in. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. 6. hole. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . with a 3/8-in.

Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. Smith. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. make these seams come between the two back legs. Cooke. Now you will have the box in two pieces. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. screws. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. long. or more in diameter. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. using four to each leg. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. V. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. 8-1/2 in. to make the bottom. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. --Contributed by F. --Contributed by S. Fasten with 3/4-in. The four legs are each 3/4-in. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. Canada. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. With a string or tape measure. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. Hamilton. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. The lower part. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. La Salle. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. from the top of the box. from the bottom end of the legs. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. deep and 1-1/4 in. three of which are in the basket. Stain the wood before putting in the . Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. When assembling. Ill. square and 30-1/2 in. we will call the basket. deep over all. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. high and 15 in. Be sure to have the cover.

sewing on the back side. Packard. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. Boston. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. wide and four strips 10 in. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. The side. Md. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. 1. When making the display. wide. you can. --also the lower edge when necessary.2 Fig. and gather it at that point. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. Fig. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. -Contributed by Stanley H. Sew on to the covered cardboards. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible.lining. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. as shown in the sketch. If all the parts are well sandpapered. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Baltimore. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Cover them with the cretonne. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Mass. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. 2. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown.

--Contributed by H. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. It is cleanly. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Y. N. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. and. 3. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Gloversville. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. with slight modifications.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Cross Timbers. Orlando Taylor. L. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Mo. It is not difficult to . --Contributed by B. Fig. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Crockett. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. saving all the solid part. When through using the pad.

The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. Mass. are shown in the diagram. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. After stirring. or if desired. --Contributed by Edith E. El Paso. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. it should be new and sharp. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Texas. and secure it in place with glue or paste. S. Both of these methods are wasteful. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. After this is done. Bourne. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. remove the contents. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Lane. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. and scrape out the rough parts. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Lowell. -Contributed by C. across the face. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. If a file is used.

These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. He captured several pounds in a few hours. --Contributed by Marion P. A Postcard Rack [25]. The insects came to the light. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Iowa. Greenleaf. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. circled over the funnel and disappeared. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. After several hours' drying. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. Turl. Canton. Ill. Oregon. The process works well and needs no watching. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. --Contributed by Geo. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Those having houses . Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary.cooking utensil. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. --Contributed by Loren Ward. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Wheeler. Des Moines. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Ill. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Oak Park. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. As these were single-faced disk records. F. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel.

Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. 6 in. not even with the boards themselves. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. and both exactly alike. The single boards can then be fixed. Glenbrook. one on each side of what will be the . fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. the best material to use being matched boards. and the second one for the developing bench. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. material. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. thick. will do as well. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Lay the floor next. Conn. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. and as they are simple in design. Worcester. by 2 ft. 6 in. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. Mass. Both sides can be put together in this way.. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. boards are preferable. Dobbins. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. plane and pocket knife. Rosenberg. --Contributed by Wm.. Only three pieces are required. but for cheapness 3/4 in. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. --Contributed by Thomas E. the bottom being 3/8 in.

. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 6 and 9. 11. nailing them to each other at the ridge. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 3 and 4. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. At the top of the doorway. The roof boards may next be put on. Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. 2 in section. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. is cut. which is fixed on as shown . fix a narrow piece between the side boards. wide. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 5. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. 8. below which is fixed the sink.. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. The developing bench is 18 in. 7. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. and the top as at C in the same drawing. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. hinged to it. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 10). The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. so that it will fit inside the sink. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. 9). 6. In hinging the door. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. and in the middle an opening. and act as a trap for the light. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. 9 by 11 in. brown wrapping paper. It is shown in detail in Fig.doorway. 6. as shown in Figs. of the top of the door for the same reason. and to the outside board of the sides. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. by screwing to the floor. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. etc. and should be zinc lined. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. the closing side as at B. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig..

Details of the Dark Rook .

The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. as shown in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. For beating up an egg in a glass. four coats at first is not too many. Karl Hilbrich. which makes it possible to have white light. are fastened in the corners inside. as in Fig. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. 18. 16. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. though this is hardly advisable. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. 15. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. 2. Fig. as shown in the sections. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. after lining with brown paper. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. Fig. these being shown in Fig. 6. 13. 16. and a tank stand on it. The handle should be at least 12 in. or the room may be made with a flat roof. Pennsylvania. 14. and a 3/8-in. 13. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . Fig. 1. as at M. The house will be much strengthened if strips. 19. it is better than anything on the market. if desired. 20. hole bored in the center for a handle. Erie. or red light as at K. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle.in Fig. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. but not the red glass and frame. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. preferably maple or ash. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. as at I. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. Fig. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. In use. mixing flour and water. --Contributed by W. screwing them each way into the boards. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. A circular piece about 2 in. 17. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers.

Ark. L. Schweiger. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. long. D. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . --Contributed by Wm. New York. Yonkers. Smith.copper should be. Mo. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. when put together properly is a puzzle. G. which. --Contributed by L. for a handle. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. as shown in the sketch. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Mitchell. Kansas City. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. about 3/8 in. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Eureka Springs. To operate. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. -Contributed by E.

If the sill is inclined. in order to thoroughly preserve it. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. . holes should be drilled in the bottom. The design shown in Fig. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. 1. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. After the box is trimmed. for the moment. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. the box will require a greater height in front. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. need them. which binds them together. A number of 1/2-in. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. as well as improve its appearance. Each cork is cut as in Fig. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. as shown in Fig. The corks in use are shown in Fig. 3. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. the rustic work should be varnished. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. as is usually the case. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. 2.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. as shown in Fig. Having completed the bare box. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. to make it set level. 3. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. especially for filling-in purposes. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch.

share the same fate. 4. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. Traps do no good. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. and observe results. 3. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. it's easy. But I have solved the difficulty. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. 2. When the corn is gone cucumbers. cabbages. drilled at right angles. can't use poison. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. 1. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. Each long projection represents a leg. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. . They eat all they can and carry away the rest. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. life in the summer time is a vexation.. too dangerous. F. as shown in Fig. etc. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. being partly eaten into. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law.

Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. cut in 1/2-in. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. of No. the coil does not heat sufficiently. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. long. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. . The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. and made up and kept in large bottles. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. by trial. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. -. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. cut some of it off and try again. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. Iowa. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. About 9-1/2 ft. If. The solution can be used over and over again. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. strips. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines.

the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Fig 2. N. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. Knives. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Y. as shown in the sketch. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Kane. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Pa. coffee pot. Syracuse. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. . is a good size--in this compound. 1) removed. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. hot-water pot. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Dallas. Doylestown. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. Morse. Texas. and a strip. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. but with unsatisfactory results. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. In cleaning silver. --Contributed by Katharine D. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. of gasoline. of oleic acid with 1 gal. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. C. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. --Contributed by James M. Do not wash them. to cause the door to swing shut. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. Stir and mix thoroughly. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. it falls to stop G. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. of whiting and 1/2 oz. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. forks. D.

--Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Ill. --Contributed by Oliver S. using the paper dry. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. but unfixed. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Sprout. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. . Fisher. which is. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Pa. New Orleans. Waverly. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. La. later fixed and washed as usual. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. negatives. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. --Contributed by Theodore L. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Harrisburg. of course. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom.

Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. then . The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. metal. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Fig. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. To obviate this difficulty.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. In this uncertainty lies the charm. 1. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. a harmonograph is a good prescription. The harmonograph.

slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. Gaffney. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. Rosemont. what is most important. 1-3/4 by 2 in. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. as long as the other. or the lines will overlap and blur. etc. one-fifth. of about 30 or 40 lb.. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. J. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. The length of the short pendulum H. is attached as shown at H. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. makes respectively 3. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. and unless the shorter pendulum is. A small weight. as shown in the lower part of Fig. A length of 7 ft. such as a shoe buttoner.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. Chicago. which can be regulated. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. one-fourth. Ingham. --Contributed by Wm. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. Holes up to 3 in. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. 1. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. for instance. Arizona. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. A pedestal. that is. A weight. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. is about right for a 10-ft. G. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. exactly one-third. provides a means of support for the stylus. 1. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . --Contributed by James T. K. in the center of the circle to be cut. R. to prevent any side motion. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling.. A small table or platform. as shown in Fig. Another weight of about 10 lb. in diameter. with a nail set or punch. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. ceiling. Punch a hole.

and proceed as before. of course. Fig. dividing them into quarters. then put 2 at the top. -Contributed by W. one for the sender and one for the receiver. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. and 4 as in Fig. Morey. The two key cards are made alike. then 3 as in Fig. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. 5. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory.H. 4. Fig. distributing them over the whole card. The capacity of the vise. Cape May City. 1. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Chicago.J.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. N. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife.J. --Contributed by J. a correspondent of . depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. 6. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Cruger. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. 2. 3.

of the uprights. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. Ga. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. citrate of iron and ammonia. from the top and bottom. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. deep. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. sheet of well made asbestos paper. says Popular Electricity. acetic acid and 4 oz. of 18-per-cent No. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. of water. respectively. If constructed of the former. 1/4 in. Alberta Norrell. Wind the successive turns of . secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. wood-screws. Augusta. long. remove the prints. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. of ferricyanide of potash. 1/2 oz. 22 gauge German-silver wire. Cut through the center. the portion of the base under the coil.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. To assemble. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. --Contributed by L. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. After securing the tint desired. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. 30 gr. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. After preparing the base and uprights. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. drill 15 holes. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. 6 gauge wires shown. Asbestos board is to be preferred. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No.

rivets. Small knobs may be added if desired. Labels of some kind are needed. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. which. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. etc. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. square. as they are usually thrown away when empty. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . 16 gauge copper wire. then fasten the upright in place. if one is not a smoker. screws. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. N. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. 14 gauge. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Ward. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. Y. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. but these are not necessary.. Ampere. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. --Contributed by Frederick E. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. cut and dressed 1/2 in.

The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. . then to the joint to be soldered. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. sandpaper or steel wool. Heat it until hot (not red hot).. Eureka Springs. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. and labeled "Poison. galvanized iron. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. G. tin. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. brass. Larson. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. particularly so when the iron has once been used. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. D." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. B. Richmond. or has become corroded. --C. The parts are put together with dowel pins. --Contributed by W. and rub the point of the copper on it. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. and one made of poplar finished black. A. of glycerine to 16 oz. as shown in the sketch. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. Ark. especially if a large tub is used. California. Copper. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. S. The material can be of any wood. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. Jaquythe. This is considerable annoyance. a piece of solder. of water. it must be ground or filed to a point. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. Wis. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. lead. In soldering galvanized iron.14 oz. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. C. tinner's acid. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. If the soldering copper is an old one. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. E and F. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. --Contributed by A. being careful about the heat. Kenosha. zinc.

which gives two bound volumes each year. in diameter. with good results. however. I bind my magazines at home evenings. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Fig. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. and drill out the threads. Apart from this. C. Place the band. -Contributed by H. The punch A. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Hankin. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. W. This will leave a clear hole. brass and silver. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. N. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. Fig. Y. in diameter. a ring may be made from any metal. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Six issues make a well proportioned book. 1. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Take a 3/4-in. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. Troy. The dimensions shown in Fig. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. 2. round iron. nut. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. The disk will come out pan shaped. Brass rings can be plated when finished. D. This completes the die. 7/8 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. thick and 1-1/4 in. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. such as copper. The covers of the magazines are removed. B. wide.

5. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. using . 2. The string No. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. . C. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. After drawing the thread tightly. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. and then to string No. allowing about 2 in. The covering should be cut out 1 in. 2.4. which is fastened the same as the first. Coarse white thread. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. 1. on all edges except the back.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. 1. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. threaded double. and place them against the strings in the frame. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. Place the cardboard covers on the book. deep. is nailed across the top. The sections are then prepared for sewing. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. and a third piece. of the ends extending on each side. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. is used for the sewing material. 1. 1/8 in. as shown in Fig. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. size 16 or larger. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. The covering can be of cloth. Start with the front of the book. If started with the January or the July issue. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. through the notch on the left side of the string No. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. Five cuts. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. then back through the notch on the right side. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. 1 in Fig. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book.

and. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. at opposite sides to each other. and mark around each one. Tinplate. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. --Contributed by Clyde E. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. College View. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Cal. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Encanto. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. For the blade an old talking-machine . The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. on which to hook the blade. Nebr. round iron. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Divine.

Miss. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Ohio. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in.. hydraulic pipe. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. and 1/4 in. with 10 teeth to the inch. and a long thread plug. Then on the board put . E. and file in the teeth. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. F. with a steel sleeve. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. and 1/4 in. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. thick.. in order to drill the holes in the ends. On the upper side. as shown. or double extra heavy. A. thick. C. Summitville. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. B. Make the blade 12 in. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. -Contributed by Willard J. at the same end. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. and another piece (B) 6 in. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. by 4-1/2 in. long. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. bore. Moorhead. fuse hole at D. as it is sometimes called. by 1 in. Hays. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C).

so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. the jars need not be very large. Connect up as shown. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. If you are going to use a current of low tension. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. --Contributed by Chas. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. H. about 5 ft. 4 jars. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. of rubber-covered wire.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. high around this apparatus. and some No. as from batteries. of wire to each coil. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. using about 8 in. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . A lid may be added if desired. Philadelphia. Boyd. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid.

bevel block K to give a rocker motion. 2 is lower down than in No. 34 in. as they "snatch" the ice. 4 in. An iron washer. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. long. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. 2. The stock required for them is oak. wide by 3/4 in. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. At the front 24 or 26 in. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. thick. by 1-1/4 in. and for the rear runners: A. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. by 1-1/4 in. 16-1/2 in. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. Equip block X with screw eyes. and bolt through. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. by 2 in. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. 1. making them clear those in the front runner. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. B. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. Put arm of switch on point No. wide and 2 in.. as they are not substantial enough. wide. Use no screws on the running surface. 2. 1 is connected to point No. with the cushion about 15 in. Their size also depends on the voltage. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. 2. or source of current. then apply a coat of thin enamel. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. sheet brass 1 in. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. & S. above the ground. however. direct to wire across jars. 5 on switch. steel rod makes a good steering rod. and four pieces 14 in. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp.. 1 and so on for No. C. See Fig. wide and 3/4 in. 1 on switch. 11 in. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. A variation of 1/16 in. Z. The current then will flow through the motor. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. square by 14 ft. 3. 4) of 3/4-in... long. 7 in. and plane it on all edges. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. by 6 in. The connection between point No. For the brass trimmings use No. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. The sled completed should be 15 ft. apart. No. 30 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. A 3/4-in. For the front runners these measurements are: A. two pieces 14 in. 15-1/2 in. B.. by 1 in. First sandpaper all the wood. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs.. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. Fig. by 5 in. . on No. To wire the apparatus. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. The illustration shows how to shape it. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. two for each jar. oak boards. is used to reduce friction. by 2 in.. 3 in. 2 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. two pieces 30 in. 27 B. The top disk in jar No. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. 3 and No. by 5 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. C. beginning at the rear. In proportioning them the points A. B and C. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. long. gives full current and full speed. Construct the auto front (Fig. thick. 2 and 3.the way. two pieces 34 in. On the door of the auto front put the . long by 22 in. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. long. are important. 4. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. Use no nails.

by 1/2 in. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. by 30 in. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. etc. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. a brake may be added to the sled. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. cheap material. fasten a cord through the loop. a number of boys may share in the ownership. If desired. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . such as used on automobiles. If the expense is greater than one can afford. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. lunch. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. such as burlap. Then get some upholstery buttons. which is somewhat moist. If desired. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. or with these for $25. may be stowed within. to improve the appearance. to the wheel. cutting it out of sheet brass. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. overshoes. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Fasten a horn. brass plated. long. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. The best way is to get some strong. parcels.

--Contributed by Stewart H. . the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Ill. Leland. Lexington. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long.tree and bring. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written.

Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. 4). may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. London. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. The Model Engineer. The straight-edge. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. E. CD. mild steel or iron. though more difficult. with twenty-four teeth. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. Fig. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. 3. This guide should have a beveled edge. will be over the line FG. thick. The first tooth may now be cut. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. when flat against it. the same diameter as the wheel. a compass. which. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. sheet metal. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Fig. Draw a circle on paper. so that the center of the blade. First take the case of a small gearwheel. the cut will be central on the line. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. A small clearance space. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. outside diameter and 1/16 in. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. from F to G. Fig. 2.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. some files. made from 1/16-in. With no other tools than a hacksaw. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. by drawing diameters. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. FC. 1. say 1 in.

B. as shown in Fig. 1. Make a hole in the other. as shown in Fig. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. hold in one hand. Focus the camera in the usual manner. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. either the pencils for arc lamps. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. R. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. If there is no faucet in the house. or several pieces bound tightly together. B. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. and the other outlet wire. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. No shock will be perceptible. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. some wire and some carbons. transmitter. . Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. 2. electric lamp. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. A bright.Four Photos on One Plate of them. Then take one outlet wire. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. each in the center. 1. as shown in Fig. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. ground it with a large piece of zinc.

or more of the latter has been used. --Contributed by Geo. leaving about 10 in. If desired. B. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Wrenn. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Emsworth. J. and will then burn the string C. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. Pa. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. a transmitter which induces no current is used. and again wind the wire around it. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. by 1 in. of course. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. and about that size. one at the receiver can hear what is said. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. They have screw ends. D D are binding posts for electric wires. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. Ashland. Several battery cells. under the gable. as indicated by E E. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. A is a wooden block. as shown. Slattery. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. at each end for terminals. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. Ohio. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. 36 wire around it. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. by 12 in. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Then set the whole core away to dry. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. Dry batteries are most convenient. are also needed. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. But in this experiment. serves admirably. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. One like a loaf of bread. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient.

Turn on switch. connecting lamp receptacles. From the other set of binding-posts. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. The coil will commence to become warm. the terminal of the coil. Ohio. The apparatus is now ready for operation. and one single post switch. D. 12 or No. Newark. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. 14 wire. At one side secure two receptacles. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. C. in parallel. in series with bindingpost. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. F.. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. E. The oven is now ready to be connected. as shown. and switch. as shown. C. and the lamps. D. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. Connect these three to switch. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. 1. Jr. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. B B. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. while C is open. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. for the . These should have hollow ends. First make a support. Fig. Fig. until the hand points to zero on the scale. B B. 2. Place 16-cp.wire. run a No.

After assembling the core as shown in Fig. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. The pointer or hand. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. This may be made of wood. where A is the homemade ammeter.or 4-way valve or cock. to prevent it turning on the axle. is then made and provided with a glass front. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. long and make a loop. Mine is wound with two layers of No. 5. inside measurements. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. It is 1 in. wind with plenty of No. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. Fig. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. but if for a 4way. 4 in. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. If for 3-way. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. 5. Fig. and D. although copper or steel will do. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. Fig.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. --Contributed by J. Dussault. 1/2 in. This is slipped on the pivot. as shown in the cut. A wooden box. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. drill in only to the opening already through. At a point a little above the center. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 3 amperes.. B. After drilling. Montreal. 4 amperes. 4. long.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. 14. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. D. C. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. a standard ammeter. To make one. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. 6. 3. Fig. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. 2. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. until the scale is full. wide and 1/8 in. D. deep. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. from the lower end. etc. a variable resistance. is made of wire. drill a hole as shown at H. remove the valve. wide and 1-3/4 in.E. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. 14 wire. a battery. 1/4 in. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. The box is 5-1/2 in. 7. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. although brass is better. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. 1. thick. is made of iron. high. long. 10 turns to each layer. E. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. 1. The core. 36 magnet wire instead of No. drill through the entire case and valve.

either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. E. D. high. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. and the arc light. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. To start the light. which is used for reducing the current. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. By connecting the motor. One wire runs to the switch. F. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. in diameter. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. and a metal rod. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown.performing electrical experiments. provided with a rubber stopper. making two holes about 1/4 in. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. as shown. B. A. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. in thickness . This stopper should be pierced. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. and the other connects with the water rheostat.

Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Jones. N. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. 1. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. A piece of wood. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Carthage. B. Fig. If the interrupter does not work at first. Fig. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. As there shown. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. as shown in C. long. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. 2. If all adjustments are correct. 1. 1. Having finished the interrupter. where he is placed in an upright open . Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Y. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. A. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. --Contributed by Harold L. Fig. 2. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. To insert the lead plate. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. as shown in B. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Fig. Turn on the current and press the button. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved.

by 7-1/2 in. inside dimensions. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. The model. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. with the exception of the glass. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. All . to aid the illusion. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. high. and wave his arms up and down. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. by 7 in. dressed in brilliant. giving a limp. If it is desired to place the box lower down. If everything is not black. is constructed as shown in the drawings. could expect from a skeleton. Its edges should nowhere be visible.. The glass should be the clearest possible. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. light-colored garments. the illusion will be spoiled. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. figures and lights. The skeleton is made of papier maché. and can be bought at Japanese stores. and must be thoroughly cleansed. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. within the limits of an ordinary room. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. until it is dark there. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. especially L. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. They need to give a fairly strong light. loosejointed effect. especially the joints and background near A. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. should be colored a dull black. L and M. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. A. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. should be miniature electric lamps. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. A white shroud is thrown over his body. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror.coffin. The lights. as the entire interior. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. which can be run by three dry cells. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. from which the gong has been removed.

The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second.that is necessary is a two-point switch. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. If a gradual transformation is desired. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. fat spark. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. after which it assumes its normal color. square block. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. as shown in the sketch. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . placed about a foot apart. Cal. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. Fry. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. W. San Jose. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. Two finishing nails were driven in. --Contributed by Geo. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype.

Cohen. If a lighted match . Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. In Fig. A (see sketch). This is a wide-mouth bottle. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. hydrogen gas is generated. In Fig. with two tubes. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. soldered in the top. The plates are separated 6 in. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. to make it airtight. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. -Contributed by Dudley H. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. into the receiver G. F. by small pieces of wood. or a solution of sal soda. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. New York. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. as shown. 1. the remaining space will be filled with air. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. and should be separated about 1/8 in. One of these plates is connected to metal top. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. B and C.

The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. long. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. either by passing a current of electricity around it. long. A 1/64-in. If desired. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . is then coiled around the brass tube. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. 2 shows the end view. London.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. by means of the clips. A nipple. copper pipe. 36 insulated wire. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The distance between the nipple. from the bottom. which forms the vaporizing coil. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. C C. and the ends of the tube. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. One row is drilled to come directly on top. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. N. 1. should be only 5/16 of an inch. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. Fig. Fig. in diameter and 6 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. B. P. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. 1-5/16 in. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. copper pipe. 1/2 in. of No. as is shown in the illustration. A. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. then a suitable burner is necessary. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. or by direct contact with another magnet. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. which is plugged up at both ends. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. N. says the Model Engineer. A. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. is made by drilling a 1/8in. A piece of 1/8-in. A. A. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core.

Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. 1. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. 1/4 in. at the front and back for fly leaves. trim both ends and the front edge. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Fig. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. taking care not to bend the iron. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. longer and 1/4 in. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. leaving the folded edge uncut. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. cut to the size of the pages. Fig.lamp cord. 2). fold and cut it 1 in. boards and all. larger all around than the book. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. this makes a much nicer book. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Fig. Cut four pieces of cardboard. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. duck or linen. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. smoothly. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Take two strips of stout cloth. about 8 or 10 in. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. 3. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . with a fine saw. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. A disk of thin sheet-iron.

pasting them down (Fig. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. as shown in the sketch. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. --Contributed by Joseph N. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Toronto. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. in diameter and 30 in. is turned on it. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. D. is fitted in it and soldered. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. as shown. Another tank. is made the same depth as B. H. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. . Parker. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. is perforated with a number of holes. C. Another can. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. which will just slip inside the little can. Noble. A gas cock. B. Va. In the bottom. deep. or rather the top now. 18 in. --Contributed by James E. without a head. the joint will be gas tight. but its diameter is a little smaller. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. A. Ont. of tank A is cut a hole. and a little can. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. Bedford City. is soldered onto tank A. 4). A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. E. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D.

should be 1/4 in. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. D. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. are shown in detail at H and J. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. square by 42 in. Fig. which moves to either right or left. long. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. S. The small guards. as shown at C. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. -Contributed by H. tacks. which may be either spruce. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. Bott. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. should be cut a little too long. E. B. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. A A. shows how the connections are to be made. making the width. and the four diagonal struts. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. 2. basswood or white pine. with an electric-bell magnet. exactly 12 in. The bridle knots. If the back armature. when finished. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. J. and sewed double to give extra strength. The longitudinal corner spines. B. fastened in the bottom. Beverly. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. C. Fig. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. N. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. should be 3/8 in. and about 26 in. by 1/2 in. The wiring diagram. A. long. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. thus adjusting the . to prevent splitting. H is a square knot. B. D. The diagonal struts. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. If the pushbutton A is closed.. The armature. 1.

Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. shift toward F. thus shortening G and lengthening F. D. however. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. A bowline knot should be tied at J. with gratifying results. --Contributed by A. --Contributed by Edw. for producing electricity direct from heat.lengths of F and G. Kan. the batteries do not run down for a long time. and if a strong wind is blowing. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. E. and. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. as shown. Harbert. can be made of a wooden . the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Stoddard. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. Closing either key will operate both sounders. If the kite is used in a light wind. to prevent slipping. Chicago. Clay Center. that refuse to slide easily.

spark. C. Chicago. When the cannon is loaded. --Contributed by A. and also holds the pieces of wood. and the current may then be detected by means. B. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. Fasten a piece of wood. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. The connections should all be soldered to give good results.. Then. E. to the cannon. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil.frame. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. in position. C. by means of machine screws or. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. or parallel with the compass needle. A. which conducts the current into the cannon. with a pocket compass. A and B. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. F. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. placed on top. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. A. E. with a number of nails. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. C. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. The wood screw. A. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . 16 single-covered wire. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. D. 14 or No.

