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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

After the piece is thoroughly dried out. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. 2 -. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw.Fig. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. --Contributed by J. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. A piece of plank 12 in. as shown in Fig. away. distant. 2. The pieces are then dressed round. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. as shown in Fig. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. Ontario.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. apart. until it is bound as shown in Fig. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. Noble. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. E. Toronto. To throw a boomerang. 1. Fig. 2. It is held in this curve until dry. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. long will make six boomerangs. 1. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. grasp it and hold the same as a club. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. with the hollow side away from you. wide and 2 ft. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. 1.

The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. 6 in. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. thick. blocks . or rather no bottom at all. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. First. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. A very light. but about 12 in. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. and it may be necessary to use a little water. however. which makes the building simpler and easier. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. the block will drop out. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. If the snow is of the right consistency. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. A wall. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. made of 6-in. and with a movable bottom. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. dry snow will not pack easily. forcing it down closely. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. one inside of the circle and the other outside.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. high and 4 or 5 in. long. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. it is not essential to the support of the walls. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. minus the top.

a. Goodbrod. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. It also keeps them out. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. 3. which can be made of wood. Fig. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. --Contributed by Geo. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. C. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. or an old safe dial will do. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. wide. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. 2. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. Ore. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. long and 1 in. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. 2. 1.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. Fig. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. The piece of wood. Union. which is about 1 ft. Fig. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. and the young architect can imitate them. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. 3 -. A nail. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. 1. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. above the ground. There is no outward thrust. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. is 6 or 8 in. D. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust.

Merrill. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. S. Syracuse. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. says the Sphinx. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. as the weight always draws them back to place. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. one pair of special hinges.When taking hot dishes from the stove. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. If ordinary butts are used. the box locked . it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. New York. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. --Contributed by R. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover.

allowing each coat time to dry. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. 1. about 1-32 of an inch. If the measuring has been done properly. as shown. on drawing paper. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Place the piece in a vise. With the metal shears. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. When the sieve is shaken. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. one for each corner. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. smooth surface. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. Fig. If they do not. 3. Alberta Norrell. draw one-half of it. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. -Contributed by L. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. 2. proceed as follows: First. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. All . Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. Ga. as shown in Fig. Augusta. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. as shown in Fig. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. To make a design similar to the one shown. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly.and the performer steps out in view. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. It remains to bend the flaps.

if rolled under the shoe sole. Colo. R. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again.the edges should be left smooth. To keep the metal from tarnishing. which is about 6 in. in passing through the lamp. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. Denver. long. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. The common cork. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. Galbreath. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. is fitted tightly in the third hole. 25 gauge German-silver wire. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. causing it to expand. B. After this has dried. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. of No. In boring through rubber corks. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. When the current is turned off. If a touch of color is desired. in diameter. The current. A resistance. used for insulation. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. and in the positions shown in the sketch. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. C. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. should be in the line. heats the strip of German-silver wire. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. A piece of porcelain tube. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. 25 German-silver wire. --Contributed by R. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. about 6 in. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. H. from the back end. as shown at AA.

Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. with thin strips of wood. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. . A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth.bottom ring. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Mo. as shown in Fig. 1. 2. Kansas City. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. --Contributed by David Brown. Fig. 3. between them as shown in Fig. leaving a space of 4 in. Purchase two long book straps.

as . having a gong 2-1/2 in. Fig. and a pocket battery. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb.. C. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. The string is then tied. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. and tack smoothly. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. --Contributed by Katharine D. N.. When the aeroplane tips. 2. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. 1. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. long. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. and one weighing 25 lb. 1. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. Doylestown. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. 36 in. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Kane. Fig. 4. These are shown in Fig. Syracuse. which is the right weight for family use. The folds are made over the string. 1. to form a handle. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig.An ordinary electric bell. Pa. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Two strips of brass. 3. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. Y. just the right weight for a woman to use. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. --Contributed by James M. Morse. in diameter. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. Fig. A. one weighing 15 lb. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. are mounted on the outside of the box.

two 1/8 -in. AA. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. --Contributed by Louis J. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. long. Floral Park. four washers and four square nuts. 2. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. 1. The saw. Frame Made of a Rod . 2. N.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. 3/32 or 1/4 in. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. machine screws. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. in diameter. and many fancy knick-knacks. if once used. Day. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. Y. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. bent as shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. such as brackets. bookracks and shelves can be made with one.

With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Of the leathers. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. as well as brass and copper. therefore.may be made of either brass. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. The buckle is to be purchased. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. use them in place of the outside nuts. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. as well as the depth of etching desired. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. Rub off the highlights. or silver. Scranton. Watch Fob For coloring silver. copper. --Contributed by W. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. the most expensive. if copper or brass. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. For etching. treat it with color. Apply two coats. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. green and browns are the most popular. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. using a swab and an old stiff brush. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. rounding and smoothing with emery paper.. it has the correct strength. 1 part nitric acid. Drying will cause this to change to purple. File these edges. after breaking up. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. though almost any color may be obtained. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. An Austrian Top [12] . Silver is the most desirable but. be covered the same as the back. Michigan. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. In the design shown. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. 1 part sulphuric acid. A. If it colors the metal red. of course. Detroit. of water.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. allowing each time to dry. of water in which dissolve.

All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. --Contributed by J. The handle is a piece of pine.F. . thick. Tholl. wide and 3/4 in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. 3/4 in. hole. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. in diameter. 5-1/4 in. Parts of the Top To spin the top. Ypsilanti. hole in this end for the top. Michigan. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. is formed on one end. allowing only 1-1/4 in. Bore a 3/4-in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. A 1/16-in. long. A handle. pass one end through the 1/16-in. long. 1-1/4 in. When the shank is covered. set the top in the 3/4 -in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape.

Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. --A. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. --Contributed by Miss L. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. having no sides. A. The baking surface. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Mich. Ga. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Houghton. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. Alberta Norrell. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Augusta. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. For black leathers. . Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. tarts or similar pastry. Northville. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface.

The weight of the broom keeps it in position. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. says Studio Light. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. two turns will remove the jar. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. the same as shown in the illustration. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. glass fruit jar. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. then solder cover and socket together. Stringing Wires [13] A. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . Mo. Centralia. When you desire to work by white light. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked.

4 Braces. and not tip over. 4 Vertical pieces. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. 1-1/4 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. square by 62 in. Janesville. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. so it can be folded up. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. as shown in the cross-section sketch. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. . 1-1/4 in. They are fastened. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot.for loading and development. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. square by 12 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. Wis. 16 Horizontal bars.

O. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. The whole. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. If the loop is tied at the proper place. and a loop made in the end. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. -Contributed by Charles Stem. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. after filling the pail with water. from scrap material. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. H. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. New York. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. After rounding the ends of the studs. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. Phillipsburg. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. Cincinnati. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. The front can be covered . C. --Contributed by Dr. Rosenthal.

1 FIG. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. The . as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. Wehr. In my own practice. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. thoroughly fix. principally mayonnaise dressing. The results will be poor. and. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. FIG. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. you are. either for contact printing or enlargements. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. By using the following method. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. --Contributed by Gilbert A. the color will be an undesirable. Baltimore. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. sickly one. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. Develop them into strong prints. by all rules of the game. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. Md. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. the mouth of which rests against a. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. if you try to tone them afterward. If the gate is raised slightly. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle.

... when it starts to bleach... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. It will bleach slowly and evenly..... A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. but. 20 gr. Gray.. three times.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. Water ... Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. etc.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. 1 and again as in Fig. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses. Iodide of potassium . 2... L.... When the desired reduction has taken place.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. Place the dry print. long to admit the angle support... in size. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.. where it will continue to bleach.. wide and 4 in...... as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away.. without previous wetting.. in this solution. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. transfer it to a tray of water.. With a little practice." Cyanide of potassium . being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. A good final washing completes the process.. as it will appear clean much longer than the white....... to make it 5 by 5 in..... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.. The blotting paper can . 16 oz.. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. 5 by 15 in. 2 oz. preferably the colored kind.. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. --Contributed by T. San Francisco... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder..... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. Cal....... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes..

Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Canada. the head of which is 2 in. 3. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. and a length of 5 in. 20 gauge. Oshkosh. having a width of 2-1/4 in. the shaft 1 in. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Make a design similar to that shown. Corners complete are shown in Fig. --Contributed by L. wide. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. Wisconsin. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. wide below the . Wilson Aldred Toronto. Monahan. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. --Contributed by J.J.

After this has dried. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. For coloring olive green. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. Allow this to dry. using a small metal saw. Apply with a small brush. The metal must be held firmly.FIG. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. being held perpendicular to the work. 1 part nitric acid. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. then put on a second coat. 4. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. 1 part sulphuric acid. Fig. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. freehand. Trace the design on the metal. Pierce a hole with a small drill. using turpentine. With the metal shears. Make one-half of the design. With files. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. then trace the other half in the usual way. which gives the outline of the design Fig. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. 1. then coloring. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. 3. as shown in Fig. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. After the sawing. Do not put the hands in the solution. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. using carbon paper. . but use a swab on a stick. after folding along the center line. 1 Fig. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. 2. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. deep.

Ii is an ordinary staple. as shown. Syracuse. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. When this is cold. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. it does the work rapidly. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. After the stain has dried. on a chopping board. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. attach brass handles. . The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Conn. --Contributed by Katharine D. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. East Hartford. Burnett. Cal. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. thick. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Carl Cramer. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. --Contributed by M. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. then stain it a mahogany color. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. M. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. --Contributed by H. Richmond. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Morse. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. New York.

WARNECKE Procure some brass. not over 1/4 in. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Cal. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. thick. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. Richmond. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. Atwell.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. indicating the depth of the slots. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. about 3/16 in. Jaquythe. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. and several 1/8-in. L. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. Kissimmee. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. two enameled. 53 steel pens. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. Fig. Florida. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. square. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. thick and 4 in. H. as shown at A. 1. . A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. brass. one shaft. --Contributed by W. saucers or pans. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. some pieces of brass. --Contributed by Mrs.. 1/4 in. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. holes. 4. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. also locate the drill holes. A. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. as shown in Fig. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. machine screws. or tin. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. in width at the shank.

hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. machine screws. If metal dishes. with a 3/8-in. 3. long and 5/16 in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. The shaft hole may also be filed square. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. about 1/32 in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. wide and bend as shown in Fig. hole. Fig. with 1/8-in. machine screws and nuts. can be procured. wide. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. 7. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. thick. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. as shown. and pins inserted. with the face of the disk. brass and bolted to the casing. 2. using two nuts on each screw. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. A 3/4-in. 2. into the hole. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. Bend as shown in Fig. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. Fig. Fig. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in.. as shown in Fig. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. supply pipe. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. as in Fig. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. each about 1 in. There should be a space of 1/16 in. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. hole in the center. These are connected to a 3/8-in. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. a square shaft used. 1. long by 3/4 in. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. and the ends filed round for the bearings. 5. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . thick. hole is drilled to run off the water. 3. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. in diameter and 1/32 in. 6. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. lead should be run into the segments. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. If the shaft is square. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. The driven shaft should have a long bearing.

Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. using four to each leg. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. deep over all. Now you will have the box in two pieces. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. square and 30-1/2 in. Canada. The lower part. or more in diameter. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. deep and 1-1/4 in. from the top of the box. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. With a string or tape measure. high and 15 in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. --Contributed by S. 8-1/2 in. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. La Salle. from the bottom end of the legs. --Contributed by F. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. long. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Fasten with 3/4-in. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Be sure to have the cover. Cooke. Stain the wood before putting in the . Ill. The four legs are each 3/4-in. we will call the basket. Smith. three of which are in the basket. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Hamilton. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. screws. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. When assembling. make these seams come between the two back legs. to make the bottom. V.

wide and four strips 10 in. Boston. sewing on the back side. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Md. Baltimore. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. 1. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Mass.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. 2. Cover them with the cretonne. Packard. --also the lower edge when necessary. -Contributed by Stanley H. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker.2 Fig. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. Fig. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining.lining. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. Sew on to the covered cardboards. you can. The side. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. The folded part in the center is pasted together. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. and gather it at that point. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. as shown in the sketch. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. If all the parts are well sandpapered. wide. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. When making the display.

Fig. --Contributed by H. with slight modifications. It is cleanly. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Cross Timbers. --Contributed by B. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. N. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. Crockett. and. Gloversville. Y. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. When through using the pad. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. It is not difficult to . a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. L. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. Mo. Orlando Taylor. 3. saving all the solid part.

El Paso.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Mass. Lane. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. -Contributed by C. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. it should be new and sharp. After this is done. Texas. --Contributed by Edith E. If a file is used. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . across the face. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. are shown in the diagram. Both of these methods are wasteful. Bourne. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. and secure it in place with glue or paste. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. and scrape out the rough parts. S. or if desired. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. remove the contents. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Lowell. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. After stirring.

After several hours' drying. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask.cooking utensil. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. --Contributed by Loren Ward. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Canton. Oak Park. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. Ill. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. --Contributed by Geo. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Oregon. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Wheeler. As these were single-faced disk records. The process works well and needs no watching. Iowa. A Postcard Rack [25]. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Des Moines. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Turl. Ill. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. He captured several pounds in a few hours. Greenleaf. The insects came to the light. --Contributed by Marion P. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. F. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. Those having houses . and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper.

the best material to use being matched boards. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. --Contributed by Wm. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner.. the bottom being 3/8 in. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. Worcester. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. thick. boards are preferable. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. and the second one for the developing bench. plane and pocket knife.. 6 in. one on each side of what will be the . Only three pieces are required. material.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. will do as well. but for cheapness 3/4 in. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. Conn. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. and as they are simple in design. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. and both exactly alike. --Contributed by Thomas E. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. by 2 ft. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. not even with the boards themselves. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Lay the floor next. 6 in. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. Mass. Rosenberg. The single boards can then be fixed. Glenbrook. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. Dobbins. Both sides can be put together in this way. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them.

so that it will fit inside the sink. The roof boards may next be put on.. and in the middle an opening. It is shown in detail in Fig. At the top of the doorway. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. etc. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. 9). 3 and 4. and to the outside board of the sides. 9 by 11 in. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. as shown in Figs. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. nailing them to each other at the ridge. by screwing to the floor. 6. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. 7. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. is cut. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door.. hinged to it. which is fixed on as shown . one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. Fig. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. so that the water will drain off into the sink. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. below which is fixed the sink. brown wrapping paper. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. the closing side as at B. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. 6. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. 11.doorway. 8. wide. The developing bench is 18 in. In hinging the door. and act as a trap for the light. and should be zinc lined. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. 10). and the top as at C in the same drawing.. of the top of the door for the same reason. 2 in section. 5. 6 and 9. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig.

Details of the Dark Rook .

1. Fig. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. these being shown in Fig. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. as shown in the sections. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. 19. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. 20. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. hole bored in the center for a handle. as in Fig. 14. 13. Fig. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. as at M. are fastened in the corners inside. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. 13. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. 15. 17. 16. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. but not the red glass and frame. 2. A circular piece about 2 in. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. it is better than anything on the market. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. if desired. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. and a tank stand on it. Pennsylvania. Fig.in Fig. four coats at first is not too many. after lining with brown paper. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. The handle should be at least 12 in. which makes it possible to have white light. For beating up an egg in a glass. and a 3/8-in. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. The house will be much strengthened if strips. though this is hardly advisable. Erie. as shown in Fig. mixing flour and water. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. In use. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. --Contributed by W. preferably maple or ash. as at I. or red light as at K. or the room may be made with a flat roof. Fig. screwing them each way into the boards. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. 16. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. Karl Hilbrich. 6. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. 18.

Eureka Springs. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. long. when put together properly is a puzzle. -Contributed by E. Mitchell. about 3/8 in. To operate. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. as shown in the sketch. Ark. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. which. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Kansas City. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. D. --Contributed by Wm. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Smith. for a handle. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . --Contributed by L. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Schweiger. Mo. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. G. New York. Yonkers.copper should be. L. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint.

it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. for the moment. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. A number of 1/2-in. especially for filling-in purposes. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. Each cork is cut as in Fig. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. as shown in Fig. the box will require a greater height in front. holes should be drilled in the bottom. which binds them together. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. 3. 3.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. in order to thoroughly preserve it. . 1. Having completed the bare box. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The corks in use are shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. If the sill is inclined. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. need them. 2. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. After the box is trimmed. to make it set level. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. as is usually the case. the rustic work should be varnished. The design shown in Fig. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. as well as improve its appearance. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided.

The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. cabbages. being partly eaten into. 4. Traps do no good. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. as shown in Fig. F. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. can't use poison. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. etc. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. 2. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. . When the corn is gone cucumbers. it's easy. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. drilled at right angles. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. Each long projection represents a leg.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. too dangerous. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. 1. and observe results. life in the summer time is a vexation. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place.. But I have solved the difficulty. share the same fate. 3.

The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. . The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. and made up and kept in large bottles. strips. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. If. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. The solution can be used over and over again. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. -. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. of No. the coil does not heat sufficiently. by trial. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. Iowa. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. cut in 1/2-in. cut some of it off and try again. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. long. About 9-1/2 ft. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve.

Stir and mix thoroughly. Knives. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Pa.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. C. and a strip. forks. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. --Contributed by Katharine D. hot-water pot. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. N. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. --Contributed by James M. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. is a good size--in this compound. In cleaning silver. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. 1) removed. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. it falls to stop G. as shown in the sketch. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. of gasoline. D. Syracuse. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Texas. coffee pot. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. Fig 2. Doylestown. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. to cause the door to swing shut. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. Y. of oleic acid with 1 gal. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Do not wash them. Dallas. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Kane. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. . These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Morse. but with unsatisfactory results. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame.

Pa. . by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Ill. Sprout. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . --Contributed by Oliver S. Waverly. Harrisburg. which is. later fixed and washed as usual. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. but unfixed. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of course. Fisher. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. New Orleans. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. La. negatives. using the paper dry. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. --Contributed by Theodore L.

the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. metal. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. The harmonograph. To obviate this difficulty. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. In this uncertainty lies the charm. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. 1. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Fig. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. then . is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident.

large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Punch a hole. one-fourth. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. and unless the shorter pendulum is. is attached as shown at H. as shown in Fig. Rosemont. exactly one-third. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane.. --Contributed by Wm. A small table or platform. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. one-fifth. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. what is most important. makes respectively 3. ceiling. that is. A small weight. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. Gaffney. Ingham. 1. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. The length of the short pendulum H. in the center of the circle to be cut. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. which can be regulated. as shown in the lower part of Fig. Another weight of about 10 lb. --Contributed by James T. Holes up to 3 in. as long as the other. 1. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. A weight. etc. A length of 7 ft. 1-3/4 by 2 in. or the lines will overlap and blur. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. Chicago. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. for instance. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. with a nail set or punch.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. provides a means of support for the stylus. is about right for a 10-ft. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. G. A pedestal. K. in diameter. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross.. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. Arizona. to prevent any side motion. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. J. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. R. such as a shoe buttoner. of about 30 or 40 lb.

The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Cruger. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. dividing them into quarters.H. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 1. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. 2. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. The capacity of the vise. Chicago.J. 6. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. distributing them over the whole card. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. and 4 as in Fig. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. then put 2 at the top. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Fig. 3. one for the sender and one for the receiver. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. -Contributed by W. and proceed as before. The two key cards are made alike. then 3 as in Fig.J. Morey. of course. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. N. 5. --Contributed by J. Cape May City. 4. a correspondent of . Fig.

long. Ga. Wind the successive turns of . secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. After securing the tint desired. deep. Alberta Norrell. of 18-per-cent No. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. 30 gr. After preparing the base and uprights. of the uprights. of water. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. 6 gauge wires shown. of ferricyanide of potash. from the top and bottom. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. 22 gauge German-silver wire.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. respectively. the portion of the base under the coil. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. If constructed of the former. 1/4 in. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. wood-screws. Asbestos board is to be preferred. drill 15 holes. says Popular Electricity. --Contributed by L. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. Cut through the center. To assemble. sheet of well made asbestos paper. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. 1/2 oz. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. acetic acid and 4 oz. Augusta. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. remove the prints. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. citrate of iron and ammonia.

Ampere. Labels of some kind are needed. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. 14 gauge. as they are usually thrown away when empty.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. screws. which. etc. if one is not a smoker. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . --Contributed by Frederick E. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. 16 gauge copper wire.. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. square. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. Ward. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. then fasten the upright in place. Y. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. but these are not necessary. Small knobs may be added if desired. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. The case may be made of 1/2-in. N. rivets. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head.

Kenosha. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. C. a piece of solder. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. brass. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. tinner's acid. In soldering galvanized iron. of glycerine to 16 oz. particularly so when the iron has once been used. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Eureka Springs. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. lead. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. and rub the point of the copper on it. G. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. The material can be of any wood. especially if a large tub is used. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. . or has become corroded. as shown in the sketch. Larson. Wis. --Contributed by W. it must be ground or filed to a point. E and F. California. A. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. the pure muriatic acid should be used. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. being careful about the heat. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. S. --C. --Contributed by A. B. zinc. Ark. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. tin. Jaquythe. The parts are put together with dowel pins. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Richmond." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. Copper. and labeled "Poison.14 oz.. of water. and one made of poplar finished black. This is considerable annoyance. sandpaper or steel wool. then to the joint to be soldered. If the soldering copper is an old one. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. Heat it until hot (not red hot). D. galvanized iron.

in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. thick and 1-1/4 in. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. -Contributed by H. W. 2. The dimensions shown in Fig. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. This completes the die. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. The covers of the magazines are removed. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. Brass rings can be plated when finished. B. Six issues make a well proportioned book. however. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. nut. Apart from this. a ring may be made from any metal. Take a 3/4-in. and drill out the threads. N. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . round iron. in diameter. which gives two bound volumes each year. Hankin. I bind my magazines at home evenings. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. C. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. This will leave a clear hole. D. The disk will come out pan shaped. 1. in diameter. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. Troy. 7/8 in. Y. Place the band. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. brass and silver. such as copper. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. The punch A. Fig. Fig. with good results. wide. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger.

They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. C. 1. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. threaded double. 1. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. 2. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. size 16 or larger. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Place the cardboard covers on the book. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. as shown in Fig. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 1/8 in. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. allowing about 2 in. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. After drawing the thread tightly. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. which is fastened the same as the first. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. deep. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. 1. Coarse white thread. on all edges except the back. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. If started with the January or the July issue. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. of the ends extending on each side. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. and then to string No. Five cuts.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it.4. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. The string No. 2. The covering can be of cloth. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. and a third piece. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Start with the front of the book. through the notch on the left side of the string No. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. and place them against the strings in the frame. . The covering should be cut out 1 in. then back through the notch on the right side. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. The sections are then prepared for sewing. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 1 in Fig. is used for the sewing material. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. is nailed across the top. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. 5. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. using .

Cal. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Tinplate. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. For the blade an old talking-machine . Nebr. at opposite sides to each other. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Encanto. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. round iron. and mark around each one. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Divine. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. College View. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. on which to hook the blade. Place the cover on the book in the right position. --Contributed by Clyde E. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. and. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry.

bore. -Contributed by Willard J. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. by 1 in. fuse hole at D. E. by 4-1/2 in. or double extra heavy. C. Ohio. B. thick. Moorhead. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. and 1/4 in. Miss. Make the blade 12 in. as it is sometimes called.. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. A. as shown. F. Then on the board put . and a long thread plug. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose.. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. with 10 teeth to the inch. Hays. and another piece (B) 6 in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. long. and file in the teeth. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. and 1/4 in. hydraulic pipe. with a steel sleeve. in order to drill the holes in the ends. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. thick. Summitville. at the same end. On the upper side.

about 5 ft. Boyd. and some No. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Connect up as shown. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Philadelphia. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . 4 jars. H. of rubber-covered wire. using about 8 in. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. --Contributed by Chas. the jars need not be very large. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. of wire to each coil. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. A lid may be added if desired. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. The size of the jars depends on the voltage.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. high around this apparatus. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. as from batteries. If you are going to use a current of low tension. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. 18 gauge wire for the wiring.

wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. No. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. 2 is lower down than in No. direct to wire across jars. with the cushion about 15 in. and for the rear runners: A. by 5 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 3 and No. A 3/4-in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. square by 14 ft. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. by 1 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. C. two pieces 14 in.. 3. B. 2 in. 3 in. B and C. The stock required for them is oak. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. See Fig.. by 1-1/4 in. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. on No. Use no nails. beginning at the rear. 1 on switch. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. by 2 in. and plane it on all edges. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. is used to reduce friction. and bolt through. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. two pieces 30 in. sheet brass 1 in. above the ground. The sled completed should be 15 ft. or source of current.the way. Fig. 30 in. In proportioning them the points A. An iron washer. Equip block X with screw eyes. The illustration shows how to shape it. The top disk in jar No. 2. however. two for each jar. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch.. are important. To wire the apparatus. Put arm of switch on point No. A variation of 1/16 in. 15-1/2 in. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. 7 in. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. apart. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. steel rod makes a good steering rod. by 5 in. two pieces 34 in. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. 2 and 3. For the front runners these measurements are: A. by 6 in. Use no screws on the running surface. wide and 3/4 in. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. Z. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. 4 in. 1 and so on for No. . 2. B. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. by 1-1/4 in.. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. thick. long. First sandpaper all the wood. & S. long. long by 22 in. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No.. 4) of 3/4-in. 11 in. 1 is connected to point No. as they are not substantial enough. C. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. For the brass trimmings use No.. long. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. 1. On the door of the auto front put the . by 2 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. Their size also depends on the voltage. 5 on switch. as they "snatch" the ice. The connection between point No. 2. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A.. 34 in. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. 4. The current then will flow through the motor. thick. long. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. wide and 2 in. and four pieces 14 in. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. wide by 3/4 in. At the front 24 or 26 in. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. oak boards. 16-1/2 in. 27 B. wide. gives full current and full speed. making them clear those in the front runner.

or with these for $25. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. which is somewhat moist. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . The best way is to get some strong. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. to the wheel. etc. overshoes. such as used on automobiles. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. brass plated. to improve the appearance. a brake may be added to the sled. by 1/2 in.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. by 30 in. Then get some upholstery buttons. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. parcels. such as burlap. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. long. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. If desired. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. If desired. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. fasten a cord through the loop. a number of boys may share in the ownership. cutting it out of sheet brass. may be stowed within. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. lunch. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. cheap material. If the expense is greater than one can afford. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. Fasten a horn. Make the cushion for the back in the same way.

the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Ill. Leland. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Lexington. --Contributed by Stewart H. .tree and bring. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long.

care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. 1. mild steel or iron. Fig. A small clearance space.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. when flat against it. the same diameter as the wheel. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. London. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. FC. The Model Engineer. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. made from 1/16-in. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. some files. by drawing diameters. 3. sheet metal. CD. a compass. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. which. Draw a circle on paper. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. so that the center of the blade. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. The first tooth may now be cut. will be over the line FG. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. say 1 in. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. Fig. This guide should have a beveled edge. Fig. the cut will be central on the line. from F to G. The straight-edge. With no other tools than a hacksaw. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. 2. outside diameter and 1/16 in. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. thick. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. though more difficult. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. 4). with twenty-four teeth. E. First take the case of a small gearwheel.

or several pieces bound tightly together. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. electric lamp. B. each in the center. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. No shock will be perceptible. R. 1. B. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. Make a hole in the other. some wire and some carbons. If there is no faucet in the house. transmitter. A bright. 1. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. . 2. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator.Four Photos on One Plate of them. ground it with a large piece of zinc. Focus the camera in the usual manner. as shown in Fig. Then take one outlet wire. hold in one hand. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. as shown in Fig. either the pencils for arc lamps. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. as shown in Fig. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. and the other outlet wire. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners.

A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. --Contributed by Geo. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. If desired. as shown. They have screw ends. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . For a base use a pine board 10 in. Wrenn. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Ohio. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. as indicated by E E. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Pa. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. One like a loaf of bread. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Ashland. Several battery cells. a transmitter which induces no current is used. under the gable. A is a wooden block. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. are also needed. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. Slattery. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. at each end for terminals. 36 wire around it. J. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. serves admirably. and about that size. Emsworth. Dry batteries are most convenient. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. by 12 in. Then set the whole core away to dry. and will then burn the string C.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. one at the receiver can hear what is said. by 1 in. B. But in this experiment. D D are binding posts for electric wires. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. leaving about 10 in. of course. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. and again wind the wire around it. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. or more of the latter has been used.

Ohio. Newark. and one single post switch. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. in series with bindingpost. C. F. The coil will commence to become warm. 12 or No. First make a support. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. the terminal of the coil. From the other set of binding-posts. while C is open. as shown. run a No. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. as shown. These should have hollow ends. Jr. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. and the lamps. Connect these three to switch. Fig. D. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. B B. Turn on switch. Fig. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. 14 wire. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. D.wire. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. in parallel. 1. Place 16-cp. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. B B. for the . The oven is now ready to be connected. At one side secure two receptacles. The apparatus is now ready for operation. C. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. and switch. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A.. E. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. until the hand points to zero on the scale. 2. connecting lamp receptacles.

The pointer or hand. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. as shown in the cut. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. is made of wire. Fig. wide and 1-3/4 in. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. The box is 5-1/2 in. long. remove the valve. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. from the lower end. is made of iron. 1/4 in. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. wide and 1/8 in. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. Dussault. thick. is then made and provided with a glass front. deep. After drilling. where A is the homemade ammeter. E. long and make a loop. B. high. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. etc. 6. It is 1 in. and D. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. 1/2 in. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. Fig. a variable resistance. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. drill through the entire case and valve. 14 wire. D. To make one. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . 5. 10 turns to each layer. 36 magnet wire instead of No. 4 in. 2. Montreal. 5. although copper or steel will do. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. 14. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. 1. This may be made of wood. a standard ammeter. Fig.E. long. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. The core.. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. inside measurements. 3. At a point a little above the center. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. drill a hole as shown at H. drill in only to the opening already through. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. If for 3-way. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. This is slipped on the pivot. but if for a 4way. wind with plenty of No. 7. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. although brass is better. 1. Make the wire 4-1/2 in.or 4-way valve or cock. A wooden box. Mine is wound with two layers of No. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. C. until the scale is full.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. 3 amperes. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. to prevent it turning on the axle. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. 4. 4 amperes. a battery. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. Fig. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. --Contributed by J.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. D.

One wire runs to the switch.performing electrical experiments. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. making two holes about 1/4 in. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. To start the light. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. F. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. and the arc light. By connecting the motor. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. and a metal rod. in thickness . A. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. in diameter. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. B. provided with a rubber stopper. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. high. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. D. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. E. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. as shown. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. and the other connects with the water rheostat. which is used for reducing the current. This stopper should be pierced.

and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Fig. N. where he is placed in an upright open . as shown in C. 1. To insert the lead plate. long. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. A. If all adjustments are correct. Carthage. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Turn on the current and press the button. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Having finished the interrupter. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. --Contributed by Harold L. A piece of wood. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Fig. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. 1. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. 1. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. 2. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Jones. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. Fig. Having fixed the lead plate in position. as shown in B.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. B. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. As there shown. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Y. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. If the interrupter does not work at first. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in.

within the limits of an ordinary room. especially the joints and background near A. dressed in brilliant. especially L. The glass should be the clearest possible. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. They need to give a fairly strong light. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. to aid the illusion. by 7-1/2 in. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. figures and lights. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. All . has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. and can be bought at Japanese stores. and must be thoroughly cleansed.. The model. high.coffin. is constructed as shown in the drawings. should be miniature electric lamps. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. and wave his arms up and down. The lights. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. If it is desired to place the box lower down. A white shroud is thrown over his body. inside dimensions. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. light-colored garments. could expect from a skeleton. loosejointed effect. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. Its edges should nowhere be visible. which can be run by three dry cells. until it is dark there. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. the illusion will be spoiled. as the entire interior. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. The skeleton is made of papier maché. with the exception of the glass. L and M. A. If everything is not black. from which the gong has been removed. should be colored a dull black. giving a limp. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. by 7 in.

Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. Fry. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. as shown in the sketch. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. placed about a foot apart.that is necessary is a two-point switch. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. If a gradual transformation is desired. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. Cal. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. W. San Jose. after which it assumes its normal color. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. --Contributed by Geo. fat spark. square block. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. Two finishing nails were driven in.

and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. and should be separated about 1/8 in. In Fig. New York. The plates are separated 6 in. as shown. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. into the receiver G. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. If a lighted match . 1 is seen the sending apparatus. with two tubes. A (see sketch). hydrogen gas is generated. B and C. soldered in the top. F. -Contributed by Dudley H. In Fig. 1. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. or a solution of sal soda. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. Cohen.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. by small pieces of wood. One of these plates is connected to metal top. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. This is a wide-mouth bottle. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. to make it airtight. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. the remaining space will be filled with air. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig.

as is shown in the illustration. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. says the Model Engineer. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. 36 insulated wire. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. P. or by direct contact with another magnet. is made by drilling a 1/8in. which forms the vaporizing coil. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. 1/2 in. in diameter and 6 in. C C. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. from the bottom. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. A. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. A piece of 1/8-in. A. which is plugged up at both ends. copper pipe. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. The distance between the nipple. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . 1. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. then a suitable burner is necessary. A. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. of No. by means of the clips. One row is drilled to come directly on top. Fig. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. N. A nipple. long. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. copper pipe. either by passing a current of electricity around it. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. B. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. If desired. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. A 1/64-in. 1-5/16 in. long. is then coiled around the brass tube. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. Fig. 2 shows the end view. N. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. London. A. and the ends of the tube. should be only 5/16 of an inch.

deep and slanting as shown at A and B. boards and all. 2). Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. Fig. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. with a fine saw. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Cut four pieces of cardboard. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Fig. Take two strips of stout cloth. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . 1/4 in. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. about 8 or 10 in. trim both ends and the front edge. at the front and back for fly leaves. Fig. 3. this makes a much nicer book. duck or linen. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. cut to the size of the pages. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. longer and 1/4 in. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. Turn the book over and paste the other side. smoothly. A disk of thin sheet-iron. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. taking care not to bend the iron. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. 1.lamp cord. leaving the folded edge uncut. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. but if the paper knife cannot be used. fold and cut it 1 in. larger all around than the book.

is perforated with a number of holes. the joint will be gas tight. --Contributed by Joseph N. deep. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. of tank A is cut a hole. is fitted in it and soldered. Va. and a little can. Another can. in diameter and 30 in. or rather the top now. Parker. --Contributed by James E. . In the bottom. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. H. B. 18 in. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. but its diameter is a little smaller. A. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. Another tank. pasting them down (Fig. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. as shown. is made the same depth as B. Noble.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. D. C. Ont. without a head. This will cause some air to be enclosed. E. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. as shown in the sketch. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. A gas cock. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. which will just slip inside the little can. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. is turned on it. is soldered onto tank A. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Bedford City. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Toronto. 4). When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth.

and about 26 in. A A. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. B. J. which moves to either right or left. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. Beverly. tacks. A. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. The longitudinal corner spines. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. making the width. The wiring diagram. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. D. exactly 12 in. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. C.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. E. square by 42 in. thus adjusting the . should be 3/8 in. The diagonal struts. with an electric-bell magnet.. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. long. long. Bott. by 1/2 in. If the pushbutton A is closed. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. B. to prevent splitting. as shown at C. The small guards. The bridle knots. which may be either spruce. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. and sewed double to give extra strength. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. If the back armature. when finished. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. The armature. should be cut a little too long. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. B. 1. N. Fig. 2. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. fastened in the bottom. shows how the connections are to be made. S. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. -Contributed by H. H is a square knot. D. are shown in detail at H and J. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. and the four diagonal struts. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. Fig. basswood or white pine. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. should be 1/4 in.

If the kite is used in a light wind. --Contributed by A. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. thus shortening G and lengthening F. to prevent slipping. as shown. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. that refuse to slide easily. D. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Clay Center. can be made of a wooden . Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Chicago. E. A bowline knot should be tied at J. shift toward F. Stoddard. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. Closing either key will operate both sounders. the batteries do not run down for a long time. for producing electricity direct from heat. and.lengths of F and G. Harbert. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. and if a strong wind is blowing. --Contributed by Edw. with gratifying results. however. Kan.

Fasten a piece of wood. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. C. spark. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. and the current may then be detected by means. 16 single-covered wire. or parallel with the compass needle. A. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. by means of machine screws or. A. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. A. with a pocket compass. and also holds the pieces of wood. F..frame. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. with a number of nails. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. B. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. 14 or No. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. E. which conducts the current into the cannon. When the cannon is loaded. in position. A and B. E. to the cannon. placed on top. D. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. C. Then. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. Chicago. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. C. The wood screw. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. --Contributed by A. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . if there are no trunnions on the cannon.

A hole for a 1/2 in. Bend the strips BB (Fig. Big Rapids. to receive the screw in the center. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. To unlock the door. Marion. A and S. within the reach of the magnet. B. In Fig. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. L. A. but no weights or strings. in this position the door is locked. with the long arm at L'. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. Chicago. now at A' and S'. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. To reverse. Mich. press the button. where there is a staple. 1. 1. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Ohio. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. when in position at A'. Connect as shown in the illustration. Keil. square and 3/8 in. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. . The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Fig. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. screw is bored in the block. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. --Contributed by Joseph B. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. requiring a strong magnet. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. H. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L.the current is shut off. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. Fig. --Contributed by Henry Peck. To lock the door. 1. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. A and S. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest.

Rand. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. and C is a dumbbell. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. J. if enameled white on the concave side. The standard and base. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. or for microscopic work. gas-pipe. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. hole. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and may be made at very slight expense. long. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. about 18 in. When ready for use. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. pipe with 1-2-in. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. West Somerville. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. --Contributed by C. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and if desired the handles may . A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. When the holes are finished and your lines set. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. are enameled a jet black. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. put in the handle. Mass. Thread the other end of the pipe. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings.

--Contributed by C. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. 1. long and 8 in. as shown at A in the sketch. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. 1. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. across. inside the pail. high by 1 ft. which shall project at least 2 in. Make a cylindrical core of wood. E. A. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. B. North Easton. Fig. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. Fig. M. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Warren. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. with a cover. while a new one will cost about 80 cents.. D. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . across. Mass. 8 in.be covered with leather.

3) with false top and bottom. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. Cover with paper and shellac as before. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. 1390°-1410°. pipe. L. wider than the kiln. When lighted. After removing all the paper. 1330°. thick. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. and 3/8 in. layer of the clay mixture. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. say 1/4 in. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. pipe 2-ft. to hold the clay mixture. let this dry thoroughly. about 1 in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. Set aside for a few days until well dried. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. make two wood ends. if you have the materials. projecting from each end (Fig. as dictated by fancy and expense. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. C. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. Wind about 1/8 in. and on it set the paper wrapped core. in diameter. 1). These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. 1). If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. 60%. carefully centering it. Fit all the parts together snugly. thick. C. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. Line the pail. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. strip of sheet iron. and varnish. and graphite. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail.. cutting the hole a little smaller. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. 2. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. which is the hottest part. Fig. but it will burn a great deal of gas. 25%. but will be cheaper in operation. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. 15%. such .. diameter. After finishing the core. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. hard porcelain. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. in diameter. If the cover of the pail has no rim.. long over the lid hole as a chimney. as is shown in the sketch. long. if there is to be any glazing done. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. W. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. hotel china. the point of the blue flame. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. C. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. 2 in.-G. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. and 3/4 in. pack this space-top. E. full length of iron core. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. sand. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support.mixture of clay. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. It is placed inside the kiln. and cut it 3-1/2 in. or make one yourself. and with especial caution the first time. of fine wire. The 2 in. and your kiln is ready for business. Whatever burner is used. This done. bottom and sides. the firing should be gradual. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in.

The funnel. square them up. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. leaving long terminals. Next restore all the cards to one pack. . as in Fig. D. around the coil. 2. procure a new deck. and discharges into the tube. the next black. Chicago.. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. Then. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. as in Fig. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. all cards facing the same way. and divide it into two piles. C. You can display either color called for. 8 in. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. every alternate card being the same color. as shown in the sketch herewith. Washington.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. and plane off about 1/16 in. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. overlaps and rests on the body. diameter. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. --Contributed by J. with a plane. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. red and black.53 in. C. 2). taking care to have the first card red. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. B. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. length of . the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. square them up and place in a vise. C. bind tightly with black silk. 2. Take the red cards. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. R. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. Of course. Then take the black cards. 1. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. A. and so on. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. about 1/16 in. T.

After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. A. stove bolts. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. and then the frame is ready to assemble. the first thing to decide on is the size. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. It should be placed in an exposed location. Long Branch. stove bolts. B. about 20 in. Fig.. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. The cement. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. B.J. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. The upright pieces.C. 1 gill of fine white sand. 1 gill of litharge. and this is inexpensive to build. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. All the horizontal pieces. D. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. Let . to form a dovetail joint as shown. F. so that when they are assembled. E. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. thus making all the holes coincide. C. of the frame. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. A. Drill all the horizontal pieces. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. E. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. 1. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. the same ends will come together again. angle iron for the frame. The bottom glass should be a good fit. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. as the difficulties increase with the size. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. through the holes already drilled. When the glass is put in the frame a space. B. N. To find the fall of snow.

having a swinging connection at C. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . if desired. B. A. Fig. on the door by means of a metal plate. Aquarium Finished If desired. Fasten the lever. D. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. a centerpiece (A. and. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. to the door knob. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year.

Fig. Fig. PAUL S. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. D. 26 in. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. to form the main supports of the frame. 2 at GG. which is 15 in. Fig. with a water pressure of 70 lb. N. Y. 1 is the motor with one side removed. 1. according to the slant given C. long. Cut two of them 4 ft. 2 ft. Fig. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Cut two pieces 30 in. to form the slanting part. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. Fig. approximately 1 ft. another. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. F. E. 3 shows one of the paddles. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. and another. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. wide . To make the frame. but mark their position on the frame. Buffalo. They are shown in Fig. Two short boards 1 in.. 1 . long. --Contributed by Orton E. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. and Fig. soldered to the end of the cylinder. A small piece of spring brass. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. wide by 1 in. screwed to the door frame. as at E. B. for the top. C. White. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. Do not fasten these boards now. 2 is an end view. long. showing the paddle-wheel in position. AA. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Fig. thus doing away with the spring. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. will open the door about 1/2 in. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. I referred this question to my husband. from the outside top of the frame. to keep the frame from spreading. 6 in. several lengths of scantling 3 in. another. 1. long.

and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. hole through their sides centrally. as shown in Fig. in diameter. after which drill a 5/8 in. Drill 1/8-in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. hole to form the bearings. with the wheel and shaft in place. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. from one end by means of a key. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. Fig. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. thick (HH. 1. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. holes. hole from the tops to the 1-in. thick. 2) and another 1 in. hole through its center. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. and drill a 1-in. 24 in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. GG. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Fig. hole through them. 4. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. remove the cardboard. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. tapering from 3/16 in. Now block the wheel. and drill a 1/8-in. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. 2) with a 5/8-in. 2) form a substantial base. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. When it has cooled. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. Fasten them in their proper position. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. (I. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. long to the wheel about 8 in. Take the side pieces. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. take down the crosspieces.along the edges under the zinc to form . that is. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. These are the paddles. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. then drill a 3/16-in. Next secure a 5/8-in. to a full 1/2 in. Tack one side on. and a 1/4 -in. by 1-1/2 in. pipe.burlap will do -. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Fig. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Make this hole conical. iron. iron 3 by 4 in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. steel shaft 12 in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right.

drill press. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. Correct exposure depends. ice-cream freezer. remove any white curtains there may be. but as it would have cost several times as much. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. shutting out all light from above and the sides. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. Drill a hole through the zinc. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. . and leave them for an hour or so. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. any window will do. as this makes long exposure necessary. sewing machine. and the subject may move. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. Raise the window shade half way. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. says the Photographic Times. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. of course. If the bearings are now oiled. and as near to it as possible. Darken the rest of the window. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. Do not stop down the lens.a water-tight joint. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. The best plate to use is a very slow one. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. as shown in the sketch at B. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. It is obvious that. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Focus the camera carefully. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. it would be more durable. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. start the motor. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. but now I put them in the machine. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. place the outlet over a drain. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. on the lens. If sheet-iron is used. or what is called a process plate. light and the plate.

an empty pill bottle may be used. as a slight current will answer. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. a core. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. The current required is very small. which is made of iron and cork. C. The glass tube may be a test tube. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. A. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. by twisting. 2. and a base. With a piece of black paper. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. D. a glass tube. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. or an empty developer tube. full of water. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. without detail in the face. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. or can be taken from an old magnet. the core is drawn down out of sight. and without fog. or wood. until the core slowly rises. as shown in Fig. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. The core C. On completing . 2. hard rubber. B. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. with binding posts as shown. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig.

fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. The colors appear different to different people. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. white lead. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. and one not easy to explain. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. 1 pt. whale oil. water and 3 oz. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. finest graphite. is Benham's color top. and are changed by reversing the rotation. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . and make a pinhole in the center. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. 1 lb. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. according to his control of the current. 1.

hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. As this device is easily upset. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. C. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. -Contributed by D. Chicago. or three spot. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. deuce. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. In prize games. fan-like. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken.. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time.L. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. thus partly filling bottles A and C. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. especially if the deck is a new one. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. when the action ceases. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. nearly every time. which is then replaced in any part of the pack.B. A. In making hydrogen. before cutting. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. B. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which .

(Fig. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. 2. Form a cone of heavy paper. --Contributed by F. that will fit loosely in the tube A. S. long and 3 in. 4. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. Fig. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. 1.. Bently. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. connecting the bottom by cross pieces.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. 12 in. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim.. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. 10 in. Detail of Phonograph Horn . can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. W. . Make a 10-sided stick. Jr. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. J. 3). and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. S. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. long. in diameter. --Contributed by C. Dak. Detroit. as shown in Fig. 9 in. in length and 3 in. Fig. Huron.

A second piece of silk thread.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. bend it at right angles throughout its length. about the size of a leadpencil. long. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. making it three-ply thick. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. allowing 1 in. Fig. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. Cut out paper sections (Fig. it is equally easy to block that trick. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. Denver. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. C. A. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . 6. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. Remove the form. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. E. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. with a pin driven in each end. and walk in. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. but bends toward D. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. Fortunately. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. will cause an increased movement of C. A piece of tin. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. on one side and the top. --Contributed by Reader. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. push back the bolt.

Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. long. --Contributed by J. Fremont Hilscher. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. Minn. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. Jr. put together as shown in the sketch.strip. S. Paul. B. or left to right. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. posts. and rest on a brick placed under each end. R. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. The upper switch. long. The 2 by 4-in. are 7 ft. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . By this arrangement one. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. will last for several years. B. as shown.. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. are made 2 by 4 in. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. while the lower switch. S. The reverse switch. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. W. 4 ft. The feet.. is connected each point to a battery. A. Two wood-base switches. S S. West St. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire.

The steam chest D. Fig. or anything available. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. H and K. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. 2. with two washers. Fig. 1. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder.every house. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The piston is made of a stove bolt. and has two wood blocks. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. The base is made of wood. thick. 3/8 in. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. The hose E connects to the boiler. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. The valve motion is shown in Figs. is an old bicycle pump. FF. either an old sewing-machine wheel. E. which is made of tin. and in Fig. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. pulley wheel. the other parts being used for the bearing B. and the crank bearing C. the size of the hole in the bearing B. and valve crank S. which will be described later. 2 and 3. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. cut in half. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. In Fig. and a cylindrical .

The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. 3. First. Cal. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. This is wound with soft string. . using the positive wire as a pen. Eustice.piece of hard wood. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. Fry. The valve crank S. as shown in Fig. W. 4. is cut out of tin. This engine was built by W. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. G. Schuh and A. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. 1. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. G. as it is merely a trick of photography. or galvanized iron. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. can be an old oil can. and the desired result is obtained. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. C. J. --Contributed by Geo. Fig. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. of Cuba. at that. and a very amusing trick. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. Fig. Wis. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. to receive the connecting rod H. and saturated with thick oil. powder can. San Jose. The boiler.

Fig. They may be of any size. and place a bell on the four ends. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. to cross in the center. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. The smaller wheel. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. and pass ropes around . but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. B. diameter. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. Fig. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. and Fig. C. Fig. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. When turning. B. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. as shown at AA. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. as shown. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. Cut half circles out of each stave. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. 1 by covering up Figs.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. 1 will be seen to rotate.

Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. which accounts for the sound. produces a higher magnifying power). but not on all. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. Louis. from the transmitter. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. as shown in the illustration.G. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer.. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. procure a wooden spool. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. A (a short spool. such as clothes lines. which allows the use of small sized ropes.M. St. This in turn will act on the transmitter. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. From a piece of thin . long. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. To make this lensless microscope. W. --Contributed by H.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. Mo.

B. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. The lever. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. e. A. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. To use this microscope. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. C. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. cut out a small disk.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. is made of iron. in which hay has been soaking for several days. and so on. otherwise the image will be blurred. darting across the field in every direction. D.. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. Viewed through this microscope. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A.) But an object 3/4-in. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. 3. and at the center. C. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. place a small object on the transparent disk. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. . and look through the hole D. i. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. is fastened at each end by pins. held at arm's length. if the distance is reduced to one-third. the diameter will appear twice as large. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. An innocent-looking drop of water. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. E. 2. if the distance is reduced to one-half. Fig. or 64 times. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. which are pieces of hard wood. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. The pivot. as in all microscopes of any power. the object should be of a transparent nature. which costs little or nothing to make. B. the diameter will appear three times as large. The spring. (The area would appear 64 times as large. and has the general appearance shown in Fig.. by means of brads. bent as shown. 1. fastened to a wooden base. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. can be made of brass and the armature. D. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. H.

is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. wide. A. nail soldered on A. . long. wide and set in between sides AA. brass or iron soldered to nail. A switch. wide and about 20 in. wood: F. D. connection of D to nail. Each side. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. Cut the top. K. B. should be about 22 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. binding posts: H spring The stop. The base of the key. 2. brass: B. brass: E. wood: C. B. long by 16 in. wide. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. D. or a single piece. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. The door. thick. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch.SOUNDER-A. wood. is cut from a board about 36 in. brass. F. wide. similar to the one used in the sounder. KEY-A. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. The back. long and 14-1/2 in. fastened near the end. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. wide. or taken from a small one-point switch. Fig. 16 in. which are made to receive a pivot. Fig. in length and 16 in. FF. The binding posts. E. 26 wire: E. and are connected to the contacts. soft iron. between the armature and the magnet. C. D. HH. can be made panel as shown. 1. 16 in. C. K. DD. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. coils wound with No. AA.

--Contributed by Carl Formhals. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. Garfield.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . Ill. long. as shown. AA. 13-1/2 in. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. In operation. Make 12 cleats. E. as shown in the sketch. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. 2 and made from 1/4-in. brads. with 3/4-in. cut in them. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. When the electrical waves strike the needle. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle.. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. material. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch.

Brown. C. F. --Contributed by R. pulls down the armature. Ridgewood. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. J. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. when used with a motor. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. A (see sketch). a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. The cord is also fastened to a lever. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . the magnet. E. A. A. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. N. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. Fairport. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. Y. --Contributed by John Koehler. will give a greater speed. in order to increase the surface. Pushing the wire. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. N. B. and. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. down into the water increases the surface in contact. filled with water. A fairly stiff spring.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. through which a piece of wire is passed. and thus decreases the resistance. When the pipe is used. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock.

Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. if desired. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. Borden. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. N. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts.for the secret contact. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. B. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. even those who read this description. --Contributed by Perry A. Gachville. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Of course. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated.

Dobson. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. --Contributed by Dr. thick and 12-in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. for 10in. as shown in Fig. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. C. long and 5 in. A. in a semicircle 2 in. wide. Cal. With about 9 ft. as shown in Fig. wide. . Washington. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. Two drawers are fitted in this space. C. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. records and 5-5/8 in. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. apart. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in.. wide. The three shelves are cut 25-in. where the other end of wire is fastened. records. wide. wide. The top board is made 28-in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. N. --Contributed by H. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. long and full 12-in. deep and 3/4 in. Jr. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. Compton. Mangold. Nails for stops are placed at DD.whenever the bell rings. J. E. 2. East Orange. From a piece of brass a switch. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. from the bottom. D. Connect switch to post B. H. for 6-in. and on both sides of the middle shelf. 1.

Va. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . --Contributed by Douglas Royer. as shown in Fig. A. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. as shown by the dotted lines. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. to which is fastened a cord. closed.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. Roanoke. 1. When the cord is passed over pulley C. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. which in operation is bent. E. B.