--Contributed by Henry Peck. Connect as shown in the illustration. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. 1. 1. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Chicago. L. within the reach of the magnet. to receive the screw in the center. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. Ohio. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. To unlock the door. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. Bend the strips BB (Fig. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Big Rapids. A and S. Marion. . Keil. Fig. square and 3/8 in. 1. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. A. screw is bored in the block. A hole for a 1/2 in. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. A and S. In Fig. but no weights or strings. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. Mich. in this position the door is locked. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. with the long arm at L'. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. press the button. --Contributed by Joseph B. To reverse. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky.the current is shut off. B. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. To lock the door. requiring a strong magnet. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. when in position at A'. now at A' and S'. where there is a staple. H. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Fig. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind.

makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. hole. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. or for microscopic work. and if desired the handles may . --Contributed by C. are enameled a jet black. and C is a dumbbell. Rand. Mass. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. West Somerville. about 18 in. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. When ready for use. and may be made at very slight expense. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. if enameled white on the concave side. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. put in the handle. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. pipe with 1-2-in. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. J.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. long. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. When the holes are finished and your lines set. The standard and base. gas-pipe. Thread the other end of the pipe.

In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. --Contributed by C.. which shall project at least 2 in. E. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. 1. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. This peculiar property is also found in ice. long and 8 in. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Warren. 1. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. across. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. Make a cylindrical core of wood.be covered with leather. Mass. North Easton. M. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. A. Fig. with a cover. 8 in. B. high by 1 ft. as shown at A in the sketch. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. D. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. across. Fig. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. inside the pail.

Fit all the parts together snugly. 2 in. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. 3) with false top and bottom. After finishing the core. If the cover of the pail has no rim. projecting from each end (Fig. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. C. cutting the hole a little smaller. the firing should be gradual. sand. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. pack this space-top. but will be cheaper in operation. 1390°-1410°. let this dry thoroughly. pipe 2-ft. in diameter. After removing all the paper. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. carefully centering it. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. long over the lid hole as a chimney. 15%. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. passing wire nails through and clinching them. if there is to be any glazing done. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. bottom and sides. When lighted. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. W. to hold the clay mixture.. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. and your kiln is ready for business. and cut it 3-1/2 in.. 25%. The 2 in. Wind about 1/8 in. such . The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. C. as dictated by fancy and expense. and graphite. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. 2. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. L. make two wood ends. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. and 3/8 in. Line the pail. 1). Set aside for a few days until well dried. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. Fig. E. 1). with heavy paper and cover the core with same. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. long. of fine wire. the point of the blue flame. Whatever burner is used. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. thick. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. strip of sheet iron. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. 60%. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. C. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. and with especial caution the first time. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. diameter. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. as is shown in the sketch. wider than the kiln. hard porcelain. hotel china. thick. and varnish. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. layer of the clay mixture. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. 1330°. or make one yourself.-G. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. in diameter. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. This done. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. but it will burn a great deal of gas. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. and 3/4 in. say 1/4 in. and on it set the paper wrapped core. Cover with paper and shellac as before. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. which is the hottest part. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. about 1 in. pipe. It is placed inside the kiln.mixture of clay.. full length of iron core. if you have the materials.

C. leaving long terminals. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. R. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. around the coil. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. 2. all cards facing the same way. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. --Contributed by J. overlaps and rests on the body. . length of . C. T. red and black. square them up and place in a vise. C. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. and divide it into two piles. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. and plane off about 1/16 in. as in Fig. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. 8 in. about 1/16 in. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. Then. 1. Chicago. Take the red cards. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. with a plane.53 in. and discharges into the tube. diameter. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. procure a new deck. 2. B. as shown in the sketch herewith. Of course. Then take the black cards. every alternate card being the same color. the next black. square them up. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. taking care to have the first card red. Next restore all the cards to one pack. as in Fig. The funnel. Washington. You can display either color called for. and so on. 2). bind tightly with black silk. D. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. A..

angle iron for the frame. and this is inexpensive to build. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents.J. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. Long Branch. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. through the holes already drilled. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. 1 gill of litharge. about 20 in. as the difficulties increase with the size. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. and then the frame is ready to assemble. When the glass is put in the frame a space. E. of the frame. The cement. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. F. D. The upright pieces. Let . should be countersunk as shown in the detail. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. stove bolts. It should be placed in an exposed location. the same ends will come together again.. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. Fig. To find the fall of snow. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. B. so that when they are assembled. A. thus making all the holes coincide. the first thing to decide on is the size. E. 1. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. to form a dovetail joint as shown. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. stove bolts.C. C. N. A. Drill all the horizontal pieces. The bottom glass should be a good fit. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. All the horizontal pieces. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. 1 gill of fine white sand. B. B.

If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. a centerpiece (A. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. D. to the door knob. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Fasten the lever. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. Aquarium Finished If desired. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. B. having a swinging connection at C. on the door by means of a metal plate. if desired. and. A. Fig.

Fig. wide . approximately 1 ft. but mark their position on the frame. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. 26 in. with a water pressure of 70 lb. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. D. 6 in. E. and Fig. as at E. 2 ft. 1 . 1. Fig. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. to form the slanting part. Cut two pieces 30 in. AA. 1 is the motor with one side removed. 2 at GG. Fig. They are shown in Fig. several lengths of scantling 3 in. Fig. showing the paddle-wheel in position. To make the frame.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. Cut two of them 4 ft. Fig. Buffalo. B. long. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. another. hoping it may solve the same question for them. screwed to the door frame. C. soldered to the end of the cylinder. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. another. to keep the frame from spreading. I referred this question to my husband. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. F. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. thus doing away with the spring. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. --Contributed by Orton E. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. long. which is 15 in. Y. long. long. wide by 1 in. for the top. 3 shows one of the paddles. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. according to the slant given C. 2 is an end view. A small piece of spring brass. White. N. will open the door about 1/2 in. Two short boards 1 in. from the outside top of the frame. Fig. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. to form the main supports of the frame. 1.. PAUL S. Do not fasten these boards now. and another.

and drill a 1-in. hole through their sides centrally. take down the crosspieces. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. iron 3 by 4 in. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. 2) and another 1 in. These are the paddles. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. hole through them. (I. and a 1/4 -in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. to a full 1/2 in. hole from the tops to the 1-in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. 1. GG. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Take the side pieces.burlap will do -. Drill 1/8-in. with the wheel and shaft in place. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. 2) with a 5/8-in. 2) form a substantial base. hole to form the bearings. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Make this hole conical. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. in diameter. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Fig. long to the wheel about 8 in. by 1-1/2 in. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Next secure a 5/8-in. then drill a 3/16-in. Fig. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. thick (HH. from one end by means of a key. Fig. Now block the wheel. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. holes. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. 24 in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Tack one side on. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel.along the edges under the zinc to form . This is best done by using a square taper reamer. thick. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. iron. remove the cardboard. Fasten them in their proper position. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. When it has cooled. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. after which drill a 5/8 in. that is. and drill a 1/8-in. steel shaft 12 in. hole through its center. tapering from 3/16 in. 4. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. pipe.

using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. . This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. drill press. It is obvious that. but now I put them in the machine. ice-cream freezer. any window will do. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Do not stop down the lens. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Correct exposure depends. start the motor. Darken the rest of the window.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. as shown in the sketch at B. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. light and the plate. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. it would be more durable. If the bearings are now oiled. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. Drill a hole through the zinc. The best plate to use is a very slow one. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. or what is called a process plate. and the subject may move. and leave them for an hour or so. remove any white curtains there may be. Focus the camera carefully. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. on the lens. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. as this makes long exposure necessary.a water-tight joint. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. place the outlet over a drain. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. and as near to it as possible. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Raise the window shade half way. sewing machine. of course. If sheet-iron is used. shutting out all light from above and the sides. says the Photographic Times. but as it would have cost several times as much.

as a slight current will answer. With a piece of black paper. The glass tube may be a test tube. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. a glass tube. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. B. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. by twisting.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. as shown in Fig. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. The current required is very small. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. without detail in the face. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. 2. and a base. C. until the core slowly rises. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. with binding posts as shown. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. On completing . and without fog. or can be taken from an old magnet. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. full of water. 2. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. or wood. the core is drawn down out of sight. hard rubber. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. or an empty developer tube. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. a core. A. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. D. an empty pill bottle may be used. The core C. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. which is made of iron and cork.

according to his control of the current. This is a mysterious looking instrument.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. white lead. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. and make a pinhole in the center. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. 1 lb. and one not easy to explain. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. finest graphite. 1 pt. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. water and 3 oz. whale oil. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. The colors appear different to different people. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. 1. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . and are changed by reversing the rotation. is Benham's color top.

when the action ceases.. thus partly filling bottles A and C. In making hydrogen. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. -Contributed by D. Chicago. As this device is easily upset. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. or three spot. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. In prize games. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack.B. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. deuce. before cutting. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. especially if the deck is a new one. B. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner.L. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . C. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. nearly every time. A. fan-like.

2 is also an enlarged sketch. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. 4. --Contributed by F. J. 9 in. in diameter. 3). Detail of Phonograph Horn . long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. 10 in. S. as shown in Fig. in length and 3 in. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. that will fit loosely in the tube A.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. long and 3 in. 1. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Dak. --Contributed by C. Form a cone of heavy paper. Fig. long. Huron. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Make a 10-sided stick. (Fig. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. Detroit.. . 12 in. connecting the bottom by cross pieces.. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Bently. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Fig. S. W. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. Jr. 2.

is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. A. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. push back the bolt. C. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. with a pin driven in each end. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. --Contributed by Reader. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. long. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. Remove the form. about the size of a leadpencil. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. A piece of tin. bend it at right angles throughout its length. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. E. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . and walk in. it is equally easy to block that trick.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. Denver. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. Cut out paper sections (Fig. will cause an increased movement of C. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. 6. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. Fortunately. A second piece of silk thread. on one side and the top. Fig. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. making it three-ply thick. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. but bends toward D. allowing 1 in. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. When the glue is thoroughly hardened.

A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. put together as shown in the sketch. B. S S.. long. 4 ft. W. The feet. and rest on a brick placed under each end. By this arrangement one. are 7 ft. Jr. Paul. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. The 2 by 4-in. S. long. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. West St. S. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. B. Minn. are made 2 by 4 in. will last for several years. as shown. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. The reverse switch.strip. or left to right. A. --Contributed by J. R. The upper switch. posts. Fremont Hilscher. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. while the lower switch. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them.. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. is connected each point to a battery. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Two wood-base switches.

and in Fig. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. which is made of tin. either an old sewing-machine wheel.every house. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. the other parts being used for the bearing B. is an old bicycle pump. 3/8 in. the size of the hole in the bearing B. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. thick. Fig. The base is made of wood. and the crank bearing C. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. which will be described later. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. and has two wood blocks. 2 and 3. The valve motion is shown in Figs. In Fig. E. FF. pulley wheel. 2. or anything available. The piston is made of a stove bolt. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. and a cylindrical . H and K. 1. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. Fig. The steam chest D. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. The hose E connects to the boiler. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. and valve crank S. with two washers. cut in half. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B.

J. 1. C. and saturated with thick oil. is cut out of tin. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. San Jose. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Eustice. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. of Cuba. G. The boiler. Fry. as it is merely a trick of photography. and the desired result is obtained. . 3. using the positive wire as a pen. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. This is wound with soft string. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. and a very amusing trick. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. --Contributed by Geo. This engine was built by W. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. W. Fig. powder can. The valve crank S. G. Wis. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. as shown in Fig. Fig. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. to receive the connecting rod H. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. First. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal.piece of hard wood. at that. Schuh and A. 4. can be an old oil can. Cal. or galvanized iron.

A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. as shown. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. and Fig. B. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. When turning. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. to cross in the center. Cut half circles out of each stave. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. diameter. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. They may be of any size. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. and place a bell on the four ends. B. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. 1 by covering up Figs. 1 will be seen to rotate. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. and pass ropes around . Fig. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. Fig. Fig. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. The smaller wheel. as shown at AA. C. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood.

say 1/2 or 3/4 in. such as clothes lines. A (a short spool. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. which accounts for the sound. long. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. From a piece of thin . as shown in the illustration..G.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. produces a higher magnifying power). thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. To make this lensless microscope. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. St. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. which allows the use of small sized ropes. from the transmitter. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. W. --Contributed by H. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. but not on all. Louis. Mo. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers.M. procure a wooden spool. This in turn will act on the transmitter. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm.

The lever. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. D. held at arm's length. H. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. i. which are pieces of hard wood. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. and at the center. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. as in all microscopes of any power. 3. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. An innocent-looking drop of water.. fastened to a wooden base. the diameter will appear twice as large. in which hay has been soaking for several days. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. if the distance is reduced to one-third. otherwise the image will be blurred. To use this microscope. Fig. . It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. darting across the field in every direction. can be made of brass and the armature.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. the object should be of a transparent nature.) But an object 3/4-in. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. A. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. E. and look through the hole D. or 64 times. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. is made of iron. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. The spring. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. e. which costs little or nothing to make. and so on. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore.. 2. 1. cut out a small disk. D. C. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. (The area would appear 64 times as large. C. place a small object on the transparent disk. The pivot. is fastened at each end by pins. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. if the distance is reduced to one-half. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. B. by means of brads. Viewed through this microscope. the diameter will appear three times as large. B. bent as shown.

brass. 2. between the armature and the magnet. brass: B. A switch. C. HH. wide. or taken from a small one-point switch. can be made panel as shown. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. should be about 22 in. FF. Fig. nail soldered on A. E. The door. wood: C. long by 16 in. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. The back. wide and about 20 in. wood: F. 16 in. wide. B. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. long. . The binding posts. wide and set in between sides AA. Cut the top. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. B. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. brass: E. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. A. long and 14-1/2 in. brass or iron soldered to nail. D. is cut from a board about 36 in. 16 in. 26 wire: E. D. and are connected to the contacts. coils wound with No. C. The base of the key. F. 1. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. KEY-A. soft iron. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. Each side. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. wide. D. or a single piece.SOUNDER-A. AA. connection of D to nail. similar to the one used in the sounder. wide. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. fastened near the end. binding posts: H spring The stop. thick. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. wood. K. K. Fig. DD. which are made to receive a pivot. in length and 16 in.

One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire .How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. 13-1/2 in. In operation. Make 12 cleats. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. material. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. long. brads. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. Ill. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. AA. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle.. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. cut in them. as shown. Garfield. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. as shown in the sketch. 2 and made from 1/4-in. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. E. When the electrical waves strike the needle. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. with 3/4-in.

Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. B. C. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. A (see sketch). Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. will give a greater speed. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. J.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. N. Brown. A. Ridgewood. A. Y. F. filled with water. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. --Contributed by John Koehler. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. Fairport. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. and thus decreases the resistance. E. A fairly stiff spring. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . in order to increase the surface. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. and. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. When the pipe is used. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. when used with a motor. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. down into the water increases the surface in contact. through which a piece of wire is passed. pulls down the armature. --Contributed by R. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. N. The cord is also fastened to a lever. Pushing the wire. the magnet.

if desired. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. B. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. --Contributed by Perry A. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Gachville. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. N. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring.for the secret contact. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Borden. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. even those who read this description. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . Of course.

and on both sides of the middle shelf. . The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. deep and 3/4 in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. With about 9 ft. C. H. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. records and 5-5/8 in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. --Contributed by H. C. in a semicircle 2 in. long and full 12-in. 2. The three shelves are cut 25-in. thick and 12-in. Compton. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. Washington. Mangold. 1. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. apart. as shown in Fig.whenever the bell rings. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Jr. wide.. A. E. Two drawers are fitted in this space. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. N. Cal. wide. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. wide. wide. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. From a piece of brass a switch. wide. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Dr. Dobson. Connect switch to post B. for 10in. records. D. The top board is made 28-in. East Orange. for 6-in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. long and 5 in. from the bottom. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. J.

thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. as shown in Fig. closed. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. 1. When the cord is passed over pulley C. A. E. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. Va. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. as shown by the dotted lines.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. which in operation is bent. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. B. to which is fastened a cord. Roanoke.

thick. Put the rubber tube. holes (HH. apart. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. Fig. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Figs. In these grooves place wheels. to turn on pins of stout wire. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. excepting the crank and tubing. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. through one of these holes. E. thick (A. wide. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. as shown in the illustration. In the sides (Fig. wide. 3). Bore two 1/4 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. 4 shows the wheel-holder. If the wheels fit too tightly. it too loose. Notice the break (S) in the track. which should be about 1/2 in. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. 1. deep. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. D.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. Fig. Do not fasten the sides too . 1 in. against which the rubber tubing. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. 1 in. CC. 5) when they are placed. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. The crankpin should fit tightly. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. they will bind. long. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. Fig. E. in diameter. in diameter. in diameter. Cut two grooves. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. they will let the air through. in diameter. 3. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. deep and 1/2 in. one in each end. Now put all these parts together. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. Figs. B. but a larger one could be built in proportion. square and 7/8 in. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. is compressed by wheels. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in.

on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. 1. from each end. from each end. iron. B. Two feet of 1/4-in. because he can . 1. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. tubing. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. 2. and mark for a hole. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. Fig. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. Idana. The animal does not fear to enter the box.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. long. A in Fig. 1. Hubbard. the pump will give a steady stream. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. 1. Cut six pieces.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. 15 in. Kan. is all the expense necessary. If the motion of the wheels is regular. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. the other wheel has reached the bottom. mark again. AA. from the bottom and 2 in. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. as shown in Fig. of material. --Contributed by Dan H. a platform should be added. The screen which is shown in Fig. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. Fig. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. 2. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. For ease in handling the pump. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. Take the center of the bar. To use the pump. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. and are 30 in. costing 10 cents. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. mark for hole and 3 in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. AA. Then turn the crank from left to right. Fig. 17-1/2 in. beyond each of these two. The three legs marked BBB. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Fig. as it gives steadiness to the motion. though a small iron wheel is better. from each end. In the two cross bars 1 in. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. from that mark the next hole. and 3-1/2 in. stands 20 in. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. 1.

however. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. silvery appearance. If the solution touches the zinc. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. 1) must be prepared. giving it a bright. sulphuric acid. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. some of it should be poured out. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. acid 1 part). When through using the battery. When the bichromate has all dissolved. If it is wet. long having two thumb screws. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. but if one casts his own zinc. It is useful for running induction coils. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. C. of water dissolve 4 oz. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. The battery is now complete. 4 oz. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. dropping. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. --Contributed by H. 2). The battery is now ready for use. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. and the solution (Fig. and touches the bait the lid is released and. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. Philadelphia. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. add slowly. shuts him in. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. of the top. stirring constantly. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. until it is within 3 in.see through it: when he enters. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. Place the carbon in the jar. or. Meyer. . it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. The truncated. The mercury will adhere. To cause a flow of electricity. potassium bichromate. 14 copper wire. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. rub the zinc well. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. If the battery has been used before. or small electric motors. there is too much liquid in the jar.

i. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. The price of the coil depends upon its size. while the coal door is being opened. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. which opens the door. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. Wis. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. If.. the jump-spark coil . Madison. with slight changes. e.Fig. however. the battery circuit. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. pressing the pedal closes the door. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. After putting in the coal.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal.

Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. the full length of the coil. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. in a straight line from top to bottom. diameter. while a 12-in. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. being a 1-in. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. After winding. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. and closer for longer distances. 6. 7. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. 7. W W. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. Fig. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. which is made of light copper wire. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. This coil. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in.described elsewhere in this book. 5. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". Now for the receiving apparatus. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. as shown in Fig. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. Change the coil described. in a partial vacuum. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. 6. coil. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. This will make an excellent receiver.7. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. . 7). as shown in Fig. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. apart. W W. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. made of No. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece.

90°. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. above the ground. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. but it could be run by foot power if desired. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. at any point to any metal which is grounded. but simply illustrates the above to show that. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No.The aerial line. which will be described later. may be easily made at very little expense. only. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. A. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. B the bed and C the tailstock. and hence the aerial line. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. 1). where A is the headstock. 1 to 4. These circles. Run a wire from the other binding post. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). to the direction of the current. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. I run my lathe by power. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. as it matches the color well. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. are analogous to the flow of induction. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. No. . to the direction of the force that caused the circles. in the air.6 stranded. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. 90°. after all. using an electric motor and countershaft. For an illustration. The writer does not claim to be the originator. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. being at right angles. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. Figs. being vertical. A large cone pulley would then be required.

6. If the bearing has been properly made. which pass through a piece of wood. thick. Fig. To make these bearings. The bearing is then ready to be poured. B. and it is well to have the shaft hot. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. pitch and 1/8 in. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. on the under side of the bed. deep. 5. and Fig. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Fig. A. Fig. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. 2 and 3. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. 4. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. steel tubing about 1/8 in. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. which are let into holes FIG. too. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. Fig. The bolts B (Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. just touching the shaft. and runs in babbitt bearings. After pouring.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. 5. 4. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. one of which is shown in Fig. tapered wooden pin. but not hot enough to burn it. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 6 Headstock Details D. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. The headstock. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. Heat the babbitt well.

N. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. they may be turned up after assembling. the alarm is easy to fix up. A. FIG. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. of the walk . Take up about 5 ft. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. B. If not perfectly true. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. If one has a wooden walk. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. This prevents corrosion. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. Newark.other machines. embedded in the wood. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. so I had to buy one. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. The tail stock (Fig. Ill. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. lock nut. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. and a 1/2-in. Oak Park. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut.J.

as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. clean the articles thoroughly. and the alarm is complete. --Contributed by R. leaving a clear solution. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. silver or other metal. add potassium cyanide again. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. of water. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Minneapolis. Connect up an electric bell. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. save when a weight is on the trap. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Finally.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. To avoid touching it. to remove all traces of grease. to roughen the surface slightly. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. S. Then make the solution . When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Jackson. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Minn. 2). by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. hang the articles on the wires. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. before dipping them in the potash solution. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. Fig. so that they will not touch. water. (A. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz.

and then treated as copper. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. which . With an electric pressure of 3. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. 18 wire. B should be of the same wood. 1 in. lead. A (Fig. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. pewter. This solution. copper. On brass. as shown in Fig. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. with water. zinc. Before silver plating. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. If accumulators are used. from the lower end. and 4 volts for very small ones. square. Fig. about 25 ft. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point.up to 2 qt. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. To provide the keyhole. Where Bunsen cells are used. Having finished washing the precipitate. such metals as iron. if one does not possess a buffing machine. shaking. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. as at F. but opens the door. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. which is advised. Fig. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. German silver. A 1/4 in. The wooden block C. a hand scratch brush is good. Screw the two blocks together. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. also. 1 not only unlocks. with water. The wooden catch. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. must be about 1 in. when the point of the key touches the tin. --Model Engineer. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. Repeat six times. Fig. light strokes. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. Make a somewhat larger block (E. long. an old electric bell or buzzer. nickel and such metals. long. will serve for the key. 1. of clothesline rope and some No. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. 3) directly over the hole. of water. 1). and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. Can be made of a 2-in. piece of broomstick. 3. hole in its center. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. which is held by catch B. 3) strikes the bent wire L. make a key and keyhole. a circuit is completed. with the pivot 2 in.5 to 4 volts. Take quick. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. 10 in. Then. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. saw a piece of wood. thick by 3 in. silver can be plated direct. When all this is set up. I. If more solution is required. use 2 volts for large articles. 1). Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. and the larger part (F. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. In rigging it to a sliding door. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. Fig.

spoons and jackknives. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. to throw the light toward the audience. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. 1. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. 2. In front of you. Klipstein. Next. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. with a switch as in Fig.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. The box must be altered first. some black cloth. heighten the illusion. 1. sides and end. One thing changes to another and back again. is the cut through which the rope runs. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. between the parlor and the room back of it. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. Fig. a few simple tools. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. and plenty of candles. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. the illumination in front must be arranged. H. top. H. Fig. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. shows catch B. cut in one side. Fig. --Contributed by E. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. or cave. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. no painting inside is required. Next. 2. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut).. B. New Jersey. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. He removes the bowl from the black box. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. The interior must be a dead black. H. Fig. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. 3. 116 Prospect St. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. East Orange. One end is removed. so much the better. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. and hands its contents round to the audience. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. some black paint. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. half way from open end to closed end. should be cut a hole. in his shirt sleeves. with the lights turned low. such as forks. one-third of the length from the remaining end. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. To prepare such a magic cave. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. the box should be painted black both inside and out. enlarged. which unlocks the door. Heavy metal objects. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. he points with one finger to the box. and black art reigns supreme. On either side of the box. The magician stands in front of this. . fly about in the box at the will of the operator. Objects appear and disappear. he tosses it into the cave. the requisites are a large soap box. Receiving the bowl again. although a little more trouble. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. surrounding a perfectly black space. and a slit. Thus. 0. and finally lined inside with black cloth. floor.

of course. was identical with this. you must have an assistant. and pours them from the bag into a dish. and if portieres are impossible. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. one on each side of the box. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. is on a table) so much the better. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm.Finally. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. only he. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. the room where the cave is should be dark. The exhibitor should be . which can be made to dance either by strings. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. if. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. and several black drop curtains. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. But illusions suggest themselves. had a big stage. a screen must be used. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. of course. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. his confederate behind inserts his hand. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. Consequently. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. which are let down through the slit in the top. as presented by Hermann. The illusion. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. The audience room should have only low lights. in which are oranges and apples. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. into the eyes of him who looks.

never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. and c1 – electricity. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. c2. 2. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. vice versa. 2. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . respectively. or binding posts. making contact with them as shown at y. d.a boy who can talk. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. Finally. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. A represents a pine board 4 in. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). The action of the switch is shown in Fig. b2. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. f2. b2. so arranged that. 1. if you turn handle K to the right. when handle K is turned to one side. FIG. with three brass strips. c1. by 4 in. terminal c3 will show . Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. About the center piece H moves a disk. and a common screw. 2). is shown in the diagram. A. b3. at L. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. and c4 + electricity. by means of two wood screws. held down on it by two terminals. b3. respectively. On the disk G are two brass strips. respectively. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. terminal c3 will show +. held down on disk F by two other terminals. c3. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. b1. as shown in Fig. Then. e1 and e2. held down by another disk F (Fig. or b2. making contact with them. their one end just slips under the strips b1. square. 1. and c2 to the zinc.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in.. Fig. c4. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right.

Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . and C and C1 are binding posts. when A is on No. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. Newark. --Contributed by Eugene F. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving.. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. from four batteries. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). you have the current of one battery. . 1. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. B is a onepoint switch. Jr.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. from five batteries. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. 5. when on No. and when on No. E. 4. from three batteries. Ohio. Joerin. when on No. Tuttle. -Contributed by A. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. 3. and then hold the receiver to your ear. jump spark coil.

Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. rule. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. The device thus arranged. and supporting the small weight. per second for each second. of Burlington. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. A. B. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. Wis.. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. When you do not have a graduate at hand. over the bent portion of the rule. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. La. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. Thus. New Orleans. which may be a button or other small object. Redmond. as shown in the sketch. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. so one can see the time. Handy Electric Alarm . A. traveled by the thread. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. E. P. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. mark. per second. is the device of H. mark.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. and placed on the windowsill of the car. A.

Lane. . --Contributed by Gordon T.which has a piece of metal. but may be closed at F any time desired. Instead. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. soldered to the alarm winder. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. When the alarm goes off. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. C. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Pa. Then if a mishap comes. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. B. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. which illuminates the face of the clock. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. wrapping the wire around the can several times. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. Crafton. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. --C. S. for a wetting is the inevitable result. and with the same result. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch.

models and miniature objects. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. as shown in Fig. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. If there is no foundry Fig. AA. as shown. but it is a mistake to try to do this. It is possible to make molds without a bench. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. --Contributed by A. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. With the easily made devices about to be described. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. small machinery parts. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. when it is being prepared. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. A. battery zincs. and duplicates of all these. New York City. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. which may. binding posts. 1 . BE. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. Two cleats. Macey. whence it is soon tracked into the house. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. bearings. The first thing to make is a molding bench. ornaments of various kinds. 1. cannons. C. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . engines. L. and many other interesting and useful articles. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment.

but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. and the "drag. A A. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. the "cope. J. Fig. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold.How to Make a Mold [96] . CC. and this. The cloth bag.near at hand. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. as shown. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. previous to sawing. is about the right mesh. II . a little larger than the outside of the flask.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. 2 . 2. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. white metal. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. which should be nailed in. is nailed to each end of the cope. Fig. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. is shown more clearly in Fig. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. and the lower pieces. CC." or upper half. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. A wedge-shaped piece. say 12 in. is made of wood. The flask. 1. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. makes a very good sieve. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. DD. which can be made of a knitted stocking. The dowels. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. A slight shake of the bag Fig. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. try using sand from other sources." or lower part. D. is filled with coal dust. but this operation will be described more fully later on. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. G. will be required. The rammer. E. high. and saw it in half longitudinally. which can be either aluminum. as shown. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. If desired the sieve may be homemade. H. It is made of wood and is in two halves. 1. F. by 6 in. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. and a sieve. If the box is not very strong. by 8 in. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. An old teaspoon.

or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. After ramming. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. in order to remove the lumps. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. as shown. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. and thus judge for himself. as shown at D. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. The sand is then ready for molding. as described. Place another cover board on top. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. as shown at C. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. where they can watch the molders at work. It is then rammed again as before. as shown at E." in position. as it is much easier to learn by observation. or "cope. and then more sand is added until Fig. turn the drag other side up.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. and scatter about 1/16 in. the surface of the sand at . The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. or "drag. and if water is added. and by grasping with both hands. In finishing the ramming. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask.

and then pour. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. The "sprue. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. is next cut. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. thus making a dirty casting. wide and about 1/4 in. Fig. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. to give the air a chance to escape. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. as shown at G. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. as shown in the sketch. After drawing the pattern. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. place the cope back on the drag. after being poured." or pouring-hole. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. thus holding the crucible securely. in order to prevent overheating. . deep. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. This is done with a spoon. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing.E should be covered with coal-dust. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. in diameter. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. III. as shown at F. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. as shown at H. Place a brick or other flat. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. made out of steel rod. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. it shows that the sand is too wet. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. as shown at J. as shown at H.

The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. the following device will be found most convenient. white metal and other scrap available. but any reasonable number may be used. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. 15% lead. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. Morton. may be used in either direction. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. used only for zinc.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. --Contributed by Harold S. babbitt. or from any adjacent pair of cells. In my own case I used four batteries. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. Referring to the figure. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. Although the effect in the illustration . 5% zinc and 5% antimony. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. battery zincs. and. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. and the casting is then ready for finishing. although somewhat expensive. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. is very desirable. Minneapolis. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. If a good furnace is available.

The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. If desired. outward. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. 3/4 in. The bearings. backward. B. By replacing the oars with paddles. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. Then walk down among the audience. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. as shown in the illustration. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. A. B. Then replace the table. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. Put a sharp needle point. as shown at A. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. may be made of hardwood. --Contributed by Draughtsman. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. connected by cords to the rudder. To make it take a sheet-iron band. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. Chicago. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. Make one of these pieces for each arm.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . which will be sufficient to hold it. Fig. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. The brass rings also appear distorted. 2. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. shaft made.

for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. W. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. 1. C. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. 3. A. If galvanized iron is used. 2. The covers. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. being simply finely divided ice. E. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. The hubs. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. 1. when it will again return to its original state. as shown in Fig. or under pressure. In the same way.melted babbitt. A block of ice. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. 1. as shown in Fig. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. should be made of wood. If babbitt is used. Snow. and a weight. D. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. or the paint will come off. 2 and 3. spoiling its appearance. Fig. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. It may seem strange that ice . but when in motion. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands.

Crafton. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. in. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. but by placing it between books. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. --Contributed by Gordon T. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped .. but. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. by 2 in. sometimes only one or two feet a day. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. and assume the shape shown at B. as shown on page 65. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. The rate of flow is often very slow. square. thus giving a high resistance contact. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. Lane. which resembles ice in this respect. it will gradually change from the original shape A. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. by 1/4. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. brass. P. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. by 1/2 in. no matter how slow the motion may be. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. as per sketch. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. or supporting it in some similar way. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. Pressing either push button. whenever there is any connection made at all. by 5 in.should flow like water. Pa. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. B.

In the wiring diagram. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. The parts are: A. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. Pa. alarm clock. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. E. D. G. horizontal lever. and five dry batteries. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. Wilkinsburg. F. Ward.000 ft. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. B.thumb screws. --Contributed by A. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. A is the circuit breaker. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. I. pulleys. G. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. C. cord. The success depends upon a slow current. J. as shown. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. about the size used for automobiles. B. draft chain. vertical lever. K . draft. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. the induction coil. weight. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. H. furnace. as shown. wooden supports. the battery. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. Indianapolis. and C. The transmitter consists of an induction coil.

which will provide a fine place for the plants. The frame (Fig. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. as well as the bottom. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . material framed together as shown in Fig. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. Kalamazoo. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. where house plants are kept in the home. 3. will fit nicely in them. Mich. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. Artistic Window Boxes The top. 2 are dressed to the right angle. such as used for a storm window.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room.

so as to increase the current. However. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. one can regulate the batteries as required. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. A certain number of these. However. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. --Contributed by Wm. and cost 27 cents FIG. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. Grant. as if drawn upon for its total output. This is more economical than dry cells. in this connection. W. in any system of lamps. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. 1 cp. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes.. where they are glad to have them taken away. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. Thus. is something that will interest the average American boy.. but maintain the voltage constant. Push the needle into the cork. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. by connecting them in series. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. in diameter. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. i. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. N. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. can be connected up in series. Canada. and will give the . as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. 1. 1 each complete with base. e. after a rest. The 1/2-cp. since a battery is the most popular source of power. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. for some time very satisfactorily. Halifax. which sells for 25 cents. multiples of series of three. and a suitable source of power. and the instrument will then be complete. It must be remembered. this must be done with very great caution. S. a cork and a needle.. as indicated by Fig. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper.

Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. we simply turn on the water. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. double insulated wire wherever needed. lamp. generates the power for the lights. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. or 22 lights. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. to secure light by this method. making. FIG. 3. lamps. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. 2 shows the scheme.. Fig. which is the same as that of one battery. Thus. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. . Chicago. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. if wound for 6 volts. and running the series in parallel. especially those of low internal resistance. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. as in Fig. However. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. In conclusion. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. according to the water pressure obtainable. If wound for 10 volts. 11 series. for display of show cases.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. lamps. Thus. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. 1-cp. These will give 3 cp. So.proper voltage. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. and then lead No. and for Christmas trees. each. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. 18 B & S. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. although the first cost is greater. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. by the proper combination of these. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. where the water pressure is the greatest. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. and diffused light in a room. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series.

A. Santa Clara. B. a bait of meat. After I connected up my induction coil. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. AA. A indicates the ground. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. --Contributed by Leonard E. and the sides. B. are cut just alike.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. thus reversing the machine. Parker. switch. To reverse the motor. or a tempting bone. outside points of switch. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. and C. bars of pole-changing switch. --Contributed by F. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. Emig. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. field of motor. Cal. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. CC. BB. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. Plymouth. as shown in the sketch. . brushes of motor. we were not bothered with them. Ind. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. DD. simply change the switch. center points of switch. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. or from one pattern. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes.

tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. Minn. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. a hammer. merely push the button E. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. thus locking the door. one cell being sufficient. which is in the door.. W. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. attached to the end of the armature B. 903 Vine St. and a table or bench. San Jose. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. A. Cal. The experiment works best . To unlock the door. When the circuit is broken a weight. Fry. If it is not. -Contributed by Claude B. Hutchinson. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. Melchior. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. The button can be hidden. as it is the key to the lock. a piece of string. or would remain locked.

A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. W. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Canada. where it will remain suspended as shown. Madison.Contributed by F. the key turns. I. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. run through a pulley. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. the stick falls away. Tie the ends of the string together. 4). 1). Ontario. Porto Rico. . Crawford Curry. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. D. Schmidt. Brockville. -. attached at the other end. When the alarm rings in the early morning. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square.. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Culebra. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. C. A. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. P. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. 3.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. which pulls the draft open. 18 Gorham St. Wis. --Contributed by Geo. as shown in Fig. 2. in the ceiling and has a window weight. 3. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. the current flows with the small arrows. On another block of wood fasten two wires. releasing the weight. forming a loop.

Camden. R. S.. and then to the receiver. including the mouthpiece. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. thick. and . The apparatus is not difficult to construct. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. J. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. N. 6 in.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. square and 1 in. The cut shows the arrangement. Connect two wires to the transmitter. or tree. get two pieces of plate glass. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. or from a bed of flowers. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. J. Farley. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. and break the corners off to make them round. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and the other to the battery. First. Jr. D. running one direct to the receiver. --Contributed by Wm. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. thence to a switch. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. made with his own hands. which fasten to the horn. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. Use a barrel to work on.

) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. Use a binger to spread it on with. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. and is ready for polishing. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. by the side of the lamp. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. while walking around the barrel. spaces. then 8 minutes. Have ready six large dishes. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze.. and the under glass or tool convex. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. and spread on the glass. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. Fasten. the coarse grinding must be continued. also rotate the glass. Fig. twice the focal length away. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. A.. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. so the light . If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. as in Fig. In a dark room. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. using straight strokes 2 in. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. melt 1 lb. When done the glass should be semitransparent. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. wetting it to the consistency of cream. with pitch. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. Then warm and press again with the speculum. set the speculum against the wall. and a large lamp. unless a longer focal length is wanted. in length. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. L. of water. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. When polishing the speculum. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. wide around the convex glass or tool. or less. 2. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Fig. 1. 2. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. a round 4-in. wet till soft like paint. When dry. or it will not polish evenly. then take 2 lb. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. with 1/4-in. and label. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. flour emery and mix in 12 qt.

100 gr. Nitric acid . 100 gr. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Place the speculum. fill the dish with distilled water. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. Two glass or earthenware dishes. face down. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. 840 gr. Then add solution B.………………………………. With pitch. Silver nitrate ……………………………. that was set aside. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. 2.. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. Fig. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. Fig. Fig. and pour the rest into the empty dish. Place the speculum S.... When dry. 25 gr. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. longer strokes.…………………………….. 2. Now add enough of the solution A. as in K. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). from the lamp. 4 oz. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. touched with rouge. The polishing and testing done. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. or hills. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. if a hill in the center. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. with distilled water. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. cement a strip of board 8 in. long to the back of the speculum.. must be procured.. Solution D: Sugar loaf .. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. also how the rays R from a star . 4 oz. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency... Then add 1 oz. then ammonia until bath is clear. the speculum will show some dark rings. 39 gr. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. deep. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole.……………. When the focus is found. The knife should not be more than 6 in. If not.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. the speculum is ready to be silvered. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.

Mellish. About 20. deg.John E. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Place over lens. My telescope is 64 in. long and cost me just $15. using strawboard and black paper. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. The flatter they are the less they will distort. which proves to be easy of execution. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. stop down well after focusing. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold.. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. with an outlay of only a few dollars. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. two glass prisms. Thus an excellent 6-in. is a satisfactory angle. slightly wider than the lens mount. . Then I made the one described. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. Make the tube I of sheet iron. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. telescope can be made at home. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. and proceed as for any picture. cover with paper and cloth.

then add a little sulphate of potash. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. Do not stir it. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. The rays of the clear. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. 1. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. B. The paper is exposed. Fig. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. and reflect through the negative. Ill. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. -Contributed by A. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. as shown in Fig. or powdered alum. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. Zimmerman. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. through the lens of the camera and on the board. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. 2. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. instead of the contrary. To unlock. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. . with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. A. D. unobstructed light strike the mirror. but will not preserve its hardening. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. push the button D. add the plaster gradually to the water. Boody. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. complete the arrangement. says the Master Painter. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. The window must be darkened all around the shelf.

thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. Fasten on the switch lever. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. To reverse. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. 2. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. but will remain suspended without any visible support.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Then blow through the spool. throw . also provide them with a handle. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. as in Fig. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Fig. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. so that it can rotate about these points. 2. as shown in the sketch. use a string. 3. 1). as at A and B.

--Contributed by Geo. C C. binding posts. North Bend. In the sketch. Thomas. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. rinse in alcohol. carbons. A is the electricbell magnet. although this is not necessary.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. carbon sockets. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. . San Marcos. wash in running water. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. Levy. --Contributed by R. -Contributed by Morris L. the armature. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Go McVicker. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. as shown in the sketch. L. and E E. D. Take out. Tex. San Antonio. Neb. B. Push one end of the tire into the hole. and rub dry with linen cloth. Tex. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in.

Bell. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. 36 magnet wire. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. 16 magnet wire. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. 14 or No.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. long or more. --Contributed by Joseph B. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Brooklyn. By means of two or more layers of No. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. wound evenly about this core.

as the maker prefers. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. The condenser is next wrapped . with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. one piece of the paper is laid down. long and 5 in. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. and finally the fourth strip of paper. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. hole is bored in the center of one end. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. with room also for a small condenser. After the core wires are bundled. This makes a condenser which may be folded. or 8 in. as shown in Fig. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. which is an important factor of the coil. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. The primary is made of fine annealed No. diameter. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. making two layers. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. Beginning half an inch from one end. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. In shaping the condenser. in length. about 6 in. then the strip of tin-foil. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. long and 2-5/8 in. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. 1. at a time. which is desirable. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. wide. the entire core may be purchased readymade. The following method of completing a 1-in. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. a box like that shown in Fig.which would be better to buy ready-made. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. coil illustrates the general details of the work. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. in diameter. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. 2 yd. 4. When cut and laid in one continuous length. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. and the results are often unsatisfactory. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. but if it is not convenient to do this work. No. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. A 7/8-in.

3. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. forms the other pole or terminal. ready for assembling. B. 4 in. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. which is insulated from the first. G. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. F. shows how the connections are made. E. one from bell. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. B. bell. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. to the door. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. the letters indicate as follows: A. lines H. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. and one from battery.) The wiring diagram. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. long and 12 in. D. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. A. C. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. battery . This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. whole length. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. which allows wiring at the back. long to key. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. flange turned on one side. The alarm key will turn and drop down. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. copper lever with 1-in. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. spark. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. by 12 in. V-shaped copper strip. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. go. shelf for clock. Fig. round so that the inside . and the other sheet.. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. open switch C. I. switch.securely with bands of paper or tape. wide. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes.

Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. of zinc sulphate. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. . but with the circuit. Short-circuit for three hours. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Line the furnace. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. of blue stone. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. 2 in. and then rivet the seam. says the Model Engineer. from the bottom. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. and the battery is ready for use. Use a glass or metal shade. That is what they are for.. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. London. but add 5 or 6 oz. instead of close to it. If desired for use immediately. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. do not shortcircuit. This is for blowing. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in.diameter is 7 in.

In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. thus producing two different vibrations. or think they can do the same let them try it. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. while for others it will not revolve at all. imparting to them a violet tinge. 2. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. for others the opposite way.. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. below the bottom of the zinc. Outside of the scientific side involved. To operate the trick. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. At least it is amusing. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water.9 of a volt. Try it and see. If too low. for some it will turn one way. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. changes white phosphorus to yellow. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. If any or your audience presume to dispute. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. as in the other movement. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Ohio. oxygen to ozone. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. long. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. porcelain and paper. g. and then. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Make a hole through the center or this one arm." which created much merriment. Enlarge the hole slightly. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. and therein is the trick. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. This type of battery will give about 0. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. square and about 9 in. herein I describe a much better trick. 1. affects . the second finger along the side. but the thing would not move at all. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee.

says the Photographic Times. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. an old tripod screw. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. but not essential. if possible. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. a means for holding it vertical. earth. and. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. but small flowers. chemicals. To the front board is attached a box. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. a short-focus lens. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. but this is less satisfactory. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. insects. however. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. and one of them is photomicrography.

balloon. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. Fig.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 179 11 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. long and 3 ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 113 7 lb. 10 ft 523 33 lb. 5 in. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. in diameter. 381 24 lb. The following table will give the size. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 7-1/2 in. 905 57 lb. while it is not so with the quill. 65 4 lb. AB. CD. 697 44 lb. Boston. Mass. 1. and a line. 7 ft. 9 ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. Ft Lifting Power. Madison. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. or 31 ft. which is 15 ft. A line.--Contributed by George C. or 3 ft. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 6 ft. 5 ft. 268 17 lb. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. Divide one-quarter of the circle . Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. If the balloon is 10 ft. in Cu. Cap. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 7-1/2 in. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. 8 ft. 11 ft. 12 ft.

Procure 1 gal. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. Repeat this operation four times. using a fine needle and No. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. 70 thread. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. and so on. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. of the very best heavy body. of beeswax and boil well together. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. on the curved line from B to C. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. This test will show if the bag is airtight. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. making a double seam as shown in Fig. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. keeping the marked part on the outside. The amounts necessary for a 10- . The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. 2. The pattern is now cut. The cloth segments are sewed together. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. cutting all four quarters at the same time. 3. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. 4. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD.

if it is good it will dry off. this should be repeated frequently. which may sound rather absurd. B. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly.. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. of iron borings and 125 lb. B. oil the spindle holes carefully. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. B. Fill the other barrel. as shown in Fig.ft. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. capacity and connect them. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. by fixing. A. The 3/4-in. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. balloon are 125 lb. . with 3/4in. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. or a fan. After washing a part. C. Vegetable oils should never be used. leaving the hand quite clean. 1 lb. of gas in one hour. All FIG. 5 . When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. ft. with the iron borings. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. should not enter into the water over 8 in.Green Iron ammonium citrate . 1 lb. a clean white rag. About 15 lb. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. but if any grease remains on the hand. The outlet. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. 150 gr. pipe. or dusting with a dry brush. of iron. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. C. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. with water 2 in. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. Water 1 oz. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. above the level of the water in barrel A. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. A. When the clock has dried. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. A. 5. In the barrel. to the bag. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. of sulphuric acid. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. of water will make 4 cu. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. until no more dirt is seen. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. it is not fit to use. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. . pipe extending down into the cooling tank. using a fine brush. ].

dry atmosphere will give best results.. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe.Water 1 oz. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. This aerial collector can be made in . but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. or battery. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. A cold. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. or zinc.000 ft. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. and a vigorous negative must be used. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. keeping the fingers out of the solution. Port Melbourne. Exposure. says the Moving Picture World. . The miniature 16 cp. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Dry in the dark. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. Dry the plates in the dark. . The negative pole. fix in hypo. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. at the time of employment. toning first if desired. Printing is done in the sun. and keep in the dark until used. of any make. to avoid blackened skin. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. or carbon. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. 20 to 30 minutes. The positive pole. A longer exposure will be necessary.

when left exposed to the air. in diameter. 5 in. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. lay a needle. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. holes . long. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. as described below. a positive and a negative. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. As the telephone offers a high resistance. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. If the waves strike across the needle. and as less current will flow the short way. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. making a ground with one wire. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. If the wave ceases. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. the resistance is less. This will complete the receiving station. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell.various ways. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. lead pipe. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. both positive and negative. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. forming a cup of the pipe. The storage cell. will soon become dry and useless. and have the other connected with another aerial line. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid.

A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. This. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. of course. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. by soldering the joint. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. When mixing the acid and water. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . or tube C. an oblong one and a triangular one. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current.as possible. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. one to the positive. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. This box can be square. Two binding-posts should be attached. This support or block. on each end. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. namely: a square hole. says the Pathfinder. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. except for about 1 in. B. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. or tube B. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. The other plate is connected to the zinc. does not need to be watertight. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. and the other to the negative. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. D. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. a round one. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C.

long. about 20 in. in place on the wood. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. as shown in Fig. 1. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. back and under. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. C. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. leaving about 1/16 in. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. wide. and match them together. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. were fitted by this one plug. as shown in Fig. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. 2.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. all around the edge. . The third piece of brass. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. C. A and B. Only galvanized nails should be used. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. This punt. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. Chicago. is built 15 ft. deep and 4 ft. wide. thick cut two pieces alike. 3. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. Ill. as it is not readily overturned. 2. 1. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. and has plenty of good seating capacity. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in.

Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. A piece of 1/4-in. is cut 1 in. B. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Wash. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Tacoma. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. In Fig. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. gas pipe. square (Fig 2). Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. thick and 3-1/2 in. A.

or "rotor.--Contributed by Charles H. The winding of the armature. if possible. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. with the exception of insulated wire. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. lamp. which can be developed in the usual manner. and to consume. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. In designing." has no connection with the outside circuit. without auxiliary phase. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. it had to be borne in mind that. no more current than a 16-cp. may be of interest to some of our readers. H. which the writer has made.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. Wagner. says the Model Engineer. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . no special materials could be obtained.

as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. C." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. also varnished before they were put in. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. or "stator. wrought iron. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. 1. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. thick. A. about 2-1/2 lb. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. and filled with rivets. 3. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. 4. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. to be filed out after they are placed together. 5. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. They are not particularly accurate as it is. B. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. with the dotted line. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. being used. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. After assembling a second time. 2. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. in diameter were drilled in the corners. and all sparking is avoided. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. this little machine is not self-starting. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. The stator is wound full with No. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. holes. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. Unfortunately. no steel being obtainable. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. bolts put in and tightened up. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. while the beginnings . it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. were then drilled and 1/4-in.the field-magnet. Holes 5-32 in.

. and as the motor runs at constant speed. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. and the other by reduction in the camera. This type of motor has drawbacks. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. E. 2. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. a regulating resistance is not needed. as shown in Fig. J. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. 1.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. The lantern slide is a glass plate. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. McKinney. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. and would not easily get out of order. if applied immediately. it would be very simple to build. The rotor is wound with No. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. In making slides by contact. No starting resistance is needed. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. as before stated. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. and as each layer of wire was wound. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. 3-Contributed by C. One is by contact. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. Jr. N. If too late for alcohol to be of use. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. and all wound in the same direction. having no commutator or brushes. and especially of colored ones. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. film to film. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. Newark. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. as a means of illustrating songs. The image should . The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other.

4. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . over the mat. It is best. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. the formulas being found in each package of plates. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. and then a plain glass. 1. as shown in Fig. 2. a little extra work will be necessary. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. 5. Being unbreakable. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. about a minute. C. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. and development should be over in three or four minutes. 3. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. to use a plain fixing bath. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. D. A. except that the binding is different. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. These can be purchased from any photo material store. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. B. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. If the exposure has been correct. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. Contrasty negatives make the best slides.appear in. Select a room with one window. they are much used by travelers. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. Fig. also. if possible. Draw lines with a pencil. as shown in Fig. This will enable you to focus to the proper size.

as shown at A.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. Fig. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. is to be used for the seat. in diameter and 20 in. holes bored in the end pieces. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. as shown in Fig. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. Hastings. Corinth. 1. A piece of canvas. known as rods and cones. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. long. or other stout cloth. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. These longer pieces can be made square. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. as shown at B. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. 16 in. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. long. wide and 50 in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. from the center of this dot draw a star. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. Fig. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. 1. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . Vt. 2. while the dot will be in front of the other. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. from the end piece of the chair. from the ends. in diameter and 40 in. If the star is in front of the left eye. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. long.

A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. Cal. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. as shown in Fig. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. A disk 1 in. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. 1. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. Auburn. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. as shown in Fig. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. O'Gara. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. made from an ordinary sash cord. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. A belt. as well as to operate other household machines. per square inch. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left.-Contributed by P. 2. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. . Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. J. in thickness and 10 in. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely.

leaving it shaped like a bench. . The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. square for a support. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. and the construction is complete. thick and 2-1/2 in. Cut out a piece from the block combination. will be the thickness of the object. direction. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. to the top of the bench. The part of a rotation of the bolt. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. wide. then removing the object. divided by the number of threads to the inch. with as fine a thread as possible. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. Put the bolt in the hole. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. says the Scientific American. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. 3/4 in. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. screwing it through the nut. fairly accurate. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. A simple. Bore a 1/4-in. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. or inconvenient to measure. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. it serves a very useful purpose.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. long. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. and counting the threads in an inch of its length.