1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. 5) when they are placed. in diameter. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. Fig. B. Bore two 1/4 in. in diameter. but a larger one could be built in proportion. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. excepting the crank and tubing.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. Put the rubber tube. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. These wheels should be 3/4 in. it too loose. Do not fasten the sides too . 1 in. one in each end. is compressed by wheels. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. deep and 1/2 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. CC. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. wide. 4 shows the wheel-holder. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. they will let the air through. Cut two grooves. 1. to turn on pins of stout wire. thick. Figs. which should be about 1/2 in. 3. holes (HH. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. deep. against which the rubber tubing. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. Now put all these parts together. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. In the sides (Fig. If the wheels fit too tightly. 1 in. long. D. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. through one of these holes. as shown in the illustration. In these grooves place wheels. Fig. in diameter. Fig. The crankpin should fit tightly. Figs. square and 7/8 in. wide. in diameter. thick (A. E. 3). apart. they will bind. E.

from each end. Fig. Cut six pieces. Two feet of 1/4-in. The three legs marked BBB. and 3-1/2 in. Fig. A in Fig. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. Then turn the crank from left to right. long. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. 2. 17-1/2 in. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. a platform should be added. costing 10 cents. is all the expense necessary. The animal does not fear to enter the box. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. as it gives steadiness to the motion.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. iron. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. from that mark the next hole. The screen which is shown in Fig. Kan. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. 1. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. Idana. Hubbard. Fig. and are 30 in. the other wheel has reached the bottom. 1. mark again. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. and mark for a hole. because he can . from the bottom and 2 in. --Contributed by Dan H. beyond each of these two. Fig. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. from each end. stands 20 in. as shown in Fig. In the two cross bars 1 in. though a small iron wheel is better. of material. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. from each end. To use the pump. mark for hole and 3 in. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. B. are 3/4 by 1/4 in.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. AA. 2. If the motion of the wheels is regular. 1. the pump will give a steady stream. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. 1. 1. Take the center of the bar. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. tubing. For ease in handling the pump. AA. 15 in. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars.

it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. If it is wet. 2). it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. Philadelphia. . 1) must be prepared. When through using the battery. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. 4 oz. long having two thumb screws. and touches the bait the lid is released and. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. The battery is now complete. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. shuts him in. It is useful for running induction coils. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. sulphuric acid. however. If the solution touches the zinc. potassium bichromate. acid 1 part). or. until it is within 3 in. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. The battery is now ready for use. there is too much liquid in the jar. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. or small electric motors. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. --Contributed by H. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. Place the carbon in the jar. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. giving it a bright. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. When the bichromate has all dissolved. of the top. dropping. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. If the battery has been used before. rub the zinc well. add slowly. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. silvery appearance. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. and the solution (Fig. The truncated. 14 copper wire. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. of water dissolve 4 oz. To cause a flow of electricity. The mercury will adhere. C. but if one casts his own zinc. some of it should be poured out. stirring constantly. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. Meyer. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts.see through it: when he enters.

Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. pressing the pedal closes the door. with slight changes. After putting in the coal. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. e. If. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. i. The price of the coil depends upon its size. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. Madison. however. while the coal door is being opened. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. the battery circuit..Fig. Wis. the jump-spark coil . which opens the door. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use.

while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. 7. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. and closer for longer distances. Change the coil described. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. 7). which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. This coil. 6. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. coil. Fig. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig.7.described elsewhere in this book. being a 1-in. in a straight line from top to bottom. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. while a 12-in. 7. . as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. 6. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. as shown in Fig. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. After winding. Now for the receiving apparatus. in a partial vacuum. made of No. as shown in Fig. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. which is made of light copper wire. apart. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. W W. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. 5. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. W W. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. the full length of the coil. diameter. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. This will make an excellent receiver. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions.

90°. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. For an illustration. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. 1). but simply illustrates the above to show that. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. above the ground. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. No. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. but it could be run by foot power if desired. to the direction of the current. and hence the aerial line. being vertical. 90°. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. where A is the headstock. after all. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. as it matches the color well. in the air. These circles. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). B the bed and C the tailstock. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. are analogous to the flow of induction. A large cone pulley would then be required. Run a wire from the other binding post. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire.The aerial line.6 stranded. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. A. being at right angles. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. I run my lathe by power. using an electric motor and countershaft. may be easily made at very little expense. The writer does not claim to be the originator. 1 to 4. Figs. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. which will be described later. at any point to any metal which is grounded. . wireless is very simple when it is once understood. only.

2 and 3. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. 4. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . The bearing is then ready to be poured. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. 4. but not hot enough to burn it. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. The bolts B (Fig. After pouring. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. and Fig. just touching the shaft. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. one of which is shown in Fig. on the under side of the bed. A. Fig. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. The headstock. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. To make these bearings. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. 5. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. deep. Fig. and runs in babbitt bearings. thick. tapered wooden pin. 5. pitch and 1/8 in. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. 6 Headstock Details D. and it is well to have the shaft hot. If the bearing has been properly made. Fig. B. 6. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. too. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. which are let into holes FIG. Fig. Heat the babbitt well. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. which pass through a piece of wood. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. steel tubing about 1/8 in.

Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. they may be turned up after assembling. of the walk . and a 1/2-in. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. Ill. Take up about 5 ft. A. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. N. lock nut. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. so I had to buy one. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. B. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. the alarm is easy to fix up.J.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. Oak Park. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. If one has a wooden walk. The tail stock (Fig. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. Newark. FIG. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts.other machines. embedded in the wood. This prevents corrosion. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. If not perfectly true.

Then make the solution . (A. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Finally. 2). to remove all traces of grease. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. and the alarm is complete. silver or other metal. To avoid touching it. leaving a clear solution. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. hang the articles on the wires. --Contributed by R. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Minn. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Jackson. S. Minneapolis.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. clean the articles thoroughly. Connect up an electric bell. water. before dipping them in the potash solution. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. of water. Fig. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. save when a weight is on the trap. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. Do not touch the work with the hands again. to roughen the surface slightly. add potassium cyanide again. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. so that they will not touch. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution.

the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. 1 not only unlocks. lead. also.5 to 4 volts. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. a circuit is completed. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. and 4 volts for very small ones. Then. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. The wooden block C. 10 in. If more solution is required. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. as at F. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. I. shaking. Take quick. 3) directly over the hole. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt.up to 2 qt. and the larger part (F. thick by 3 in. must be about 1 in. If accumulators are used. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. and then treated as copper. German silver. Fig. 3) strikes the bent wire L. if one does not possess a buffing machine. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. Fig. saw a piece of wood. Having finished washing the precipitate. which . which is held by catch B. about 25 ft. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. long. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. silver can be plated direct. which is advised. nickel and such metals. 3. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. This solution. 1). On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. Make a somewhat larger block (E. piece of broomstick. 18 wire. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. --Model Engineer. A 1/4 in. light strokes. To provide the keyhole. Repeat six times. long. zinc. square. with water. Can be made of a 2-in. Fig. with water. On brass. Before silver plating. Where Bunsen cells are used. when the point of the key touches the tin. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. of water. from the lower end. make a key and keyhole. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. an old electric bell or buzzer. copper. When all this is set up. but opens the door. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. with the pivot 2 in. In rigging it to a sliding door. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. of clothesline rope and some No. B should be of the same wood. A (Fig. With an electric pressure of 3. Screw the two blocks together. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. pewter. Fig. will serve for the key. hole in its center. 1 in. a hand scratch brush is good. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. The wooden catch. 1). thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. such metals as iron. 1. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. use 2 volts for large articles. as shown in Fig.

surrounding a perfectly black space. heighten the illusion. spoons and jackknives. floor. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. although a little more trouble. On either side of the box. . The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. in his shirt sleeves. some black cloth. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. 1. 1. a few simple tools. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. Heavy metal objects.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. with a switch as in Fig. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. Thus. The box must be altered first. he points with one finger to the box. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. between the parlor and the room back of it. Klipstein. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. To prepare such a magic cave. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. some black paint. H. so much the better. 0. the illumination in front must be arranged. and black art reigns supreme. and plenty of candles. One thing changes to another and back again. which unlocks the door. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. The interior must be a dead black. Fig. One end is removed. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. shows catch B. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. H. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. Next. He removes the bowl from the black box. he tosses it into the cave. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. 2. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). 116 Prospect St. 3. cut in one side. Fig. East Orange. and a slit. is the cut through which the rope runs. should be cut a hole. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. and finally lined inside with black cloth. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. Next. In front of you. the requisites are a large soap box. The magician stands in front of this. New Jersey. and hands its contents round to the audience. to throw the light toward the audience. enlarged. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. Receiving the bowl again. half way from open end to closed end. --Contributed by E. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. one-third of the length from the remaining end. such as forks. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. H. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. or cave. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. 2. sides and end. Fig. B.. the box should be painted black both inside and out. top. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. no painting inside is required. Fig. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. Objects appear and disappear. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. with the lights turned low. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night.

into the eyes of him who looks. only he.Finally. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. as presented by Hermann. which can be made to dance either by strings. one on each side of the box. if. had a big stage. The audience room should have only low lights. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. was identical with this. and if portieres are impossible. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. his confederate behind inserts his hand. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. of course. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. the room where the cave is should be dark. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. The illusion. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. Consequently. which are let down through the slit in the top. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. The exhibitor should be . is on a table) so much the better. of course. and pours them from the bag into a dish. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. and several black drop curtains. you must have an assistant. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. But illusions suggest themselves. a screen must be used. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. in which are oranges and apples.

b2. Finally. d. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. 1. respectively. by means of two wood screws. respectively.a boy who can talk. and a common screw. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. and c1 – electricity. vice versa.. f2. c4. is shown in the diagram. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . b1. making contact with them. or b2. About the center piece H moves a disk. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. On the disk G are two brass strips. held down by another disk F (Fig. with three brass strips. as shown in Fig. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. 2. c3. 1. at L. making contact with them as shown at y. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. Then. held down on it by two terminals. e1 and e2. their one end just slips under the strips b1. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. A represents a pine board 4 in. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). b3. FIG. so arranged that. c2. and c4 + electricity. Fig. A. b2. terminal c3 will show +. 2). square. held down on disk F by two other terminals. b3. and c2 to the zinc. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. when handle K is turned to one side. 2. by 4 in.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. if you turn handle K to the right. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. c1. or binding posts. terminal c3 will show . respectively. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments.

E. B is a onepoint switch. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. and then hold the receiver to your ear. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. Newark. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. and when on No. When switch B is closed and A is on No. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. from five batteries. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. from four batteries.. 3. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. 4. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. 1. Ohio. 5. -Contributed by A. . you have the current of one battery. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. and C and C1 are binding posts. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . when on No. Jr. Tuttle. when on No. from three batteries. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. Joerin. thus making the message audible in the receiver. --Contributed by Eugene F. jump spark coil. when A is on No. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving.

P. as shown in the sketch. Handy Electric Alarm . which may be a button or other small object. and supporting the small weight. A. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. traveled by the thread. rule. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. Wis. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. mark. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. over the bent portion of the rule. The device thus arranged. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in.. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. is the device of H. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. New Orleans. E. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. of Burlington.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. B. per second for each second. Redmond. La. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. so one can see the time. per second. and placed on the windowsill of the car. Thus. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. A. When you do not have a graduate at hand. mark. A. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain.

which illuminates the face of the clock. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. soldered to the alarm winder. Crafton. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. Lane. . I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. C. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. wrapping the wire around the can several times. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. Then if a mishap comes. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. Instead. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. B. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. Pa. --C. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. When the alarm goes off. for a wetting is the inevitable result. S. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. but may be closed at F any time desired. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. and with the same result. --Contributed by Gordon T. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. Then I sat down on the porch to wait.which has a piece of metal.

C. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. Two cleats. when it is being prepared. With the easily made devices about to be described. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. --Contributed by A. AA. as shown. as shown in Fig. battery zincs. L. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. binding posts.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. engines. Macey. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. but it is a mistake to try to do this. It is possible to make molds without a bench. bearings. and many other interesting and useful articles. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. and duplicates of all these. New York City. If there is no foundry Fig. whence it is soon tracked into the house. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. small machinery parts. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. 1. cannons. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. 1 . A. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. ornaments of various kinds. which may. models and miniature objects. The first thing to make is a molding bench. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. BE.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum.

and the lower pieces. is nailed to each end of the cope. previous to sawing. and a sieve. but this operation will be described more fully later on. II . which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. high. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. try using sand from other sources. the "cope. J. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. 1. Fig. A wedge-shaped piece. as shown. which should be nailed in. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. CC. white metal. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. CC. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. G." or upper half.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. The flask. is about the right mesh. DD. is shown more clearly in Fig. 1. If desired the sieve may be homemade. E. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. 2 . This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands.How to Make a Mold [96] . Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. and the "drag.near at hand. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. An old teaspoon. F. by 6 in. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. will be required. H. It is made of wood and is in two halves. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. which can be either aluminum. 2. and saw it in half longitudinally. Fig. by 8 in. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. D. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. which can be made of a knitted stocking. The cloth bag. a little larger than the outside of the flask. and this. A A. say 12 in. If the box is not very strong. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. makes a very good sieve." or lower part. The dowels. A slight shake of the bag Fig. as shown. is filled with coal dust. The rammer. is made of wood. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold.

It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. the surface of the sand at . It is then rammed again as before." in position. The sand is then ready for molding. as described. as shown at D. as shown at E. and if water is added. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. or "cope. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. and by grasping with both hands. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. as shown. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. turn the drag other side up. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. and scatter about 1/16 in. Place another cover board on top. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. where they can watch the molders at work. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. as shown at C. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. In finishing the ramming. and thus judge for himself. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. After ramming. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. or "drag. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. as it is much easier to learn by observation. and then more sand is added until Fig. in order to remove the lumps.

by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right.E should be covered with coal-dust. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. thus holding the crucible securely. to give the air a chance to escape. and then pour. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. as shown at H. Place a brick or other flat. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. as shown in the sketch. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. in order to prevent overheating. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. place the cope back on the drag. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. III. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. deep. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. in diameter. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. after being poured. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. as shown at H. as shown at J. thus making a dirty casting. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. it shows that the sand is too wet. made out of steel rod. Fig. is next cut. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. The "sprue. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. After drawing the pattern. as shown at F. as shown at G. ." or pouring-hole. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. This is done with a spoon. wide and about 1/4 in. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick.

Although the effect in the illustration . although somewhat expensive. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. and. the following device will be found most convenient. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. battery zincs. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. --Contributed by Harold S. 15% lead. is very desirable. If a good furnace is available. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. babbitt. may be used in either direction. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. Morton. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. Minneapolis. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. Referring to the figure. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. but any reasonable number may be used. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. and the casting is then ready for finishing. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. used only for zinc. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. white metal and other scrap available. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. In my own case I used four batteries. or from any adjacent pair of cells.

to prevent them from rubbing the hands. B. If desired. 3/4 in. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. The bearings. Fig. as shown in the illustration. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. outward. may be made of hardwood. 2. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. Make one of these pieces for each arm. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. To make it take a sheet-iron band. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. Put a sharp needle point. as shown at A. backward. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. shaft made. By replacing the oars with paddles. which will be sufficient to hold it. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . Then replace the table. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. A. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. Chicago. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. B. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. connected by cords to the rudder. Then walk down among the audience. The brass rings also appear distorted. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. --Contributed by Draughtsman.

it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. 1. In the same way. spoiling its appearance. D. Fig. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. or under pressure. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. A block of ice. 1. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. 3. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. E. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. when it will again return to its original state. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. as shown in Fig. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. but when in motion. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. C. If babbitt is used. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. If galvanized iron is used. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. It may seem strange that ice . should be made of wood. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. or the paint will come off. Snow. and a weight. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. W. The hubs.melted babbitt. being simply finely divided ice. The covers. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. as shown in Fig. 2 and 3. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. 1. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. 2. A.

sometimes only one or two feet a day. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. as shown on page 65. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. by 1/2 in. Pressing either push button. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. and assume the shape shown at B. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . brass.. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. it will gradually change from the original shape A. thus giving a high resistance contact. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. whenever there is any connection made at all. Lane. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. but. or supporting it in some similar way. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. by 5 in. The rate of flow is often very slow. as per sketch. Crafton. no matter how slow the motion may be. B. which resembles ice in this respect. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. by 1/4. in. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. square. P. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. but by placing it between books. --Contributed by Gordon T. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. by 2 in. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. Pa. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram.should flow like water. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice.

the induction coil. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. K . A is the circuit breaker. H. about the size used for automobiles. Indianapolis. the battery.thumb screws. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. as shown. D. The success depends upon a slow current. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. and C. wooden supports. F. pulleys. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. as shown. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. furnace. The parts are: A. draft. horizontal lever. Pa. and five dry batteries. weight. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. I. vertical lever. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. E. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. J. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. In the wiring diagram. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. B. G. alarm clock. cord. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. G. draft chain. Ward. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit.000 ft. --Contributed by A. C. B. Wilkinsburg. a key or push-button for completing the circuit.

where house plants are kept in the home. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. 2 are dressed to the right angle. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. Artistic Window Boxes The top. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. The frame (Fig. will fit nicely in them. such as used for a storm window. 3. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. Kalamazoo. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. which will provide a fine place for the plants.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. material framed together as shown in Fig. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. as well as the bottom. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. Mich.

A certain number of these.. and cost 27 cents FIG. However. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. as indicated by Fig.. 1 cp. as if drawn upon for its total output. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. so as to increase the current. where they are glad to have them taken away. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. W. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. but maintain the voltage constant. a cork and a needle. Push the needle into the cork. is something that will interest the average American boy. S. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. Thus. However. This is more economical than dry cells. --Contributed by Wm. after a rest. i. and the instrument will then be complete. It must be remembered. The 1/2-cp. can be connected up in series. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. for some time very satisfactorily.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. Canada. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. e. since a battery is the most popular source of power. N. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. in this connection. one can regulate the batteries as required. in diameter. 1. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. multiples of series of three. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. this must be done with very great caution. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also.. 1 each complete with base. and a suitable source of power. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. in any system of lamps. by connecting them in series. Halifax. which sells for 25 cents. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. Grant. and will give the .

2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. Thus. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. . but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. Chicago. 2 shows the scheme. lamps. which is the same as that of one battery. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. and then lead No. FIG. according to the water pressure obtainable. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. double insulated wire wherever needed. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. for display of show cases. to secure light by this method. where the water pressure is the greatest. generates the power for the lights. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. lamps. Thus. and for Christmas trees. 18 B & S. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. if wound for 6 volts. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. If wound for 10 volts. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. In conclusion. So. and running the series in parallel. making. although the first cost is greater. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. as in Fig. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. 1-cp. Fig.proper voltage. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. 3. 11 series.. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. and diffused light in a room. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. we simply turn on the water. or 22 lights. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. each. However. lamp. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. by the proper combination of these. especially those of low internal resistance. These will give 3 cp. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed.

To reverse the motor. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Emig. Santa Clara. and C. we were not bothered with them. Cal. Ind. as shown in the sketch. are cut just alike. B. --Contributed by Leonard E. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. or a tempting bone. or from one pattern. the letters indicate as follows: FF. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. BB. and the sides. Parker. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. CC. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. switch. field of motor. --Contributed by F. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. AA. brushes of motor. center points of switch. outside points of switch. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. Plymouth. A. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. A indicates the ground. thus reversing the machine. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. . The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. DD. B. bars of pole-changing switch. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. a bait of meat. simply change the switch. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. After I connected up my induction coil.

Melchior. Minn. a piece of string. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. 903 Vine St. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. To unlock the door. When the circuit is broken a weight. or would remain locked. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. and a table or bench. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. merely push the button E.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. If it is not. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. San Jose. The button can be hidden. Cal. Hutchinson. a hammer. W. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. A. which is in the door. attached to the end of the armature B. one cell being sufficient. thus locking the door. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. The experiment works best . the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. Fry. -Contributed by Claude B. as it is the key to the lock..

Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. A. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. 2. Wis. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. releasing the weight. forming a loop. 1). . 3. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block.Contributed by F. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. When the alarm rings in the early morning. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Schmidt. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. --Contributed by Geo. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. C. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Crawford Curry.. the current flows with the small arrows. attached at the other end. 4). the stick falls away. P. Canada. the key turns. D. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. run through a pulley. Porto Rico. which pulls the draft open. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. Madison. Tie the ends of the string together. where it will remain suspended as shown. W. Brockville. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. I. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. as shown in Fig. in the ceiling and has a window weight. 3. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Ontario. Culebra. 18 Gorham St. -.

6 in. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. thence to a switch. D. R. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and the other to the battery. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and . but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. or tree. running one direct to the receiver. or from a bed of flowers. square and 1 in. The cut shows the arrangement. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Farley. Jr. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. made with his own hands. Connect two wires to the transmitter.. J.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and break the corners off to make them round. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. J. Camden. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. S. including the mouthpiece. Use a barrel to work on. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. First. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. and then to the receiver. N. thick. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. get two pieces of plate glass. which fasten to the horn. --Contributed by Wm.

melt 1 lb. set the speculum against the wall. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. a round 4-in.. in length.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. 2. then take 2 lb. Fasten. and spread on the glass. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. Fig. of water. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. then 8 minutes. When done the glass should be semitransparent. Fig. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding.. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. by the side of the lamp. L. 2. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. and a large lamp.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. unless a longer focal length is wanted. and label. also rotate the glass. wet till soft like paint. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. using straight strokes 2 in. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. as in Fig. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. Use a binger to spread it on with. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. or it will not polish evenly. wetting it to the consistency of cream. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. wide around the convex glass or tool. spaces. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. Have ready six large dishes. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. In a dark room. and is ready for polishing. and the under glass or tool convex. A. When dry. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. so the light . next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. while walking around the barrel. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. the coarse grinding must be continued. When polishing the speculum. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. or less. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. Then warm and press again with the speculum. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. with pitch. 1. with 1/4-in. twice the focal length away. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel.

then ammonia until bath is clear.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. 2. fill the dish with distilled water. Fig. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin.……………………………. If not. Solution D: Sugar loaf .. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. When the focus is found. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. longer strokes. The polishing and testing done. from the lamp. Fig. The knife should not be more than 6 in. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. if a hill in the center. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. with distilled water. Silver nitrate ……………………………. Nitric acid . so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). and pour the rest into the empty dish. 4 oz. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. 39 gr. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. deep. long to the back of the speculum. the speculum is ready to be silvered. Then add solution B. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. touched with rouge.. face down. also how the rays R from a star . Then add 1 oz... Fig. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears.. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. 840 gr.. or hills. must be procured. cement a strip of board 8 in. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. as in K.. 25 gr.. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Now add enough of the solution A. Place the speculum. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid.. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. that was set aside. 4 oz. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. 100 gr. With pitch. 2. the speculum will show some dark rings. in the bath and leave until the silver rises.……………. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp.100 gr. When dry..………………………………. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. Place the speculum S. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz.

Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. deg. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. with an outlay of only a few dollars. Then I made the one described. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. stop down well after focusing. Place over lens. long and cost me just $15.John E. Mellish.. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. Thus an excellent 6-in. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. cover with paper and cloth. and proceed as for any picture. telescope can be made at home. using strawboard and black paper. is a satisfactory angle. About 20. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. Make the tube I of sheet iron. two glass prisms. . Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. which proves to be easy of execution. slightly wider than the lens mount. My telescope is 64 in. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford.

but will not preserve its hardening. The paper is exposed. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. 2. 1. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. or powdered alum. To unlock.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. add the plaster gradually to the water. . then add a little sulphate of potash. Fig. Boody. through the lens of the camera and on the board. and reflect through the negative. complete the arrangement. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. as shown in Fig. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. instead of the contrary. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. -Contributed by A. Ill. D. The rays of the clear. A. push the button D. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. unobstructed light strike the mirror. Do not stir it. says the Master Painter. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. Zimmerman. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. B.

1). thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. as shown in the sketch. use a string. 3. as in Fig. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. Fig. To reverse. throw . and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. so that it can rotate about these points. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. also provide them with a handle. 2. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. Fasten on the switch lever. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. 2. as at A and B. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Then blow through the spool.

16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. and rub dry with linen cloth. L. carbon sockets. North Bend. as shown in the sketch. In the sketch. San Marcos. --Contributed by Geo. Thomas. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. rinse in alcohol. Neb. -Contributed by Morris L. binding posts. D. the armature. Push one end of the tire into the hole. carbons. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. although this is not necessary. . Levy. Take out. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. B. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Go McVicker. --Contributed by R. and E E. C C. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. Tex.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. A is the electricbell magnet. Tex. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. San Antonio. wash in running water.

Bell. wound evenly about this core.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. 36 magnet wire. By means of two or more layers of No. --Contributed by Joseph B. long or more. 16 magnet wire. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. Brooklyn. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. 14 or No. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory.

as shown in Fig. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. A 7/8-in. the entire core may be purchased readymade.which would be better to buy ready-made. and finally the fourth strip of paper. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. which is desirable. which is an important factor of the coil. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. This makes a condenser which may be folded. coil illustrates the general details of the work. about 6 in. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. a box like that shown in Fig. as the maker prefers. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. long and 5 in. or 8 in. at a time. The following method of completing a 1-in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. In shaping the condenser. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. hole is bored in the center of one end. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. one piece of the paper is laid down. 2 yd. then the strip of tin-foil. The primary is made of fine annealed No. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. The condenser is next wrapped . as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. making two layers. long and 2-5/8 in. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. wide. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. and the results are often unsatisfactory. When cut and laid in one continuous length. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. 4. After the core wires are bundled. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. diameter. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. 1. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. in diameter. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. in length. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. but if it is not convenient to do this work. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. Beginning half an inch from one end. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. with room also for a small condenser. No.

the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. and the other sheet. ready for assembling. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. A. round so that the inside . F. battery . lines H.. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. C. switch. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. by 12 in. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. one from bell. D. 3. whole length. wide. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. shows how the connections are made. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. G. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. which allows wiring at the back. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. and one from battery. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact.securely with bands of paper or tape. open switch C. the letters indicate as follows: A. long to key. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. spark. I. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. flange turned on one side. 4 in. forms the other pole or terminal. which is insulated from the first. E. B. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips.) The wiring diagram. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. long and 12 in. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. V-shaped copper strip. copper lever with 1-in. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. to the door. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. The alarm key will turn and drop down. shelf for clock. bell. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. go. B. Fig. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser.

Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. Line the furnace. from the bottom. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. Short-circuit for three hours. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. The circuit should also have a high resistance. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. of blue stone. and then rivet the seam. says the Model Engineer. 2 in. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. This is for blowing. London.diameter is 7 in. but add 5 or 6 oz. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. of zinc sulphate. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. instead of close to it. That is what they are for. Use a glass or metal shade. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. . Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. and the battery is ready for use. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. but with the circuit. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. If desired for use immediately. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. This makes it impractical for running fan motors.. do not shortcircuit. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed.

grip the stick firmly in one hand. but the thing would not move at all. g. while for others it will not revolve at all. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. or think they can do the same let them try it. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water.9 of a volt. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig." which created much merriment. If any or your audience presume to dispute. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. This type of battery will give about 0. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. for others the opposite way. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. If too low. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. and therein is the trick. the thumb and second finger changing places: e.. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. long. herein I describe a much better trick. Try it and see. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. affects . Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. the second finger along the side. oxygen to ozone. porcelain and paper. imparting to them a violet tinge. 2. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Ohio. Enlarge the hole slightly. below the bottom of the zinc. for some it will turn one way. Outside of the scientific side involved. and then. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. thus producing two different vibrations. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. 1. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. changes white phosphorus to yellow. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. as in the other movement. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. square and about 9 in. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. To operate the trick.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. At least it is amusing.

chemicals. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. a short-focus lens. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. says the Photographic Times. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. if possible. but this is less satisfactory. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. and one of them is photomicrography. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . a means for holding it vertical. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. an old tripod screw. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. but small flowers. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. but not essential. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. insects. To the front board is attached a box. and. earth.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. however. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined.