The wheel should be open . Oal. Bore a 3/4-in. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. bolt in each hole. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. beyond the end of the wood. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. Santa Maria. Place a 3/4-in. material 12 ft. globe that has been thrown away as useless. long is used for the center pole. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. which show up fine at night. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. long. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. piece of wood 12 ft. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole.

L. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. thick. in diameter. at the top and 4 in. thick. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. A cross bar. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. Graham. O. from the ends. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. wide and 1/8 in. which should be 1/4 in. The spool . to be operated by the magnet coil. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. from the top end. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. thick is used for the armature. made of the same material.Side and Top View or have spokes. 1/2 in. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. The coil. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. is soldered. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. A. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. of the ends with boards. P. long. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. The boards may be nailed or bolted. long. B. Fort Worth. long. square and 3 or 4 in. C. at the bottom. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in.-Contributed by A. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. H and J. and the lower part 61/2 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. pieces used for the spokes. wide and 1/8 in. long. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. and on its lower end a socket. C. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. Tex. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. A piece of brass 2 in. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No.

do it without any apparent effort. and place it against a door or window casing. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. A. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. At the bottom end of the frame. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. S. When you slide the pencil along the casing. or a water rheostat heretofore described. D and E. Randolph. This tie can be used on grain sacks. The armature. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. then with a firm.--A. is drilled.000. C. one without either rubber or metal end.000 for irrigation work. S. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. . The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. 2. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. Mass. This is a very neat trick if performed right.J. that holds the lower carbon. Bradlev. A soft piece of iron. B. for insulating the brass ferrule. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. long. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. F. which may be had by using German silver wire. 2 the hat hanging on it. R. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it.is about 2-1/2 in. --Contributed by Arthur D. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. 1. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. and in numerous other like instances. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. and directly centering the holes H and J.E. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. by soldering. which is also connected to the brass ferrule.

A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core.500 turns of No. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. from the core and directly opposite. S. and then 1. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. wide. about 3/16 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The vibrator B. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. with a 3/16-in. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. Experiment with Heat [134] . which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. 2. thick. is connected to a flash lamp battery. about 1/8 in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. B. leaving the projections as shown. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. About 70 turns of No. The vibrator. A. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. Fig. The coil ends are made from cardboard. may be made from a 3/8-in.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. for the primary. mixed with water to form a paste. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. D. hole in the center. long. is constructed in the usual manner. for adjustment. long and 1 in. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. about 1 in. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. for the secondary. S. C. in diameter. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. in diameter. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. 1. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. The core of the coil. in diameter and 1/16 in. The switch. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. F. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. Fig. 1. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. in diameter and 2 in.

The tin is 4 in. which is only 3/8-in.Place a small piece of paper. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. 1. The hasp. 2 to fit the two holes. wide. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. and then well clinched. in an ordinary water glass. it laps down about 8 in. The knob on the dial extends out too far. as shown in the sketch. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. 16 in. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. was to be secured by only three brass screws. The three screws were then put in the hasp. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. long and when placed over the board. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. as shown. board. 1. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. and the same distance inside of the new board. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. with which to operate the dial. which seemed to be insufficient. between the boards. Fig. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. which is cut with two holes. thick on the inside. The lock. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. lighted. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. . if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. brass plate.

openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . and the back left dark. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. When the rear part is illuminated. any article placed therein will be reflected in.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. square and 8-1/2 in. one in each division. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. the glass. square and 10-1/2 in. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. black color. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. not shiny. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. If the box is made large enough. high for use in window displays. or in the larger size mentioned. but when the front part is illuminated. clear glass as shown. which completely divides the box into two parts. When making of wood.

as it appears. wide will be about the right size. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. into the other. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. long and 1 ft. When using as a window display. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. alternately. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. as shown at A in the sketch. When there is no electric current available. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. above the top of the tank. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. a tank 2 ft. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. and with the proper illumination one is changed.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. as shown in the sketch. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. ..

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

bore from each end. 2 ft. and 6 ft. Three windows are provided. high. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. is built on the front. long. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. bit. This precipitate is then washed. radius.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. hole. Iron sulphate. square. lines gauged on each side of each. Columbus. but with a length of 12 in. two pieces 1-1/8 in. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. wide. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. Shape the under sides first. square and 40 in. This hole must be continued . gauge for depth. from the ground. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. 5 ft. one for each side. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. 6 in. 1 in. O. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. wide. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. and boring two holes with a 1-in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. long. and a door in front. with a length of 13 in. A small platform. The 13-in. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. is the green vitriol. If a planing mill is near. The pieces can then be taken out. under sides together. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. then use a red-hot iron to finish. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. however. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. as shown. hole bored the full length through the center. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. or ferrous sulphate. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. using a 3/4-in. and a solution of iron sulphate added. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. each. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. thick and 3 in.

If the parts are to be riveted. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Electric globes--two. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. The sketch shows one method of attaching. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. three or four may be attached as shown. apply two coats of wax. When the filler has hardened. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Directions will be found on the filler cans. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. For art-glass the metal panels are . A better way. if shade is purchased. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Saw the two blocks apart. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. When this is dry.through the pieces forming the base. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. thick and 3 in. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. hole in each block. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach.

The Completed Lamp cut out. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. METAL SHADE .Construction of Shade . such as copper. as brass.

It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. and Fig. The arms holding the glass. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. as shown in the sketch. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. the other. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. one way and 1/2 in. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. 2 the front view of this stand. the object and the background. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. as in ordinary devices. Figure 1 shows the side. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side.

The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. uncork and recork again. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. thus forming a 1/4-in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Before mounting the ring on the base. outside diameter. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. long. thick 5/8-in. about 1-1/4 in. wide and 11 in. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. An ordinary pocket compass. pointing north and south. as shown in the cut. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. as it is very poisonous. If the light becomes dim. in diameter for a base. Put the ring in place on the base. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. wide and 6-5/16 in. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. and swinging freely. and an inside diameter of 9 in. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. channel in the circumference of the ring. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. in diameter. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. as shown in the sketch. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard.

and north of the Ohio river. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. above the half can. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. from the second to the third. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.500 . and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. and mirrors.715 . The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second.420 . The results given should be multiplied by 1. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. black oxide of copper. Corresponding mirrors.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. EE.289 . high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. 1 oz. AA. are mounted on a base.088 .182 . in diameter and 8 in. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. CC. Place on top the so- .600 .865 1. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. B. of the top. into these cylinders. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders.

A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . of pulverized campor. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. 31 gr. When renewing. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Put the solution in a long. always remove the oil with a siphon. the wheel will revolve in one direction. alcohol. In Fig. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. Colo. 62 gr. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. which otherwise remains clear. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. then they will not rust fast. University Park. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. slender bottle. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. little crystals forming in the liquid. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. says Metal Worker.

floating on a solution. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. Solder in the side of the box . If two of them are floating on the same solution. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. Attach to the wires. --Contributed by C. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. If zinc and copper are used. A paper-fastener box. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. If zinc and carbon are used. about 1-1/4 in. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. will allow the magnet to point north and south. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. Lloyd Enos. on the under side of the cork. This is used in place of the spoon. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork.

The base. long that has about 1/4-in. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. Rhamstine. The spring should be about 1 in. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. brass tubing. thick. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. If the hose is not a tight fit. Take a small piece of soft iron. piece of 1/4-in. C.Contributed by J. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. To this standard solder the supporting wire. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. E. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. The standard. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. hole.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. and on the other around the glass tube. Put ends. The bottom of the box. H. 1-1/4 in. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. one on each side of the board. 14 wire will do. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. Bore holes for binding-posts. E. or made with a little black paint. is made from a piece of No. of No. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . . G--No. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. 10 wire about 10 in.in. B. B. and then solder on the cover. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. long. A circular piece of cardboard. 1. of wire on each end extending from the coil. D.1-in. Wind evenly about 2 oz. glass tubing . long. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer.not shorter than 18 in. D. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. A. Thos. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. A. stained and varnished. C. to it. D. away. Use a board 1/2. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. C.in. 3 in. F. wide and 6 in. 1/2. wide and 2-1/2 in. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. can be made of oak. as shown in Fig.

is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. long. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig.of the coil. Y. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. When the glass becomes soft. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. Cuba. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. N. as shown in Fig. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. 1. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. 3 in. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. from the right hand. . 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. long are used for the legs. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. 3-in. canvas. is drawn nearer to the coil. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. Teasdale. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. J. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. of 8-oz. Smith. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. long. of No. Wis. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig.--Contributed by R. long. The iron plunger. long. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. E. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. 2. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. 3. of mercury will be sufficient. D.--Contributed by Edward M. making a support as shown in Fig. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. in diameter. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. four hinges. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. about 1 in. two pieces 2 ft. long. 5. Milwaukee. About 1-1/2 lb.

The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. This tube as described will be 8 in. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. Keys. long. expelling all the air. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. Toronto. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. thus leaving a. small aperture in the long tube. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. 2. holding in the left hand. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. --Contributed by David A. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Fig.. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. 4. The tube now must be filled completely. leaving 8 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. Take 1/2 in. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. 3. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. Measure 8 in. Can. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. 5. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. 6. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. of vacuum at the top. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle.. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. Break off the piece of glass.

Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. 5. The large pulley is about 14 in. 4. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. in diameter. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. as in Fig. 9 in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . long. 1 in. 4 in. wide and 5 ft. as shown in Fig. and 1/4 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. wood screws. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. with each projection 3-in. wide and 3 in. from the end of same. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. wide and 5 ft. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. 3 in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. joint be accurately put together. thick. 7. thick. thick. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 1. long. thick. A crosspiece 3/4-in. Fig. FIG. 1 in. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. This forms a slot. material 2 in. wide and 5 ft. 6. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. These are bent and nailed. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 2. and the single projection 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. but yellow pine is the best. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. long. wide and 12 in. long. 3. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. Four blocks 1/4 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. thick. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame.6 -. cut in the shape shown in Fig. 3 in.

The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. . --Contributed by C.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Kan. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. above the runner level. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. Welsh. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. attach runners and use it on the ice. first removing the crank. Manhattan. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. Water 1 oz. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. R. says Photography. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. by 1-in.

Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. as shown in Fig. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. 2. --Contributed by Wallace C. 3. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Leominster. and very much cheaper. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. as shown in Fig. Newton. The print is washed. Printing is carried rather far. Treasdale. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. of water. Mass. from an ordinary clamp skate. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. . fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. --Contributed by Edward M. also. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. 1. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. 1 oz.

Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. long. 2. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. causing the door to swing back and up. Take two glass tubes. and to the bottom. The thread is broken off at the . extending the width of the box. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. wide and 4 in. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. Va. square piece. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Fig. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. hole. which represents the back side of the door. high. fasten a 2-in. from one end. with about 1/8-in. --Contributed by H. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. F. Place a 10-in. The swing door B. Fig. 1-1/2 ft. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. about 10 in. as shown in the sketch. too. 1. Church. 1. A. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. Then. Alexandria. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. and bend them as shown in the sketch. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. high for rabbits. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. 1 ft. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. wide. say. and 3 ft.

Jr. camera and wish to use some 4. This opening. being 1/8 in. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. high and 12 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools.proper place to make a small hole. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Cut an opening in the other piece. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. shorter at each end. in size. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. and exactly 5 by 7 in. horses and dogs. from the edge on each side of these openings. long. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. C. but cut it 1/4 in. A and B. 2.by 7-in. black surfaced if possible. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. Paste a piece of strong black paper. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. wide. shorter. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains.. 10 in. Crilly. to be used as a driving pulley. long. Chicago. says Camera Craft. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. and go in the holder in the same way. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. D. 1 in. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. say 8 in. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. 3. . inside of the opening. wide. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. 1. Fig. automobiles. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. as shown in Fig. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. wide and 5 in. Out two rectangular holes. plates. Fig.by 5-in. -Contributed by William M. in size. Take two pieces of pasteboard. trolley cars. B.

of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. A cell of this kind can easily be made. if it has previously been magnetized. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. making a . wide will be required. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in.. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile.in. in diameter. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. long and 6 in. The needle will then point north and south. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. into which the dog is harnessed. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed.

This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. of water. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. with narrow flanges. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. This makes the wire smooth. 3/4 lb. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated.watertight receptacle. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Pack the paste in. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. Do not paint any surface. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. one that will hold about 1 qt. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. leaving about 1/2-in. A is a block of l-in. long which are copper plated. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. short time. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. Form a 1/2-in. filter. sal ammoniac. only the joints. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. for a connection. fodder. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. pull out the wire as needed. B is a base of 1 in. fuel and packing purposes. pine. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. F is a spool.in. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. beeswax melted together. plaster of paris. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. when the paraffin is melted. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. of rosin and 2 oz. . The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. in diameter and 6 in. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. and a notch between the base and the pan. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. says Electrician and Mechanic. Place the pan on the stove. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. 1/4 lb. zinc oxide. under the spool in the paraffin. 1 lb. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. of the plate at one end. in which P is the pan. of the top. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in.

no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. for others the opposite way. Try it and see. thus producing two different vibrations. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. square and about 9 in. long. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. grip the stick firmly in one hand. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. for some it will turn one way. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. from vexation. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. by the Hindoos in India. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. but the thing would not move at all.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and many other things in order to make the arm operate.. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. or think they can do the same. Ohio. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and then. and he finally. At least it is amusing. while for others it will not revolve at all. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and one friend tells me that they were . If any of your audience presume to dispute. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. 2. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Toledo. g. Enlarge the hole slightly. thus making the arm revolve in one direction." which created much merriment. and therein is the trick. let them try it. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. as in the other movement. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood.

The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. and I think the results may be of interest. 7. 3. gave the best results. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. p. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. A square stick with notches on edge is best. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. 6. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. secondly.100 r. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The experiments were as follows: 1. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. the rotation may be obtained. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. 5. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. no rotation resulted. by means of a center punch. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. Thus a circular or . 4. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. and. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. m. 2. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. Speeds between 700 and 1. To operate. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. rotation was obtained. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. If the pressure was upon an edge.

the liquid is forced away from the sphere.. is driven violently away. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Washington. Sloan. . All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. A wire is tied around the can. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. --Contributed by G. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. Ph. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. unwetted by the liquid. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. forming a handle for carrying. Minn. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. D. and the height of the fall about 6 in. if the pressure is from the left. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. or greasy. a piece of wire and a candle. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. A. and the resultant "basket splash.. the upper portion is. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. --Contributed by M.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. G. at first. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). Duluth. Lloyd. C. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. as shown. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. it will be clockwise. so far as can be seen from the photographs.D. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

with a 1/16-in. hole drilled in the center. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. axle. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. in diameter. thick and 1 in. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Each wheel is 1/4 in. about 2-5/8 in. as shown in Fig. as shown. long. flange and a 1/4-in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. 1. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy .

Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. is made from brass. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. long. Fuller. as shown in Fig. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. which must be 110 volt alternating current. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. The first piece. San Antonio. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. wide and 16 in. 3/4 in. holes 1 in. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. 3. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. This will save buying a track. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. put together complete. are shown in Fig.50. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. 2. lamp in series with the coil. 1 from 1/4-in. Texas. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. or main part of the frame. with cardboard 3 in. 2. 5. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. is made from a piece of clock spring. bottom side up. Fig. of No. These ends are fastened together. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. 4.brass. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. 3. and the locomotive is ready for running. each in its proper place. wood. The motor is now bolted. as shown in Fig. Fig. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . A trolley. --Contributed by Maurice E. The parts. bent as shown. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. The current. 6. If the ends are to be soldered.

--Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. as shown in Fig. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. The quarter will not go all the way down.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. but do not heat the center. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Cincinnati. Fig 1. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. O. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Fig. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. and as this end . 3. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. as shown in Fig. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. and holes drilled in them. 2. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. the length of a paper clip. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. then continue to tighten much more. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. 1. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs.

which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. has finished a cut for a tooth. or apparent security of the knot. A pair of centers are fitted. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. or should the lathe head be raised. In the sketch. and adjusted . The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. When the trick is to be performed. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. 2 and 1 respectively. When the cutter A. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3.

eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). book mark.to run true. blotter back. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. Y. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. if but two parts.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. (2. 1. holding it in place with the left hand. (3. about 1-1/2 in. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. trace the outline. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. coin purse. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. (5. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Make free-hand one quarter of the design. tea cosey. tea cosey. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. long. lady's card case. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . twisted around itself and soldered. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. (6. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. In this manner gears 3 in. --Contributed by Samuel C. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. draw center lines across the required space. at the same time striking light. --Contributed by Howard S. (4. Bott. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. N. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. dividing it into as many parts as desired.) Make on paper the design wanted. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. Fold over along these center lines. swing lathe. above the surface. Bunker. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. When connecting to batteries. 2. and a nut pick. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. gentleman's card case or bill book. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Brooklyn. if four parts are to be alike. or one-half of the design.) Place the paper design on the leather and. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. Fig. watch fob ready for fastenings. lady's belt bag. Second row: -Two book marks. (1. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. The frame holding the mandrel. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. An ordinary machine will do. such as brass or marble. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. note book.

and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. Secure .

Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. pull it through the cork to one side or the other.C. If the needle is not horizontal. a distance of 900 miles. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube.. The electrodes are made . or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. and push it through a cork. B. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. from Key West. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. C. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. A. D. into which fit a small piece of tube. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. and bore a hole through the center. Florida. where it condenses. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. Thrust a pin. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle.

You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. 3. If 20-ft. square and 8 ft long. thick. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 1. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. 2 in. apart and extend 1 ft. 2. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. both laterally and longitudinally. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. thick. To make a glide. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends.in. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. Four long beams 3/4 in. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. 1. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. thick. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. wide and 20 ft. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. 2. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. free from knots. thick. long. Powell. long. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. 1-1/4 in. lengths and splice them. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. wide and 4 ft. as shown in Fig. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. 12 uprights 1/2 in. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. 1/2. several strips 1/2 in. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. take the glider to the top of a hill. as shown in Fig. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. and also to keep it steady in its flight. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. 3/4 in. Washington. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. long. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. Connect as shown in the illustration. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. as shown in Fig. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. use 10-ft. 16 piano wire. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. long for the body of the operator. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. 2 arm sticks 1 in. D. wide and 4 ft long. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. lumber cannot be procured. or flying-machine. 1. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. wide and 4 ft. long. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. --Contributed by Edwin L. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. The operator can then land safely and . slacken speed and settle. wide and 3 ft. thick. which is tacked to the front edge. wide and 3 ft. C. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. by 3/4 in. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. All wiring is done with No. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. long. using a high resistance receiver. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. 1-1/2 in. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety.

The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. but this must be found by experience. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Great care should be . and the balancing is done by moving the legs. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps.gently on his feet. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Of course. Glides are always made against the wind.

--Contributed by L. Bellingham. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. 1. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. When heated a little. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. a creature of Greek mythology. Olson. which causes the dip in the line. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig.exercised in making landings. as shown in Fig. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . 2. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. M. half man and half horse. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying.

Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. will complete the material list. While at the drug store get 3 ft. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. The light from the . long and about 3/8 in. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. about the size of stove pipe wire. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. at the other. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. making it 2-1/2 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. about the size of door screen wire. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. in diameter. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. a piece of brass or steel wire. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. long. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. 14 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. square. outside the box. this will cost about 15 cents. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. of small rubber tubing. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight.

With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. --Photo by M. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. as shown in Fig. Hunting. 1. while others will fail time after time. as shown in Fig. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. Dayton. M. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. O. 2. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. If done properly the card will flyaway. but puzzling when the trick is first seen.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. This is very simple when you know how. . as shown in the sketch.

Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. then put it on the hatpin head. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. hold the lump over the flame. Cool in water and dry. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. This game is played by five persons. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. as shown. as before. closing both hands quickly. place the other two. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl." or the Chinese students' favorite game. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. as described. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. When the desired shape has been obtained. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick.

Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. these sectors. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. or more in width. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. distribute electric charges . Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. passing through neutralizing brushes. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator.

The sectors are cut from tinfoil. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. 1 in. as shown in Fig. long. The two pieces. and of a uniform thickness. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. Fig. in diameter and 15 in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. Two pieces of 1-in. in diameter. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. or teeth. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. Fig. as shown in Fig. brass tubing and the discharging rods. long and the shank 4 in. wide. C C. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. free from wrinkles. 1. 2. The drive wheels. in diameter. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. 3. and the outer end 11/2 in. RR. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. The plates. material 7 in. from about 1/4-in. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. wide at one end. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. EE. 3. in diameter. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. in diameter. These pins. GG. The plates are trued up. after they are mounted. long. turned wood pieces. are made from 7/8-in. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. 3/4 in. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. and 4 in. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. long and the standards 3 in. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. D. at the other. in diameter. 4. Two solid glass rods. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. The fork part is 6 in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. The collectors are made. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. 1-1/2 in. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. and pins inserted and soldered. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. to which insulating handles . close grained wood turned in the shape shown. in diameter. the side pieces being 24 in. are made from solid.

wide and 22 ft. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays .are attached. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. KK.. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. --Contributed by C. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. Lloyd Enos. one having a 2-in. and the work was done by themselves. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. which are bent as shown. 12 ft. long. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. in diameter. D. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. Colo. Colorado City. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. ball and the other one 3/4 in. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines.

pens . They can be used to keep pins and needles. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. bit. using a 1-in. deep. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. and bore a hole 1/2 in.is a good one. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. yet such a thing can be done. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. string together. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. as at A. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. The key will drop from the string. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded.

Use . They are easily made. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. sharp division between background and design. etc. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. slim screw. and the third one 1/4 in. stamp the background promiscuously. 23 gauge. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. The second oblong was 3/4 in. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. Raise the ends. also trace the decorative design. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. When the stamping is completed. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. Inside this oblong. inside the second on all. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. two spikes. draw on paper an oblong to represent it.. 3. above the metal. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle.. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. This is to make a clean. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. Having determined the size of the tray. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. 7. about 3/4-in. or cigar ashes. flat and round-nosed pliers. Draw one-half the design free hand. they make attractive little pieces to have about. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. using a nail filed to chisel edge. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Proceed as follows: 1. unless it would be the metal shears. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. above the work and striking it with the hammer. 9. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. then the other side. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. 8. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. 5. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. 2. etc. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. 6. inside the first on all. 4. very rapid progress can be made. extra metal on each of the four sides.and pencils. file.

second fingers. 6. and the effect will be most pleasing. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . The eyes. first fingers. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. third fingers. and fourth fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. 7. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 8. 10. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. In the first numbering. 9.

but being simple it saves time and trouble. which would be 70. first fingers. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. etc. and the six lower fingers as six tens. In the second numbering.. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. 25 times 25. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. above 15 times 15 it is 200. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. if we wish. above 20 times 20. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. which would be 16. or numbers above 10. which tens are added. . we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. 2 times 2 equals 4. Put your thumbs together. Still. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. there are no fingers above. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Two times one are two. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. renumber your fingers. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand.. or 80. thumbs. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. the product of 12 times 12. Let us multiply 12 by 12. 600. as high as you want to go. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. 12. or 60. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. 400. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. 11. etc.. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. viz. etc. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. or the product of 6 times 6. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. or the product of 8 times 9. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. At a glance you see four tens or 40.

when he removes his spectacles. It takes place also. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. the inversion takes place against his will. the value which the upper fingers have. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. not rotation. first fingers 22. and so on. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. the lump sum to add. or from above or from below. about a vertical axis. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. but was compulsory and followed regular rules.. adding 400 instead of 100. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. Take For example 18 times 18. forties. For example. and. being 80). Proceed as in the second lumbering. 21. or what. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. whether the one described in second or third numbering. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. the value of the upper fingers being 20. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. at the will of the observer. 2. 75 and 85. which is the half-way point between the two fives. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. . thirties. lastly.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. 8. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. For figures ending in 6. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. twenties. thumbs. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. further. beginning the thumbs with 16. The inversion and reversion did not take place. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. the revolution seems to reverse. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. And the lump sum to add. 3. in the case of a nearsighted person. however. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. etc. first finger 17. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. as one might suppose. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. 7. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. any two figures between 45 and 55. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. This system can be carried as high as you want to go.

one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. Looking at it in semidarkness. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. the other appearance asserts itself. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. A flat slide valve was used. sometimes the point towards him. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. when he knows which direction is right. tee. and putting a cork on the point. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The ports were not easy to make. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. as .

it is easily built. The steam chest is round. The tools are simple and can be made easily. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. The eccentric is constructed of washers. deep. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. saw off a section of a broom handle. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. across the head. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. Ill. Next take a block of wood. Springfield. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. bottom side up. if continued too long without proper treatment. If nothing better is at hand. as in a vise. While this engine does not give much power. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl.. and make in one end a hollow. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. inexpensive. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. . apart. pipe 10 in. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. H. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. across and 1/2 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Kutscher. about 2 in. Fasten the block solidly. secure a piece of No. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. pipe. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. in diameter. -Contributed by W. such as is shown in the illustration. Beating copper tends to harden it and.

and. especially when the object is near to the observer. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. Hay. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. S. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. To produce color effects on copper. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . --Contributed by W. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. O. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. This process is called annealing. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. the other to the left. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. To overcome this hardness.will cause the metal to break. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. Vinegar. C. as it softens the metal. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. Camden. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper.

this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. But they seem black. it. and lies to the right on the picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. The further apart the pictures are. however. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. So with the stereograph. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture.stereoscope. although they pass through the screen. they must be a very trifle apart. as for instance red and green. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. and without any picture. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. would serve the same purpose. with the stereograph. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. It is just as though they were not there. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. the one for the left eye being blue. disappears fully. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. only the orange rays may pass through. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. because. orange. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. because of the rays coming from them. from the stereograph. the left eye sees through a blue screen. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. . In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. the further from the card will the composite image appear. not two mounted side by side. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. that for the right. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. while both eyes together see a white background. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. The red portions of the picture are not seen. In order to make them appear before the card. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. in the proper choice of colors. diameter.