6 ft. 65 4 lb. 10 ft 523 33 lb. in Cu. 12 ft. CD.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. while it is not so with the quill. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. which is 15 ft. balloon. 381 24 lb. or 3 ft. A line. and a line. 905 57 lb. The following table will give the size. Boston. 1. Fig. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. 7-1/2 in. 697 44 lb. Madison. 113 7 lb. Mass. long and 3 ft. 8 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. in diameter. 179 11 lb. 5 ft.--Contributed by George C. 5 in. AB. 7 ft. 7-1/2 in. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. 11 ft. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. Ft Lifting Power. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Divide one-quarter of the circle . or 31 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 9 ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. If the balloon is 10 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. Cap. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 268 17 lb. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper.

The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. 4. on the curved line from B to C.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. The pattern is now cut. 3. Procure 1 gal. The cloth segments are sewed together. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. and so on. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. 2. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. keeping the marked part on the outside. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. The amounts necessary for a 10- . This test will show if the bag is airtight. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. cutting all four quarters at the same time. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. Repeat this operation four times. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. making a double seam as shown in Fig. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. 70 thread. using a fine needle and No. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. of the very best heavy body. of beeswax and boil well together.

When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. using a fine brush. 1 lb. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. ]. should not enter into the water over 8 in. of iron. pipe. All FIG. . . leaving the hand quite clean. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. with 3/4in.. 1 lb. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. which may sound rather absurd. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. Fill the other barrel. balloon are 125 lb. of sulphuric acid. When the clock has dried. C. capacity and connect them. until no more dirt is seen. A. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. this should be repeated frequently. Water 1 oz. above the level of the water in barrel A. 5 . The benzine should be clean and free from oil. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. The outlet. A. oil the spindle holes carefully. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. it is not fit to use. by fixing. or dusting with a dry brush. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. 5. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. A. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. or a fan. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. with the iron borings. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. B. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. of water will make 4 cu.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. a clean white rag. 150 gr. but if any grease remains on the hand. to the bag. About 15 lb. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. After washing a part. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. B. The 3/4-in.ft. as shown in Fig. C. of gas in one hour. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. B. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. ft. In the barrel. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet.Green Iron ammonium citrate . of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. with water 2 in. if it is good it will dry off. of iron borings and 125 lb. Vegetable oils should never be used.

Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. . dry atmosphere will give best results. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Dry the plates in the dark. A cold.Water 1 oz. A longer exposure will be necessary. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. and a vigorous negative must be used. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. The miniature 16 cp. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. fix in hypo. toning first if desired. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. This aerial collector can be made in . or battery. to avoid blackened skin. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. Port Melbourne. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. of any make.. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry.000 ft. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. or zinc. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Dry in the dark. says the Moving Picture World. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. The negative pole. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. The positive pole. 20 to 30 minutes. . Exposure. and keep in the dark until used. Printing is done in the sun. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. or carbon. keeping the fingers out of the solution. at the time of employment. Bathe the plates 5 minutes.

5 in. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. will soon become dry and useless. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. lay a needle. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. If the wave ceases. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. As the telephone offers a high resistance. when left exposed to the air. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. both positive and negative. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. the resistance is less. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. This will complete the receiving station. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. and as less current will flow the short way. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. long. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates.various ways. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. making a ground with one wire. a positive and a negative. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. forming a cup of the pipe. If the waves strike across the needle. lead pipe. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. and have the other connected with another aerial line. The storage cell. in diameter. as described below. holes .

B. or tube B. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. by soldering the joint.as possible. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. one to the positive. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. This support or block. or tube C. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. on each end. This. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. does not need to be watertight. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. an oblong one and a triangular one. says the Pathfinder. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. Two binding-posts should be attached. of course. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. D. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. a round one. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. When mixing the acid and water. except for about 1 in. The other plate is connected to the zinc. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. namely: a square hole. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. and the other to the negative. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. This box can be square. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid.

The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. 2. back and under. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. A and B. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. . about 20 in. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. long. and has plenty of good seating capacity. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. C. wide. leaving about 1/16 in. Chicago. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. all around the edge. were fitted by this one plug. is built 15 ft. and match them together. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. The third piece of brass. deep and 4 ft. in place on the wood. thick cut two pieces alike. This punt. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. 3. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. Ill. as shown in Fig. Only galvanized nails should be used. 1. C. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. as shown in Fig. as it is not readily overturned. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. 1. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. 2. wide. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible.

The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. is cut 1 in. Tacoma. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. gas pipe. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. A piece of 1/4-in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. In Fig. Wash. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. thick and 3-1/2 in. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . B. square (Fig 2). A. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C.

In designing. H. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum.--Contributed by Charles H. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. may be of interest to some of our readers. which the writer has made. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of ." has no connection with the outside circuit. says the Model Engineer. lamp. Wagner. The winding of the armature. it had to be borne in mind that. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. without auxiliary phase. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. if possible. and to consume. or "rotor. no more current than a 16-cp. no special materials could be obtained. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. with the exception of insulated wire. which can be developed in the usual manner.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning.

1. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators.the field-magnet. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. bolts put in and tightened up." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. A. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. B. or "stator. thick. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. to be filed out after they are placed together. about 2-1/2 lb. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. C. 2. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. 4. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. and filled with rivets. 5. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. Unfortunately. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. were then drilled and 1/4-in. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. as shown in Fig. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. and all sparking is avoided. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. wrought iron. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. while the beginnings . all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. also varnished before they were put in. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. this little machine is not self-starting. with the dotted line. in diameter were drilled in the corners. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. After assembling a second time. 3. no steel being obtainable. as shown in Fig. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. They are not particularly accurate as it is. being used. Holes 5-32 in. holes. The stator is wound full with No. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds.

but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. One is by contact. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. Newark. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. The rotor is wound with No. a regulating resistance is not needed. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. 3-Contributed by C. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. and as the motor runs at constant speed. N. and all wound in the same direction. J. E. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. having no commutator or brushes. as before stated. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. and especially of colored ones. The image should . and would not easily get out of order. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. In making slides by contact. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. No starting resistance is needed. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. and as each layer of wire was wound. 1. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. McKinney. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. 2. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. If too late for alcohol to be of use. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. if applied immediately. and the other by reduction in the camera. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. film to film. it would be very simple to build.. Jr. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. The lantern slide is a glass plate. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. as shown in Fig. This type of motor has drawbacks. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. as a means of illustrating songs.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply.

a little extra work will be necessary. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. Select a room with one window. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. A. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. B. It is best. D. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. Fig. about a minute. and then a plain glass. 3. and development should be over in three or four minutes. 2. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. except that the binding is different. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. These can be purchased from any photo material store. the formulas being found in each package of plates. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Being unbreakable. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size.appear in. 1. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. as shown in Fig. to use a plain fixing bath. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. as shown in Fig. Draw lines with a pencil. 5. If the exposure has been correct. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . they are much used by travelers. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. 4. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. also. over the mat. if possible. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. C.

Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. If the star is in front of the left eye. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. Vt. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. wide and 50 in. A piece of canvas. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. Fig. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. 1. from the ends. These longer pieces can be made square. long. 1. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. Hastings. as shown at B. 2. long. known as rods and cones. Corinth. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. in diameter and 20 in. as shown at A. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. Fig. from the center of this dot draw a star. while the dot will be in front of the other. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. in diameter and 40 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. holes bored in the end pieces. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. from the end piece of the chair. as shown in Fig. is to be used for the seat. or other stout cloth. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. 16 in. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. long. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in.

2. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. Cal. per square inch. A disk 1 in. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose.-Contributed by P. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. Auburn. J. O'Gara. A belt. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. as shown in Fig. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. 1. in thickness and 10 in. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. . which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. as well as to operate other household machines. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. made from an ordinary sash cord. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. as shown in Fig.

and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. screwing it through the nut. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. fairly accurate. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. divided by the number of threads to the inch. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Cut out a piece from the block combination. to the top of the bench. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. will be the thickness of the object. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. . Put the bolt in the hole. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. thick and 2-1/2 in. says the Scientific American. A simple. with as fine a thread as possible.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. it serves a very useful purpose. The part of a rotation of the bolt. 3/4 in. direction. long. Bore a 1/4-in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. then removing the object. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. or inconvenient to measure. and the construction is complete. leaving it shaped like a bench. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. square for a support. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. wide. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base.

hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Place a 3/4-in. Oal. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. piece of wood 12 ft. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Bore a 3/4-in. beyond the end of the wood. bolt in each hole. long is used for the center pole. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Santa Maria. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. which show up fine at night. The wheel should be open . long. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. material 12 ft. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer.

Graham. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. from the top end. and on its lower end a socket. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. to be operated by the magnet coil. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. wide and 1/8 in. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. pieces used for the spokes. which should be 1/4 in. Fort Worth. square and 3 or 4 in. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. thick. long. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. made of the same material. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. from the ends. wide and 1/8 in. B. in diameter. of the ends with boards. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. at the top and 4 in. and the lower part 61/2 in. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. Tex.Side and Top View or have spokes. The coil. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. C. at the bottom. The boards may be nailed or bolted. H and J. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. long. A piece of brass 2 in. L. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. O. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. is soldered. A. long. thick is used for the armature. 1/2 in. P. long. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. C. The spool . The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. A cross bar. thick.-Contributed by A.

S. A. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25.E. Randolph. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. 2 the hat hanging on it. and in numerous other like instances. that holds the lower carbon. one without either rubber or metal end. S. long. This is a very neat trick if performed right. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. do it without any apparent effort.000 for irrigation work. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. Mass.000. --Contributed by Arthur D.J. F. 2. then with a firm. and place it against a door or window casing. . R. and directly centering the holes H and J. A soft piece of iron. which may be had by using German silver wire. Bradlev. C. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. by soldering. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing.--A.is about 2-1/2 in. is drilled. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. The armature. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. or a water rheostat heretofore described. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. 1. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. When you slide the pencil along the casing. for insulating the brass ferrule. At the bottom end of the frame. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. B. D and E. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. This tie can be used on grain sacks. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. placing the end of the cord under the first loop.

The vibrator. The core of the coil. A. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. leaving the projections as shown. B. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. mixed with water to form a paste. about 1/8 in. The coil ends are made from cardboard. for the secondary. may be made from a 3/8-in. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. Fig. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. D.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. in diameter. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. hole in the center. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. S. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. in diameter.500 turns of No. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. with a 3/16-in. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. is constructed in the usual manner. for the primary. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. wide. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. C. S. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. The vibrator B. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. about 1 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . from the core and directly opposite. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. The switch. in diameter and 2 in. 2. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. 1. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. F. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. Fig. is connected to a flash lamp battery. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. in diameter and 1/16 in. for adjustment. long. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. about 3/16 in. long and 1 in. 1. and then 1. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. About 70 turns of No. thick. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick.

The water will rapidly rise in the glass. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. .Place a small piece of paper. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. it laps down about 8 in. as shown. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. and then well clinched. Fig. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. which is only 3/8-in. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. as shown in the sketch. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. thick on the inside. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. The hasp. long and when placed over the board. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. lighted. board. 1. between the boards. with which to operate the dial. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. 2 to fit the two holes. which seemed to be insufficient. The lock. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. wide. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. in an ordinary water glass. The knob on the dial extends out too far. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. brass plate. The tin is 4 in. The three screws were then put in the hasp. 1. 16 in. and the same distance inside of the new board. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. was to be secured by only three brass screws. which is cut with two holes.

but when the front part is illuminated. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. When the rear part is illuminated. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. and the back left dark. the glass. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. black color. or in the larger size mentioned. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. one in each division. any article placed therein will be reflected in. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. square and 8-1/2 in. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. If the box is made large enough. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. not shiny. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. When making of wood. clear glass as shown. high for use in window displays. square and 10-1/2 in. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. which completely divides the box into two parts.

For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. as shown in the sketch. and with the proper illumination one is changed. This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. as it appears. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. long and 1 ft. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. a tank 2 ft. When there is no electric current available. When using as a window display. as shown at A in the sketch. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. . this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. wide will be about the right size. alternately. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. above the top of the tank. or a piece of this width put on the bottom.. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. into the other. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. place the goods in one part and the price in the other.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. square. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. is the green vitriol. long. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. using a 3/4-in. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. one for each side. thick and 3 in. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. bit. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. A small platform. radius. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. 5 ft. hole bored the full length through the center. and 6 ft. Columbus. bore from each end. wide. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. or ferrous sulphate. gauge for depth. The 13-in. wide. and a door in front. Iron sulphate. If a planing mill is near. square and 40 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. This precipitate is then washed. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. and a solution of iron sulphate added. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. each. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. This hole must be continued . high. two pieces 1-1/8 in. as shown. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. under sides together. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. 1 in. is built on the front. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. O. from the ground. Three windows are provided. but with a length of 12 in. however. The pieces can then be taken out. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. 6 in. lines gauged on each side of each. Shape the under sides first. then use a red-hot iron to finish. 2 ft. long. dried and mixed with linseed oil. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. and boring two holes with a 1-in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. hole. with a length of 13 in.

The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. if shade is purchased. three or four may be attached as shown. thick and 3 in. Directions will be found on the filler cans. When the filler has hardened. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. If the parts are to be riveted. Saw the two blocks apart. Electric globes--two. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. The sketch shows one method of attaching. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. apply two coats of wax. When this is dry. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. A better way. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. square and drawing a diagonal on each. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. hole in each block. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. For art-glass the metal panels are .through the pieces forming the base. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout.

Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. METAL SHADE . and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. as brass.Construction of Shade .The Completed Lamp cut out. such as copper. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade.

the other. as in ordinary devices. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. the object and the background. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . 2 the front view of this stand. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. and Fig. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The arms holding the glass. one way and 1/2 in. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. Figure 1 shows the side. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. as shown in the sketch. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal.

Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. uncork and recork again. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. If the light becomes dim. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. as shown in the cut. thick 5/8-in. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. pointing north and south. wide and 11 in. and an inside diameter of 9 in. long. as it is very poisonous. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. thus forming a 1/4-in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. Cut another circular piece 11 in. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. about 1-1/4 in. in diameter. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Before mounting the ring on the base. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. Put the ring in place on the base. wide and 6-5/16 in. outside diameter. and swinging freely. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. in diameter for a base. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. An ordinary pocket compass. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. as shown in the sketch.

An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. and mirrors. in diameter and 8 in. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. B.865 1. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. of the top. black oxide of copper.088 . The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country.420 . Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. and north of the Ohio river. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. EE. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.715 . The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. from the second to the third. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.182 . above the half can. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. CC. are mounted on a base. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. into these cylinders. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. Corresponding mirrors. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. 1 oz. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes .3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. The results given should be multiplied by 1. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. AA.600 .cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils.289 . Place on top the so- .500 . Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in.

A Floating Electromagnet [152] . of pulverized nitrate of potassium. 62 gr. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. Colo. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. always remove the oil with a siphon. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. 31 gr. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. University Park. of pulverized campor. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. says Metal Worker.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. When renewing. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. which otherwise remains clear. then they will not rust fast. alcohol. slender bottle. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. In Fig. the wheel will revolve in one direction. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. Put the solution in a long. little crystals forming in the liquid.

The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. about 1-1/4 in. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. Attach to the wires. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. Lloyd Enos. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. If zinc and carbon are used. This is used in place of the spoon. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. Solder in the side of the box . which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. floating on a solution. --Contributed by C. If zinc and copper are used. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. on the under side of the cork. If two of them are floating on the same solution. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. A paper-fastener box. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. will allow the magnet to point north and south.

H. C. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. D. B. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. of No. F. brass tubing. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. long that has about 1/4-in. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. E. C. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper.not shorter than 18 in.in. wide and 2-1/2 in. piece of 1/4-in. away. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. Take a small piece of soft iron. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube.1-in. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. 1/2. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. The base. long. is made from a piece of No. and then solder on the cover. wide and 6 in. of wire on each end extending from the coil. can be made of oak. Rhamstine. To this standard solder the supporting wire. and connect the two wires from the coil to them.in. 10 wire about 10 in. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. or made with a little black paint. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . E. glass tubing . to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. Wind evenly about 2 oz. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. to it. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. D. The bottom of the box. A. Bore holes for binding-posts. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. long for the base and fasten the coil to it.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. G--No. D.Contributed by J. one on each side of the board. C. stained and varnished. 3 in. and on the other around the glass tube. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. The spring should be about 1 in. as shown in Fig. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. 14 wire will do. A. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. long. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. Use a board 1/2. The standard. thick. A circular piece of cardboard. Thos. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. 1. hole. 1-1/4 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. B. If the hose is not a tight fit. . At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. Put ends.

nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. long are used for the legs. 3. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. When the glass becomes soft. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. E. in diameter. 1. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. J. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. N. as shown in Fig. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft.--Contributed by R. of 8-oz. Wis. of mercury will be sufficient. Milwaukee. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. About 1-1/2 lb. four hinges. long. 2. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. 3-in. D. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft.--Contributed by Edward M. The iron plunger. about 1 in. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat.of the coil. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. canvas. Teasdale. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. long. Cuba. Smith. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. 5. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. is drawn nearer to the coil. long. long. Y. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. two pieces 2 ft. making a support as shown in Fig. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. from the right hand. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. 3 in. long. . of No. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands.

The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. small aperture in the long tube. long. expelling all the air. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. Toronto. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Break this thread off about 1/8 in.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. thus leaving a. Keys. 6. Can. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. 4. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. holding in the left hand. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury.. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. 3. 5. This tube as described will be 8 in. Measure 8 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. Break off the piece of glass.. Fig. Take 1/2 in. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. leaving 8 in. of vacuum at the top. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. The tube now must be filled completely. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. 2. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. --Contributed by David A. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner.

long. as in Fig. FIG. 1 in. as shown in Fig. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. thick. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in.6 -. thick. wide and 3 in. 2. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. material 2 in. wide and 5 ft. 5. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. long. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. Four blocks 1/4 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. wide and 12 in. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . The frame is put together as shown in Fig. The large pulley is about 14 in. 3 in. long. wide and 5 ft. Fig. thick. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 9 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. 7. 1 in. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. These are bent and nailed. with each projection 3-in. wide and 5 ft. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. long. 3 in. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. from the end of same. cut in the shape shown in Fig. in diameter. This forms a slot. thick. as shown in Fig. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. 3. thick. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. and 1/4 in. wood screws. but yellow pine is the best.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. 4 in. joint be accurately put together. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 6. 4. A crosspiece 3/4-in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. 1.

Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. R. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. . above the runner level. Welsh. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. Manhattan. Kan. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. by 1-in. Water 1 oz. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. --Contributed by C. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. first removing the crank. attach runners and use it on the ice. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. says Photography. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel.

Newton. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. as shown in Fig. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. as shown in Fig. and very much cheaper. 2. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. from an ordinary clamp skate. Leominster. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. Mass. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. also. .This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. 1. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Treasdale. 3. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. 1 oz. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. --Contributed by Edward M. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. The print is washed. --Contributed by Wallace C. Printing is carried rather far. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. of water.

A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. 1. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. which represents the back side of the door. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. Alexandria. Va. square piece. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. and to the bottom. 1 ft. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. hole. with about 1/8-in. Fig. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. and 3 ft. wide. 1. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. 2. The swing door B. as shown in the sketch. high. The thread is broken off at the . wide and 4 in. from one end. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. high for rabbits. too. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. fasten a 2-in. Take two glass tubes. about 10 in. long. Church. 1-1/2 ft. Place a 10-in. --Contributed by H. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. A. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. Fig.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. and bend them as shown in the sketch. Then. say. extending the width of the box. F. causing the door to swing back and up.

say 8 in. C. camera and wish to use some 4. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. trolley cars. A and B. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. wide. Chicago. and exactly 5 by 7 in. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. -Contributed by William M. Jr. Cut an opening in the other piece. Paste a piece of strong black paper. D. 3. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. from the edge on each side of these openings. inside of the opening. long. Out two rectangular holes. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. black surfaced if possible. to be used as a driving pulley. Fig. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. This opening. Fig. in size. shorter at each end. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. as shown in Fig. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. Crilly. in size. 1 in. horses and dogs. 10 in.by 5-in. and go in the holder in the same way.by 7-in. plates. 1. B. says Camera Craft. wide. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. wide and 5 in. Take two pieces of pasteboard. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. . being 1/8 in. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. high and 12 in. but cut it 1/4 in. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. automobiles. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around.proper place to make a small hole.. long. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. 2. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. shorter.

Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. if it has previously been magnetized.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent.in. wide will be required. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. into which the dog is harnessed." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. in diameter.. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. A cell of this kind can easily be made. making a . Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. long and 6 in. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. The needle will then point north and south. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod.

with narrow flanges. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. 1/4 lb. B is a base of 1 in. fuel and packing purposes. Pack the paste in. plaster of paris. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. of water. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. zinc oxide. only the joints. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. under the spool in the paraffin. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. A is a block of l-in. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. short time.watertight receptacle. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. when the paraffin is melted. Form a 1/2-in. of rosin and 2 oz. for a connection. This makes the wire smooth. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. and a notch between the base and the pan. in diameter and 6 in. leaving about 1/2-in. of the plate at one end. fodder. 1 lb. one that will hold about 1 qt. pine. F is a spool. sal ammoniac. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. File the rods to remove the copper plate. Place the pan on the stove. says Electrician and Mechanic. beeswax melted together. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt.in. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. in which P is the pan. . All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. long which are copper plated. of the top. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. pull out the wire as needed. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. 3/4 lb. filter. Do not paint any surface. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin.

and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and then. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. let them try it. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. but the thing would not move at all. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. 2. as in the other movement. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. At least it is amusing. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. from vexation. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. Toledo. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and one friend tells me that they were . long. g. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. for others the opposite way. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. by the Hindoos in India. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and he finally. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. If any of your audience presume to dispute. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. or think they can do the same. grip the stick firmly in one hand. thus producing two different vibrations. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. square and about 9 in. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Enlarge the hole slightly. while for others it will not revolve at all." which created much merriment. and therein is the trick.. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. for some it will turn one way. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. Ohio. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Try it and see. the thumb and second finger changing places: e.

The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. rotation was obtained. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. and. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. by means of a center punch. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. 2. 4. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. 5. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. To operate. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. Speeds between 700 and 1. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. secondly. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. gave the best results. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. Thus a circular or . The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. m. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. If the pressure was upon an edge. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. the rotation may be obtained. 7. 3. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. The experiments were as follows: 1. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. p. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion.100 r. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. A square stick with notches on edge is best. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. and I think the results may be of interest. no rotation resulted. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. 6. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric.

and the height of the fall about 6 in. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Lloyd. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. A. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can.. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. at first. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. --Contributed by G.. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. is driven violently away. a piece of wire and a candle.D. . instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. Duluth. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. D.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. forming a handle for carrying. --Contributed by M. Minn. or greasy. Sloan. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. as shown. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. Ph. C. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. so far as can be seen from the photographs. A wire is tied around the can. it will be clockwise. Washington. unwetted by the liquid. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. the upper portion is. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). if the pressure is from the left. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. G. and the resultant "basket splash." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . with a 1/16-in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. as shown. flange and a 1/4-in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. axle. 1. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. as shown in Fig. hole drilled in the center. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. thick and 1 in. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. in diameter. Each wheel is 1/4 in. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. long. about 2-5/8 in. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person.

bottom side up. --Contributed by Maurice E. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. holes 1 in. Fig. or main part of the frame. put together complete. is made from a piece of clock spring.50. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. 4. 6. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. San Antonio. If the ends are to be soldered. 5. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. 3/4 in. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. Fuller. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. with cardboard 3 in. bent as shown. wide and 16 in. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. wood. 2. This will save buying a track.brass. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. The first piece. of No. The current. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. lamp in series with the coil. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. The parts. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. are shown in Fig. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. which must be 110 volt alternating current. These ends are fastened together. A trolley. Fig. and the locomotive is ready for running. The motor is now bolted. 3. long. is made from brass. Texas. 3. each in its proper place. 1 from 1/4-in. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. 2. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection.

3. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. and as this end . Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. 2. and holes drilled in them. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Fig 1. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. but do not heat the center. O. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. as shown in Fig. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. as shown in Fig. Fig. Cincinnati. then continue to tighten much more. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. When cold treat the other end in the same way.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. 1. the length of a paper clip. The quarter will not go all the way down.

which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. or should the lathe head be raised. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. When the cutter A. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. and adjusted . tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. has finished a cut for a tooth. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. A pair of centers are fitted. or apparent security of the knot. When the trick is to be performed. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. 2 and 1 respectively. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. In the sketch. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them.

gentleman's card case or bill book. if but two parts. (6. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. 2. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. 1. When connecting to batteries. long. Brooklyn. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. (3. Second row: -Two book marks. tea cosey. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. coin purse. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. In this manner gears 3 in.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Y. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. An ordinary machine will do. Bott. such as brass or marble.) Make on paper the design wanted. --Contributed by Howard S. dividing it into as many parts as desired. or one-half of the design. and a nut pick. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. (4.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. about 1-1/2 in. holding it in place with the left hand. twisted around itself and soldered. if four parts are to be alike. above the surface. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Bunker. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. at the same time striking light. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. lady's belt bag. Fig. trace the outline. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. tea cosey. lady's card case. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. (1. Fold over along these center lines. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. N. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. watch fob ready for fastenings.to run true.) Place the paper design on the leather and. note book. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. (2. book mark. The frame holding the mandrel. blotter back. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. draw center lines across the required space. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. (5. --Contributed by Samuel C. swing lathe.

How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose. Secure .

The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube. a distance of 900 miles. A. and bore a hole through the center. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. from Key West. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. and push it through a cork. If the needle is not horizontal. Florida. C. B. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. into which fit a small piece of tube. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. The electrodes are made .C. where it condenses. D. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches.. Thrust a pin. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle.

placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. C. thick. which is tacked to the front edge. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. long. wide and 4 ft. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. Four long beams 3/4 in. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. 1-1/4 in. 2. free from knots. thick. 12 uprights 1/2 in. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. wide and 3 ft. --Contributed by Edwin L. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. long. wide and 4 ft.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. 2. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. by 3/4 in. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. use 10-ft. long. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. long for the body of the operator. long. All wiring is done with No. thick. or flying-machine. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. The operator can then land safely and . 2 in. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. using a high resistance receiver. lengths and splice them. If 20-ft. as shown in Fig. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. lumber cannot be procured. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. 1. thick. wide and 3 ft. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. both laterally and longitudinally. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. 1/2. several strips 1/2 in. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. Powell. and also to keep it steady in its flight. To make a glide. 3. slacken speed and settle. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. D. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. square and 8 ft long. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. 3/4 in. thick. as shown in Fig. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. wide and 20 ft. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. 1-1/2 in. apart and extend 1 ft. long. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. 16 piano wire. 1. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane.in. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. wide and 4 ft long. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. Washington. 2 arm sticks 1 in. Connect as shown in the illustration. 1. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. take the glider to the top of a hill.