12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. or the middle of the bottle. This should only be bored about half way through the block. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. A No. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. in the shape of a crank. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. 12 gauge wire. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. Cal. Two types of make-and-break connection are used.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The weight of the air in round . 1/4 in. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. etc. San Francisco. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. wide and 1 in. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. thick. wireless. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. Place a NO. long and a hole drilled in each end. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. in diameter. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place.

pine 3 in. the contrary. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. The 4 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. Only redistilled mercury should be used. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. long. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. long. . 30 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner.. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. inside diameter and 2 in. if accurately constructed. wide and 4 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. a glass tube 1/8 in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. or a column of mercury (density 13. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. the instrument. But if a standard barometer is not available. 34 ft. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. if you choose. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. but before attempting to put in the mercury. will calibrate itself. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. Before fastening the scale. In general. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in.6) 1 in. long. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. thick. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. and a slow fall. internal diameter and about 34 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. or. square. square. a bottle 1 in. high. high.numbers is 15 lb. high. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. wide and 40 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in.

This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 6 and 7. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. which is slipped quickly over the end. wide and 10 in. Number the pieces 1. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. long. 1. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. thick. 3.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. 2. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Procure a metal can cover. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. and place them as shown in Fig. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. 5. a cover from a baking powder can will do. Mark out seven 1-in. the size of the outside of the bottle.

Move 14-Jump No. Move 2-Jump No. 7 over No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. each 10 ft. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 5-Jump No. Move 15-Move No. 5. To make such a tent. 5's place. Cape May Point. long and 2 ft. which is the very best material for the purpose. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 1 into No. Move 6-Move No. Make 22 sections. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 1 to No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. 2's place. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. Move 10-Move No. 6 over No. 7's place. 2 . using checkers for men. N. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 3 over No.-Contributed by W. 6 in. Move 7-Jump No. Move 3-Move No. Move 13-Move No. shaped like Fig. 2's place. 2 over No. 7 over No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 12-Jump No. 2 over No. 6. 6 into No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. L. Move 4-Jump No. in diameter. Move 8-Jump No. 3 to the center. 5 over No. 1. 6. 1. l over No. as shown in Fig. 2. 3 into No. 7. 3. 3. 3. 2.J. Woolson. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 5 over No. Move 9-Jump No. 5's place. Move ll-Jump No. procure unbleached tent duck. 6 to No. This can be done on a checker board.

Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. --Contributed by G. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. 3 in. Use blocks. high. Punch holes in the brass in . making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. 6. Tress. 2 in. fill with canvas edging. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. long and 4 in. wide at the bottom.in. in diameter. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in.. long. made in two sections. Nail a thin sheet of brass. diameter. Have the tent pole 3 in. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. 5) stuck in the ground. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. leaving the rest for an opening. Fig. from the top. 9 by 12 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip.J. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. as in Fig. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. wide at the bottom. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. wide by 12 in. 6-in. about 9 in. to a smooth board of soft wood. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. round galvanized iron. Emsworth. Fig. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Pa. After transferring the design to the brass. 5. As shown in the sketch. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. 2. These are ventilators. added. will do. In raising the tent. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent.

remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. cut out the brass on the outside lines. When all the holes are punched. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. It will not. Corr. When the edges are brought together by bending. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. . but before punching the holes. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The pattern is traced as before. around the outside of the pattern. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. Chicago. excepting the 1/4-in. bend into shape. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. apart. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week.the spaces around the outlined figures. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief.

The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. between which is placed the fruit jar.. Que. E. Dunham. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. These pipes are . Sometimes the cream will accumulate. or less. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. better still. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. A 6-in. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. Badger. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. pipe. --Contributed by Geo. Oregon. Stevens. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. If a wheel is selected. or center on which the frame swings. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. --Contributed by H. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. or. A cast-iron ring. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in.however. pipe is used for the hub. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. G. partially filled with cream. allowing 2 ft. Mayger.

The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. bent to the desired circle. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed.The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe clamps. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. An extra wheel 18 in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in.

the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. as shown in Fig. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The performer. 1. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. which was placed in an upright position. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. while doing this. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. and dropped on the table. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. 3. and the guide withdrawn. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers.

2. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. 1. first. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. in diameter on another piece of tin. Mo. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. St. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Louis. --Contributed by H. F. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Colo. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. The box can be made of selected oak or . The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Denver. White. D.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. in a half circle. Harkins. and second. -Contributed by C. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. it requires no expensive condensing lens. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in.

2. 5-1/2 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. This will be 3/4 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. long. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. The door covering this hole in the back. high and 11 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. 3-1/2 in. AA. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. fit into the runners. long. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. wide and 5 in. wide by 5 in. Two or three holes about 1 in. as shown in Fig. wide. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in.mahogany. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. high and must . Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. from each end of the outside of the box. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. If a camera lens is used. but not tight. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. An open space 4 in. focal length. 1. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. long and should be placed vertically. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. and 2 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. from each end. and. wide and 6-1/2 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards.

Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. April. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. West Toledo. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. as it requires an airtight case. June and November. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month." etc.. the article may be propped up . or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. Bradley. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. 1.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Ohio. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. C. calling that knuckle January. This process is rather a difficult one. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. and extending the whole height of the lantern. calling this February. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. and so on. --Contributed by Chas. provided it is airtight. then the second knuckle will be March.

the lid or cover closed. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. running small motors and lighting small lamps. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. Crawford. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. Pour in a little turpentine. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. Y. 1 and 2. and the lead 24 sq. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. N. In both Fig. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. 1. H. --Contributed by J. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush.with small sticks. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. but waxed. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. In each place two electrodes. taking care to have all the edges closed. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. . The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. 2. one of lead and one of aluminum. giving it an occasional stir. The top of a table will do. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. fruit jars are required. or suspended by a string. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. in. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. and set aside for half a day. Schenectady. in.

When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. He. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. you remove the glass. You have an understanding with some one in the company. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. he throws the other. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Cleveland. as well as others. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces.. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. This trick is very simple. which you warm with your hands. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. After a few seconds' time. O. as you have held it all the time.

A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe.take the handiest one. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Crocker. near a partition or curtain. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. Victor. Be sure that this is the right one. but by being careful at shores. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. . one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. on a table.-Contributed by E. but in making one. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. J. put it under the glass. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Colo. in diameter in the center. Pull the ends quickly. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. if any snags are encountered.

1/4 in. by 2 in. and fastened with screws. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. is 14 ft. for the stern piece. by 16 ft. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. one 6 in. and. 1 in.. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. wide. from the stern. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 8 in. long. for cockpit frame. are as follows: 1 keelson. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. and the other 12 in. ducking. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. by 8 in. selected pine. from each end to 1 in. of 1-1/2-yd. long. thick and 3/4 in. 2 gunwales. as illustrated in the engraving. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 9 ft. long. by 12 in. 50 ft. clear pine.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. apart. for the bow. 1 in. 11 yd. 3 and 4. 1 in. for center deck braces. by 16 ft. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. of 1-yd. 1/8 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft.. long. square by 16 ft. 7 ft. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. wide unbleached muslin. Both ends are mortised. 8 yd. wide and 12 ft. from the bow and the large one. by 10 ft. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. 1 piece. by 15 ft. 1 in. 1 mast. 2 and braced with an iron band. wide and 12 ft. Paint. wide 12-oz. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . screws and cleats. 4 outwales. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. of rope. 3 in. and is removed after the ribs are in place. at the ends. The keelson. 14 rib bands. 1. Fig. by 2 in. drilled and fastened with screws. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 2 in. 3 in. 1 piece.

thick and 12 in. 6 in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. from the bow. 1 in. corner braces. screws. 5. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. They are 1 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. long. gunwales and keelson. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. thick and 1/2 in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. The deck is not so hard to do. also. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. This block. apart. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. Fig. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. 7 and 8. A piece of oak. is a cube having sides 6 in. The trimming is wood. in diameter through the block. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. 1 in. Figs. The block is fastened to the keelson. a piece 1/4 in. Fig. and fastened to them with bolts. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. These are put in 6 in. wide and 24 in. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. A 6-in. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. . thick. thick. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. doubled. 1/4 in. 4 in. thick 1-1/2 in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. wide and 14 in. length of canvas is cut in the center. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. long. 3-1/2 ft. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. long. 6. wide. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. long is well soaked in water. The 11-yd. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. wide. wide and 3 ft. 9. wood screws.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. A seam should be made along the center piece. Before making the deck. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 6 and 7. A block of pine. Braces. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws.

Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. in diameter and 10 ft. --Contributed by O. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. Wilmette. thick by 2 in. Fig. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. is 6 in. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. apart in the muslin. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. A strip 1 in. wide. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. The house will accommodate 20 families. 12. Ill. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The keel. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. long. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. Tronnes. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. The mast has two side and one front stay. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. Several coats of good paint complete the boat.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. at the other. . The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. each 1 in. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. 11. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. long. are used for the boom and gaff. The sail is a triangle. wide at one end and 12 in. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. 10 with a movable handle. E. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun.

it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. 1. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. thick.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. thick. thick. as shown in Fig. 1 yd. square. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. Cut the maple. 2. flat on one side. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. wide. long and five 1/2-in. Wilmette. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. Fig. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. flat-headed screws. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. and the other 18 in. about 5/16 in. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. 2 in. long. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. 3. 2-1/2 in. with the ends and the other side rounding. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. Take this and fold it over . one 11-1/2 in. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. Ill. and 3 ft. long. Bevel both sides of the pieces. --Contributed by O. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Tronnes. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. wide and 2 ft. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. wide and 30 in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. E. 4. wide. 2-1/2 in. long. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried.into two 14-in. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. 5. flat headed screws. five 1/2-in. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind.

This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. long. A. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. About 1/2 in. are rounded. forming an eye for a screw. F. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. 3-1/4 in. The front. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. wide and 6-3/4 in. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. long. and the four outside edges. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. E. St. about 3/8 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. Figs. C. 1-1/4 in. and make a turn in each end of the wires. Another piece. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. Cut another piece of board. If carefully and neatly made. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. the mechanical parts can be put together. long. The sides are 3-1/4 in. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. Louis. 5 from 1/16-in. of each end unwound for connections. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. D. 2 and 3. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. wide and 2-3/4 in. C. wide and 3 ft. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. Fig.once. thick and 3 in. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. wide and 2-1/2 in. Make a double stitch all around the edge. long. long. Wind three layers of about No. square. --Contributed by W. thick. 1. B. Bliss. then centered. Mo. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. but can be governed by circumstances. this square box is well sandpapered. as well as the edges around the opening. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. 3 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. is set. A. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. 3/8 in. soaked with water and blown up. Glue a three cornered piece. long. wide . has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. pieces 2-5/8 in. When the glue is set. leaving a small opening at one corner. long. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. long. the top and bottom. After the glue. thick. wide and 5 in. The bag is then turned inside out. square. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. wide and 4-1/2 in. 6-1/2 in. and take care that the pieces are all square.

An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. Like poles repel each other. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. --Contributed by George Heimroth. that has the end turned with a shoulder. showing a greater defection of the pointer. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized.S. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. C. board. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. long. The base is a board 5 in. A pointer 12 in. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. and as the part Fig. 4. long.A. so it will just clear the tin. 5. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. in diameter. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities.R. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. Place the tin. W.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. wide and 9 in. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. the same size as the first. The resistance is now adjusted to show . The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. wide and 2-1/2 in. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. and the farther apart they will be forced. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. the part carrying the pointer moves away. 5-1/2 in. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. 1/4 in. R. F. 1/16 in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. L. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. Another strip of tin. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. When the current flows through the coil. hole is fastened to the pointer. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. I. G. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. thick. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. Austwick Hall. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. from the spindle. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. from one end. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. and fasten in place. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface.and 2-5/8 in. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. 4 is not movable. Richmond Hill. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. Fig. Chapman. long. Yorkshire. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. The end of the polar axis B. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. Fig. bored in the back. The stronger the current. 4. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. These wires should be about 1 in. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J.

To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. 30 min. at 9 hr. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. 10 min. shows mean siderial. M. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. and vice . mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. thus: 9 hr. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. say Venus at the date of observation. The following formula will show how this may be found. A. 1881. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. 10 min. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway.

or. owing to the low internal resistance. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances.m. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. if one of these cannot be had. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid.f. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. Hall. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. Conn. . Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. --Contributed by Robert W. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. New Haven.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. and then verify its correctness by measurement.

and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. and heap the glowing coals on top. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. put the fish among the ashes. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. long. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. When the follower is screwed down. especially for cooking fish. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. arsenic to every 20 lb. 1. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. fresh grass. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. thick. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. cover up with the same. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. as shown in the accompanying picture. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. of alum and 4 oz. The boring bar. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Wet paper will answer. 1-3/4 in. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. 3/8 in. leaves or bark. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. inside diameter and about 5 in.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Then. Fig.

thick. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. pipe. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . turned to the same diameter as the flanges. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. pipe. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. about 1/2 in. fastened with a pin. when they were turned in. and threaded on both ends.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off.

These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. 2. but never one which required so little material. however. labor and time. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. the float is too high. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. long. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. was then finished on an emery wheel. wide. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. This plate also supports the rocker arms. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. The rough frame. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Clermont. bent in the shape of a U. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. then it should be ground to a fit. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. 3. square iron. thick and 3 in. A 1-in. If the valve keeps dripping. and which gave such satisfactory results. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod.valve stems. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. 5. It . Iowa. Fig. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. a jump spark would be much better. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. as the one illustrated herewith. 30 in. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. Fig. 4. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. Fig. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves.

--Contributed by C. with no trees or buildings in the way. long is the pivot. and a little junk. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. set 3 ft." little and big. square. for the "motive power" to grasp. butting against short stakes. and. Use a heavy washer at the head. square and 5 ft. extending above. completes the merry-go-round. As there is no bracing. in diameter and 15 in. W. hole bored in the post. 3/4 in. Nieman. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. rope is not too heavy. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. 12 ft. long. A malleable iron bolt. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. no matter what your age or size may be. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. If it is to be used for adults. The seats are regular swing boards. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. from all over the neighborhood. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. long. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. The crosspiece is 2 in. strengthened by a piece 4 in. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. A 3/4 -in. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. so it must be strong enough. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. in the ground with 8 ft. It looks like a toy. square and 2 ft. long. strong clear material only should be employed. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. being held in position by spikes as shown. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. The illustration largely explains itself. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. timber. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. from the center. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. which adds greatly to the flying sensation." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. This makes an easy adjustment. in fact.

He shapes two pieces of bamboo. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. Both have large reels full of .Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. To wind the string upon the reel. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. one for the backbone and one for the bow. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. light and strong. 4.the fingers. These ends are placed about 14 in. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. 1. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. The bow is now bent. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. square. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. 1/4 by 3/32 in. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. The backbone is flat. A reel is next made. 2. long. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. and sent to earth. a wreck. if nothing better is at hand. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. Having placed the backbone in position. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. then it is securely fastened. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. as shown in Fig. away. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. and 18 in.2 emery. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters.

and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. N.-Contributed by S. If the second kite is close enough. Newburyport. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. C. Brooklyn. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. common packing thread. often several hundred yards of it. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Mass. he pays out a large amount of string. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw.string. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. --Contributed' by Harry S. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. The handle end is held down with a staple. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Bunker. the balance. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. Moody. First. Y. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. or glass-covered string. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise.

Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. such as mill men use. square (Fig. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. then a dust protector. If the table is round. then draw the string up tight. Corinth.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. make the pad as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Earl R. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. lengths (Fig. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. cutting the circular piece into quarters. each the size of half the table top. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . 1) which will make five layers of cloth. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. Vt. must be attached to a 3-ft. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. Hastings. length of 2-in. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish.

The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. 16-1/4 in. 2-1/4 in. from C to D. Oakland. E. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. from E to F.9-1/4 in.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. Use a smooth. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. 17-1/2 in.-Contributed by H. . and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. trace this or some other appropriate design on it.. Wharton. Moisten the .. 6-1/4 in. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. trace the design carefully on the leather. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. Calif. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. and E to G. G to H. which spoils the leather effect. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. hard pencil. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away.

Trace the openings for the handles. Cut it the same size as the bag. apart. and corresponding lines on the other side. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. place both together and with a leather punch. Now cut narrow thongs. To complete the bag. with the rounded sides of the tools. wide. I made this motor . is taken off at a time. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. and E-G.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. H-B. and lace through the holes. if not more than 1 in. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. also lines A-G. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. get something with which to make a lining. G-J. about 1/8 in. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag.

Calif. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. each being a half circle. in length. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. D. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. B. 2. long. Pasadena. 24 gauge magnet wire. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. as shown in Fig. iron. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E.M. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. 1. 1. Shannon. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. 2-1/4 in. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. of No. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. --Contributed by J. . A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used.

The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. and the gores cut from these. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. are the best kind to make. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . pasted in alternately. from the bottom end. near the center. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. high.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. balloon should be about 8 ft. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. 1. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The gores for a 6-ft. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig.

widest point. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. Fig. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. The boat soon attains considerable speed. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. The steam. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. 1. using about 1/2-in. As the boat is driven forward by this force. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. somewhat larger in size. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. leaving the solution on over night. In removing grease from wood. as shown in Fig. 4. 3. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. In starting the balloon on its flight. 5. as shown in Fig. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. after which the paint will adhere permanently. If the gores have been put together right. in diameter. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. 2. --Contributed by R. These are to hold the wick ball. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. so it will hang as shown in Fig. B. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. E. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. coming through the small pipe A. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. Staunton. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. lap on the edges. A. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . leaving a long wake behind. saturating it thoroughly. After washing.

the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. if you have several copies of the photograph. long and each provided with a handle. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . apart on these lines. In using either of the two methods described. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. in bowling form. as is shown in Fig. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. wide by 6 in. high and 8 in. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. 1. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The blocks are about 6 in. long. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. Third. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. There are three ways of doing this: First. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. Second.

Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Hellwig. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Y. 2. --Contributed by John A. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Albany. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. being careful not to dent the metal. Rinse the plate in cold water. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. N. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Fig. not pointed down at the road at an angle. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. thick.Fig. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig.

A. Corner irons. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Paine. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. --Contributed by R. and Fig. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . 1 Fig. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument.upon any particular object. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. wide and of any desired height. long for the base. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. with a set screw. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. which is 4 in. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. 5 in. With this device. is fastened to a common camera tripod. through which passes the set screw S. A circular piece of wood. 6 in. These corner irons are also screwed to. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. A. Break off the frame. Va. wide and 8 in. In Fig. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. thick. B. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. CC. Richmond. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. 2 the front view. and. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. are screwed to the circular piece. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. and not produce the right sound. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. S. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. in diameter.

Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. in diameter of some 1-in. . S. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. Lake Preston. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. thus producing sound waves. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. -1. Ill. Kidder. This horn. pine boards. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. R. as only the can is visible. D. La Salle. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. This will make a very compact electric horn. I made a wheel 26 in. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine.

If the collection consists of only a few coins. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. 1. A.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. The frame is made of a heavy card. Ghent. Doylestown. O. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. If there is a large collection of coins. Kane. Purdy. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. thick and 12 in. Fig. 1. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. --Contributed by James R. B. the same thickness as the coins. 2. --Contributed by C. Feet may be added to the base if desired. square. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp.

The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Noble. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. several large nails. cut and grooved. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. for after the slides have been shown a few times. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Toronto. of developer. --Contributed by R. --Contributed by J. --Contributed by August T. plus a 3/8-in. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. The material required is a sheet of No. they become uninteresting. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. into which to place the screws . Milwaukee. One Cloud. Canada. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. melted and applied with a brush. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. and then glued together as indicated. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Smith. a hammer or mallet. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box.J. thick. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. Neyer.E. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. A lead pencil. A rivet punch is desirable. border all around. If desired. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Cal. It will hold 4 oz. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. though not absolutely necessary. Wis.

screws placed about 1 in. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Take the nail. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. and file it to a chisel edge. like the one shown. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. There are several ways of working up the design. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. draw one part. Remove the screws. never upon the metal directly. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. both outline and decoration. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. using 1/2-in. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth.

Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. for the top. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. About 1/2 yd. being ball bearing. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. using a 1/2in. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. Do not bend it over or flatten it. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. square and 181/2 in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. each 1 in. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. Provide four lengths for the legs. 2. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. two lengths. . as shown in Fig. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. long. in the other.wall. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. square and 11 in. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. and two lengths. l-1/8 in. 3. up from the lower end. long. square. 1. of 11-in. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. The pedal. Rivet the band to the holder. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. long. for the lower rails. 3/4 in.

--Contributed by John Shahan. Quackenbush. New York City. F. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. having quite a length of threads. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. Ala. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. Attalla. --Contributed by W. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice.

and the other 2-3/4 in. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. Ironwood. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. Mich. Purchase a 1/2-in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. Assemble as shown in the sketch. The desired emblem.. each 1-1/4 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. long. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. using class. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. and 3/8 in. college or lodge colors. long. from the end. wide and 8-1/4 in. from one end. the end of the other piece is folded over. and two holes in the other. Luther. long. wide and 4-1/4 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. initial. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. one about 1 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. --Contributed by C. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Two pieces of felt. D. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. in depth. making a lap of about 1 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. something that is carbonated.

or more in height. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Fig. or a pasteboard box. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. This method allows a wide range of designs. in diameter and 2 in. in the cover and the bottom. about 2 in. Punch two holes A. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. which can be procured from a plumber. Ind. and the cork will be driven out. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. from the center and opposite each other. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. if desired by the operator. 1. as shown at B.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. A piece of lead. --Contributed by John H. Indianapolis. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. as shown in the sketch. 2. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. 1/4 in. Schatz.

When the can is rolled away from you. 5. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. Columbus. it winds up the rubber band. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. The pieces of tin between the holes A. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. 4. putting in the design. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. on both top and bottom. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. A piece of thick glass. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. or marble will serve. 1. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. and the ends of the bands looped over them. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. are turned up as in Fig. Fig. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. 3. as shown in Fig. allowing the two ends to be free.Rolling Can Toy lead. O. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. metal. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. . The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick.

thicker than the pinion. mark over the design. and. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . hole through it. deep in its face. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. wide and 20 in. face up. If it is desired to "line" the inside. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. 1 in. After this has been done. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. New York City.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. The edges should be about 1/8 in. or more thick on each side. A pencil may be used the first time over. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. Next place the leather on the glass. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. I secured a board 3/4 in. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. 3 in. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. thick. from each end. long and bored a 1/2-in.

2 end rails. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 1 by 9 by 80 in.in the board into the bench top. 1. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Brooklyn. M. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1 piece for clamp. 3 by 3 by 36. much of the hard labor will be saved. 2 side rails. thick top board. Make the lower frame first. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1 piece for clamp. 1 piece. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. Fig. Y. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1 top board. 2 crosspieces. New York. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 2. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. in diameter. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. Cut the 2-in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 4 guides. 1 top board. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 2 by 12 by 77 in. N. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Syracuse. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. pieces for the vise slides. Rice. and fit it in place for the side vise. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. --Contributed by A. 1 back board. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. 1 screw block. lag screws as shown. Now fit up the two clamps. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard.

1 brace and set of bits. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 pair dividers. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 nail set. 1 marking gauge. 1 cross cut saw. Only the long run. 1 wood scraper. If each tool is kept in a certain place.. 1 claw hammer. 1 countersink. 1 rip saw. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 jack plane or smoother. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 24 in. 1 set gimlets. as well as the pattern maker. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 3 and 6 in.. 1 pair pliers.. The amateur workman. rule.screws. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 pocket level. 1 bench plane or jointer. . 24 in. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 2 screwdrivers. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 1 monkey wrench. 1 set chisels. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. The bench is now complete. in diameter. 1 compass saw. 1 2-ft.

1. No. but will not make . the projecting point A. becomes like A. Doylestown. Fig. try square. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife.1 6-in. Kane. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. Fig. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. The calf skin. will be easier to work.1. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. ---Contributed by James M. 2. 3. Fig. 1. after constant use. Pa. being softer. will sink into the handle as shown at D. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 1 oilstone. 2 and 00 sandpaper. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. Fig.

New York City. will do just as well. lay the design on the face. the same method of treatment is used. White. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Two pieces will be required of this size. when dry. and the length 6-5/8 in. which steam. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. After the outlines are traced. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. secure a piece of modeling calf. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. Having prepared the two sides. but a V-shaped nut pick. -Contributed by Julia A. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. cover it completely with water enamel and. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. . Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. If cow hide is preferred. such as copper or brass. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. If calf skin is to be used. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. The form can be made of a stick of wood. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. water or heat will not affect.as rigid a case as the cow skin. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. then prepare the leather. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. Turn the leather. First draw the design on paper. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish.

On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. . Jaquythe. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. C. Maine. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Richmond. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. Herrman. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. --Contributed by Chas. Cobb. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. Cal. as shown in the sketch. A. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. --Contributed by W. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. New York City. Portland. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. --Contributed by Chester L.

6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. for instance. Roberts. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. --Contributed by Wm. B. or anyone that can shape tin and solder.. Mass.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. . The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. was marked out as shown. Middletown. an inverted stewpan. This was very difficult. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. Wright. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. A thick piece of tin. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Cambridge. --Contributed by Geo. Conn. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base.

then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz..Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. which has been tried out several times with success. on a clear piece of glass. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. but not running over. of boiling water. well calcined and powdered. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. Ind. so some bones were quickly calcined. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. If any traces of the grease are left. . If the article is highly polished. Illinois. as shown. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. apply powdered calcined magnesia. L. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. such as chair seats. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. F. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. but only an odor which soon vanished. There was no quicklime to be had. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. Herbert. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Chicago. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. Indianapolis. The next morning there was no trace of oil. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. --Contributed by Paul Keller. Bone. When dry. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. and quite new. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. pulverized and applied. A beautifully bound book. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. and the grease will disappear. used as part of furniture. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. face down. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. --Contributed by C.

The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. wide and 12 in. Howe. A. 2 in.. set and thumbscrews.. This coaster is simple and easy to make. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. high and are bolted to a block of wood. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. long. deep and 5 in. New York. Tarrytown. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. The pieces marked S are single.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. the pieces . The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. thick. says Scientific American. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. 6 in. soft steel with the opening 6 in. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. If properly adjusted. --Contributed by Geo.

If the letters are all cut the same height. A sharp knife. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. no doubt. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. albums and the like. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. to the underside of which is a block. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. The seat is a board. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. they will look remarkably uniform. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. says Camera Craft. E. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. for sending to friends. Their size depends on the plate used.

Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. after." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. mount them on short pieces of corks. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. photographing them down to the desired size. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. pasting the prints on some thin card. and. So arranged. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. using care to get it in the right position.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. In cutting out an 0. The puzzle is to get . The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. for example. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. So made. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card.

-Contributed by I. Cape May Point. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. says the American Thresherman. Bayley. hung on pivots. squeezes along past the center of the tube. snow or anything to hide it. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. Old-Time Magic .Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. of its top. G. long that will just fit are set in. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. A hole 6 or 7 in. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. He smells the bait. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. so they will lie horizontal. the tube righting itself at once for another catch.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand.J. N. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. with the longest end outside.

then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Pocatello. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. E. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. then expose again. Parker. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Y. Rhode Island. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Idaho. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. --Contributed by L. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Szerlip. then spread the string. N. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Brooklyn. Press the hands together. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. --Contributed by Charles Graham. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. Pawtucket.faced up. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. --Contributed by L. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined.

wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. or green oil paint. wide and 2 in. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. thick. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. they will look very much like the genuine article. in width. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. in building up his work from the illustrations.. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. The handle is next made.. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. When the whole is quite dry. long. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. and if carefully made. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. narrower. 1. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. Glue the other side of the blade.Genuine antique swords and armor. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. The pieces. if any. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. full size. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. 4 on the blade. using a straightedge and a pencil. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. wipe the blade . An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The blade should be about 27 in. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. 2 Fig. When the glue is thoroughly dry. end of the blade. whether he requires a single sword only. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. near the point end. dark red. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. says the English Mechanic. or a complete suit of armor.

The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. 1. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. in diameter. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. 1. Fig. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. about 1-1/2 in. square and of any length desired. of course. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. 3.. 2. In making. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. should be about 9 in. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. Both edges of the blade are sharp. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. thick and 5 in. the other is flat or half-round. the other two are identical. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. the other is flat or halfround. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. 1. not for use only in cases of tableaux. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. This sword is about 68 in. 4. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. and 3 in.with light strokes up and down several times. follow the directions as for Fig. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. In the finished piece. The length of the handle. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. 3. preferably of contrasting colors. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. 1/8 in. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. as it is . the length of the blade 28 in.. shows only two sides. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. in the widest part at the lower end. allowing for a good hold with both hands. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. the illustration. 1. 2. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. take two pieces of wood. In making this scimitar. long.

The thinness of the plank. Doctors probed for the button without success. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. however. Syracuse. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. A piece of mild steel. Y. Mass. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Both can be made easily.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. and if so. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. as there was some at hand. N. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. in an attempt to remove it. as can the pitch bed or block. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. --Contributed by John Blake. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. square. It is made of a plank. long. 2 in. A cold . and. about 3/8 in. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Katharine D. Morse. at the lower end. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. On each edge of the board. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. Franklin. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. or an insecure fastening. each about 1 ft. piping and jackets by hard water.

When this has been done. secure a piece of brass of about No. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. 5 lb. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow.. tallow. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. 5 lb. To put it in another way. on the pitch. using a small metal saw. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. Trim up the edges and file them . To remedy this. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. design down. a file to reduce the ends to shape.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length.. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. 18 gauge. plaster of Paris. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. When the desired form has been obtained. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. The illustration shows an iron receptacle.

The smaller is placed within the larger. 3. Fill the 3-in.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. A. in the center.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. 1 ft. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little.smooth. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. That is lifting 33. --Contributed by Harold H. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. space between the vessels with water. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. per second. per minute. living together in what seems like one receptacle. and hang a bird swing. to keep it from floating. Before giving the description. Fig. or 550 ft. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. it may be well to know what horsepower means. in one minute or 550 lb. make an unusual show window attraction. Cutter. 2). over the smaller vessel. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. This in turn divided by 33. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. lb. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. 1) and the other 12 in. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. using powdered pumice with lye. lb. 1 ft. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. and still revolve. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. 30 ft. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. one 18 in.000 lb. in diameter (Fig. in diameter (Fig. . or fraction of a horsepower. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. Clean the metal thoroughly. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer.000 ft. in one second. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. but not to stop it. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30.

Brooklyn. --Contributed. Szerlip. 1 Fig. Mass. Campbell. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. The effect is surprising. 2 Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. --Contributed by J. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Diameter Fig. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. by L. Diameter 12 in. Somerville.18 in.3 Fig. F. or on a pedestal. Y. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . N. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water.

A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. unsatisfactory. which. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. and then. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. away from the edge. This compound is impervious to water. Rivet the cup to the base. after which it is ready for use. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. to keep the metal from tarnishing. using any of the common metal polishes. often render it useless after a few months service. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands.copper of No. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. the same as removing writing from a slate. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. keeping the center high. with other defects. with the pliers. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. Do not be content merely to bend them over. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. as a rule. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. then by drawing a straightedge over it. is. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. Polish both of these pieces. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. and cut out the shape with the shears. In riveting. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. and the clay . shape the sides as shown in the photograph. which may be of wood or tin. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch.

in diameter and 5 in. Houghton. Mich. 2. Dunlop. --Contributed by John T. It is made of a glass tube. 1. -Contributed by Thos. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Mich. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. Grand Rapids. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. A. the device will work for an indefinite time. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Scotland. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. . Northville. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. as shown in Fig. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The siphon is made of glass tubes. Shettleston. --Contributed by A. long. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown.can be pressed back and leveled. DeLoof. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank.

thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. As the handle is to . long with the crossguard and blade of steel. London. in width and 2 in. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper.1 FIG.FIG. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. long. 1. put up as ornaments. This sword is 4 ft. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. stilettos and battle-axes.

the ornamentations can be built up of wire. Both handle and axe are of steel. The ball is made as described in Fig. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. 5. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. This stiletto has a wood handle. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. A German stiletto. When the glue is thoroughly dry. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. The handle is of wood. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. This weapon is also about 1 ft. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. This sword is about 4 ft. The lower half of the handle is of wood. the upper part iron or steel. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. In Fig. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. paint it a dark brown or black. In Fig. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. then glued on the blade as shown. very broad. one about 1/2 in. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. the same as used on the end of the handle. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. When the whole is quite dry. The sword shown in Fig. small rope and round-headed nails. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. with both edges sharp. 6. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. These must be cut from pieces of wood. 11 were used. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. studded with brass or steel nails. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. long with a dark handle of wood. in length. 8.represent copper. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The crossbar and blade are steel. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. long. In Fig. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. This axe is made similar to the one . The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. 4. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. Cut two strips of tinfoil. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. This weapon is about 1 ft. sometimes called cuirass breakers. 3 is shown a claymore. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. which is about 2-1/2 ft. in length. wood with a keyhole saw. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. is shown in Fig. firmly glued on. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. with wire or string' bound handle. narrower. sharp edges on both sides. Three large. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. 20 spike. A German poniard is shown in Fig. 9. string. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. glue and put it in place. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. in width. the axe is of steel. 7. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. with both edges of the blade sharp. When dry. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig.

This will make a very good flexible belt. high.described in Fig. will pull where other belts slip. . --Contributed by E. the ends are tied and cut off. such as braided fishline. 2. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. together as shown in Fig.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. When wrapped all the way around. so the contents cannot be seen. Davis. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. Chicago. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. Old-Time Magic . W. 10. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened.

There will be no change in color. four glass tumblers.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Calif. These wires are put in the jar. Macdonald. Before the performance. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. with the circle centrally located. in a few seconds' time. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. As zinc is much lighter than iron. To make the flowers grow in an instant. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. about one-third the way down from the top. Oakland. S. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. causing the flowers to grow. --Contributed by A. N. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. 2. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. 1 and put together as in Fig. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . an acid. filled with water. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. some of the liquid. or using small wedges of wood. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. apparently. held in the right hand. Bridgeton. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks.J. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. The dotted lines in Fig.

Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. A. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. Jaquythe. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . 2 for height. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. says a correspondent of Photo Era. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. This outlines the desired opening. --Contributed by W. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. If the size wanted is No. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. 4 for width and No. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. Cal. practical and costs nothing. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. and kept ready for use at any time. When many slides are to be masked. not only because of the fact just mentioned. which are numbered for convenience in working. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. Richmond. unless some special device is used. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. and equally worthy of individual treatment.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides.

The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. or a pair of old tongs. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. and the extreme length 7 in. a little less acid than water. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. With a stick. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. may be changed. the margin and the entire back of the metal. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. too. Draw a design. possibly. 16 gauge. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . about half and half. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. The one shown is merely suggestive. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. which is dangerous.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. not the water into the acid. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. or. Secure a sheet of No. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. This done. paint the design. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. and do not inhale the fumes. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. the paper is folded along the center line. is about right for the No. but they can be easily revived. When etched to the desired depth. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. The decoration. using the carbon paper. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface.

It may be either nailed or screwed down. Fig. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 4. . punch a hole through it and put in under post E. 0 indicates the batteries. with the wires underneath. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. wide. long and 1 ft. about 2-1/2 in. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. 2. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. and bore two holes. wide and of the same length as the table. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Then get two posts. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. Cut out a piece of tin. 1. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Paint the table any color desired. and about 2-1/2 ft. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. Nail a board. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. When the button S is pressed. A. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Fig. 5. long. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. 5. high. 2. about 1 in. C and D. as at H. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. through it. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. about 3 ft. The connections are simple: I. 3. repeat as many times as is necessary. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. so that when it is pressed down. in diameter and 1/4 in. 2. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. Fig. as shown in the illustration. Fig. 3/8 in. it will touch post F. or more wide. J is another wire attached in the same way. attached to a post at each end. as in Fig. to the table. the bell will ring. Fig. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. 24 parts water. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. thick. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. as shown in Fig. about 8 in.

the wood peg inserted in one of them. A wood peg about 2 in. such as . is to appear as steel. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. The circle is marked out with a compass. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue.. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. This weapon is about 22 in. long serves as the dowel. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. 1. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. handle and all. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. These rings can be carved out. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. long. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. but they are somewhat difficult to make. thick. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. After the glue is dry. says the English Mechanic. The entire weapon. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth.Imitation Arms and Armor . 2. The imitation articles are made of wood.

3. flowers. is shown in Fig. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. with a sharp carving tool. 2. etc.ornamental scrolls. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. or the amateur cannot use it well. also. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. as shown. as described in Fig. . The upper half of the handle is steel. If such a tool is not at hand. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. The lower half of the handle is wood. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. as before mentioned. used at the end of the fifteenth century. the hammer and spike. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. long. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The spikes are cut out of wood. leaves. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. 6. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. 5. studded with large brass or steel nails. All of these axes are about the same length. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The axe is shown in steel. The handle is of steel imitation. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. This weapon is about 22 in. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. Its length is about 3 ft. The handle is of wood. covered with red velvet. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. 8. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century.

then the other plays. the knife resting on its back. The knife falling on its side (Fig. 5. as in Fig. 4). 6. calls for a home run. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. and so on for nine innings. 2.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 7) calls for one out. Each person plays until three outs have been made. a three-base hit. Fig. Chicago. 1. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. . 3. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. as shown in Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig.

while the committee is tying him up. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. with the rope laced in the cloth. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. Campbell. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. 1. as shown in Fig. one of them burning . This he does. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale.-Contributed by J. Mass. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. F. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. 2. Old-Time Magic . the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. hypo to 1 pt. 3. Somerville. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. of the rope and holds it. It may be found that the negative is not colored. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. If it is spotted at all. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. as shown in Fig. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. of water for an hour or two. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right.

Lebanon. of water and 1 oz. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. He then walks over to the other candle. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. with which he is going to light the other candle. 4 oz. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. The magician walks over to the burning candle. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. Ky. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. thus causing it to light. and. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. of plumbago. Drill Gauge screw. --Contributed by C. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. B. . of sugar. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. of turpentine. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. 3/4 in.. Thome. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper.Contributed by Andrew G. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. etc. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. showing that there is nothing between them. Louisville. Evans. 4 oz. --Contributed by L. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. the other without a light. bolt. New York City.brightly. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Brown. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. invisible to them (the audience). shades the light for a few seconds. Ky. thick.

N. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. Do not add water to the acid. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. --Contributed by C. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. H. long. or blotting paper. Pulteney. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. into a tube of several thicknesses. Y. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. which will give a strong. but is not so good.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. for the material. about 5 in. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. Denniston. thick. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. diameter. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. 5 in. To make the porous cell. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. Its current strength is about one volt. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. steady current. In making up the solution. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster.

By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. one drawing them together. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. carrying the hour circle at one end. while the other end is attached by two screws. long with a bearing at each end. a positive adjustment was provided. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. One hole was bored as well as possible. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. the other holding them apart. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. steel. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. As to thickness. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. To insure this.) may be obtained. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. steel. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described.station. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. After much experimentation with bearings. Finally. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. but somewhat lighter. steel. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The . a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace.

look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The aperture should be 1/4 in. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. turn the pointer to the star. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer.. save the one in the pipe. Set the declination circle to its reading. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. When properly set it will describe a great circle. If the result is more than 24 hours." When this is done. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. It is. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. is provided with this adjustment. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. and if it is not again directed to the same point. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. All set screws." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. subtract 24. Each shaft. need not be changed. The pointer is directed to Alpha. and 15 min. To find a star in the heavens. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. 45 min. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. All these adjustments. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. are tightened.. once carefully made. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. To locate a known star on the map. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. Cassiopiae. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum." Only a rough setting is necessary. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. The pole is 1 deg. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. Declination is read directly. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. excepting those on the declination axis. apart. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. Point it approximately to the north star. Instead. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. in each direction from two points 180 deg.axis is adjusted by turning these screws.

-Contributed by Ray E. benzole. New Orleans. Ohio. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. cannon balls. taking care not to add too much. 3 or 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. long. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. then add 1 2-3 dr. a great effect will be produced. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. Plain City.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. is the real cannon ball. Strosnider. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. which is the one examined. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. the others . Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. is folded several times. The dance will begin.. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. add a little more benzole. In reality the first ball. as shown in the sketch. of ether. If this will be too transparent. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. The ball is found to be the genuine article. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. La.

The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag.. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Milwaukee. Somerville. Campbell. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . as shown in the illustration. 1). F. 2. without taking up any great amount of space. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. small brooches. In boxes having a sliding cover. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. Fig. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. San Francisco.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. --Contributed by J. Cal. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. taps. etc. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. Mass. Return the card to the pack. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. Wis. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band.

. Connecticut. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. as shown in the illustration. thus giving ample store room for colors. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. slides and extra brushes.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. round pieces 2-1/4 in. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. This box has done good service. Hartford. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. from the bottom of the box. Beller. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. prints. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors.

West Lynn. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. FIG. When the ends are turned under.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. O. -Contributed by C. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. or placed against a wall. tacking the gauze well at the corners. holes in the bottom of one. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. Fill the upper tub. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. 2). and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. with well packed horse manure. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. Darke. . then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. costing 5 cents. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. 1). a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. about threefourths full. will answer the purpose. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Mass.

when they are raised from the pan. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. If the following directions are carried out. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. If plugs are found in any of the holes. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. and each bundle contains . This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. Eifel. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. they should be knocked out. if this is not available. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. --Contributed by L. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. cutting the cane between the holes.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. M. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. Chicago. oil or other fluid.

and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. put about 3 or 4 in. then across and down. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. as it must be removed again. held there by inserting another plug. 1. as shown in Fig. after having been pulled tight. No plugs . a square pointed wedge. and. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. it should be held by a plug. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. In addition to the cane. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom.

should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. --Contributed by M. the height of which is taken from table No. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. This will make three layers. There are several different designs of sundials. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. From table No. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun.15+.= 4. it is 4. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. When cool. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. D. 42° is 4.3 in. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. 40°. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. trim off the surplus rosin. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. After completing the second layer. -Contributed by E. and the one we shall describe in this article. 41 °-30'. as the height of the line BC for lat. Their difference is . 41°-30'. Detroit. the height of the line BC. Fig. Even with this lubrication. in this case) times the . During the weaving. No weaving has been done up to this time. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. as shown in Fig. stretch the third one. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal.075 in. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. It consists of a flat circular table.075 in. 3. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. 4. 1 lat. as shown in Fig. Patrick. for 2°. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. and for lat. and for 1° it would be . but the most common.2+. If you have a table of natural functions. 1. 5. 1. Fig. Michigan. is the base (5 in. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time.42 in. is the horizontal dial. 1. as it always equals the latitude of the place. 5 in. the next smallest. 3. or the style. called the gnomon. we have 4. All added to the lesser or 40°.5 in. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. using the same holes as for the first layer. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. W. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. lat. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third.15 in. R. If handled with a little care. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. as for example. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. The style or gnomon. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC.2 in.

interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.27 2. 2. and intersecting the semicircles.56 .96 32° 3.28 . The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed. or if of stone. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.85 1.97 5 7 4.93 2.94 1. base.66 48° 5. circle Sundial.66 latitude.11 3. Fig.23 6. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . gives the 6 o'clock points.46 3.55 4. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.57 3. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.77 2.99 2.06 2. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.79 4.63 56° 7.91 58° 8.82 2.07 4.55 30° 2.88 36° 3.37 54° 6.93 6. Table NO. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. or more.76 1. and perpendicular to the base or style.19 1.55 5.14 5.82 3. which will represent the base in length and thickness.tangent of the degree of latitude.42 . Height of stile in inches for a 5in. Its thickness.37 5.10 6. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.33 42° 4.32 6.30 2.30 1.16 1. if of metal.26 4. Chords in inches for a 10 in. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. . Draw the line AD.82 5. For latitudes not given.12 52° 6.83 27° 2.33 .50 26° 2.64 4 8 3.57 1.66 1. with a radius of 5 in. using the points A and C as centers. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.39 . 2 for given latitudes. To layout the hour circle.42 1.55 46° 5. Draw two semi-circles.68 5-30 6-30 5. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. an inch or two.49 30 .85 35 . and for this size dial (10 in. 1.46 . Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.87 1.40 34° 3. 2.44 44° 4.89 50° 5.16 40 .18 28° 2.59 2.49 3.20 60° 8.03 3.02 1.81 4.87 4. according to the size of the dial.00 40° 4. long.42 45 .40 1. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.38 .41 38° 3.29 4-30 7-30 3.

The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. and the . Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.50 55 . Each weapon is cut from wood. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 25.49 5.54 60 . Sioux City.63 1. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. June 15.14 1. adding to each piece interest and value.19 2. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. This correction can be added to the values in table No. after allowing for the declination. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.49 3. The + means that the clock is faster.57 1.53 1.52 Table No. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. London.34 5.93 6.82 3. An ordinary compass. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.79 6. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.77 3. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. will enable one to set the dial. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . Sept. E.68 3.72 5. April 16.24 5. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time.46 5. it will be faster. 900 Chicago.01 1.21 2.87 6.50 . Sun time to local mean time. As they are the genuine reproductions.. says the English Mechanic. 3.30 2.71 2.12 5.means that the dial is faster than the sun. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. each article can be labelled with the name. and for the difference between standard and local time.08 1. Mitchell.10 4. 3.from Sundial lime.add those marked + subtract those Marked .06 2. --Contributed by J. Iowa.89 3.37 2. 2 and Dec.60 4.98 4. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. if west. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.46 4. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. then the watch is slower.

with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. 3. . wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. When putting on the tinfoil. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in.. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. 1. Partisan. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. the length of which is about 5 ft. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft.

The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. about 4 in. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. is shown in Fig. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. used about the seventeenth century. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. The length of this bar is about 5 in. 8. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The edges are sharp. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. in diameter. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe.which is square. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. A gisarm or glaive. This weapon is about 6 ft. long. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament.. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. long. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The extreme length is 9 ft. It is about 6 ft. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. which are a part of the axe. the holes being about 1/4 in. 6 ft. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. long with a round wooden handle. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. sharp on the outer edges. The spear is steel. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. 5. press it well into the carved depressions. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. . long with a round staff or handle. 7. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil.

This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. are less durable and will quickly show wear. Cut all the cords the same length. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. The twisted cross cords should . 5. They can be made of various materials. as shown in Fig. the cross cords. or in holes punched in a leather strap. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. are put in place. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. 4. Substances such as straw. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. 2 and 3. Loudonville. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. the most durable being bamboo. used for spacing and binding the whole together.-Contributed by R. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 1. Workman. Ohio.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. This is important to secure neatness. In Figs. apart. H. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. B. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs.

One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. M. bamboo or rolled paper. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . Lockport. New York. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. in which was placed a piece of glass. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. of the bottom. A slit was cut in the bottom. Four V-shaped notches were cut. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. for a length extending from a point 2 in. -Contributed by Geo. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. To remedy this. La. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. This was turned over the top of the other can. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. wide. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. Harrer. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. 3 in. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. shaped as shown at C. The first design shown is for using bamboo. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. as shown at B. New Orleans. below the top to within 1/4 in. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness.be of such material.

A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. --Contributed by W. Maywood. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. wide. After this is finished. Y. Schaffner.tape from sticking to the carpet. and two along the side for attaching the staff. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. It would be well to polish the brass at first. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . is shown in the accompanying sketch. about 1/16 in. This should be done gradually. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. N. giving the appearance of hammered brass. do not throw away the gloves. the brass is loosened from the block. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. turned over but not fastened. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. Ill. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Pasadena. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. Newburgh. This plank. Cal. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. --Contributed by Chas. Sanford. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. H. Shay. --Contributed by Joseph H.

bent as shown. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Richmond. --E. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. in diameter. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Ill. Marshall. Oak Park. Unlike most clocks. the pendulum swings . K. A. -Contributed by W. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Jaquythe.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Cal.

The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. B. high and 1/4 in. are secured in the base bar. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. 6 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. The construction is very simple. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. such as this one. A. bearing on the latter. is an electromagnet. 7-1/2 in. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Now place the board to be joined. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. away. Chicago. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. about 6 in. high. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. bar. by 1-5/16 in. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. only have the opposite side up. on the board B. Metzech. Fasten another board. 5/16 in. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. In using this method. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. . and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. about 12 in. Secure a board.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. --Contributed by V. to the first one with screws or glue. wide that is perfectly flat. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. high. long and at each side of this. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. C. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. in diameter. says the Scientific American. thick. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. and the other two 2-5/8 in. the center one being 2-3/4 in. high.. 3/4 in. wide. Two uprights. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum.

plates should be made 8 in. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. 1. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. 4. from one end. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The trigger. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. Fig. Pa. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Vanderslice. 3. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. Fig. is fastened in the hole A. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. 1. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. 1. 2. Phoenixville. as shown at A. long. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. . --Contributed by Elmer A. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. wide and 5 in. square. wide and 1 in. by driving a pin through the wood. or more. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. whose dimensions are given in Fig. square inside.

which allows 1/4 in. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. one-half the length of the side pieces. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Ohio. by weight. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. if only two bands are put in the . 3 parts of stiff keg lead. as shown in the illustration.A. Fostoria. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. square. rubbing varnish and turpentine. 5 parts of black filler. 2 parts of whiting. -Contributed by J. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. Simonis. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull.

the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. wide and about 1 ft. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. and it may be made as a model or full sized. deep. which may be either of ground or plain glass. -Contributed by Abner B. Dartmouth. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. If a plain glass is used. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. In use. long. in the opposite end of the box. keeps the strong light out when sketching. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. says the English Mechanic. It must be kept moist and well . Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. and the picture can be drawn as described. 8 in. G. A double convex lens. Grand Rapids. Mass. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in.lower strings. Shaw. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. A piece of metal. In constructing helmets. London. No. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. --Contributed by Thos. is necessary. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. is set at an angle of 45 deg. as shown in Fig. A mirror. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. Michigan. preferably copper. II. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. place tracing paper on its surface. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. DeLoof. 1.

pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. brown. All being ready. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. joined closely together. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. a few clay-modeling tools. or some thin glue. with a keyhole saw. shown in Fig. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. as in bas-relief. This being done.kneaded. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. and left over night to soak. The clay. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. and continue until the clay is completely covered. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. will be necessary. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. 2. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. on which to place the clay. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. 1. After the clay model is finished. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. and over the crest on top. 1. the clay model oiled. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. 3. take. and the deft use of the fingers. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. as shown in Fig. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. Scraps of thin.

until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. with the exception of the vizor. the skullcap. and the ear guards in two pieces. should be modeled and made in one piece. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. the piecing could not be detected. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. Indianapolis. --Contributed by Paul Keller. The center of the ear guards are perforated. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. This contrivance should be made of wood. When perfectly dry. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing.as possible. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. They are all covered with tinfoil. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. one for each side. 7. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. Before taking it off the model. and so on. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. will make it look neat. 1. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. When dry. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. as shown: in the design. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. In Fig. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. 9. a crest on top. The band is decorated with brass studs. which should be no difficult matter. or. a few lines running down. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. 5. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. When the helmet is off the model. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. as seen in the other part of the sketch. square in shape. The whole helmet. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. then another coating of glue. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. owing to the clay being oiled. In Fig. Indiana.