Glides are always made against the wind. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Great care should be . Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. but this must be found by experience. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Of course. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly.gently on his feet.

The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop.exercised in making landings. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. M. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. When heated a little. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. --Contributed by L. Olson. which causes the dip in the line. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . half man and half horse. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. as shown in Fig. a creature of Greek mythology. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Bellingham. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. 2. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. 1.

Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. long and about 3/8 in. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. in diameter. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. about the size of door screen wire. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. a piece of brass or steel wire. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. of small rubber tubing. While at the drug store get 3 ft. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. The light from the . will complete the material list. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. making it 2-1/2 in. about the size of stove pipe wire. outside the box. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. long. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. this will cost about 15 cents. square. at the other. 14 in. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in.

Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. 1. If done properly the card will flyaway. M. as shown in Fig.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. Hunting. while others will fail time after time. as shown in Fig. as shown in the sketch. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. --Photo by M. 2. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. This is very simple when you know how. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Dayton. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. O. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. .

cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. then put it on the hatpin head. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve." or the Chinese students' favorite game. When the desired shape has been obtained. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. as shown. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. as before. closing both hands quickly. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. This game is played by five persons. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. place the other two.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. as described. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Cool in water and dry. hold the lump over the flame. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm.

How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. these sectors.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. or more in width. passing through neutralizing brushes. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. distribute electric charges . and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator.

Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. in diameter. The collectors are made. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. and pins inserted and soldered. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. brass tubing and the discharging rods. The plates. EE. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. D. in diameter and 15 in. and this should be done before cutting the circle. Two solid glass rods. and 4 in. are made from solid. wide. to which insulating handles . 4. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. 3/4 in. RR. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. 2. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. Fig. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. wide at one end. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. in diameter. at the other. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. as shown in Fig. the side pieces being 24 in. C C. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. The plates are trued up. and of a uniform thickness. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. long. in diameter. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. are made from 7/8-in. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. material 7 in. in diameter. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. 1. 3. The fork part is 6 in. 1-1/2 in. in diameter. in diameter. The drive wheels. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. Fig. GG. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. from about 1/4-in. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. These pins. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. long and the shank 4 in. and the outer end 11/2 in. free from wrinkles. Two pieces of 1-in. The two pieces. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. long. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. 1 in. after they are mounted. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. 3. turned wood pieces. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. as shown in Fig. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. or teeth. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. long and the standards 3 in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks.

and the work was done by themselves. Colo. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence.are attached. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. Colorado City. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. one having a 2-in. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. --Contributed by C. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . 12 ft. wide and 22 ft. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. Lloyd Enos.. in diameter. D. ball and the other one 3/4 in. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. which are bent as shown. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. KK. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. long.

string together. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. They can be used to keep pins and needles. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. yet such a thing can be done. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. using a 1-in. bit. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft.is a good one. pens . and bore a hole 1/2 in. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. The key will drop from the string. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. as at A. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. deep. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand.

sharp division between background and design.. 4. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. they make attractive little pieces to have about. also trace the decorative design. using a nail filed to chisel edge. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. and the third one 1/4 in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings.and pencils. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. above the metal. Raise the ends. inside the second on all.. 8. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. 7. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. 5. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. slim screw. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. 9. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. then the other side. unless it would be the metal shears. flat and round-nosed pliers. Use . Proceed as follows: 1. file. etc. about 3/4-in. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. This is to make a clean. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. etc. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. When the stamping is completed. 23 gauge. stamp the background promiscuously. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. very rapid progress can be made. The second oblong was 3/4 in. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. inside the first on all. extra metal on each of the four sides. or cigar ashes. Draw one-half the design free hand. 2. Inside this oblong. 3. They are easily made. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. two spikes. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. Having determined the size of the tray. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. 6.

second fingers. first fingers. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. 10. 9. and the effect will be most pleasing. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. third fingers. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . Bradley All machinists use mathematics. 6. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. and fourth fingers. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 8. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. 7. In the first numbering. The eyes.

first fingers. 2 times 2 equals 4. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. there are no fingers above. . We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. 25 times 25. or the product of 6 times 6. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. etc. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. At a glance you see four tens or 40. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. Still.. or 60. or 80. 11. thumbs. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. and the six lower fingers as six tens.. the product of 12 times 12. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. etc. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. or numbers above 10. as high as you want to go.. which would be 70. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. 400. In the second numbering. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. or the product of 8 times 9. 12. which would be 16. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. Let us multiply 12 by 12. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. if we wish. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. but being simple it saves time and trouble.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. viz. 600. Put your thumbs together. which tens are added. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. Two times one are two. above 15 times 15 it is 200. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. above 20 times 20. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. renumber your fingers. etc. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether.

This system can be carried as high as you want to go. forties. and so on. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. 7. at the will of the observer. lastly. further. as one might suppose. Take For example 18 times 18. not rotation. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. It takes place also. Oppose the proper finger tips as before.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. For example. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. 2. the inversion takes place against his will. The inversion and reversion did not take place. however. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. or what. thumbs. and. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. thirties. . And the lump sum to add. in the case of a nearsighted person. first finger 17. when he removes his spectacles. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. Proceed as in the second lumbering. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. For figures ending in 6. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. etc. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. beginning the thumbs with 16. 75 and 85. which is the half-way point between the two fives. the value which the upper fingers have. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. 21. the lump sum to add. or from above or from below. the value of the upper fingers being 20. the revolution seems to reverse. 3. any two figures between 45 and 55. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. adding 400 instead of 100. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. whether the one described in second or third numbering.. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. first fingers 22. about a vertical axis. being 80). 8. twenties. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution.

in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. Looking at it in semidarkness. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. The ports were not easy to make. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. when he knows which direction is right. sometimes the point towards him. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. tee. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. A flat slide valve was used. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. the other appearance asserts itself. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. as . The cylinder consists of a 3-in. and putting a cork on the point.

The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. pipe. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. Fasten the block solidly. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. as in a vise. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. deep. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. Kutscher. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. While this engine does not give much power. H. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. Ill. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. if continued too long without proper treatment. apart. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. The tools are simple and can be made easily. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. about 2 in. If nothing better is at hand. and make in one end a hollow. -Contributed by W. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. Springfield. it is easily built. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. saw off a section of a broom handle. bottom side up. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. across and 1/2 in. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft.. . across the head. pipe 10 in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. secure a piece of No. inexpensive. Next take a block of wood.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. such as is shown in the illustration. The eccentric is constructed of washers. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. in diameter. The steam chest is round.

C. the other to the left. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. Camden. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. and. Hay. S. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. Vinegar. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. --Contributed by W. This process is called annealing. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. as it softens the metal. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. O. especially when the object is near to the observer. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil.will cause the metal to break. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. To produce color effects on copper. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. To overcome this hardness.

the one for the left eye being blue. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. diameter. that for the right. the further from the card will the composite image appear. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. as for instance red and green. because. the left eye sees through a blue screen. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. only the orange rays may pass through. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. But they seem black. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The further apart the pictures are.stereoscope. however. . The red portions of the picture are not seen. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. and without any picture. it. disappears fully. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. not two mounted side by side. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. in the proper choice of colors. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. So with the stereograph. while both eyes together see a white background. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. from the stereograph. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. they must be a very trifle apart. In order to make them appear before the card. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. although they pass through the screen. It is just as though they were not there. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. because of the rays coming from them." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. with the stereograph. and lies to the right on the picture. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. would serve the same purpose. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. orange. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter.

The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. or the middle of the bottle. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. long and a hole drilled in each end. 1/4 in. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. Place a NO. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. 12 gauge wire. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. Cal. etc. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. in diameter. This should only be bored about half way through the block.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. San Francisco. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. in the shape of a crank. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. thick. A No.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The weight of the air in round . Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. wireless. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. wide and 1 in. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Two types of make-and-break connection are used.

long. the instrument. high. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in.6) 1 in. the contrary. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. high. a glass tube 1/8 in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. will calibrate itself. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. long. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. but before attempting to put in the mercury. pine 3 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. square. wide and 40 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. a bottle 1 in. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. high. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. The 4 in. internal diameter and about 34 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. Before fastening the scale. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. Only redistilled mercury should be used. if accurately constructed. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in.. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. 30 in. long. wide and 4 in. or. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather.numbers is 15 lb. . 34 ft. thick. if you choose. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. or a column of mercury (density 13. inside diameter and 2 in. and a slow fall. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. In general. But if a standard barometer is not available. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. square.

the size of the outside of the bottle. and place them as shown in Fig. Number the pieces 1. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. thick. 3. long. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. wide and 10 in. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. Mark out seven 1-in. 2. 1. which is slipped quickly over the end. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. a cover from a baking powder can will do. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . 5. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Procure a metal can cover.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. 6 and 7.

3. Cape May Point. Move 4-Jump No. which is the very best material for the purpose. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 7 over No. Move 12-Jump No. in diameter. 3 into No. 7. 2. To make such a tent. using checkers for men. 2 over No. as shown in Fig. 3. 5. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 6 into No. Move 9-Jump No. 5 over No. Move 8-Jump No. Move 6-Move No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 1. Move ll-Jump No. Move 5-Jump No. 7's place. 2 over No. Move 15-Move No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. l over No. This can be done on a checker board. 2 . Move 7-Jump No. procure unbleached tent duck. 2. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 3. 2's place. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. N. 5 over No. Move 10-Move No. 1 to No. L. Woolson. Move 3-Move No. Make 22 sections. 2's place. Move 13-Move No. long and 2 ft. shaped like Fig. 5's place. Move 14-Jump No. 1 into No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. 1. 6 to No. 3 over No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. 6. 6 over No. 6.-Contributed by W.Position of the Men move only one at a time. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 2-Jump No. 6 in.J. 5's place. 7 over No. each 10 ft. 3 to the center.

5) stuck in the ground.. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. These are ventilators. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. After transferring the design to the brass. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides.J. long and 4 in. in diameter. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. long. wide at the bottom. As shown in the sketch. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. round galvanized iron. Have the tent pole 3 in. fill with canvas edging. --Contributed by G. Punch holes in the brass in . 2. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. wide at the bottom and hem the edges.in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. In raising the tent. Tress. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. Pa. as in Fig. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. wide at the bottom. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. 5. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. will do. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. to a smooth board of soft wood. Fig. 6-in. about 9 in. leaving the rest for an opening. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. Fig. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. diameter. Use blocks. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. high. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. 3 in. 2 in. added. Emsworth. made in two sections. 9 by 12 in. wide by 12 in. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. from the top. 6. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced.

The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. When all the holes are punched. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. apart. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. It will not. When the edges are brought together by bending. cut out the brass on the outside lines. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. Corr. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. . but before punching the holes. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. bend into shape.the spaces around the outlined figures. Chicago. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. excepting the 1/4-in. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. around the outside of the pattern. The pattern is traced as before. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E.

A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Mayger. --Contributed by H. between which is placed the fruit jar. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Badger. A cast-iron ring. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. partially filled with cream. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. A 6-in. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. pipe. Oregon. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. Stevens. --Contributed by Geo. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. better still. Que. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. E. or less. or center on which the frame swings. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. pipe is used for the hub. These pipes are . Dunham. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. G. or. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. If a wheel is selected.however. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn.. allowing 2 ft. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. Sometimes the cream will accumulate.

The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe clamps. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. An extra wheel 18 in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . bent to the desired circle. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. Four braces made from 1/2-in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe.

and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The performer. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. and dropped on the table. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. 1. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. as shown in Fig. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. and the guide withdrawn. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. while doing this. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. 3. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. which was placed in an upright position.

St. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. 2. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. in a half circle. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. -Contributed by C. and second. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. Mo. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Louis. it requires no expensive condensing lens. F. 1. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. first. White. D. Denver. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Harkins. in diameter on another piece of tin. The box can be made of selected oak or . --Contributed by H.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Colo. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent.

1. 5-1/2 in. focal length. AA. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. from each end. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. wide and 6-1/2 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. long. The door covering this hole in the back. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. wide by 5 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. 2. Two or three holes about 1 in. This will be 3/4 in. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. fit into the runners. wide. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. high and 11 in. wide and 5 in. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. as shown in Fig. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. 3-1/2 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. long and should be placed vertically. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. and. represented by the dotted line in Fig. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in.mahogany. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. An open space 4 in. high and must . in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. long. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. If a camera lens is used. from each end of the outside of the box. but not tight. and 2 in.

then the second knuckle will be March. and so on. calling this February. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. Ohio. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. Bradley. the article may be propped up . but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. --Contributed by Chas. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. 1. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. April. June and November. C. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. This process is rather a difficult one. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. calling that knuckle January. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen." etc. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. and extending the whole height of the lantern. provided it is airtight. West Toledo. as it requires an airtight case. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig..

This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. running small motors and lighting small lamps. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. N. In each place two electrodes. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. one of lead and one of aluminum. and set aside for half a day. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. In both Fig. Pour in a little turpentine. or suspended by a string. Schenectady. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. 1. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. The top of a table will do. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. giving it an occasional stir. Crawford. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. but waxed. --Contributed by J. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. in. 1 and 2. . How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. and the lead 24 sq. taking care to have all the edges closed. Y. H. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. 2. in. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. the lid or cover closed. fruit jars are required. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction.with small sticks. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes.

Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. Cleveland. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. He. as you have held it all the time. which you warm with your hands.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. O. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. This trick is very simple. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. he throws the other. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. After a few seconds' time. you remove the glass. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces.. as well as others. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. at the time of request for handkerchiefs.

Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. Pull the ends quickly. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. if any snags are encountered. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear. Victor. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. on a table. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. Crocker. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. Colo. but by being careful at shores. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. put it under the glass. Be sure that this is the right one.-Contributed by E. . The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. J. in diameter in the center. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. near a partition or curtain. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. but in making one.take the handiest one. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can.

by 2 in. for cockpit frame. 1/4 in. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. long. and the other 12 in. 2 gunwales. 1/8 in. at the ends. Paint. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops .. 8 in. by 10 ft. selected pine. by 8 in. long. 2 in. 9 ft. 3 in. Both ends are mortised. 8 yd. of 1-yd. square by 16 ft. The keelson. wide and 12 ft. ducking.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. wide and 12 ft. 3 in. from the bow and the large one. 14 rib bands. by 15 ft. is 14 ft. apart. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. from each end to 1 in. and fastened with screws. 11 yd. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. one 6 in. 1 in. wide unbleached muslin. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 1 in. the smaller is placed 3 ft. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 1 in. drilled and fastened with screws. 50 ft. 3 and 4. and. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. for the bow. as illustrated in the engraving. for center deck braces. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. of rope. screws and cleats.. thick and 3/4 in. by 16 ft. from the stern. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. long. 4 outwales. Fig. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. clear pine. 1. for the stern piece. 1 mast. 1 piece. wide. 7 ft. 2 and braced with an iron band. by 16 ft. are as follows: 1 keelson. by 2 in. 1 piece. long. of 1-1/2-yd. 1 in. by 12 in. wide 12-oz. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together.

in diameter through the block. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. is cut to fit under the top boards. 5. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. 1 in. The deck is not so hard to do. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. A 6-in. thick. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. 6. wood screws. wide. Fig. These are put in 6 in. A piece of oak. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. a piece 1/4 in. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. also. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. long. thick. The 11-yd. A seam should be made along the center piece. 4 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. is a cube having sides 6 in. doubled. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. A block of pine. Before making the deck. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. This block. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. long is well soaked in water. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. thick and 12 in. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. long. gunwales and keelson. They are 1 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. 6 and 7. 7 and 8. Braces. wide and 24 in. from the bow. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. wide. 1/4 in. thick and 1/2 in. . The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. wide and 14 in. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. 9. wide and 3 ft. apart. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. 6 in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. corner braces. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. 1 in. The trimming is wood.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. Fig. 3-1/2 ft. thick 1-1/2 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. long. screws. and fastened to them with bolts. length of canvas is cut in the center. Figs.

The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The house will accommodate 20 families. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. Tronnes. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. wide. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. apart in the muslin. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. are used for the boom and gaff. . which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. Ill. 11. 10 with a movable handle. each 1 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. Wilmette. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. Fig. The mast has two side and one front stay. 12. The sail is a triangle. The keel. long. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. long. thick by 2 in. E. in diameter and 10 ft. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. --Contributed by O. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. is 6 in. A strip 1 in. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. at the other. wide at one end and 12 in. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft.

The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. wide and 2 ft. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. 2.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. and 3 ft. five 1/2-in. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. 2-1/2 in. 2-1/2 in. and the other 18 in. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. thick. Cut the maple. long. wide and 30 in. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. flat on one side. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. wide. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. long.into two 14-in. with the ends and the other side rounding. long and five 1/2-in. flat-headed screws. about 5/16 in. 5. as shown in Fig. Ill. long. thick. 2 in. one 11-1/2 in. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. square. 4. Take this and fold it over . pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. Fig. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. 3. 1. flat headed screws. thick. wide. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. Bevel both sides of the pieces. E. Tronnes. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. Wilmette. 1 yd. --Contributed by O.

C. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. as well as the edges around the opening. wide and 5 in. 3/8 in. 3-1/4 in. wide and 6-3/4 in. St. C. long. forming an eye for a screw. square. and make a turn in each end of the wires. Mo. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. Wind three layers of about No. 2 and 3. Another piece. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. --Contributed by W. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. A. Bliss. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. long. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. If carefully and neatly made. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. 3 in. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. E. long. of each end unwound for connections. wide and 4-1/2 in. F. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. long. Figs. pieces 2-5/8 in. is set. the mechanical parts can be put together. A. long. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking.once. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. When the glue is set. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. Fig. Cut another piece of board. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. and take care that the pieces are all square. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. about 3/8 in. are rounded. After the glue. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. leaving a small opening at one corner. but can be governed by circumstances. B. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. wide and 2-1/2 in. thick. wide and 6-1/2 in. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. 1-1/4 in. soaked with water and blown up. Glue a three cornered piece. then centered. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. thick. About 1/2 in. and the four outside edges. long. The front. The bag is then turned inside out. wide . from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. D. the top and bottom. wide and 3 ft. long. Louis. 1. thick and 3 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. square. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. this square box is well sandpapered. 6-1/2 in. long. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. Make a double stitch all around the edge. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. 5 from 1/16-in. The sides are 3-1/4 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. These wires are about 2-1/2 in.

and the farther apart they will be forced. W. long. G. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. Like poles repel each other. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. wide and 9 in. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. When the current flows through the coil. 5-1/2 in. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. board. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. Austwick Hall. --Contributed by George Heimroth. C. A pointer 12 in. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. Another strip of tin. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. wide and 2-1/2 in. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . 1/16 in. 4 is not movable. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. that has the end turned with a shoulder. Fig. thick. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The stronger the current. from one end. 5. Yorkshire. 4. F. 1/4 in. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil.S. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. L. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. Richmond Hill. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured.R. showing a greater defection of the pointer. The base is a board 5 in. bored in the back. I. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. the part carrying the pointer moves away. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. and as the part Fig. in diameter. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. 4. long. Fig. These wires should be about 1 in. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. and fasten in place. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. long. so it will just clear the tin. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. hole is fastened to the pointer. The end of the polar axis B. The resistance is now adjusted to show . The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H.and 2-5/8 in. Place the tin. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips.A. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. R. from the spindle. the same size as the first. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. Chapman.

1881. 30 min. The following formula will show how this may be found. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. 10 min. shows mean siderial. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. M. and vice . Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. at 9 hr. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. 10 min. thus: 9 hr. A. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. say Venus at the date of observation.

This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. . and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. owing to the low internal resistance. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. if one of these cannot be had.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. and then verify its correctness by measurement. get a glazed vessel of similar construction.f.m. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Hall. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. New Haven. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. or. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Robert W. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Conn.

Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. Wet paper will answer. When the follower is screwed down. inside diameter and about 5 in. of alum and 4 oz. long. 3/8 in. cover up with the same. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. The boring bar. fresh grass. especially for cooking fish. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. Then. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. 1-3/4 in. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Fig. 1. and heap the glowing coals on top. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. leaves or bark. thick. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. put the fish among the ashes. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. as shown in the accompanying picture. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. arsenic to every 20 lb. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine.

pipe. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. pipe. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. thick. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. about 1/2 in. when they were turned in. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. and threaded on both ends. fastened with a pin. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder.

A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws.valve stems. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. Fig. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. A 1-in. labor and time. The rough frame. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. as the one illustrated herewith. bent in the shape of a U. and which gave such satisfactory results. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. the float is too high. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. a jump spark would be much better. 3. Fig. 30 in. thick and 3 in. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. 2. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. was then finished on an emery wheel. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. wide. square iron. 4. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. Iowa. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. but never one which required so little material. It . A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. long. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. 5. This plate also supports the rocker arms. If the valve keeps dripping. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. Clermont. however. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. then it should be ground to a fit. Fig.

rope is not too heavy. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. from the center. hole bored in the post. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. for the "motive power" to grasp. and a little junk. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. 12 ft.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. butting against short stakes. The seats are regular swing boards. A 3/4 -in. This makes an easy adjustment. from all over the neighborhood. Nieman. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. The crosspiece is 2 in. in fact. strong clear material only should be employed. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. set 3 ft." little and big. --Contributed by C. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. long. with no trees or buildings in the way. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. As there is no bracing. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. square and 2 ft. strengthened by a piece 4 in. in the ground with 8 ft. long is the pivot. It looks like a toy. long. If it is to be used for adults. The illustration largely explains itself. so it must be strong enough. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. Use a heavy washer at the head. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. W. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. square and 5 ft. being held in position by spikes as shown. extending above. square. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . long. no matter what your age or size may be. in diameter and 15 in. 3/4 in. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. timber. completes the merry-go-round. and. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. A malleable iron bolt. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in.

or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. away. 1/4 by 3/32 in. as shown in Fig. one for the backbone and one for the bow. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. Both have large reels full of . He shapes two pieces of bamboo. square. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. 4. The bow is now bent.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. The backbone is flat. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. These ends are placed about 14 in. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. 1. if nothing better is at hand. and sent to earth. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. To wind the string upon the reel. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. and 18 in. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. 2. light and strong. a wreck. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing.2 emery. A reel is next made. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. Having placed the backbone in position. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. long. then it is securely fastened. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string.the fingers. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in.

Moody. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench.string. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. The handle end is held down with a staple. Brooklyn. the balance. or glass-covered string. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. often several hundred yards of it. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . C. he pays out a large amount of string. --Contributed' by Harry S. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away.-Contributed by S. Y. Bunker. First. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. common packing thread. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Mass. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. If the second kite is close enough. N. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Newburyport. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites.

Corinth. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. --Contributed by Earl R. then a dust protector. such as mill men use. lengths (Fig. each the size of half the table top. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. length of 2-in. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. cutting the circular piece into quarters. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. make the pad as shown in the illustration. Hastings. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. square (Fig.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. If the table is round. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Vt. must be attached to a 3-ft. then draw the string up tight. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd.

The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. 2-1/4 in.. trace the design carefully on the leather. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. from C to D. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. . Wharton. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. Use a smooth. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together.-Contributed by H. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. G to H. Calif. 16-1/4 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. Moisten the . Oakland. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. which spoils the leather effect. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. 6-1/4 in. and E to G. hard pencil. 17-1/2 in.9-1/4 in.. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working.. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. E. from E to F. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture.

Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. Trace the openings for the handles. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. with the rounded sides of the tools. Cut it the same size as the bag. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. is taken off at a time. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. G-J. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. get something with which to make a lining. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. if not more than 1 in. To complete the bag. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. H-B.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. Now cut narrow thongs. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. apart. I made this motor . Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. place both together and with a leather punch. and E-G. wide. and corresponding lines on the other side. and lace through the holes. also lines A-G. about 1/8 in.

towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. B. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. as shown in Fig. iron. 1. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. 24 gauge magnet wire. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. each being a half circle. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. 2-1/4 in. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. in length. 1. D. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. 2.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. . The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. Pasadena. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. long. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. Shannon. of No. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws.M. Calif. --Contributed by J.

long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. pasted in alternately. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. high. The gores for a 6-ft. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. and the gores cut from these. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. from the bottom end. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. balloon should be about 8 ft. 1. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . near the center.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. are the best kind to make.

Staunton. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. so it will hang as shown in Fig.widest point. A. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . coming through the small pipe A. in diameter. lap on the edges. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. In removing grease from wood. somewhat larger in size. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. 5. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. These are to hold the wick ball. after which the paint will adhere permanently. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. as shown in Fig. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. The boat soon attains considerable speed. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. The steam. After washing. 1. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. E. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. B. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. as shown in Fig. 3. leaving the solution on over night. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. leaving a long wake behind. saturating it thoroughly. 2. As the boat is driven forward by this force. In starting the balloon on its flight. Fig. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. 4. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. If the gores have been put together right. --Contributed by R. using about 1/2-in.

Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. Second. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. if you have several copies of the photograph. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. high and 8 in. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. apart on these lines. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. There are three ways of doing this: First. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. The blocks are about 6 in. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. Third. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. long. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. 1. In using either of the two methods described. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. in bowling form. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . wide by 6 in. as is shown in Fig. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. long and each provided with a handle. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle.

Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. 2. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. Fig. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured.Fig. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . thick. Albany. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. Rinse the plate in cold water. Y. being careful not to dent the metal. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Hellwig. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. --Contributed by John A. not pointed down at the road at an angle. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. N. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel.

clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. Paine. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. through which passes the set screw S. In Fig. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Richmond. With this device. 6 in. A circular piece of wood. thick. CC. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. with a set screw. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. in diameter. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. 2 the front view. Corner irons. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. and Fig. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. A. and. wide and of any desired height. These corner irons are also screwed to. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. 1 Fig. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. S. which is 4 in. are screwed to the circular piece. --Contributed by R. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. Va.upon any particular object. B. and not produce the right sound. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. 5 in. Break off the frame. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. A. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. long for the base. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. is fastened to a common camera tripod. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. wide and 8 in.

La Salle. as only the can is visible. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. S. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. D. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. . pine boards. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. R. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. This horn. thus producing sound waves. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. Kidder. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Lake Preston. -1. in diameter of some 1-in. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. I made a wheel 26 in. Ill. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. This will make a very compact electric horn.

Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. Purdy. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. If there is a large collection of coins. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Ghent. the same thickness as the coins. --Contributed by C. Doylestown. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. square. O. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. 2. Kane. If the collection consists of only a few coins. 1. The frame is made of a heavy card. Fig. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . thick and 12 in. Feet may be added to the base if desired. --Contributed by James R. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. A.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. B. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. 1. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe.