The holes B and C are about 3 in. E and F. as shown in Fig. 4 lb. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. high. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. Fig. long. 1. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. of fire clay. JJ. are allowed to project about 1 in. 4. should extend about 1/4 in. AA. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. as shown in Fig. Fig. AA. A round collar of galvanized iron. and two large 3in. above the collar. is then packed down inside the collar. Fig. about 1 lb. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. each 4-1/2 in. 1. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. The plate. which can be bought from a local druggist. of the top. if the measurements are correct. 4. The mineral wool. also the switch B and the fuse block C. 2. wide and 15 in. when they are placed in opposite positions. 22 gauge resistance wire. If asbestos is used. screws. about 80 ft. Fig. 4. 1. Fig. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. two ordinary binding posts. If a neat appearance is desired. in diameter and 9 in. Fig. 4. 2. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. 4. one oblong piece of wood. The reverse side of the base. AA. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . German-silver wire is better. thick. Fig. 4. 3 in. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. Fig. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. one small switch. the holes leading to the switch. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. This will make an open space between the plates.same size. 3. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. GG. 1. about 1/4 in. Fig. or. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. 4. 2. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. Fig. for connections. and. if this cannot be obtained. to receive screws for holding it to the base. Fig. of mineral wool. is shown in Fig. The two holes. long. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. 1 in. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. as shown in Fig. with slits cut for the wires. one glass tube. the fuse block. thick sheet asbestos. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 1. of No. 1. 12 in. one fuse block. FF. Fig. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. until it is within 1 in. and C. long. Fig. as it stands a higher temperature. This will allow the plate. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D.

Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. as the turns of the wires. Can. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. KK. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. If it is not thoroughly dry. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. it leaves a gate for the metal. when cool. will slip and come in contact with each other. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. St. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. A. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. using care not to get it too wet. When this is done. II. Next. A file can be used to remove any rough places. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. H. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. Fig. It should not be set on end. more wire should be added. 2. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. Cnonyn. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Cut a 1/2-in. so that the circuit will not become broken. deep. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. This point marks the proper length to cut it. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. apart. It should not be left heated in this condition. --Contributed by R.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. As these connections cannot be soldered. and pressed into it. Fig. Richmond. --Contributed by W. when heated. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. Jaquythe. 4. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. When the tile is in place. While the clay is damp. This completes the stove. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. If this is the case. Catherines. Cal. The clay. Cover over about 1 in. causing a short circuit. allowing a space between each turn. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. then. steam will form when the current is applied. above the rim.

but 12 by 24 in. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. --Contributed by Andrew G. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Louisville. is large enough. Ky. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. the air can enter from both top and bottom. as shown. square material in any size. says the Photographic Times. the pie will be damaged. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. Then clip a little off the . Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Thorne. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. and the frame set near a window. and the prints will dry rapidly. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. constructed of 3/4-in.

thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. open out. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. high. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. each 1 in. long. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. 1. 3. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. 2. high. Fig. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. The board can be raised to place . as shown. Le Mars. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt.Paper Funnel point. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. long. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. 22 gauge magnet wire. -Contributed by S. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. 1/2 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. thick and 3 in. 1. which are fastened to the base. wide. W. 14 in. thick and 3 in. in diameter and about 4 in. 1/2 in. allowing each end to project for connections. thick. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. Herron. 1 and 3. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. slip on two cardboard washers. wide and 3 in. wide and 7 in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. 4 in. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. As the shaft revolves. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. Two supports. long. An offset is bent in the center. 1. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. causing a break in the current. Iowa. thereby saving time and washing. Fig. The driving arm D. for the crank. 2-1/2 in. Fig. high. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 1. long. in diameter. which gives the shaft a half turn. The connecting rod E. The upright B. Figs. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. each 1/2 in. at GG. A 1/8-in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig.

Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. bottom side up. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. 3 in. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. In designing the roost. One or more pots may be used. as shown in the sketch. in height. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. on a board. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Dorchester. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Place the pot. Stecher. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. making a framework suitable for a roost. --Contributed by William F. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. . The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Mass.

F. 1. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. odd corners. paraffin and paint or varnish. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. ordinary glue. 1. in diameter. adopt the method described. preferably. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. shelves. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. when combined. and give it time to dry. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. Wind the . common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. F. grills and gratings for doors. The materials required are rope or. will produce the pattern desired. Fig. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. without any corresponding benefit.. if it is other than straight lines. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. as shown in Fig. The bottom part of the sketch.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. etc.. windows. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. that it is heated. The design must be considered first and when one is selected.

I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Lockport. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Fig. six designs are shown. 2. -Contributed by Geo. M. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] .Fig. N. Harrer. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. cut and glue them together. Y.

Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support.. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. but no farther. will be retained by the cotton. 1. says the English Mechanic. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. This piece of horse armor.. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. chips of iron rust. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. etc. and the sides do not cover the jaws. which was used in front of a horse's head. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. London.. when it will be observed that any organic matter. As the . makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. etc. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in.

except the thumb and fingers. and the clay model oiled. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. 2. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. In Fig. which is separate. 8. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. with the exception of the thumb shield. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. 6 and 7. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. as the surface will hold the clay. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. This can be made in one piece. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. and will require less clay. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 4. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. but for . For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. All being ready. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. and therefore it is not described. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. An arrangement is shown in Fig. This will make the model light and easy to move around. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. This being done. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. then another coat of glue.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. The armor is now removed from the model. This triangularshaped support. the rougher the better. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. which can be made in any size. but the back is not necessary. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. the same as in Fig. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. 2.

The two pieces of foil. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. in depth. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. 1/2 in. . The vise consists of three pieces of wood. running down the plate. fastened to the rod. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. are better shown in Fig. two in each jaw. La Rue. Fasten a polished brass ball to. the top of the rod. two for the jaws and one a wedge. Buxton. Redondo Beach. A piece of board. wide and 1/2 in. Goshen. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. are glued to it. long. and the instrument is ready for use. 2. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. --Contributed by Ralph L. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. but 3-1/2 in. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. the two pieces of foil will draw together. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. cut into the shape shown in Fig. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. each about 1/4 in. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. Y. Calif. 9. If it does not hold a charge. When locating the place for the screw eyes. the foils will not move. --Contributed by John G. N. will be about right.

A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. long. Corsicana. Texas. 2-1/2 in. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. as shown in the illustration. Bryan. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. A. as indicated in the . as this will cut under the water without splashing. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. from the smaller end. silvered. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. --Contributed by Mrs. The can may be bronzed. M. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. pine board. is made of a 1/4-in. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. At a point 6 in. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. enameled or otherwise decorated. When a fish is hooked. about 15 in. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. hole bored through it. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel.

take a piece of thin wood. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. Having completed the drawing. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. A good size is 5 in. or even pine. long over all. and trace upon it the design and outline. thick.Match Holder accompanying sketch. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. using powdered pumice and lye. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. then with a nail. Next prepare the metal holder." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. punch the holes. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. using a piece of carbon paper. When it has dried over night. Basswood or butternut. put a coat or two of wax and polish . The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. will do as well as the more expensive woods. wide by 6 in. such as basswood or pine was used. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. Any kind of wood will do. If soft wood. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. 3/8 or 1/4 in. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. as shown. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. 22 is plenty heavy enough. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. Polish the metal. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece.

with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. can be made on the same standards. A. Two wire nails. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. If carving is contemplated. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. --Contributed by W. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. . long. the whole being finished in linseed oil. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. are used for the cores of the magnets. Cal. 2 in. If one has some insight in carving. thick. of pure olive oil. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Richmond. long. 1/2 in. Jaquythe. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. is used for the base of this instrument. wide and 5 in. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. each 1 in. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. It is useful for photographers. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. Instead of the usual two short ropes.

The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. when the key is pushed down. leaving about 1/4 in. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. A rubber band. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. as shown by the dotted lines. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. H. 25 gauge. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. London. 1. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. All of the parts for the armor have been described. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. says the English Mechanic. similar to that used in electric bells. 3. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. about No. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. then covered with red. --Contributed by W. as shown in Fig. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. A piece of tin. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. the paper covering put on. except that for the legs. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. at A. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. About 1 in. cloth or baize to represent the legs. . breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. acts as a spring to keep the key open. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. in the shape shown in the sketch. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. cut in the shape of the letter T. Lynas.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire.

can be made in a few minutes' time. for the sake of lightness. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. 1 in. flat headed carriage bolt. or ordinary plaster laths will do. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. Fig. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. long. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. completes the equipment. at each end. one to another . about 1 in. apart. says Camera Craft. These can be purchased at a stationery store. So set up. By moving the position of the bolt from. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. hole in the center.. Secure two strips of wood. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. Take the piece shown in Fig. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. Instead of using brass headed nails. apart. drill six 1/4-in. In one end of the piece. and eight small holes. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. in the other end. Silver paper will do very well. The two pieces are bolted together. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. holes. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. 3 in. make the same series of eight small holes and. A 1/4-in. 1 and drill a 1/4in. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. not too tight. Cut them to a length or 40 in. 2. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel.

of the larger holes in the strip. D over A and C. A is the first string and B is the second. doubled and run through the web of A. 2. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. taking the same start as for the square fob. 1. then B over C and the end stuck under A. 4. In this sketch. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. for instance. lay Cover B and the one under D. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. of the ends remain unwoven. Start with one end. A round fob is made in a similar way. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. as shown in Fig. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. Then draw all four ends up snugly. long. Then take B and lay it over A. and lay it over the one to the right. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. in Fig. C over D and B. 2. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. and the one beneath C. 2. but instead of reversing . makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. the one marked A. Fig. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. as in portraiture and the like.

is to be made of leather. especially if silk strings are used. the design of which is shown herewith. 5. 1-1/2 in. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Ohio. Rupp. as at A in Fig. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Other designs can be made in the same manner. is left out at the center before starting on one side. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. over the one to its right. always lap one string. Monroeville. as in making the square fob. long. 3. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. The round fob is shown in Fig.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. A loop. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. as B. --Contributed by John P.

such as a nut pick. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. A. Any smooth piece of steel.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. When the supply of wax is exhausted. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. door facing or door panel. pressing it against the wood. -Contributed by A. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. Houghton. Northville. . On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Mich. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. beeswax or paraffin. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. filling them with wax. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. it can be easily renewed. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. using the reverse side. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin.

making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. New York. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. N. says Photographic Times. The tacks should be about 1 in. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Select the print you wish to mount. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. apart and driven in only part way. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. and about 12 in. leaving about 1/4 in. Y. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Enough plaster should. E and F. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. Thompson. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. it is best to leave a plain white margin. long. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. thick. and after wetting. place it face down in the dish. J.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Fold together on lines C. Petersburg. although tin ones can be used with good success. D. those on matte paper will work best. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. remaining above the surface of the board. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. . but any kind that will not stick may be used. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. if blueprints are used. --Contributed by O. Ill.

filling the same about onehalf full. without mixing the solutions. will be rendered perfectly white. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. roses. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. violets. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. One of the .. Lower into the test tube a wire. bell flowers. as shown in the right of the sketch. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. as shown at the left in the sketch. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. etc. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes.

The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. should be soldered to the box. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. Millstown. --Contributed by L. long. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. When soldering these parts together. 3. A rod that will fit the brass tube. The sound box. is about 2-1/2 in. 1. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. thick.. and at the larger end. L. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. 2. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The first point should be ground blunt. to keep the core from coming off in turning. Shabino. turned a little tapering. about 1/8s in. South Dakota. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. as shown. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. long and made of wood. Fig. or delicate tints of the egg. shading. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. The diaphragm. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . as shown in the sketch. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. 1-7/8 in. but which will not wobble loose. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. not too tightly. made of heavy tin. The tin horn can be easily made. in diameter and 1 in. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box.

he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. and weighted it with a heavy stone. mice in the bottom. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Victor. E. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Jr. Ill. wondering what it was. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. put a board on top. Gold. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. and. Colo. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. says the Iowa Homestead. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] .--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. Chicago. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground.Contributed by E. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom.

To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. N. Buffalo. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. --Contributed by Lyndwode. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. Ottawa. Y. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Pereira.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. . Can.

This cart has no axle. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Richmond. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so .How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. and at one end of the stick fasten. Put a small nail 2 in. through which several holes have been punched. De Loof. above the end of the dasher. as shown. --Contributed by Thos. cut round. --Contributed by W. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. Mich. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. longer than the length of the can. Cal. as it can be made quickly in any size. Jaquythe. Grand Rapids. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. a piece of tin. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. by means of a flatheaded tack. A.

--Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. screwed it on the inside of a store box. deep and 3 in. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. apart. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. thick. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood.1. La. Kane. wide and 3 ft. I reversed a door gong. 2. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. The strip of wood is 1/4 in.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. wide and as long as the box. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. 1/4 in. The baseboard and top are separable. Notches 1/8 in. long. A wedge-shaped piece of . 1 ft. 2. 2 in. --Contributed by James M. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. were below the level of the bullseye. wide and 1/8 in. Fig. New Orleans. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. wide. Pa. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. Doylestown. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. of course. board. 1. cut in the center of the rounding edge. as shown. 1-1/2 in. The candles. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig.

dressing one surface of each piece. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. by cutting away the ends. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. take two pieces of hard wood. A. After the glue has dried. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Wood. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. Worcester. will. For the handle. When not in use. The block can also be used as a paperweight. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. as shown in Fig. 1. stone or wood. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. scissors. wide into each side of the casing. West Union. to prevent its scratching the desk top. etc. Ia. After completing the handle. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Cover the block with rubber. can be picked up without any trouble. 3. the shelf could not be put on the window. --Contributed by G. the reason being that if both were solid. when placed as in Fig. it can be removed without marring the casing. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Mass.Book Back Holders metal. This device is very convenient for invalids. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. wide rubber bands or felt. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. Needles. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together.. the blade is put back into the groove . Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge.

1 in. Malden. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. . 2. Mass. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. as shown in Fig. square and 4 in. A notch is cut in one side. as shown in Fig. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Jacobs. -Contributed by W. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. If desired. is shown in the accompanying sketch. thus carrying the car up the incline. Hutchins. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. Ohio. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Cleveland. long. --Contributed by H. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Erie. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. 1. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Pa. S. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them.and sharpened to a cutting edge. A. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block.

J. 6 by 9-1/2 in. and an awl and hammer.. If one such as is shown is to be used. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. a board on which to work it. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. N. . will be needed. Cape May Point. One sheet of metal. Prepare a design for the front. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. This will insure having all parts alike.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. The letters can be put on afterward.

to right angles. which is desirable. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. or. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in." In all appearance. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. behind or through the center of a table leg. If any polishing is required. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. 1 part. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium.Fasten the metal to the board. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. turpentine. 2 parts white vitriol. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. . only the marginal line is to be pierced. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. 3/4 part. flat brush. The music will not sound natural. mandolin or guitar. Remove the metal. placed on a table. but weird and distant. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. The stick may be placed by the side of. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. a violin. in the waste metal. paste the paper design right on the metal. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. On the back. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. varnish. says Master Painter. So impressive are the results. if desired. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. One coat will do. that can be worked in your own parlor. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. as shown. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. applied by means of a brush. 1/4 part.

The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. With proper tools this is easy. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. each 28 in. round-head machine screws. are shaped as shown in Fig. Two pairs of feet. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. it might be difficult. apart. is bent square so as to form two uprights. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. The longest piece. wide. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. long. long and spread about 8 in. square bar iron. each 6 in. London. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. and is easy to construct. across the top. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. without them. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. . thick by 1/2 in. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. 3. says Work. 2. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. long and measuring 26 in. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in.

lead. in the grooves of the borders. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. After the joints are soldered. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. 7. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. B.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. using rosin as a flux. 5. on it as shown. is held by the brads. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. the latter being tapped to . 5. After the glass is cut. or. 4. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. The brads are then removed. 6. The glass. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. and the base border. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. as shown in Fig. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. Place the corner piece of glass. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. A. Fig. Fig. cut a long piece of lead. While the piece of lead D. C. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. The design is formed in the lead. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. special flux purchased for this purpose. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. D. better still.

N. 8. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. holes through their centers.. A and B. long. rounded at the top as shown. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. This . and two wood blocks. Dreier. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. wood screws in each washer. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. then drill a 3/4-in. Camden. in diameter and about 9 in. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. thick and drill 3/4-in. plank about 12 ft. plates. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. bolt. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. rocker bolt. one on each side and central with the hole. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Bore a 5/8-in. long. Jr. as shown in Fig. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. long. then flatten its end on the under side. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Fasten the plates to the block B. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. J. Make three washers 3-in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in.the base of the clip. in diameter and 1/4 in. Secure a post. The center pin is 3/4-in. not less than 4 in. --Contributed by W. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. Bore a 3/4-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. and round the corners of one end for a ring. bolt. This ring can be made of 1-in. H. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in.

4 in. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. 4 pieces. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. apart for a distance of 3 ft. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. long. 50 ft. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. La. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. 4 pieces. long. 9 in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. by 3 ft. square by 9-1/2 ft. long. 3 in. 1-1/4in. in diameter and 7 in. hickory. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned.will make an excellent cover for a pot. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. To substitute small. 1/2 in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . boards along the side of each from end to end. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. 1. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. long. the money outlay will be almost nothing. square by 5 ft. long. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. 16 screws. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. 2-1/2 in. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. chestnut or ash. by 2 ft. The four 7-in. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. shanks. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. If trees are convenient. can make a first class gymnasium. 4 filler pieces. 4 in. straight-grained hickory. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. 2 by 4 in. maple. and some one can swing an axe. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. long. horse and rings. from one edge. long and 1 piece. 3/4 by 3 in. bit. because it will not stand the weather. 1 by 7 in. New Orleans. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. of 1/4-in. Draw a line on the four 7-in. by 6-1/2 ft. 7 in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. bolts and rope. screws. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses.

so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly.. each 3 ft. 2. from the end. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. boards coincide. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar.. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each.bored. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. 8 in. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. apart. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. so the 1/2-in. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. piece of wood. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. Bore a 9/16-in. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. deep and remove all loose dirt. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. apart. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. at each end. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar.

it follows the edge for about 1 in. disappearing only to reappear again. He stretched the thread between two buildings. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass.. and materially heightened the illusion. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. W. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. which at once gathered. When the interest of the crowd. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. but most deceptive at dusk. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. the effect is very striking. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. about 100 ft. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. in an endless belt. just visible against the dark evening sky. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible." which skimmed along the distant horizon. and then passes in a curve across the base. If the tumbler is rotated. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. not even the tumbler. it is taken to the edge of the foot. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. and ascends the stem. was at its height. not much to look at in daytime. . after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. passing through a screweye at either end. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. And all he used was a black thread. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. apart. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in.

large spikes. 7 in. 2 by 4 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. La. long and 1 doz. To make the apparatus. 4 wood screws. beginning at a point 9 in. A wire about No. deep. by 7 ft. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 8 in. preferably cedar. 8 bolts. long. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. Bevel the ends of . to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. by 2 ft. long. 1. long. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 4 bolts. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. and turned in a spiral D. 2 by 4 in. 2 by 3 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. square and 6 ft. long. 4 in. 2 base pieces. by 3 ft. The cork will come out easily. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 2 by 4 in. 8 in. 6 in. from either side of the center. long. Chisel out two notches 4 in. long. so the point will be on top. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. by 10 ft. 2 side braces. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 8 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. square and 51/2 ft.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. Fig. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. wide and 1 in. 2 in. long. 2 cross braces. New Orleans. 4 knee braces. long. 4 in.

leaving the strainer always in position. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Cal. jellies.. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. so the bolts in both will not meet. screws. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. ( To be Continued. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. leave it undressed. and countersinking the heads. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. which face each other.the knee braces. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. . and in the winter they should be removed and stored. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. Two endpieces must be made. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. --Contributed by W. The wood so treated will last for years. equipped with a strainer. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. After the trenches are dug. using four of the 7-in bolts. These will allow the ladle to be turned. etc. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. of 7 ft. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. except the bars. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. If using mill-cut lumber. Jaquythe. A large sized ladle.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. additional long. Richmond. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. as shown in the diagram. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. but even unpainted they are very durable. A. save the bars. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups.

Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. of sufficient 1ength. it is necessary to place a stick. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. partly a barrier for jumps. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. . If a little turpentine is added to the oil. or various cutting compounds of oil. Oil. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. thus holding the pail as shown. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. drill press or planer. milling machine. A. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. which seems impossible. In order to accomplish this experiment.

Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. The material required is as follows: Two posts. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. apart in a central position on the horse. long. 4 knee braces. ten 1/2-in. 3 in.. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. but 5 ft. projections and splinters. 2 bases. 4 in. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 1 in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. apart. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. 2 adjusting pieces. bolts. square by 5 ft. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. by 3 ft. bolt. 4-1/2 in. wood yard or from the woods. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 4 in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. 4 in. 7 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. in diameter--the larger the better. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. These are well nailed in place. in the ground. beginning 1-1/2 in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. 2 by 4 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. 2 by 4 in. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. is a good length. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. 2 by 4 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. by 3 ft. The round part of this log must be planed. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. long. from each end. piece of 2 by 4-in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. bolts. To construct. long. square by 5-1/2 ft. long. stud cut rounding on one edge. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood.. bolts. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. long. two 1/2-in. by 3 ft. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. long. These are placed 18 in. and free from knots. long. Hand holds must be provided next. long. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. Procure from a saw mill. 1 cross brace.

This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. over and around. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Also. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. it is caused by an overloaded shell.horse top. water. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. Such a hand sled can be made in a . but nevertheless. then bending to the shape desired. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. pipe and fittings. etc. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Cal. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. Richmond. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. it is caused by some obstruction. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. such as a dent. A. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. no one is responsible but himself. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. snow.--Contributed by W. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Jaquythe.

Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. when straightened out. 1. Ontario. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Paris. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. are all the tools necessary. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. thick. Boston. --Contributed by Arthur E. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. France. W. --Contributed by James E. . at E and F. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. The end elevation. Noble. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Toronto. will give the length. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. --Contributed by J. when complete. 1/4 or 3/16 in. 2. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. which. Joerin. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. Mass. Vener. in width and 1/32 in. is much better than a wood sled.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. then run a string over each part. These.

It is best to use soft water. nor that which is partly oxidized. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The method shown in Figs. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 4. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. . and the latter will take on a bright luster. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. are nailed. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. 3. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. AA and BB. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade.

. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. as shown in Fig. 4. or unequal widths as in Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. class ice-yacht. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. as shown in Fig. The materials used are: backbone. 3. Broad lines can be made. 2. 2. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. or various rulings may be made. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 8 and 9. 1). Percy Ashley in Rudder.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. a tee and a forging. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. It can be made longer or shorter. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. a larger size of pipe should be used. 1-Details of Lathe sort.Fig. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. pipe. long. bent and drilled as shown. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. but if it is made much longer. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. about 30 in. The headstock is made of two tees. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. 1. The point should extend about 11/2 in. out from the collar. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. pins to keep them from turning. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. Both the lower .

a corresponding line made on this. else taper turning will result. or a key can be used as well. UpDeGraff. as shown in Fig. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. --Contributed by M. Cal. W. thick as desired. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. 1. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. . but also their insulating properties. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. as shown in Fig. M. Laporte. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. 2. Indiana. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. --Contributed by W. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Musgrove. Held. Fruitvale. 2. --Contributed by W. a straight line should be scratched Fig. and will answer for a great variety of work. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. It is about 1 in.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. Boissevain. To do this. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. 2. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 3/4 or 1 in. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. Man. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical.

--Contributed by E. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . In use. Ark. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. Ft.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. Cline. J. Smith. as shown. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. To obviate this. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. long. The handle is of pine about 18 in.

face off the end of the piece. New Orleans. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. and when once in true up to its size. --Contributed by Walter W. La. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. centering is just one operation too many. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. if this method is followed: First. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. on starting the lathe. take .An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. which should be backed out of contact. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. the drill does not need the tool. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. After being entered. Denver. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Colo. This prevents the drill from wobbling. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. White.

and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. In doing this. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. after being shown empty. by applying caustic soda or . It can be used in a great number of tricks. After the wand is removed. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. a long piece of glass tubing. says the Sphinx. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. shorter t h a n the wand. vanishing wand. unknown to the spectators. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. and this given to someone to hold. and can be varied to suit the performer. The glass tube B. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. all the better. the cap is placed over the paper tube. The handkerchief rod. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. as shown in D. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. a bout 1/2 in. is put into the paper tube A. shown at C. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters.

ends and bottom are made of hard wood.potash around the edges of the letters. with the back side rounding. 1 End. square and 1-7/8 in. long. Glue strips of soft wood. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. With care and patience. Cut a piece of hard wood. cut to any shape desired. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. across the front and back to strengthen them. 2 Sides. as shown by K. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. 1 Neck. 1/4 in. 1 Bottom. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. can be made by the home mechanic. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. and glue it to the neck at F. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. The sides. 3/16. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. thick. This dimension and those for the frets . The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. preferably hard maple. The brace at D is 1 in. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. As the cement softens. 1. by 14 by 17 in. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. Glue the neck to the box. End. and if care is taken in selecting the material. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples.

long is used for a keel. Norwalk. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. or backbone. A board 1 in. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. O. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Stoddard. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. wide and 11-1/2 ft. E. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. but it is not. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. 1) on which to stretch the paper. in diameter. H. 3/16 in. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. --Contributed by Chas. Frary. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat.should be made accurately. -Contributed by J. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. Six holes. and beveled . thick and about 1 ft.Pa. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. When it is completed you will have a canoe. toward each end. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. Carbondale. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars.