Cal. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. Smith. A lead pencil. It will hold 4 oz. several large nails. Wis. though not absolutely necessary. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. --Contributed by J. a hammer or mallet. Milwaukee. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. --Contributed by August T. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. --Contributed by R. Toronto. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Canada. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive.J. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment.E. One Cloud. of developer. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. melted and applied with a brush. and then glued together as indicated. thick. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. for after the slides have been shown a few times. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. cut and grooved. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. A rivet punch is desirable. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. The material required is a sheet of No. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. border all around. Neyer. they become uninteresting. plus a 3/8-in. Noble. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. into which to place the screws . If desired.

This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Take the nail. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. screws placed about 1 in. draw one part. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. and file it to a chisel edge. using 1/2-in. never upon the metal directly. both outline and decoration. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. like the one shown. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. There are several ways of working up the design. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . Remove the screws.

The pedal. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. for the top. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. two lengths. square and 181/2 in. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. l-1/8 in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. up from the lower end. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. long. 2.wall. using a 1/2in. and two lengths. square and 11 in. 3/4 in. 1. in the other. square. of 11-in. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. . as shown in Fig. long. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. Do not bend it over or flatten it. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. Provide four lengths for the legs. being ball bearing. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. for the lower rails. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. About 1/2 yd. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. 3. long. Rivet the band to the holder. each 1 in.

having quite a length of threads. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Attalla. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. Ala. --Contributed by John Shahan. --Contributed by W. F. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. New York City. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. Quackenbush. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way.

buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. college or lodge colors. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. making a lap of about 1 in. and the other 2-3/4 in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece.. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. --Contributed by C. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. stitched on both edges for appearance. long. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. Assemble as shown in the sketch. in depth.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. Two pieces of felt. from the end. and two holes in the other. something that is carbonated. wide and 4-1/4 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. the end of the other piece is folded over. Purchase a 1/2-in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. Mich. long. Ironwood. using class. initial. and 3/8 in. The desired emblem. Luther. long. wide and 8-1/4 in. one about 1 in. from one end. D. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. each 1-1/4 in. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in.

Punch two holes A. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. A piece of lead. which can be procured from a plumber. 1/4 in. 2. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. --Contributed by John H. if desired by the operator. or a pasteboard box. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. This method allows a wide range of designs. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . about 2 in. Schatz. from the center and opposite each other. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. Fig. in the cover and the bottom. Indianapolis. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. and the cork will be driven out. as shown in the sketch. in diameter and 2 in. Ind. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. 1. as shown at B. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. or more in height. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other.

Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. 1. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. it winds up the rubber band. putting in the design. as shown in Fig. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. These tools can be bought for this special purpose.Rolling Can Toy lead. 4. The pieces of tin between the holes A. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. are turned up as in Fig. When the can is rolled away from you. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. allowing the two ends to be free. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. or marble will serve. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. O. . Columbus. 5. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. 3. metal. and the ends of the bands looped over them. A piece of thick glass. Fig. on both top and bottom.

The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. New York City. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. and. If it is desired to "line" the inside. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. long and bored a 1/2-in. A pencil may be used the first time over. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. face up. I secured a board 3/4 in. mark over the design. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. After this has been done.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. deep in its face. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. from each end. The edges should be about 1/8 in. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. thicker than the pinion. Next place the leather on the glass. thick. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. or more thick on each side. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. 3 in. wide and 20 in. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. hole through it. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. 1 in.

The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 3 by 3 by 36. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. 2 by 12 by 77 in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws.in the board into the bench top. 1 piece for clamp. 2. Y. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. and fit it in place for the side vise. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. Now fit up the two clamps. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. thick top board. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1 top board. much of the hard labor will be saved. 1 screw block. Brooklyn. 2 crosspieces. 1. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. 2 side rails. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. --Contributed by A. Make the lower frame first. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . lag screws as shown. New York. pieces for the vise slides. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. in diameter. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Fig. 1 back board. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. Rice. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 4 guides. 1 piece for clamp. 2 end rails. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. M. N. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Cut the 2-in. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Syracuse. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 1 by 12 by 77 in. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 3 by 3 by 20 in. 1 piece. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 2 by 2 by 18 in. 1 top board.

3 and 6 in. in diameter. 1 marking gauge. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 brace and set of bits. 1 set gimlets. The bench is now complete.screws. Only the long run. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 claw hammer. The amateur workman. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. rule. 1 2-ft. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 jack plane or smoother. . 1 pair pliers. 1 countersink. 1 compass saw. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 pair dividers. 24 in. If each tool is kept in a certain place. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 pocket level.. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 wood scraper. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. as well as the pattern maker. 1 cross cut saw. 1 set chisels. 2 screwdrivers. 1 rip saw. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view.. 24 in.. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 nail set. 1 monkey wrench.

Fig. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. Pa. 2. Fig. 1. being softer. will be easier to work. but will not make . Fig. try square. becomes like A. 2 and 00 sandpaper. after constant use. Doylestown.1 6-in. No. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. will sink into the handle as shown at D. Kane. 1 oilstone. The calf skin. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. 1. the projecting point A. ---Contributed by James M. Fig.1. 3. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife.

will do just as well. If cow hide is preferred. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. The form can be made of a stick of wood. but a V-shaped nut pick. New York City. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. and the length 6-5/8 in. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. Having prepared the two sides. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. If calf skin is to be used. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. secure a piece of modeling calf. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. lay the design on the face. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. White. the same method of treatment is used. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. water or heat will not affect. then prepare the leather. when dry. Two pieces will be required of this size. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. -Contributed by Julia A. cover it completely with water enamel and. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. which steam. such as copper or brass. After the outlines are traced. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. First draw the design on paper. Turn the leather. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. .as rigid a case as the cow skin. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct.

C. Maine. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Cal. . as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Chas. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. New York City. --Contributed by W. Portland. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. --Contributed by Chester L. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Herrman. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Cobb. Richmond. Jaquythe. and an adjustable friction-held loop. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. A. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place.

. --Contributed by Geo. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. --Contributed by Wm. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. Conn. Cambridge. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. A thick piece of tin. Mass. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. an inverted stewpan. for instance. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. Roberts. B. was marked out as shown. This was very difficult. . Middletown. Wright.

Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. pulverized and applied. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. but only an odor which soon vanished. used as part of furniture. Illinois. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. but not running over. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. well calcined and powdered.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. The next morning there was no trace of oil. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. Indianapolis. Ind. as shown. face down. which has been tried out several times with success. If any traces of the grease are left. Herbert. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. . A beautifully bound book. There was no quicklime to be had. such as chair seats. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two.. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. and quite new. When dry. Chicago. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. F. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. --Contributed by C. and the grease will disappear. on a clear piece of glass. apply powdered calcined magnesia. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. of boiling water. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. --Contributed by Paul Keller. Bone. If the article is highly polished. L. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. so some bones were quickly calcined. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper.

Howe. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. says Scientific American. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. If properly adjusted. The pieces marked S are single. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. deep and 5 in. New York. Tarrytown. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. This coaster is simple and easy to make. the pieces . wide and 12 in. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. thick.. soft steel with the opening 6 in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. --Contributed by Geo. A. set and thumbscrews. 6 in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. 2 in.. high and are bolted to a block of wood. long.

Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. for sending to friends. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. says Camera Craft. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. E. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. The seat is a board. A sharp knife. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. no doubt. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. to the underside of which is a block. If the letters are all cut the same height. albums and the like. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. they will look remarkably uniform. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Their size depends on the plate used. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed.

So arranged. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. So made. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. mount them on short pieces of corks. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. for example. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. using care to get it in the right position. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. pasting the prints on some thin card. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. photographing them down to the desired size. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. and. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. after. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. The puzzle is to get . In cutting out an 0. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front.

Old-Time Magic . Cape May Point. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. squeezes along past the center of the tube. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. says the American Thresherman. G. hung on pivots. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. so they will lie horizontal. of its top. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. snow or anything to hide it. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. long that will just fit are set in.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. N. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. He smells the bait. with the longest end outside. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. A hole 6 or 7 in. Bayley.-Contributed by I.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand.J.

stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Pocatello. Pawtucket. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. N. Press the hands together. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. then spread the string. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Brooklyn. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. --Contributed by L. Idaho. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. --Contributed by L. Szerlip. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Rhode Island. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Parker. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. E. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. then expose again. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. --Contributed by Charles Graham.faced up. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Y.

narrower. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. 2 Fig. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. thick. The pieces. in building up his work from the illustrations. says the English Mechanic. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. Glue the other side of the blade. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. wide and 2 in. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. wipe the blade ... 1 Fig. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. The handle is next made. and if carefully made. dark red. 4 on the blade. 3 Fig. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle.Genuine antique swords and armor. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. near the point end. they will look very much like the genuine article. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. When the whole is quite dry. if any. The blade should be about 27 in. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. When the glue is thoroughly dry. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. or a complete suit of armor. using a straightedge and a pencil. or green oil paint. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. 1. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. in width. full size. long. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. whether he requires a single sword only. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. end of the blade.

long. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. of course. 3.. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. follow the directions as for Fig. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. 1.. 1. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. 2. 1. using a soft and dry piece of cloth.with light strokes up and down several times. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. the other is flat or halfround. This sword is about 68 in. Fig. the other is flat or half-round. preferably of contrasting colors. about 1-1/2 in. 3. in diameter. allowing for a good hold with both hands. In making this scimitar. In making. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. take two pieces of wood. and 3 in. thick and 5 in. shows only two sides. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. not for use only in cases of tableaux. 2. Both edges of the blade are sharp. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. in the widest part at the lower end. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. The length of the handle. 4. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. the illustration. as it is . such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. 1. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. In the finished piece. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. should be about 9 in. square and of any length desired. the length of the blade 28 in. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. the other two are identical. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. 1/8 in. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord.

are fastened two pieces of strap iron. as there was some at hand. On each edge of the board. as can the pitch bed or block. A cold . --Contributed by Katharine D. each about 1 ft. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. or an insecure fastening.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. It is made of a plank. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Mass. The thinness of the plank. Syracuse. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. about 3/8 in. long. Doctors probed for the button without success. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. square. A piece of mild steel. N. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. and if so. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. at the lower end. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. 2 in. Morse. in an attempt to remove it. however. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. Both can be made easily. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. --Contributed by John Blake. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. piping and jackets by hard water. Franklin. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. as shown in the sketch. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. Y. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. and. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose.

Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. When this has been done. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. tallow. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. To put it in another way. using a small metal saw. Trim up the edges and file them . 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. plaster of Paris. 5 lb. When the desired form has been obtained. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. design down. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. 18 gauge. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. on the pitch. secure a piece of brass of about No. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. The metal will probably be warped somewhat.. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. a file to reduce the ends to shape. 5 lb. To remedy this.. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design.

to keep it from floating. Fig. . This in turn divided by 33. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. per minute.smooth. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight.000 lb. in the center. 1 ft. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. 1 ft. lb. but not to stop it. That is lifting 33. 2). 3. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Cutter. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. one 18 in. The smaller is placed within the larger. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. in diameter (Fig. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. using powdered pumice with lye. lb. in one second. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. space between the vessels with water. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. make an unusual show window attraction. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Fill the 3-in. Before giving the description. or 550 ft. in one minute or 550 lb. per second. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. and still revolve. over the smaller vessel. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. in diameter (Fig. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store.000 ft. --Contributed by Harold H. or fraction of a horsepower. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. 30 ft. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. and hang a bird swing. 1) and the other 12 in.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. A. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Clean the metal thoroughly.

2 Fig. or on a pedestal. Somerville. Diameter Fig. Szerlip. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . --Contributed. 1 Fig. Brooklyn. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. Mass. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use.18 in. by L. --Contributed by J. Campbell. F. Diameter 12 in. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. N.3 Fig. Y. The effect is surprising.

and cut out the shape with the shears. In riveting. to keep the metal from tarnishing. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. using any of the common metal polishes. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Polish both of these pieces. and the clay . covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. Do not be content merely to bend them over. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. keeping the center high. which. and then. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge.copper of No. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. often render it useless after a few months service. away from the edge. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. with the pliers. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. with other defects. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. is. the same as removing writing from a slate. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. This compound is impervious to water. Rivet the cup to the base. unsatisfactory. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. then by drawing a straightedge over it. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. which may be of wood or tin. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. after which it is ready for use. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. as a rule. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch.

Dunlop. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Mich. Shettleston. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. DeLoof. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Houghton. Northville. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Mich. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. -Contributed by Thos. 1. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. 3/4 in. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. long.can be pressed back and leveled. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. the device will work for an indefinite time. --Contributed by A. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. A. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. The siphon is made of glass tubes. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by John T. It is made of a glass tube. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. in diameter and 5 in. Scotland. Grand Rapids. 2. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. . The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch.

Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper.FIG. London. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.1 FIG. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. This sword is 4 ft. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. put up as ornaments. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. long. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. in width and 2 in. stilettos and battle-axes. 1. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. As the handle is to . will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall.

studded with brass or steel nails. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. with both edges of the blade sharp. A German stiletto. The ball is made as described in Fig. narrower. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. 4. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. When the glue is thoroughly dry. In Fig. 3 is shown a claymore. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The lower half of the handle is of wood. 6. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. 8. the axe is of steel. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. This sword is about 4 ft. Both handle and axe are of steel. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. A German poniard is shown in Fig. Cut two strips of tinfoil. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. sharp edges on both sides. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. in length. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. in length. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The handle is of wood. Three large. small rope and round-headed nails. in width. one about 1/2 in. with both edges sharp. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. wood with a keyhole saw. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. 11 were used. These must be cut from pieces of wood. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. In Fig. This weapon is also about 1 ft. When the whole is quite dry. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. the same as used on the end of the handle. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. is shown in Fig. The sword shown in Fig.represent copper. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. 9. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. long. paint it a dark brown or black. glue and put it in place. with wire or string' bound handle. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. 5. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. long with a dark handle of wood. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. string. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. The crossbar and blade are steel. This weapon is about 1 ft. When dry. 7. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. sometimes called cuirass breakers. This stiletto has a wood handle. In Fig. 20 spike. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. the upper part iron or steel. then glued on the blade as shown. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. firmly glued on. which is about 2-1/2 ft. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. This axe is made similar to the one . very broad.

2. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. the ends are tied and cut off. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. This will make a very good flexible belt. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. Old-Time Magic . together as shown in Fig. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. Chicago.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. such as braided fishline. so the contents cannot be seen. When wrapped all the way around. --Contributed by E. high. W. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. will pull where other belts slip. Davis. 10. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand.described in Fig. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. .

four glass tumblers. with the circle centrally located. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. These wires are put in the jar. 1 and put together as in Fig. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . apparently. about one-third the way down from the top. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. There will be no change in color. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. or using small wedges of wood. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. filled with water. an acid. 2. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends.J. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. As zinc is much lighter than iron. --Contributed by A.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. To make the flowers grow in an instant. held in the right hand. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. S. Before the performance. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. N. some of the liquid. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Oakland. The dotted lines in Fig. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Bridgeton. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. in a few seconds' time. Macdonald. Calif. causing the flowers to grow. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof.

--Contributed by W. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. If the size wanted is No. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. 2 for height. unless some special device is used. Jaquythe. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . practical and costs nothing. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. and kept ready for use at any time. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. and equally worthy of individual treatment. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. A. which are numbered for convenience in working. says a correspondent of Photo Era. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. not only because of the fact just mentioned. 4 for width and No. Cal. This outlines the desired opening. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. Richmond. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. When many slides are to be masked.

the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. may be changed. the margin and the entire back of the metal. This done. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. a little less acid than water. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. With a stick. using the carbon paper. or. When etched to the desired depth. but they can be easily revived. the paper is folded along the center line. 16 gauge. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. and the extreme length 7 in. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. too. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. Secure a sheet of No. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. The one shown is merely suggestive. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. paint the design. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. which is dangerous. The decoration. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. is about right for the No.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. about half and half. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. not the water into the acid. possibly. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. and do not inhale the fumes. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. Draw a design. or a pair of old tongs.

so that when it is pressed down. as shown in the illustration. as at H. attached to a post at each end. Paint the table any color desired. long and 1 ft. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. Fig.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. Fig. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. 2. 1. 24 parts water. about 8 in. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 5. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. Nail a board. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. or more wide. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. 3/8 in. about 2-1/2 in. Then get two posts. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. as in Fig. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. thick. Fig. A. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. wide. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. and bore two holes. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. Fig. When the button S is pressed. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Fig. to the table. as shown in Fig. . about 3 ft. it will touch post F. 0 indicates the batteries. and about 2-1/2 ft. 2. The connections are simple: I. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 4. 2. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. the bell will ring. long. in diameter and 1/4 in. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. C and D. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. about 1 in. with the wires underneath. repeat as many times as is necessary. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. J is another wire attached in the same way. through it. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. It may be either nailed or screwed down. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. 5. high. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. 3. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. wide and of the same length as the table. Cut out a piece of tin.

remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. These rings can be carved out. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. long serves as the dowel. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. handle and all. 2. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. The imitation articles are made of wood. long. the wood peg inserted in one of them. After the glue is dry. such as . An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.Imitation Arms and Armor . A wood peg about 2 in. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. The entire weapon. says the English Mechanic. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue.. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. thick. 1. The circle is marked out with a compass. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. is to appear as steel. but they are somewhat difficult to make. This weapon is about 22 in. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks.

the hammer and spike. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. also. used at the end of the fifteenth century. The handle is of steel imitation. 5. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This weapon is about 22 in. is shown in Fig. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. as described in Fig. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. The handle is of wood. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. 3. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. 2. The lower half of the handle is wood. leaves. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. with a sharp carving tool. studded with large brass or steel nails. Its length is about 3 ft. If such a tool is not at hand. The axe is shown in steel. covered with red velvet. flowers. etc. . The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. as before mentioned. All of these axes are about the same length. or the amateur cannot use it well. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The spikes are cut out of wood. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The upper half of the handle is steel. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. The entire handle should be made of one piece.ornamental scrolls. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. 8. long. 6. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. as shown.

Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 1. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. a three-base hit. Chicago. 3. Each person plays until three outs have been made. as shown in Fig. 4). and so on for nine innings.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. Fig. 5. The knife falling on its side (Fig. the knife resting on its back. as in Fig. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. then the other plays. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. calls for a home run. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. . A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. 7) calls for one out. 6. 2.

He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. of the rope and holds it. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. It may be found that the negative is not colored. one of them burning . Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. 1. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. Somerville. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. This he does. Old-Time Magic . He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. 3. as shown in Fig. of water for an hour or two.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. hypo to 1 pt. Mass. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. Campbell. If it is spotted at all.-Contributed by J. F. with the rope laced in the cloth. as shown in Fig. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. while the committee is tying him up. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. 2. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through.

Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. thick. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. invisible to them (the audience). When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. shades the light for a few seconds. Lebanon. 3/4 in. New York City. Drill Gauge screw. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. showing that there is nothing between them. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. B. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. 4 oz. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. 4 oz. with which he is going to light the other candle.brightly. He then walks over to the other candle. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. of turpentine. . In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. thus causing it to light. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. etc. of sugar. Ky. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. Thome.. bolt. --Contributed by C. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. Ky. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. the other without a light.Contributed by Andrew G. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. of water and 1 oz. Evans. The magician walks over to the burning candle. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. Louisville. of plumbago. and. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Brown. --Contributed by L.

thick. --Contributed by C. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. Y. Its current strength is about one volt. Denniston. about 5 in. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. 5 in. long. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. N. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. for the material. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. which will give a strong. To make the porous cell. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. In making up the solution. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. steady current. Pulteney. but is not so good. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. diameter. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . Do not add water to the acid. or blotting paper. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. into a tube of several thicknesses. H.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in.

a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. As to thickness. One hole was bored as well as possible. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. long with a bearing at each end. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. but somewhat lighter. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. After much experimentation with bearings.) may be obtained. steel. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. The . steel. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. steel. one drawing them together.station. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. while the other end is attached by two screws. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. the other holding them apart. a positive adjustment was provided. To insure this. Finally. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. carrying the hour circle at one end. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made.

The pointer is directed to Alpha. Instead. To find a star in the heavens. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. are tightened. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. turn the pointer to the star. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The pole is 1 deg. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. It is. and if it is not again directed to the same point. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. need not be changed. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. once carefully made. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. and 15 min. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. To locate a known star on the map. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. Cassiopiae." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. save the one in the pipe. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. All these adjustments. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. All set screws. The aperture should be 1/4 in. Set the declination circle to its reading.." Only a rough setting is necessary. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. subtract 24. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. Point it approximately to the north star. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. Each shaft. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction.. If the result is more than 24 hours. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. apart. 45 min." When this is done. excepting those on the declination axis. is provided with this adjustment. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. When properly set it will describe a great circle. Declination is read directly.

The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. the others . Strosnider. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. If this will be too transparent. cannon balls. as shown in the sketch. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. which is the one examined. add a little more benzole.. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. is the real cannon ball. La. New Orleans. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. Plain City. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. The ball is found to be the genuine article. benzole. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. In reality the first ball. is folded several times. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. then add 1 2-3 dr. 3 or 4 in. Ohio. of ether. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. -Contributed by Ray E. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. The dance will begin. taking care not to add too much. a great effect will be produced.

Somerville. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. F. San Francisco. taps. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Cal. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. Fig. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown.. Return the card to the pack. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. Mass. small brooches. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. etc. In boxes having a sliding cover. as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by J. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. Milwaukee. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized .are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. without taking up any great amount of space. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. 1). but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. 2. Campbell. Wis. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band.

slides and extra brushes. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. Connecticut. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. prints. round pieces 2-1/4 in. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. This box has done good service. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Beller. . This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Hartford. as shown in the illustration.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. thus giving ample store room for colors. from the bottom of the box. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient.

-Contributed by C. holes in the bottom of one. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. costing 5 cents. 1). will answer the purpose. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. or placed against a wall. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. Mass. FIG. 2). Darke. . with well packed horse manure. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. When the ends are turned under. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. tacking the gauze well at the corners.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. about threefourths full. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. Fill the upper tub. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. West Lynn. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. O.

and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. cutting the cane between the holes. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. they should be knocked out. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. If the following directions are carried out. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. if this is not available. Eifel. Chicago. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. If plugs are found in any of the holes. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. M. when they are raised from the pan. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. and each bundle contains . --Contributed by L. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. oil or other fluid. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane.

and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. after having been pulled tight. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. and. held there by inserting another plug. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. No plugs . put about 3 or 4 in. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. as shown in Fig.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. as it must be removed again. In addition to the cane. then across and down. it should be held by a plug. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. a square pointed wedge. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. 1. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side.

for 2°. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. When cool.5 in. the height of the line BC. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. It consists of a flat circular table. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. 3. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. it is 4. Fig. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. the next smallest.075 in. 1 lat. During the weaving. and for lat. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third.= 4.3 in. as shown in Fig. is the horizontal dial. From table No. 42° is 4.2+. trim off the surplus rosin. 4. in this case) times the . It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. All added to the lesser or 40°. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. 40°. Their difference is . and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. we have 4. This will make three layers. called the gnomon. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. stretch the third one. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. 3. If you have a table of natural functions. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. After completing the second layer. 5. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. Fig. D. or the style. The style or gnomon. as for example. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. -Contributed by E. 5 in. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used.42 in. Detroit. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . as shown in Fig. lat. is the base (5 in. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. Michigan. 1. 1. W.075 in. and the one we shall describe in this article. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. R. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. 1.15 in. If handled with a little care. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. No weaving has been done up to this time. using the same holes as for the first layer. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired.15+. 41 °-30'. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. --Contributed by M. and for 1° it would be . although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. Even with this lubrication. 41°-30'. as it always equals the latitude of the place. There are several different designs of sundials. as the height of the line BC for lat.2 in. the height of which is taken from table No. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. but the most common. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. Patrick.

38 .16 1. or more.29 4-30 7-30 3.56 .66 latitude.tangent of the degree of latitude.55 4. long.85 35 .85 1. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.33 42° 4.33 .57 1.07 4.76 1. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.91 58° 8.87 1.55 5. 1. For latitudes not given.57 3. 2 for given latitudes.12 52° 6.30 2.00 40° 4.42 1.81 4.63 56° 7. 2.23 6. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.93 2. Chords in inches for a 10 in.46 3. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. and for this size dial (10 in.59 2.27 2. base. Draw the line AD.89 50° 5. which will represent the base in length and thickness. an inch or two.87 4.99 2.50 26° 2.94 1. with a radius of 5 in. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. if of metal.40 1.18 28° 2.46 . To layout the hour circle.14 5.40 34° 3. Draw two semi-circles.93 6.32 6. Table NO. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.55 30° 2.82 2.44 44° 4. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. Fig.96 32° 3.37 54° 6.20 60° 8.37 5.26 4.30 1.82 5.02 1.39 .55 46° 5.66 48° 5.10 6. and intersecting the semicircles. and perpendicular to the base or style.82 3.66 1. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 . according to the size of the dial. Its thickness.19 1.77 2.68 5-30 6-30 5. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.49 3.64 4 8 3.03 3. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. . 2.16 40 .97 5 7 4.11 3.83 27° 2.42 45 . interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. using the points A and C as centers.49 30 . circle Sundial.79 4.88 36° 3.28 . The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.06 2. or if of stone. gives the 6 o'clock points.42 .41 38° 3.

reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. after allowing for the declination. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Sept. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. 900 Chicago.60 4.82 3.89 3. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.72 5.19 2. 3. E.add those marked + subtract those Marked .49 3. and the . which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. This correction can be added to the values in table No. if west. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.79 6.52 Table No. 2 and Dec. Iowa. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.50 55 .10 4. June 15.12 5. Mitchell. 25. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. 3 Corrections in minutes to change.53 1. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. then the watch is slower.68 3. will enable one to set the dial.87 6.01 1. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. Sun time to local mean time.46 4.34 5.63 1. London.49 5. and for the difference between standard and local time. says the English Mechanic. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. As they are the genuine reproductions. it will be faster. adding to each piece interest and value.14 1.30 2. The + means that the clock is faster.93 6.98 4. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . --Contributed by J.from Sundial lime. Each weapon is cut from wood.54 60 . making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. Sioux City. April 16.71 2. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. each article can be labelled with the name.06 2. An ordinary compass..means that the dial is faster than the sun.50 . Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.46 5. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.08 1. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.57 1.37 2.24 5. 3.21 2.77 3.

swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. When putting on the tinfoil. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. Partisan. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. the length of which is about 5 ft. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon.. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. 1. . A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. 3. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth.

The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. long. 6 ft. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard.which is square. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. sharp on the outer edges. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The extreme length is 9 ft. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails.. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. is shown in Fig. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. which are a part of the axe. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. used about the seventeenth century. It is about 6 ft. This weapon is about 6 ft. long with a round staff or handle. in diameter. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. 7. press it well into the carved depressions. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. A gisarm or glaive. about 4 in. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. . covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. 8. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The spear is steel. long. long with a round wooden handle. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. the holes being about 1/4 in. The edges are sharp. 5. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails.