In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. Osiers probably make the best ribs. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. B. or other place. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. Fig. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. The ribs. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. b. as they are apt to do. apart. 3. 4. Fig. Fig. and are not fastened. and notched at the end to receive them (B. such as hazel or birch. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. 1. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. are next put in. but twigs of some other trees. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. In drying. . twigs 5 or 6 ft. The cross-boards (B. as shown in Fig. C. procure at a carriage factory. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. Fig. as before described.) in notches. in such cases. a. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. long. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join.. two strips of wood (b. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. For the gunwales (a. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. b. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. probably. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. 3/8 in. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. Fig. 2. as shown in Fig. thick. 3). and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. two twigs may be used to make one rib. 1 and 2. slender switches of osier willow. which are easily made of long. will answer nearly as well. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. Fig. 2). and so. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. some tight strips of ash. Green wood is preferable. 13 in. 4). such as is used for making chairbottoms. and. by means of a string or wire. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. C. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. 2). and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. 3). fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. Fig. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. in thickness and should be cut. thick. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. Shape these as shown by A. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. wide by 26 in. Fig. when made of green elm. Any tough. but before doing this. long are required. the loose strips of ash (b. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. or similar material. 3. with long stout screws. buy some split cane or rattan. Fig. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. These are better. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. b. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C.

Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. It should be drawn tight along the edges. When the paper is dry. and held in place by means of small clamps. if it has been properly constructed of good material. and very tough. and steady in the water. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. The paper is then trimmed. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. after wetting it. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. however. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. Then take some of the split rattan and. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. tacking it to the bottom-board. If not. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. When thoroughly dry. but neither stiff nor very thick. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. wide. apply a second coat of the same varnish. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. and light oars. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. B. Being made in long rolls. It should be smooth on the surface. and as soon as that has soaked in. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. preferably iron. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. 5). until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Fig. of very strong wrapping-paper. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. but with less turpentine. If the paper be 1 yd. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. You may put in .

Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. Fig. 1 and the end in . The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. Drive the lower nail first. Fig.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Fig. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. and make a movable seat (A. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. 5. to fit it easily. We procured a box and made a frame. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. they will support very heavy weights. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. 2. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. 1. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. 5). fore and aft. and if driven as shown in the cut.

a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. Pa. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. Close the other end with the same operation. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. 4. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. 5. Pittsburg. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. A good way to handle this work. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. This way has its drawbacks. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. being softer where the flame has been applied. this makes the tube airtight. 3. and the glass. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. This is an easy .Fig. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. and the result is.

Seventh. Sixth. -Contributed by A. also trace the decorative design. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. three. four. rivet punch. thin screw. above the metal. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. with a piece of carbon paper. After the bulb is formed. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. Oswald. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. third. Give the metal a circular motion. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. above the work and striking it with the hammer. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. The candle holders may have two.way to make a thermometer tube. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. flat and round-nosed pliers. or six arms. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. 23 gauge. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. extra metal all around. metal shears. fourth. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. very rapid progress can be made. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. file. fifth. then reverse. second.

these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . drip cup. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. Having pierced the bracket. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Small copper rivets are used. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Metal polish of any kind will do. and holder. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers.

and brace and bit were the tools used. hammer. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. F. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. and it will be ready for future use. using a steel pen. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. except they had wheels instead of runners. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Shiloh. the stick at the bottom of the sail. alcohol 2 parts. and other things as they were needed. winding the ends where they came together with wire. and in a week . and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. Soak 1 oz. N. if it has not absorbed too much ink. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. when it will be ready for use. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. deep. on a water bath. sugar 1 part. and add the gelatine. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. of glycerine to about 200 deg. A saw. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. all the rest I found. Mother let me have a sheet. Twenty cents was all I spent. Fifty. smooth it down and then remove as before. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. Heat 6-1/2 oz. thus it was utilized. The gaff. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. J. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. I steer with the front wheel. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. glycerine 4 parts. they were like an ice boat with a sail. is a broomstick. and water 24 parts. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. The boom.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens .

2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. The board is centered both ways.. and. 8 in. and a projecting lens 2 in. wide and 15 in. high. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. or a lens of 12-in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. DD. The slide support. A table. at a distance of 24 ft. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. This ring is made up from two rings. or glue. well seasoned pine. above the center. E. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. long. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. and 14 in. provided the material is of metal. Fig. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. 1/2 to 3/4 in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. and the work carefully done. wide. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. wire brads. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. about 2 ft. and the lens slide. but if such a box is not found. thick. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. 1. 3. focus enlarging a 3-in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. G. as desired. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. H. A and B. slide to about 6 ft. describe a 9-in. at a point 1 in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. If a small saw is used. are .

Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. St. P. To reach the water. should the glass happen to upset. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. but not long enough. A sheet . All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. B. JJ. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. placed on the water. the water at once extinguishes the flame. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. the strips II serving as guides. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. Small strips of tin. apply two coats of shellac varnish. Paul. of safe. light burning oil. E. The arrangement is quite safe as. Minn. and when the right position is found for each. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen.constructed to slip easily on the table. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil.-Contributed by G.

from a tent company. I ordered a canvas bag. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 1. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 3 in. 9 in. 3. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. to cover the mattresses. --Contributed by J. 3. N.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. If one of these clips is not at hand. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 12 ft. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart.. 2. Fig. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. Y. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. form a piece of wire in the same shape. Crawford. 4. Fig. Schenectady.H. by 12 ft.

and insert two binding-posts. C. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. V. Warren. A Film Washing Trough [331] . so as to form two oblong boxes. through which the indicator works. Fasten the wire with gummed label. for amperes and the other post. long. 2. open on the edges. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. 3/4 in. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. to keep it from unwinding. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. long and 3/16 in. drill two 3/16 in. An arc is cut in the paper. Fig. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. Attach a piece of steel rod. Denver. Do not use too strong a rubber. wide. apart. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. To calibrate the instrument. in the center coil. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. thick. A rubber band. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. 3/4 in. D. first mark the binding-post A. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. 1/2 in. Fig. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. 1/2 in. 1. as shown in Fig. Colo. holes in the edge. to the coil of small wire for volts. 3 to swing freely on the tack. White. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. Pa. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. insulating them from the case with cardboard. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. 2. 1. --Contributed by Edward M.each edge. 2. Fold two strips of light cardboard. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. Teasdale. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. --Contributed by Walter W. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial.

A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. O. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. M. Place this can on one end of the trough. Cut a 1/4-in. with the large hole up. --Contributed by M.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Hunting. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. as shown. Wood Burning [331] . Dayton. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut.

When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. mouth downward. then into this bottle place.

Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. long. 3/4 in. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. wide and 4 in. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. 1. Auburn.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. Upper Troy. If the small bottle used is opaque. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. --Contributed by John Shahan. 2. but not very thick. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. N. thick. many puzzling effects may be obtained. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle.Y. Whitehouse. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Place the small bottle in as before. This will make a very pretty ornament. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. provided the bottle is wide. If the cork is adjusted properly. --Contributed by Fred W. Ala. as shown in the sketch. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig.

pulley F. which was nailed to the face plate. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. --Contributed by D. 4. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. Both bearings were made in this manner. 1. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. line. The bearing blocks were 3 in. 1. Fig. 1. 3. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. Fig. Fig. The shaft C. such as blades and pulleys. 1. pulley. thick. On a 1000-ft. 1 in. was 1/4in. I. high without the upper half. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. long. Fig. The wire L was put . which was 6 in. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. 2. 2 ft. W. was keyed to shaft C. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. 1. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. which gave considerable power for its size. or ordinary telephone transmitters. iron rod. to the shaft. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. Its smaller parts.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. wide. Milter. thick. as shown in Fig. A staple. K. in diameter and 1 in. sugar pine on account of its softness. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. thick and 3 in. were constructed of 1-in. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. even in a light breeze. by the method shown in Fig. which extended to the ground. G. The 21/2-in. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. Fig. B. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. If a transmitter is used.

3 in. This completes the receiver or sounder. long and 1/2 in. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. Fig. 0. Fig. The smaller one. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. R. in diameter. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. pine 18 by 12 in. long and bend it as . hole for the shaft G was in the center. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. To lessen the friction here. across the thin edge of a board. This board was 12 in. G. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. 6. 5. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. square to the board P at the top of the tower. Two washers were placed on shaft C. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. long. long and bend it as shown at A. H. was tacked. when the windmill needed oiling. in the center of the board P. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. This fan was made of 1/4-in.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. There a 1/4-in. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. cut out another piece of tin (X. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. The bed plate D. 25 ft. 1) 4 in. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. 1. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. with all parts in place. Fig. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. for instance. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. so that the 1/4-in. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. long. and was cut the shape shown. through the latter. strips. a 1/2-in. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. top down also. washers were placed under pulley F. was 2 ft. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. Fig. Fig. hole was bored for it. 1. 1. 2. 1. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. providing one has a few old materials on hand. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. Fig. apart in the tower. as. wide and 1 in. with brass headed furniture tacks. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. The power was put to various uses. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. long and 3 in. Fig. 6. To make the key. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. If you have no bell. The other lid.

Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. after the manner of bicycle wheels. as indicated. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B.shown. at the front. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. 2. Before tacking it to the board. like many another device boys make. Now. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. causing a buzzing sound. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . although it can be made with but two. 1. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. Thus a center drive is made. and. fitted with paddles as at M. -Contributed by John R. as shown at Water. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. When tired of this instrument. using cleats to hold the board frame. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. Going back to Fig. leaving the other wire as it is. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. By adjusting the coils. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. The rear barrels are. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. McConnell. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig.

The speed is slow at first. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. there will not be much friction. feet on the pedals. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. can be built. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. copper piping and brass tubing for base. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. as shown in Fig. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. To propel it. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. or even a little houseboat. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. 1. which will give any amount of pleasure. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. There is no danger. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. If the journals thus made are well oiled. 3.

On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. Fig. 1. Fig. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Place one brass ring in cylinder. C. Fig. D. If magnifying glass cannot be had. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. Fig. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. 1. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained.of pleasure for a little work. Then melt out the rosin or lead. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. then the glass disc and then the other ring. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. Shape small blocks of boxwood. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Turn a small circle of wood. If it is desired to make the light very complete. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. 2. and so creating a false circuit. or it may be put to other uses if desired. 2. B. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. 2. 1. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. A. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector.

wire from bell to switch. To throw on light throw levers to the left. Pa. When alarm goes off. switch. thick.. near the bed. such as is used for cycle valves. long. or 1/4in. while lying in bed. I. 4-1/2 in. D. which stops bell ringing. wide and 1/16 in. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. contact post. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. 4 in. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. To operate this. S. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. after two turns have been made on the key. Throw lever off from the right to center. In placing clock on shelf. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. --Contributed by C. Chatland. F. copper tubing. Ogden. and pulled tight. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. B. long. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. brass rod. H. dry batteries.india rubber tubing. C. bracket. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. E. some glue will secure them. C. after setting alarm. 5-1/4 by 10 in. if too small. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. G. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. T. wire from batteries to switch. brass strip. wire from light to switch. bell. Brinkerhoff. 3/8 in. --Contributed by Geo. Swissvale. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. shelf. J. set alarm key as shown in diagram. To get the cylinder into its carriage. X. by having the switch on the baseboard. key of alarm clock. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. Utah. The parts indicated are as follows: A.

Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. beyond the end of the spindle. in diameter. as at B. as at A. will do the heating. 2. wide. from one end. place stick and all in a pail of sand. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. --Contributed by Chas. Fig. S. Fig. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. 1. a bed warmer. as at A. Pull out the nail and stick. letting it extend 3/4 in. being careful not to get the sand in it. This is to form the fuse hole. All that is required is a tin covering. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. 1. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. Make a shoulder. Lanesboro. A small lamp of about 5 cp. as in Fig. in diameter. 4 in. Fig. Make the spindle as in Fig. gives the heater a more finished appearance. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Chapman. which can be made of an old can. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. long. as . A flannel bag. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. making it as true and smooth as possible. Minn. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. for instance. 1/4 in. Having finished this. 2. about 3-1/2 in. 3. about 6 in.

but if this wood cannot be procured. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. thick. 11/2 in. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. A piece of oak. 1 in. long. 6 in. ash. wide and 6 ft. this is to keep the edges from splitting. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. good straight-grained pine will do. long. A piece of tin. long. thick. 5/8 in. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. will be sufficient to make the trigger. or hickory. 3/8 in. spring and arrows. The material must be 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by Arthur E. Joerin. deep. wide and 3 ft. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . 1. The illustration shows how this is done. wide and 3/8 in. thick. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides.

from the opposite end. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. and one for the trigger 12 in. Wilmette. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. A spring. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. To shoot the crossbow. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. Such a temporary safe light may be . it lifts the spring up. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. To throw the arrow. wide at each end. The trigger. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. place the arrow in the groove. When the trigger is pulled. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. having the latter swing quite freely. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. --Contributed by O. 6. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. 8. 2. Fig. E. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. Ill. better still. 3. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. Trownes. which is 1/4 in. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. in diameter. 7. thick. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. The bow is not fastened in the stock. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. or through the necessity of. Fig. The stick for the bow. 9. from the end of the stock. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. as shown in Fig. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. 4. Fig. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. as shown in Fig. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws.

since the flame of the candle is above A. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. the bark lean-to is a . Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. The hinged cover E. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. The cut should be about 5 ft. Remove one end. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. By chopping the trunk almost through. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. respectively. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. This lamp is safe. Remove the bottom of the box. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. C. is used as a door. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Moreover. and nail it in position as shown at A. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. make the frame of the wigwam.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. says Photo Era. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. from the ground. and replace as shown at B. from the ground. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. making lighting and trimming convenient. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. it is the easiest camp to make. apart. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built.

then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. wide. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. . make the best kind of a camp bed. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. For a permanent camp. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. nails are necessary to hold it in place. In the early summer. are a convenient size for camp construction. spruce. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. For a foot in the middle of the stick. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. long and 1-1/2 in. and split the tops with an ax. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. long. 3 ft. selecting a site for a camp. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. makes a good pair of tongs. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. piled 2 or 3 ft. and when the camp is pitched. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Tongs are very useful in camp. and cedar. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. 6 ft. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. a 2-in. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. Where bark is used. thick. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. Sheets of bark. wide and 6 ft. A piece of elm or hickory. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. deep and covered with blankets. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. will dry flat. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. long and 2 or 3 ft.

and affording accommodation for several persons.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. hinges. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. . and it is not difficult to improvise shelves.

connected by means of a very small lead pipe. Pa. B. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. Kane. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. and provide a cover or door. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. 1. changing the water both morning and night. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. to another . --Contributed by James M. A. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. wide. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. deep and 4 in. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. I drove a small cork. Fig. Doylestown. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. the interior can. about 4 in. B..

as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. 2. 4 and 5). for instance. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. such as ether. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. if necessary. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. until. This makes . and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. E. Fig. The diagram. The current is thus compelled. 2. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. a liquid. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. C. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. for instance. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. limit.glass tube. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. which project inside and outside of the tube. fused into one side. to pass through an increasing resistance. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. 3. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5.

making it 1/16 in. Michigan. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. by turning the lathe with the hand. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. two holes. tap. between centers. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. which will make it uniform in size. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. A. 4-1/2 in. cannot be used so often. therefore. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. on a lathe. brass. screws. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. to allow for finishing. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. as shown in Fig. is composed of wrought sheet iron. Then the field can be finished to these marks. but merely discolored. or pattern. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. The bearing studs are now made.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. 3. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. Fig. they will make a frame 3/4 in. thick. drill the four rivet holes. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. which may be of any thickness so that. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. assemble and rivet them solidly. set at 1/8 in. When the frame is finished so far. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. brass or iron. in diameter. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. 3-3/8 in. hole is . bent at right angles as shown. clamp the template. Before removing the field from the lathe. 3-3/8 in. in diameter. larger than the dimensions given. 2. These holes are for the bearing studs. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. After the template is marked out. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. If the thickness is sufficient. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. when several pieces are placed together. or even 1/16 in. After cleaning them with the solution. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. Alpena. thick. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. mark off a space. and for the outside of the frame. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. thicker. A 5/8in. 1. Fig. as shown in the left-hand sketch.

is turned up from machine steel. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. soldered into place. When the bearings are located. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. 4. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. and build up the solder well. brass rod is inserted. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. The shaft of the armature. solder them to the supports. or otherwise finished. file them out to make the proper adjustment.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. Fig. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. into which a piece of 5/8-in. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field.

7. brass rod. Make the core 3/4 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. 3/4 in. then drill a 1/8-in. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. 9. 3. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. 1-1/8 in. wide. thick are cut like the pattern. Find the centers of each segment at one end. thick. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. When this is accomplished. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. and then they are soaked in warm water. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. Armature-Ring Core. 8. washers. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. 3. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. as shown in Fig. to allow for finishing to size. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass.. Rivet them together. hole and tap it for a pin. or segments. thick. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. The sides are also faced off and finished. thick. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 5. After they . The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. 6. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. as shown m Fig. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. and held with a setscrew. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. After the pieces are cut out. sheet fiber. being formed for the ends. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. thick and 1/4 in. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. as shown in Fig. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. holes through them for rivets. inside diameter. When annealed. The pins are made of brass. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. 1/8 in. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. 3/4 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. 6. threaded. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. Procure 12 strips of mica. deep and 7/16 in. by 1-1/2 in. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. wide.

insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. After one coil. the two ends of the wire. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. All connections should be securely soldered. sheet fiber. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. 6 in. until the 12 slots are filled. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. The source of current is connected to the terminals. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. by bending the end around one of the projections. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. being required. The field is wound with No. of No. Run one end of the field wire. are soldered together. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. or side. and bring the end of the wire out at B. 5. The winding is started at A. Fig. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. long. In starting to wind. and wind on four layers. 1. This winding is for a series motor. of the wire. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. 8 in. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. of the end to protrude. shown at B. wide and 1 in. thick. yet it shows a series of . Fig. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. about 100 ft. which will take 50 ft. after the motor is on the stand. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. 1. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. sheet fiber. shown at A. The two ends are joined at B. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. When the glue is set. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. To connect the wires. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. they are glued to the core insulation. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring.have dried. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent.

one from each of the eight contacts. A 1/2-in. and one. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. still more simply. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. as in the case of a spiral. Nine wires run from the timer. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. is fastened to the metallic body. which serves as the ground wire. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. or. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells.

wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. It should be . 6 in. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. circle. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. 45 deg. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in.The Wind Vane. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. thus giving 16 different directions. board. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. long. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. Without this attachment. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. of the dial. Covering these is a thin. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial.

Fill the box with any handy ballast. according to who is going to use it. however. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. Buffalo. will answer the purpose just as well. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. 14 by 18 in. Blackmer. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. Y.about 6 ft. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. and securely nail on the top of the box. will be sufficient. long to give the best results. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. though a special knife. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. To work these outlines. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. To make it. making it heavy or light. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. is most satisfactory. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. Cut 3-in. N. and about 6 in. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. thus making a universal joint. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. high. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. . fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. -Contributed by James L. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. called a chip carving knife. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. or. Before tacking the fourth side. if not too high. also a piece of new carpet. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. will be enough for the two sides. Place the leather on some level. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used.

fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. A good leather paste will be required. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. An ordinary sewing-machine . Paste the silk plush to the inner side.

The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. a needle and some feathers. of common salt and 10 lb. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. --Contributed by Katharine D. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. away from it. Morse. rather than the smooth side. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb.will do if a good stout needle is used. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. N. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. and tie them together securely at the bottom. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Syracuse. square and tying a piece of . of water. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. as in cases of a sprained ankle. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. or a hip that has been wrenched. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Y. and fasten the feathers inside of it. B. can be thrown away when no longer needed. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. temporary lameness. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. If a fire breaks out.

This not only keeps the rats out. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. B. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. Y. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. --Contributed by John A. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. N. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. . The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. but not sharp.J. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. letting it go at arm's length. thus helping the rats to enter. Gordon Dempsey. deep. and the receiver is ready for use. One end is removed entirely. Paterson. 1/8 in. etc. E. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. Hellwig. There is a 1-in. as shown. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. The end is filed to an edge. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. long. wide and 1/16 in. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. G. N. The coil is 1 in. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. high. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. is cut on the wood. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. The strings should be about 15 in. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. The body of the receiver. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. the corners being wired. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. setting traps. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. laying poisoned meat and meal. made up of four layers of No. long. cut to the length of the spool. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. Ashland. A. and a coil of wire.string to each corner. The diaphragm C. F. which is the essential part of the instrument. Wis. A small wooden or fiber end. Albany. commonly called tintype tin. and tacked it to the boards.. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. board all around the bottom on the inside. --Contributed by J. wound on the head end.

The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. better still. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. to . Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. begin with the smallest scrolls. Take a piece of string or. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. To clean small articles. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. gold. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. wide. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. a piece of small wire. and bend each strip in shape. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. The vase is to have three supports. A single line will be sufficient.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper.

stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Fold the leather on the line EF. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. from C to D. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. About 1 in. 3-1/4 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. After taking off the pattern. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. from E to F. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. 4-1/4 in. as shown in the sketch. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. sharp pencil.. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. thus raising it. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened.which the supports are fastened with rivets. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. . and does not require coloring. 6-3/8 in. Trace also the line around the purse. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. through which to slip the fly AGH. using a duller point of the tool. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. wide when stitching up the purse. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H.. Work down the outside line of the design. 3-1/2 in. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Press or model down the leather all around the design. from the lines EF on the piece.

then nail it. 2. long. 1. Fit this to the two . It can be made without the use of a lathe. as shown in Fig. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. Then nail the wheel down firmly. and which will be very interesting. and. When it is finished. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. and the projections B. and a model for speed and power. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. Cut off six pieces 12 in. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. and cut it out as shown in Fig. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. b. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. and cut out a wheel. then place the square piece out of which Fig. leaving the lug a. following the dotted lines. with pins or small nails. being cast in wooden molds. This also should be slightly beveled. It is neat and efficient. Make the lug 1/4 in. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. deep. and tack the other piece slightly. Now take another piece of wood.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. all the way around. First. square. as well as useful. 3. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. 1/2 in. with a compass saw. thick. 1 was cut. the "open" side. with the open side down. deep. by 12 ft. around the wheel. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. with the largest side down.

and clean all the shavings out of it. Take the mold apart. 1.pieces just finished. square pieces of wood. hole 1/4 in. 4. holes through it. and boring a 3/8-in. After it is finished. Now take another of the 12-in. slightly beveled. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. as shown by the . then bolt it together. one of which should have a 3/8-in.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. in the center of it. place it between two of the 12-in. hole bored through its center. deep. bolts. hole entirely through at the same place. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and bore six 1/4-in. and cut it out as shown in Fig. and lay it away to dry. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. square pieces of wood. Now put mold No. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in.

instead of the right-handed piece. Using the Brace . as shown by the black dots in Fig.2. see that the bolts are all tight. and the other in the base. and two 1/4-in. Now take mold No. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. fasten a 3/8-in.2. put the top of the brace through this hole. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. drill in it. d. as shown in illustration. Then bolt the castings together. long. and run in babbitt metal again. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. Now cut out one of the 12-in. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. and pour babbitt metal into it. After it is fitted in. This is mold No. holes. 4. holes at d. wide and 16 in. Fig. only the one is left-handed. and pouring metal in to fill it up. This is for a shaft. 6. until it is full. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. and connect to the boiler. and 3/8-in. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. one in the projections. 6. b. in diameter must now be obtained. screw down. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. Put this together in mold No. Find the center of the paddle-wheel.1. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. Let it stand for half an hour. Commencing 1-1/2 in. take an ordinary brace. This will cast a paddle-wheel. and lay it away to dry. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. and bore three 1/4-in. B.black dots in Fig. This is the same as Fig. 5. long.1. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. true it up with a square. from the one end. Pour metal into mold No. A piece of mild steel 5 in.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. where the casting did not fill out. and the exhaust hole in projection b. the other right-handed. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. over the defective part. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. place it under the drill. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. 1. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. lay it on a level place. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. and drill them in the same manner. and drill it entirely through. one in the lug. place the entire machine in a vise. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. so that it will turn easily.

turn the wheel to the shape desired. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal.. and with three small screw holes around the edge. will do good service. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. while it is running at full speed. with a boss and a set screw. Plan of Ice Boat . and the other 8 ft. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. piece and at right angles to it. At each end of the 6ft. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. and if instructions have been carefully followed. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Then take a knife or a chisel. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. and. one 6 ft. long.

These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. long and 2-1/2 in. in diameter. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. bolt the 8-ft. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. Fig. at the end. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. Run the seam on a machine. 1. This fits in the square hole. in front of the rudder block. leaving 1 ft. The spar should be 9 ft. plank nail 8-in. piece and at right angles to it. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. and about 8 in. distant. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. Over the middle of the 6-ft. in the top before the skate is put on. in diameter at the base. at the top. where they often did considerable damage. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. 3. boards to make the platform. as the runners were fastened. Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. at the butt and 1 in. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. 2 by 3 in. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. projecting as in Fig. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . which may come in handy in heavy winds. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. so much the better will be your boat. in diameter in the center. plank. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Make your runners as long as possible. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. should be of hardwood. The tiller. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. To the under side of the 8-ft. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. Fig. 1. 8 a reef point knot. long. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. long. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you.

Adams. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. The . Its parts are as follows: A. but one that will afford any amount of amusement. Pa. to block B. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. B.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. and the alarm bell will ring. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. so that they come in contact at C. --Contributed by John D. wide. --Contributed by J. Comstock. P. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. small piece of wood. P. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. R. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. Ariz. The arrangement proved quite too effective. Mechanicsburg. Phoenix. block of wood nailed to A. and place it behind a stove. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. S S. allowing the springs to contact at C. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. bent into a hook at each end. binding-posts fastening the springs S S. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends.

in diameter. Arbor Wheels [359] Emery wheel arbors should be fitted with flanges or washers having a slight concave to their face. Put the works back in the metal shell and solder it to the frying pan by the pieces turned out as in Fig. high. and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. 6 in. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. The wheel is anchored out by several guy Home-Made Merry-Go-Round wires. Gild the pan all ove