The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. B. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired.-Contributed by R. used for spacing and binding the whole together. as shown in Fig. the most durable being bamboo. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. the cross cords. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. or in holes punched in a leather strap. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. Cut all the cords the same length. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. The twisted cross cords should . The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. This is important to secure neatness. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. They can be made of various materials. apart. Ohio. Substances such as straw. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. In Figs. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. 5. 4. H.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. 2 and 3. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. 1. Loudonville. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. Workman. are less durable and will quickly show wear. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. are put in place. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance.

below the top to within 1/4 in. bamboo or rolled paper. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. in which was placed a piece of glass. wide. Harrer. as shown at B. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw.be of such material. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. The first design shown is for using bamboo. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. Lockport. New Orleans. To remedy this. for a length extending from a point 2 in. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. New York. This was turned over the top of the other can. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. Four V-shaped notches were cut. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . 3 in. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. La. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. of the bottom. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. M. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. -Contributed by Geo. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. A slit was cut in the bottom. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. shaped as shown at C.

giving the appearance of hammered brass. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Pasadena. do not throw away the gloves.tape from sticking to the carpet. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. Schaffner. This should be done gradually. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. Maywood. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Shay. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. After this is finished. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. the brass is loosened from the block. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. Cal. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. --Contributed by W. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. --Contributed by Joseph H. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Ill. This plank. is shown in the accompanying sketch. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. Newburgh. N. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. turned over but not fastened. wide. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. H. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. Y. Sanford. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. --Contributed by Chas. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. and two along the side for attaching the staff. It would be well to polish the brass at first. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. about 1/16 in. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out.

by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Marshall. K. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. bent as shown. Ill. -Contributed by W. Jaquythe. A. in diameter. --E. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Richmond. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Unlike most clocks. Oak Park. the pendulum swings . Cal.

first-class joints can be made without much trouble. . and the other two 2-5/8 in. A. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Now place the board to be joined. long and at each side of this. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. bearing on the latter. says the Scientific American. high. Two uprights. on the board B.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. high. 6 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. C. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. only have the opposite side up. to the first one with screws or glue. 3/4 in. The construction is very simple. by 1-5/16 in. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Chicago. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. --Contributed by V. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. B. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. away. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. thick. 5/16 in. Secure a board. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in.. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. wide that is perfectly flat. about 12 in. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. Metzech. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. the center one being 2-3/4 in. about 6 in. are secured in the base bar. In using this method. high. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. 7-1/2 in. high and 1/4 in. wide. is an electromagnet. Fasten another board. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. in diameter. such as this one. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. bar. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses.

1. square inside. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. The trigger. --Contributed by Elmer A. 1. Fig. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. Vanderslice. long. wide and 1 in. whose dimensions are given in Fig. is fastened in the hole A. 1. 4. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. by driving a pin through the wood. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. wide and 5 in. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. 3. Pa. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. Phoenixville. square. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. plates should be made 8 in. . The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Fig. or more. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. 2. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. from one end. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. as shown at A. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C.

as shown in the illustration. if only two bands are put in the . -Contributed by J. which allows 1/4 in. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. Fostoria. one-half the length of the side pieces. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 3 parts of stiff keg lead.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed.A. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 5 parts of black filler. 2 parts of whiting. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. rubbing varnish and turpentine. by weight. Ohio. square. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. Simonis. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in.

It must be kept moist and well . An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass.lower strings. 8 in. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. Michigan. is necessary. says the English Mechanic. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. 1. -Contributed by Abner B. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. In use. A mirror. deep. G. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. A double convex lens. wide and about 1 ft. II. in the opposite end of the box. No. DeLoof. long. Shaw. Grand Rapids. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. London. and the picture can be drawn as described. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Thos. which may be either of ground or plain glass. keeps the strong light out when sketching. is set at an angle of 45 deg. place tracing paper on its surface. preferably copper. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. Dartmouth. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. A piece of metal. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. and it may be made as a model or full sized. If a plain glass is used. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. Mass. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. In constructing helmets.

This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. the clay model oiled. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. 3. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. and the deft use of the fingers. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. take. brown. This being done. joined closely together. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. with a keyhole saw. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. or some thin glue. on which to place the clay. will be necessary. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. and over the crest on top. 1. All being ready. 2. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. 1. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. After the clay model is finished. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. 4 is the side outline of the helmet.kneaded. a few clay-modeling tools. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. and left over night to soak. shown in Fig. The clay. as shown in Fig. and continue until the clay is completely covered. Scraps of thin. as in bas-relief.

and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. the piecing could not be detected. or. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. Indianapolis. When perfectly dry. 7. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. The whole helmet. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. then another coating of glue. They are all covered with tinfoil. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. should be modeled and made in one piece. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. as seen in the other part of the sketch. and so on. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. 1. When the helmet is off the model. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. The band is decorated with brass studs. 9. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. and the ear guards in two pieces. a crest on top. which should be no difficult matter. square in shape. a few lines running down. In Fig. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. 5. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. as shown: in the design. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig.as possible. Before taking it off the model. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . Indiana. In Fig. --Contributed by Paul Keller. with the exception of the vizor. owing to the clay being oiled. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. one for each side. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. The center of the ear guards are perforated. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. This contrivance should be made of wood. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. the skullcap. When dry. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. will make it look neat. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century.

is then packed down inside the collar. This will make an open space between the plates. AA. 2. thick. 4. or. one oblong piece of wood. long. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. and. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. of mineral wool. and C. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. Fig. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. long. 1. The mineral wool. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. Fig. AA. 22 gauge resistance wire. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. as shown in Fig. The two holes. about 1 lb. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. long. high. the holes leading to the switch. each 4-1/2 in. as it stands a higher temperature. 1. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. of fire clay. Fig. Fig. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. as shown in Fig. also the switch B and the fuse block C. Fig. if the measurements are correct. with slits cut for the wires. 2. for connections. German-silver wire is better. FF. are allowed to project about 1 in. 3 in. in diameter and 9 in. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. 4. 4. Fig. Fig. 1. Fig. to receive screws for holding it to the base. Fig. A round collar of galvanized iron. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. The holes B and C are about 3 in. This will allow the plate. JJ. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. should extend about 1/4 in. until it is within 1 in. 4. about 80 ft. Fig. the fuse block. If a neat appearance is desired. 1. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. E and F. 1. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. The plate. one small switch. of the top. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. is shown in Fig. which can be bought from a local druggist. one glass tube. about 1/4 in. GG. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. of No. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. Fig. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. and two large 3in. one fuse block. 4. If asbestos is used.same size. thick sheet asbestos. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. above the collar. 3. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 1. 4. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. 2. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. if this cannot be obtained. 4 lb. screws. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. when they are placed in opposite positions. The reverse side of the base. 1 in. Fig. two ordinary binding posts. wide and 15 in. Fig. AA. as shown in Fig. 4. 12 in.

If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. it leaves a gate for the metal. Richmond. This completes the stove. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. --Contributed by W. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. A. A file can be used to remove any rough places. Fig. apart. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. Cut a 1/2-in. so that the circuit will not become broken. above the rim. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. Can. Cnonyn. Cover over about 1 in. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. steam will form when the current is applied. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. 2. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. As these connections cannot be soldered. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Cal. Next. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. The clay. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. and pressed into it. will slip and come in contact with each other. more wire should be added. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. Catherines. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. II. Fig. When this is done. It should not be set on end. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. 4. allowing a space between each turn. --Contributed by R. KK. deep. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. H. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . When the tile is in place. using care not to get it too wet.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. then. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. St. when cool. It should not be left heated in this condition. when heated. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. causing a short circuit. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. While the clay is damp. This point marks the proper length to cut it. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. as the turns of the wires. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. If it is not thoroughly dry. If this is the case. Jaquythe. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color.

Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. as shown. --Contributed by Andrew G. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. constructed of 3/4-in. Thorne. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. the pie will be damaged. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Ky. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. and the prints will dry rapidly. says the Photographic Times. Then clip a little off the . If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. square material in any size. but 12 by 24 in. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Louisville.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. is large enough. the air can enter from both top and bottom. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. and the frame set near a window.

high. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. causing a break in the current. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. 1/2 in. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. high. Two supports. Fig. 1/2 in. The upright B. high. at GG. Fig. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. As the shaft revolves. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. Herron.Paper Funnel point. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. A 1/8-in. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. 22 gauge magnet wire. 1. 1. each 1/2 in. 2. 2-1/2 in. The connecting rod E. Fig. thick and 3 in. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. slip on two cardboard washers. 1 and 3. Iowa. 14 in. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. in diameter and about 4 in. The board can be raised to place . Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. open out. in diameter. each 1 in. Figs. wide and 3 in. An offset is bent in the center. wide. wide and 7 in. Le Mars. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. W. which are fastened to the base. thereby saving time and washing. 1. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. -Contributed by S. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. long. which gives the shaft a half turn. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. 1. 4 in. long. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. long. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. long. The connections are made as shown in Fig. allowing each end to project for connections. for the crank. thick and 3 in. thick. The driving arm D. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. as shown. 3.

as shown in the sketch. Place the pot. --Contributed by William F. in height. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Stecher. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. on a board. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. 3 in. Dorchester.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Mass. making a framework suitable for a roost. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. . and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. One or more pots may be used. bottom side up. In designing the roost.

If the meter is warmed 10 deg. etc. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. odd corners. 1. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. shelves. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. paraffin and paint or varnish. F. as shown in Fig. without any corresponding benefit. that it is heated. F. and give it time to dry. 1. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required.. in diameter. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg.. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. The bottom part of the sketch. The materials required are rope or. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. will produce the pattern desired. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. Fig. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. windows. preferably. ordinary glue. Wind the . grills and gratings for doors. when combined. if it is other than straight lines. adopt the method described. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects.

M. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Y. Harrer. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. six designs are shown. Fig. Lockport.Fig. 2. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. cut and glue them together. -Contributed by Geo. N. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer.

etc. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. London. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in.. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. As the . The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular.. which was used in front of a horse's head. when it will be observed that any organic matter. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. and the sides do not cover the jaws. will be retained by the cotton. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made.. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. chips of iron rust. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. says the English Mechanic. 1. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. etc. but no farther. This piece of horse armor. Pour the water in until the filter is filled.

The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. as the surface will hold the clay. and therefore it is not described. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. which is separate. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. then another coat of glue. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. This can be made in one piece. and the clay model oiled. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. the same as in Fig. In Fig. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. but for . and will require less clay. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. with the exception of the thumb shield. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. This will make the model light and easy to move around. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. but the back is not necessary.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. 2. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. This triangularshaped support. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. This being done. All being ready. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. The armor is now removed from the model. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. the rougher the better. except the thumb and fingers. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. 6 and 7. 8. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 2. as shown in the sketch. An arrangement is shown in Fig. 4. which can be made in any size.

two for the jaws and one a wedge. will be about right. 9. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. A piece of board. 1/2 in. the two pieces of foil will draw together. cut into the shape shown in Fig. each about 1/4 in. long. Y. but 3-1/2 in. fastened to the rod. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Fasten a polished brass ball to. are glued to it. the foils will not move. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. La Rue. are better shown in Fig. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. 2. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. --Contributed by John G. --Contributed by Ralph L. The two pieces of foil. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. the top of the rod. If it does not hold a charge. Calif. wide and 1/2 in. Buxton. running down the plate.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. Redondo Beach. . Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. When locating the place for the screw eyes. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. N. two in each jaw. and the instrument is ready for use. in depth. Goshen.

wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. long. 2-1/2 in. Texas. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. is made of a 1/4-in. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. The can may be bronzed. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. from the smaller end. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. Bryan. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. hole bored through it. A. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. enameled or otherwise decorated. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. as shown in the illustration. as this will cut under the water without splashing. about 15 in. pine board. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. silvered. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. as indicated in the . At a point 6 in. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. When a fish is hooked. M. --Contributed by Mrs. Corsicana. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up.

The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. as shown. 22 is plenty heavy enough. take a piece of thin wood. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Basswood or butternut. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. or even pine. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. If soft wood. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. A good size is 5 in. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. using a piece of carbon paper. will do as well as the more expensive woods. Polish the metal.Match Holder accompanying sketch. Having completed the drawing. such as basswood or pine was used. Next prepare the metal holder. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. wide by 6 in. punch the holes. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. long over all. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. put a coat or two of wax and polish . If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. and trace upon it the design and outline. using powdered pumice and lye. then with a nail. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. When it has dried over night. 3/8 or 1/4 in. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Any kind of wood will do. thick.

To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. It is useful for photographers. Jaquythe. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. Instead of the usual two short ropes. are used for the cores of the magnets. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. long. If one has some insight in carving. thick. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. . long. 2 in. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. of pure olive oil. --Contributed by W. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. Richmond. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. is used for the base of this instrument. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. Cal. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. Two wire nails. can be made on the same standards. If carving is contemplated. A. each 1 in. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. wide and 5 in. 1/2 in. the whole being finished in linseed oil.

behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. Lynas. says the English Mechanic. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. the paper covering put on. 1. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. A piece of tin. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. about No. as shown in Fig. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. similar to that used in electric bells. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. cut in the shape of the letter T. All of the parts for the armor have been described. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. acts as a spring to keep the key open. About 1 in. as shown by the dotted lines. in the shape shown in the sketch. 25 gauge. A rubber band. when the key is pushed down. London. --Contributed by W.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. except that for the legs. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. cloth or baize to represent the legs. leaving about 1/4 in. . The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. then covered with red. H. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. 3. at A. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside.

completes the equipment. Silver paper will do very well. apart. flat headed carriage bolt. long. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. 1 in. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. hole in the center. says Camera Craft. can be made in a few minutes' time. So set up. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. and eight small holes. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. one to another .Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. By moving the position of the bolt from. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. A 1/4-in. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. The two pieces are bolted together. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. for the sake of lightness. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. Take the piece shown in Fig. not too tight. drill six 1/4-in. in the other end. Cut them to a length or 40 in.. about 1 in. apart. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. 3 in. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. These can be purchased at a stationery store. In one end of the piece. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. make the same series of eight small holes and. at each end. Fig. 1 and drill a 1/4in. holes. or ordinary plaster laths will do. 2. Secure two strips of wood. Instead of using brass headed nails.

and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. long. 2. A round fob is made in a similar way. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. for instance. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. but instead of reversing . Then take B and lay it over A. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. Start with one end. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. doubled and run through the web of A. of the ends remain unwoven. taking the same start as for the square fob. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. C over D and B. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. 1. A is the first string and B is the second. D over A and C. and lay it over the one to the right. and the one beneath C. in Fig. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. the one marked A. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A.of the larger holes in the strip. Then draw all four ends up snugly. In this sketch. 2. as in portraiture and the like. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. 2. 4. lay Cover B and the one under D. then B over C and the end stuck under A. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. Fig.

Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. 1-1/2 in.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. --Contributed by John P. Rupp. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. as B. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. especially if silk strings are used. is to be made of leather. Monroeville. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. as at A in Fig. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. the design of which is shown herewith. A loop. 3. over the one to its right. always lap one string. long. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. 5. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. The round fob is shown in Fig. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . Ohio. as in making the square fob. is left out at the center before starting on one side. Other designs can be made in the same manner. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe.

When the supply of wax is exhausted. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. such as a nut pick. it can be easily renewed. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Mich. Northville. -Contributed by A. Houghton. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. . After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. A. beeswax or paraffin. door facing or door panel.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. pressing it against the wood. using the reverse side. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. filling them with wax. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. Any smooth piece of steel. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase.

Y. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. J. apart and driven in only part way. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. it is best to leave a plain white margin. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Thompson. and about 12 in. --Contributed by O. . if blueprints are used. Select the print you wish to mount. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. The tacks should be about 1 in. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. E and F. but any kind that will not stick may be used. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. those on matte paper will work best. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Petersburg. Fold together on lines C. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. leaving about 1/4 in. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. and after wetting. N.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. although tin ones can be used with good success. Ill. long. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. New York. remaining above the surface of the board. Enough plaster should. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. D. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. thick. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. place it face down in the dish. says Photographic Times. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks.

One of the . etc. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. roses.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. as shown in the right of the sketch. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized.. Lower into the test tube a wire. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. will be rendered perfectly white. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. violets. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. bell flowers. without mixing the solutions. as shown at the left in the sketch. filling the same about onehalf full.

attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. as shown. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. but which will not wobble loose. --Contributed by L. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. long. The diaphragm. or delicate tints of the egg. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. should be soldered to the box. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. A rod that will fit the brass tube. is about 2-1/2 in. The first point should be ground blunt. The tin horn can be easily made. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing.. not too tightly.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. The sound box. in diameter and 1 in. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. 1. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. as shown in the sketch. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. Millstown. When soldering these parts together. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. about 1/8s in. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. South Dakota. long and made of wood. 3. made of heavy tin. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. Fig. thick. L. shading. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. turned a little tapering. to keep the core from coming off in turning. 2. Shabino. and at the larger end. 1-7/8 in. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle.

Ill. Chicago. and weighted it with a heavy stone. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. E.Contributed by E. says the Iowa Homestead. mice in the bottom. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Colo. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] .--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. and. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. wondering what it was. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. put a board on top. Gold. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Victor. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Jr.

or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Y. N. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Can. . A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. Buffalo. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Ottawa. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. --Contributed by Lyndwode. Pereira.

This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Jaquythe. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. --Contributed by W. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Richmond. --Contributed by Thos. cut round. as shown. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. A. This cart has no axle. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. by means of a flatheaded tack. Grand Rapids. longer than the length of the can. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Put a small nail 2 in.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. Mich. and at one end of the stick fasten. a piece of tin. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. through which several holes have been punched. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. as it can be made quickly in any size. Cal. above the end of the dasher. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . De Loof. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size.

and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye.1. 2 in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. La. Fig. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. Pa. Kane. apart. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. wide and 1/8 in. 2. 1 ft. wide and 3 ft. as shown. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. New Orleans. long. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. 2. board. cut in the center of the rounding edge. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. wide. A wedge-shaped piece of . screwed it on the inside of a store box.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. Doylestown. wide and as long as the box. 1. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Notches 1/8 in. thick. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. were below the level of the bullseye. --Contributed by James M. 2. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. 1-1/2 in. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. The candles. The baseboard and top are separable. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. I reversed a door gong. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. 1/4 in. of course. deep and 3 in.

Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. the reason being that if both were solid.. the blade is put back into the groove . the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form.Book Back Holders metal. A. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. when placed as in Fig. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. Worcester. 3. Cover the block with rubber. scissors. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. as shown in Fig. Mass. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. wide rubber bands or felt. can be picked up without any trouble. by cutting away the ends. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. The block can also be used as a paperweight. etc. West Union. it can be removed without marring the casing. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. 1. will. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. --Contributed by G. wide into each side of the casing. When not in use. After completing the handle. dressing one surface of each piece. After the glue has dried. Needles. take two pieces of hard wood. Wood. the shelf could not be put on the window. Ia. For the handle. to prevent its scratching the desk top. This device is very convenient for invalids. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. stone or wood. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together.

If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Mass. Cleveland. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Hutchins. Jacobs. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Malden. . is shown in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by Maud McKee. --Contributed by H. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. square and 4 in. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. A. If desired. as shown in Fig. A notch is cut in one side. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. 2. long. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block.and sharpened to a cutting edge. as shown in Fig. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. S. -Contributed by W. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. 1. Ohio. Pa. 1 in. Each one is made of a hardwood block. thus carrying the car up the incline. Erie.

--Contributed by Willie Woolsen. If one such as is shown is to be used. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. Cape May Point. 6 by 9-1/2 in. The letters can be put on afterward.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. This will insure having all parts alike. will be needed. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. N.. a board on which to work it. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. One sheet of metal. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. Prepare a design for the front. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. and an awl and hammer. .J.

Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. paste the paper design right on the metal. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. says Master Painter. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. as shown. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. 2 parts white vitriol. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. applied by means of a brush. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. to right angles. So impressive are the results.Fasten the metal to the board. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. 1 part. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. in the waste metal. If any polishing is required. that can be worked in your own parlor. On the back. placed on a table. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. The stick may be placed by the side of. flat brush. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. The music will not sound natural. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. but weird and distant. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. varnish. mandolin or guitar. turpentine. if desired. behind or through the center of a table leg. or. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. which is desirable. One coat will do. a violin. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium." In all appearance. 1/4 part. Remove the metal. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. . only the marginal line is to be pierced. 3/4 part. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it.

1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. it might be difficult. each 28 in. long and measuring 26 in. London. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. each 6 in. round-head machine screws. With proper tools this is easy. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. apart. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. . These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. long and spread about 8 in. The longest piece. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. square bar iron. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. are shaped as shown in Fig. wide. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. says Work. across the top. 2. without them. thick by 1/2 in. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. 3. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. and is easy to construct.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. is bent square so as to form two uprights. Two pairs of feet. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. long.

After the glass is cut. on it as shown. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. Fig. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. and the base border. While the piece of lead D. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. Fig. B. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. The design is formed in the lead. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. is held by the brads. better still. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. special flux purchased for this purpose. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. 5. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. 5. After the joints are soldered. 4. cut a long piece of lead. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. 6. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. A. The glass. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. in the grooves of the borders. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. as shown in Fig. or. D. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. The brads are then removed. 7. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. lead. C. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. using rosin as a flux. the latter being tapped to . Place the corner piece of glass.

The post is now ready to be set in the ground. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. Secure a post. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in.. then drill a 3/4-in. then flatten its end on the under side. long. and two wood blocks. This ring can be made of 1-in. thick and drill 3/4-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. not less than 4 in. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. rocker bolt. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. wood screws in each washer. long. Bore a 3/4-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. Two styles of hand holds are shown. This . Fasten the plates to the block B. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. long. 8. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. in diameter and about 9 in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. N. A and B. plank about 12 ft. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. The center pin is 3/4-in. square and of the length given in the drawing. Make three washers 3-in. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. bolt. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Bore a 5/8-in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. bolt. H. --Contributed by W. holes through their centers. rounded at the top as shown. plates. and round the corners of one end for a ring. one on each side and central with the hole. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. Camden. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post.the base of the clip. as shown in Fig. in diameter and 1/4 in. J. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Dreier. Jr. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block.

The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. 1 by 7 in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. long. of 1/4-in. 4 pieces. the money outlay will be almost nothing. square by 9-1/2 ft. by 6-1/2 ft. 9 in. To substitute small. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. 3/4 by 3 in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 4 in. by 2 ft. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. square by 5 ft. straight-grained hickory.will make an excellent cover for a pot. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. long. bolts and rope. 2 by 4 in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. 16 screws. 7 in. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. by 3 ft. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. 2-1/2 in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. If trees are convenient. in diameter and 7 in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. long. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 4 filler pieces. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 4 pieces. screws. maple. long. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. from one edge. boards along the side of each from end to end. long and 1 piece. hickory. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. shanks. 1-1/4in. can make a first class gymnasium. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. and some one can swing an axe. bit. La. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. long. 1/2 in. chestnut or ash. 4 in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. because it will not stand the weather. long. The four 7-in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 1. horse and rings. 50 ft. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 3 in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. New Orleans.

then buried to a depth of 2 ft. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. 2. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. apart. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. piece of wood. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. so the 1/2-in. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. each 3 ft. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. from the end.. at each end. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving .. apart. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. boards coincide. Bore a 9/16-in. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. deep and remove all loose dirt. 8 in. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire.bored. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post.

As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. . The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in.. and materially heightened the illusion. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. and ascends the stem. but most deceptive at dusk. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. When the interest of the crowd. He stretched the thread between two buildings. W. about 100 ft. just visible against the dark evening sky. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. it is taken to the edge of the foot. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud." which skimmed along the distant horizon. in an endless belt. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. not much to look at in daytime. And all he used was a black thread. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. disappearing only to reappear again. passing through a screweye at either end. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. it follows the edge for about 1 in. which at once gathered. not even the tumbler. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. and then passes in a curve across the base. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. the effect is very striking. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. apart. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. was at its height. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. If the tumbler is rotated.

New Orleans. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 6 in. La. large spikes. 8 in. Bevel the ends of . Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 2 by 4 in. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. by 7 ft. by 2 ft. long and 1 doz. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 4 in. long. long. Fig. 7 in. beginning at a point 9 in. 8 in. 2 by 3 in. from either side of the center. long. 4 bolts. 8 bolts. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 8 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. square and 6 ft. long. 2 base pieces. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 4 knee braces. long. long. 2 side braces. 2 cross braces. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. preferably cedar. 1. long. 2 in. so the point will be on top. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 2 by 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. long. The cork will come out easily. A wire about No. square and 51/2 ft. 4 wood screws. by 10 ft. 4 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. wide and 1 in. by 3 ft. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 2 by 4 in. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. To make the apparatus. and turned in a spiral D. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. deep.

The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. A. of 7 ft. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. Two endpieces must be made. These will allow the ladle to be turned. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. equipped with a strainer. leave it undressed. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. etc. which face each other. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. Jaquythe. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. ( To be Continued. . of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. If using mill-cut lumber. using four of the 7-in bolts. but even unpainted they are very durable. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. except the bars. screws. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. Cal.. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. The wood so treated will last for years. leaving the strainer always in position.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. and countersinking the heads. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes.the knee braces. as shown in the diagram. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. additional long. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. jellies. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. Richmond. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. After the trenches are dug. A large sized ladle. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. save the bars. so the bolts in both will not meet. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. --Contributed by W.

it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. A. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. or various cutting compounds of oil. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. of sufficient 1ength. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. Oil. which seems impossible. thus holding the pail as shown. . milling machine. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. it is necessary to place a stick. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. In order to accomplish this experiment. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. partly a barrier for jumps. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. drill press or planer. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work.

2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. Procure from a saw mill. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. by 3 ft. square by 5-1/2 ft. 2 adjusting pieces. stud cut rounding on one edge. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. Hand holds must be provided next. ten 1/2-in. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. The round part of this log must be planed. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. square by 5 ft. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. long. 2 by 4 in. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. 4 in. from each end. 7 in. bolts. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. To construct. and free from knots. is a good length. long. apart. beginning 1-1/2 in. 2 by 4 in. apart in a central position on the horse. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . bolts. bolt. 4-1/2 in. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. to fasten the knee braces at the top. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. 1 cross brace. 4 knee braces. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces.. long.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. These are well nailed in place. in the ground. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant.. long. but 5 ft. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. bolts. 4 in. 4 in. 1 in. These are placed 18 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. by 3 ft. by 3 ft. projections and splinters. 2 bases. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. in diameter--the larger the better. long. piece of 2 by 4-in. 2 by 4 in. 3 in. wood yard or from the woods. two 1/2-in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. long. long. long.

one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Cal. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. no one is responsible but himself. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. it is caused by some obstruction. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. snow. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. such as a dent. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. pipe and fittings. A. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. then bending to the shape desired. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Richmond. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. etc. over and around. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. it is caused by an overloaded shell. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. Also. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Jaquythe. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. water. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet.--Contributed by W. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. but nevertheless.horse top.

Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Vener. which. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. Ontario. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. France. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. in width and 1/32 in. when complete. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. 1. are all the tools necessary. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Toronto. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. then run a string over each part. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. when straightened out. W. is much better than a wood sled. Joerin. Paris. --Contributed by James E. These. Boston. Mass. thick. will give the length. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. --Contributed by J. . one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. 2. --Contributed by Arthur E. Noble. at E and F. The end elevation. 1/4 or 3/16 in. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock.

3. are nailed. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. . and the latter will take on a bright luster. It is best to use soft water. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The method shown in Figs. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. nor that which is partly oxidized. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. AA and BB. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. 4.

1). The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. Percy Ashley in Rudder. The materials used are: backbone. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 2. or unequal widths as in Fig. . If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 4. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. as shown in Fig.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. class ice-yacht. or various rulings may be made. 3. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. 2. 8 and 9. as shown in Fig. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. Broad lines can be made.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

nipples and flanges arranged as shown. It can be made longer or shorter. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. A good and substantial homemade lathe. 1-Details of Lathe sort. 1. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. a tee and a forging. long. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. a larger size of pipe should be used. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. Both the lower . The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. bent and drilled as shown. pipe. pins to keep them from turning. out from the collar. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in.Fig. The headstock is made of two tees. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. about 30 in. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. but if it is made much longer. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense.

This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. To do this. Boissevain. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. but also their insulating properties. Indiana. --Contributed by M. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. --Contributed by W. Fruitvale. thick as desired. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. W. as shown in Fig. Cal. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. 3/4 or 1 in. Laporte. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. 2. Man. a corresponding line made on this. UpDeGraff. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. 1. It is about 1 in. as shown in Fig. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. and will answer for a great variety of work. a straight line should be scratched Fig. --Contributed by W. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. .tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Held. or a key can be used as well. Musgrove. else taper turning will result. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 2. M. 2. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig.

J. as shown. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Ft. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Smith.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. In use. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. --Contributed by E. Ark. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. long. Cline. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. The handle is of pine about 18 in. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. To obviate this. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth.

Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. face off the end of the piece. if this method is followed: First. on starting the lathe. Colo. and when once in true up to its size. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. which should be backed out of contact. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. the drill does not need the tool. New Orleans. take . --Contributed by Walter W. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. La. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. White. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. After being entered. Denver. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. centering is just one operation too many. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. This prevents the drill from wobbling. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring.

The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. as shown in D. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. says the Sphinx. vanishing wand. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. and can be varied to suit the performer. The glass tube B. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. by applying caustic soda or . Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. all the better. after being shown empty.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. In doing this. unknown to the spectators. a bout 1/2 in. and this given to someone to hold. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. shown at C. After the wand is removed. It can be used in a great number of tricks. is put into the paper tube A. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. shorter t h a n the wand. a long piece of glass tubing. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. The handkerchief rod. the cap is placed over the paper tube.

square and 1-7/8 in. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in.potash around the edges of the letters. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. and if care is taken in selecting the material. 2 Sides. across the front and back to strengthen them. As the cement softens. The brace at D is 1 in. 1 End. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. 1 Neck. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. Cut a piece of hard wood. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. long. 3/16. 1/4 in. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. by 14 by 17 in. Glue strips of soft wood. 1 Bottom. This dimension and those for the frets . giving it an old-fashioned appearance. as shown by K. With care and patience. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. Glue the neck to the box. 1. cut to any shape desired. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. can be made by the home mechanic. thick. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. preferably hard maple. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. The sides. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. with the back side rounding. End. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. and glue it to the neck at F. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. ends and bottom are made of hard wood.

A board 1 in. Frary. toward each end. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. thick and about 1 ft. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. and beveled . -Contributed by J. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. but it is not. 1) on which to stretch the paper. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. When it is completed you will have a canoe. 3/16 in. in diameter. Six holes. Carbondale. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. O. --Contributed by Chas. H.Pa. Stoddard. E. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. or backbone. long is used for a keel. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins.should be made accurately. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Norwalk.

Fig. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. as they are apt to do. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. buy some split cane or rattan. 4). and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. and are not fastened. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. 3). and the smaller ends to the gunwales. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. are next put in. Fig. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. some tight strips of ash. when made of green elm. The ribs. as before described. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. long are required. Fig. These are better. the loose strips of ash (b. or similar material. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. and notched at the end to receive them (B.) in notches. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. as shown in Fig. long. wide by 26 in. 2). a. In drying. two twigs may be used to make one rib. two strips of wood (b. 3. b. or other place. in thickness and should be cut. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. b. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. with long stout screws. 4. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. slender switches of osier willow. C. . while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 1. C. such as hazel or birch. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. procure at a carriage factory. will answer nearly as well. Fig. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b.. For the gunwales (a. twigs 5 or 6 ft. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. The cross-boards (B. Fig. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. such as is used for making chairbottoms. by means of a string or wire. 3. but before doing this. probably. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. Fig. apart. 13 in. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. thick. 1 and 2. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. Any tough. Fig. as shown in Fig. Fig. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. but twigs of some other trees. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. and so. and. Fig. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. b.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. thick. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Green wood is preferable. 2). 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. B. 2. which are easily made of long. Shape these as shown by A. 3/8 in. in such cases. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. 3). Osiers probably make the best ribs.

passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. You may put in . wide. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. preferably iron. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. When thoroughly dry. It should be smooth on the surface. apply a second coat of the same varnish. of very strong wrapping-paper. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. and light oars. but neither stiff nor very thick. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. Fig. and steady in the water. however. if it has been properly constructed of good material. If the paper be 1 yd. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. B. 5). and as soon as that has soaked in. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. after wetting it. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. The paper is then trimmed. and held in place by means of small clamps. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. tacking it to the bottom-board. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Being made in long rolls. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. If not. It should be drawn tight along the edges. and very tough. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. Then take some of the split rattan and. but with less turpentine. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. When the paper is dry. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. it can be obtained in almost any length desired.

Fig. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. to fit it easily. We procured a box and made a frame. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. Fig. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. 5. Fig. 1 and the end in . and make a movable seat (A. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. they will support very heavy weights. and if driven as shown in the cut. 2. 1. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. Drive the lower nail first. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. 5). The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. fore and aft. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience.

The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. This is an easy . A good way to handle this work. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. This way has its drawbacks. and the glass. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. 5. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. Pa. 3. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. 4. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing.Fig. Pittsburg. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. this makes the tube airtight. being softer where the flame has been applied. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. and the result is. Close the other end with the same operation. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes.

fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. thin screw. flat and round-nosed pliers. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. four. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating.way to make a thermometer tube. above the metal. three. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. with a piece of carbon paper. very rapid progress can be made. Seventh. fourth. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. metal shears. Give the metal a circular motion. then reverse. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. Sixth. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. Oswald. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. second. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. above the work and striking it with the hammer. The candle holders may have two. extra metal all around. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. -Contributed by A. fifth. or six arms. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. rivet punch. also trace the decorative design. third. 23 gauge. After the bulb is formed. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. file.

How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Small copper rivets are used. Having pierced the bracket. and holder. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. Metal polish of any kind will do. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. drip cup. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.

the stick at the bottom of the sail. Twenty cents was all I spent. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. The boom. Soak 1 oz. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. I steer with the front wheel. J. The gaff. using a steel pen. deep.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. Mother let me have a sheet. sugar 1 part. and water 24 parts. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. hammer. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. smooth it down and then remove as before. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. Heat 6-1/2 oz. except they had wheels instead of runners. N. and brace and bit were the tools used. A saw. alcohol 2 parts. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. thus it was utilized. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. and other things as they were needed. all the rest I found. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. if it has not absorbed too much ink. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. and it will be ready for future use. on a water bath. glycerine 4 parts. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. and add the gelatine. F. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. Fifty. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. and in a week . Shiloh. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. they were like an ice boat with a sail. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. is a broomstick. of glycerine to about 200 deg. winding the ends where they came together with wire. when it will be ready for use. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water.

A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. a projecting lens .

1. high. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. above the center. wide. wire brads. provided the material is of metal. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. G. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. The slide support. and the work carefully done. focus enlarging a 3-in. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. as desired. 3. or glue. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. about 2 ft. wide and 15 in. describe a 9-in.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. H. are . long. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. slide to about 6 ft. thick. Fig.. 8 in. but if such a box is not found. 1/2 to 3/4 in. and a projecting lens 2 in. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. and the lens slide. at a distance of 24 ft. well seasoned pine. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. at a point 1 in. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. A and B. DD. or a lens of 12-in. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. The board is centered both ways. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. A table. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. and. E. This ring is made up from two rings. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. and 14 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. If a small saw is used.

E. B. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. JJ. P. the water at once extinguishes the flame. Minn. Paul. light burning oil. the strips II serving as guides. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. apply two coats of shellac varnish. and when the right position is found for each.constructed to slip easily on the table. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. but not long enough. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. placed on the water. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. should the glass happen to upset.-Contributed by G. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. A sheet . St. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. To reach the water. of safe. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. The arrangement is quite safe as. Small strips of tin. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts.

Crawford. 4. Y. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. to cover the mattresses. I ordered a canvas bag. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. by 12 ft. --Contributed by J. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. 12 ft. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one.. Fig. 3. 3. 9 in. form a piece of wire in the same shape. N. 1. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. then the corners on one end are doubled over.H. Fig. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 2. Schenectady. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . from a tent company. If one of these clips is not at hand. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. 3 in.

Fasten the wire with gummed label. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. 3 to swing freely on the tack. --Contributed by Walter W. and insert two binding-posts. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Denver. 2. Warren. through which the indicator works. 1/2 in. long and 3/16 in. 3/4 in. long. 1. drill two 3/16 in. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. insulating them from the case with cardboard. holes in the edge. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. An arc is cut in the paper. C. White. Fig. A rubber band. open on the edges. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. in the center coil. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. Fold two strips of light cardboard. to keep it from unwinding. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. Colo. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. Fig. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Teasdale. 1/2 in. 2. Attach a piece of steel rod. 3/4 in. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth.each edge. thick. A Film Washing Trough [331] . as shown in Fig. first mark the binding-post A. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. to the coil of small wire for volts. Do not use too strong a rubber. D. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. --Contributed by Edward M. for amperes and the other post. so as to form two oblong boxes. Pa. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. wide. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. V. To calibrate the instrument. 2. 1. apart. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one.

Place this can on one end of the trough. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Dayton. O. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. M. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. with the large hole up. Hunting. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. --Contributed by M. as shown. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Cut a 1/4-in. Wood Burning [331] .

Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. mouth downward.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. then into this bottle place. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.

many puzzling effects may be obtained. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. This will make a very pretty ornament. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Upper Troy. 3/4 in. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. Whitehouse.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. --Contributed by John Shahan. provided the bottle is wide. but not very thick. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. 2. If the cork is adjusted properly. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . as shown in the sketch. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. --Contributed by Fred W. thick. Auburn. Place the small bottle in as before. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. 1. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. If the small bottle used is opaque.Y. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. N. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. long. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. wide and 4 in. Ala.

Its smaller parts. The bearing blocks were 3 in. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. which was 6 in. Milter. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. or ordinary telephone transmitters. was keyed to shaft C. pulley. I. as shown in Fig. The shaft C. The 21/2-in. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. were constructed of 1-in. by the method shown in Fig. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. 1. 2. thick. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. A staple. which was nailed to the face plate. high without the upper half. 1. to the shaft. in diameter and 1 in. Fig. W. G. Both bearings were made in this manner. 4. 3. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. thick. On a 1000-ft. even in a light breeze. which gave considerable power for its size. The wire L was put . K. Fig. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. 1. Fig. 1 in. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. 1. --Contributed by D. line. such as blades and pulleys.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. iron rod. which extended to the ground. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. thick and 3 in. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. 2 ft. If a transmitter is used. Fig. was 1/4in. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. B. Fig. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. sugar pine on account of its softness. wide. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. 1. pulley F. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. long.

when the windmill needed oiling. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. so that the 1/4-in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Fig.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. hole for the shaft G was in the center. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. strips. was 2 ft. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. This board was 12 in. providing one has a few old materials on hand. long and bend it as . 6. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. The bed plate D. in diameter. apart in the tower. Fig. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. through the latter. R. 2. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. long and 1/2 in. as. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. long and 3 in. 3 in. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. and was cut the shape shown. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. wide and 1 in. 1. The other lid. The power was put to various uses. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. To make the key. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. a 1/2-in. 25 ft. Fig. Two washers were placed on shaft C. 5. pine 18 by 12 in. was tacked. H. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. To lessen the friction here. Fig. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. long and bend it as shown at A. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. square to the board P at the top of the tower. G. If you have no bell. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. Fig. cut out another piece of tin (X. 1. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. There a 1/4-in. 0. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. washers were placed under pulley F. in the center of the board P. long. hole was bored for it. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. 1) 4 in. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. 1. long. The smaller one. with brass headed furniture tacks. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. Fig. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. with all parts in place. top down also. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. across the thin edge of a board. This completes the receiver or sounder. for instance. 1. 6. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Fig.

shown. 2. 1. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. at the front. causing a buzzing sound. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. The rear barrels are. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. fitted with paddles as at M. Now. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. leaving the other wire as it is. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. using cleats to hold the board frame. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. By adjusting the coils. although it can be made with but two. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. When tired of this instrument. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. McConnell. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. and. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Thus a center drive is made. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. as indicated. as shown at Water. like many another device boys make. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. -Contributed by John R. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Going back to Fig. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. Before tacking it to the board. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig.

The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. copper piping and brass tubing for base. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . can be built. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. or even a little houseboat. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. To propel it. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. feet on the pedals. 1. If the journals thus made are well oiled. 3.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. There is no danger. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. as shown in Fig. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. there will not be much friction. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. which will give any amount of pleasure. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. The speed is slow at first.

When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. A. or it may be put to other uses if desired. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. Fig. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. then the glass disc and then the other ring. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. If it is desired to make the light very complete. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. If magnifying glass cannot be had. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. C. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. and so creating a false circuit. Fig. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Turn a small circle of wood. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder.of pleasure for a little work. 2. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. D. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Fig. 2. 1. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. 1. Fig. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. 1. 2. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. B. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. Then melt out the rosin or lead. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired.

india rubber tubing. wire from light to switch. wide and 1/16 in. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. and pulled tight. bell. 5-1/4 by 10 in. Throw lever off from the right to center. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. after setting alarm.. D. 4-1/2 in. To throw on light throw levers to the left. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. brass rod. J. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. contact post. E. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. The parts indicated are as follows: A. such as is used for cycle valves. thick. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. Pa. switch. In placing clock on shelf. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. G. F. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. copper tubing. Ogden. after two turns have been made on the key. To operate this. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. --Contributed by C. When alarm goes off. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. brass strip. key of alarm clock. while lying in bed. long. dry batteries. To get the cylinder into its carriage. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. or 1/4in. 3/8 in. 4 in. Brinkerhoff. wire from bell to switch. by having the switch on the baseboard. if too small. set alarm key as shown in diagram. H. S. C. Utah. --Contributed by Geo. Swissvale. bracket. T. which stops bell ringing. long. near the bed. some glue will secure them. Chatland. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. shelf. C. X. I. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . B. wire from batteries to switch.

1/4 in. 3.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. 2. about 3-1/2 in. A small lamp of about 5 cp. as at B. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. --Contributed by Chas. from one end. for instance. as in Fig. Minn. place stick and all in a pail of sand. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. 1. in diameter. gives the heater a more finished appearance. beyond the end of the spindle. Make a shoulder. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. A flannel bag. Pull out the nail and stick. 4 in. long. Fig. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. about 6 in. which can be made of an old can. All that is required is a tin covering. as at A. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. a bed warmer. 1. Fig. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. wide. Make the spindle as in Fig. S. in diameter. making it as true and smooth as possible. Lanesboro. Fig. This is to form the fuse hole. Chapman. 2. Having finished this. will do the heating. as . Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. as at A. letting it extend 3/4 in. being careful not to get the sand in it.

1 in. A piece of tin. wide and 3/8 in. The illustration shows how this is done. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. Joerin. spring and arrows. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. thick. thick. A piece of oak. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. 11/2 in. will be sufficient to make the trigger. 6 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. ash. 3/8 in. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. or hickory. long. good straight-grained pine will do. thick. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. --Contributed by Arthur E. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . long. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. The material must be 1-1/2 in. this is to keep the edges from splitting. wide and 3 ft. long. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 5/8 in. wide and 6 ft. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. deep. 1.well as making it more pleasant to the touch.

insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. The trigger. Trownes. 8. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. as shown in Fig. thick. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. in diameter. To shoot the crossbow. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. or through the necessity of. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. A spring. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. it lifts the spring up. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. The bow is not fastened in the stock. Ill. better still. and one for the trigger 12 in. When the trigger is pulled. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. Wilmette. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. 2. place the arrow in the groove. E. Fig. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. 9. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Such a temporary safe light may be . is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. 6. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. Fig. --Contributed by O. which is 1/4 in. 4. from the opposite end. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. Fig. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. The stick for the bow. from the end of the stock. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. as shown in Fig. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. wide at each end. To throw the arrow. 3. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 7.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. having the latter swing quite freely. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig.

This lamp is safe. and nail it in position as shown at A. making lighting and trimming convenient. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Remove the bottom of the box. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. from the ground. it is the easiest camp to make. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. and replace as shown at B. Moreover. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. is used as a door. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. the bark lean-to is a . The hinged cover E. The cut should be about 5 ft. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. since the flame of the candle is above A. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. says Photo Era. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. from the ground. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. respectively. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Remove one end. or only as a camp on a short excursion. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. By chopping the trunk almost through. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. apart. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. C. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. make the frame of the wigwam. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice.

pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. long and 1-1/2 in. For a permanent camp. long. thick. spruce. and when the camp is pitched. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. For a foot in the middle of the stick.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. a 2-in. Sheets of bark. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. selecting a site for a camp. makes a good pair of tongs. wide. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. wide and 6 ft. and split the tops with an ax. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Tongs are very useful in camp. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. are a convenient size for camp construction. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. In the early summer. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. 3 ft. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. . Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. deep and covered with blankets. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. make the best kind of a camp bed. 6 ft. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. A piece of elm or hickory. Where bark is used. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. nails are necessary to hold it in place. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. long and 2 or 3 ft. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. and cedar. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. piled 2 or 3 ft. will dry flat.

or even a rough lock for the camp larder. and affording accommodation for several persons. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. hinges. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. .

the interior can.. to another . When the temperature outside is 10 deg. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. Fig. changing the water both morning and night. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. Doylestown. B. A. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. 1. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. Kane. about 4 in. Pa. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. B. and provide a cover or door. connected by means of a very small lead pipe.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. --Contributed by James M. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. I drove a small cork. wide. deep and 4 in.

2. to pass through an increasing resistance. shows how the connections to the supply current are made.glass tube. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. 4 and 5). the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. E. The current is thus compelled. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. until. a liquid. 3. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. limit. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. for instance. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. Fig. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. which project inside and outside of the tube. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. for instance. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. such as ether. if necessary. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. fused into one side. The diagram. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. 2. C. This makes .

After cleaning them with the solution. After the template is marked out. but merely discolored. brass. hole is . Alpena. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. Before removing the field from the lathe. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. set at 1/8 in. 3-3/8 in. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. screws. tap. thick. in diameter. larger than the dimensions given. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. A. 3-3/8 in. A 5/8in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. when several pieces are placed together. making it 1/16 in. thick. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. 2. is composed of wrought sheet iron. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. Michigan. or even 1/16 in. two holes. therefore. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. Fig. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. Then the field can be finished to these marks. 1. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. drill the four rivet holes. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. or pattern. which may be of any thickness so that. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. When the frame is finished so far. cannot be used so often. as shown in Fig. and for the outside of the frame. on a lathe. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. clamp the template. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. Fig. The bearing studs are now made. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. to allow for finishing. bent at right angles as shown. These holes are for the bearing studs. thicker. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. they will make a frame 3/4 in. If the thickness is sufficient. brass or iron. assemble and rivet them solidly. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. 4-1/2 in. by turning the lathe with the hand. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. mark off a space. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. between centers. which will make it uniform in size. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. 3. as shown in the left-hand sketch. in diameter.

4. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. or otherwise finished. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. into which a piece of 5/8-in. solder them to the supports. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. Fig. The shaft of the armature. soldered into place. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. brass rod is inserted. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. When the bearings are located. file them out to make the proper adjustment. is turned up from machine steel. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . and build up the solder well.

24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. wide. Find the centers of each segment at one end. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. then drill a 1/8-in. 6. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. by 1-1/2 in. holes through them for rivets. The pins are made of brass. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. thick. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. 3/4 in. brass rod. as shown in Fig. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. thick are cut like the pattern. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. 8. 1-1/8 in. After the pieces are cut out. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. 6. Procure 12 strips of mica.. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. 9. 1/8 in. as shown m Fig. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. 3. deep and 7/16 in. hole and tap it for a pin. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. and held with a setscrew. Armature-Ring Core. as shown in Fig. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. being formed for the ends. 5. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Make the core 3/4 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. thick. thick. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. The sides are also faced off and finished. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. sheet fiber. as shown in Fig. 7. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. as shown in Fig. After they . thick and 1/4 in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. When annealed. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. wide. When this is accomplished. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. inside diameter. threaded. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. Rivet them together. to allow for finishing to size. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. and then they are soaked in warm water. or segments. washers. 3.

18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. shown at B. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. being required.have dried. The two ends are joined at B. When the glue is set. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. about 100 ft. The source of current is connected to the terminals. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. Fig. 8 in. wide and 1 in. Fig. of No. thick. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. sheet fiber. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. To connect the wires. After one coil. are soldered together. by bending the end around one of the projections. 1. 5. they are glued to the core insulation. This winding is for a series motor. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. sheet fiber. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. and wind on four layers. of the wire. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. In starting to wind. The winding is started at A. 1. Run one end of the field wire. 6 in. The field is wound with No. until the 12 slots are filled. which will take 50 ft. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. All connections should be securely soldered. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. after the motor is on the stand. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. yet it shows a series of . Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. long. the two ends of the wire. of the end to protrude. shown at A. and bring the end of the wire out at B. or side.

The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. still more simply. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. as in the case of a spiral. A 1/2-in. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. and one. one from each of the eight contacts. or. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. Nine wires run from the timer. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. which serves as the ground wire. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. is fastened to the metallic body. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle.

long. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Without this attachment. board. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. 6 in. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration.The Wind Vane. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. Covering these is a thin. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. thus giving 16 different directions. 45 deg. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. circle. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. of the dial. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. It should be . Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire.

The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Blackmer. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. Buffalo. To work these outlines. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. if not too high. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. To make it. . Before tacking the fourth side. making it heavy or light. is most satisfactory. according to who is going to use it. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. -Contributed by James L. high. called a chip carving knife. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. and about 6 in. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. 14 by 18 in. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. will answer the purpose just as well. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. will be enough for the two sides. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. Place the leather on some level. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. N. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. thus making a universal joint.about 6 ft. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. however. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. Cut 3-in. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. long to give the best results. will be sufficient. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. also a piece of new carpet. Y. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. and securely nail on the top of the box." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. or. though a special knife. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. Fill the box with any handy ballast.

A good leather paste will be required. An ordinary sewing-machine . Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show.

rather than the smooth side. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. can be thrown away when no longer needed. a needle and some feathers. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. and fasten the feathers inside of it. If a fire breaks out. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. of water. Syracuse. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. or a hip that has been wrenched. square and tying a piece of . Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. B. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. away from it. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. --Contributed by Katharine D. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Y.will do if a good stout needle is used. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. of common salt and 10 lb. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. temporary lameness. Morse. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. and tie them together securely at the bottom. N.

laying poisoned meat and meal. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. This not only keeps the rats out.J. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. is cut on the wood. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. There is a 1-in. but not sharp. A. made up of four layers of No. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. Y. and tacked it to the boards. Hellwig. high. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. --Contributed by John A. --Contributed by J. letting it go at arm's length. The body of the receiver. etc. A small wooden or fiber end. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. G. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. Wis. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. F. which is the essential part of the instrument. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in.string to each corner. and a coil of wire. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. commonly called tintype tin.. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. the corners being wired. One end is removed entirely. wound on the head end. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. wide and 1/16 in. board all around the bottom on the inside. 1/8 in. and the receiver is ready for use. as shown. B. . The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. The diaphragm C. The strings should be about 15 in. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. long. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. E. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. setting traps. Ashland. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. The coil is 1 in. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. The end is filed to an edge. long. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. Paterson. deep. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. cut to the length of the spool. N. Gordon Dempsey. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. N. Albany. thus helping the rats to enter.

begin with the smallest scrolls. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. The vase is to have three supports. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. Take a piece of string or. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. gold. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. better still. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. To clean small articles. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. wide. and bend each strip in shape. A single line will be sufficient. a piece of small wire. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. to .

6-3/8 in. Trace also the line around the purse. from C to D. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. 3-1/4 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. . Fold the leather on the line EF. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. thus raising it. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. wide when stitching up the purse. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. 3-1/2 in.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. through which to slip the fly AGH.. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather.. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. About 1 in. sharp pencil. Press or model down the leather all around the design. as shown in the sketch. Work down the outside line of the design. from E to F. 4-1/4 in. After taking off the pattern. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in.which the supports are fastened with rivets. using a duller point of the tool. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. from the lines EF on the piece. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. and does not require coloring. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF.

long. then place the square piece out of which Fig. around the wheel. When it is finished. It is neat and efficient. by 12 ft. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. with pins or small nails. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. It can be made without the use of a lathe. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. and cut out a wheel. with the open side down. 1. being cast in wooden molds. deep. This also should be slightly beveled. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. and a model for speed and power. all the way around. as shown in Fig. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. Cut off six pieces 12 in. and cut it out as shown in Fig.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. leaving the lug a. the "open" side. and. with the largest side down. Make the lug 1/4 in. First. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. Then nail the wheel down firmly. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. following the dotted lines. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. thick. then nail it. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. 3. and the projections B. and tack the other piece slightly. as well as useful. Fit this to the two . b. 1 was cut. with a compass saw. square. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. and which will be very interesting. 1/2 in. 2. deep. Now take another piece of wood.

1. deep. in the center of it. and boring a 3/8-in. bolts. and clean all the shavings out of it. and lay it away to dry. hole bored through its center. hole entirely through at the same place. and cut it out as shown in Fig.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. After it is finished. holes through it. one of which should have a 3/8-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. hole 1/4 in. square pieces of wood. as shown by the . square pieces of wood. place it between two of the 12-in. Now take another of the 12-in. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in.pieces just finished. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. Take the mold apart. slightly beveled. Now put mold No. then bolt it together. and bore six 1/4-in. 4.

and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. place the entire machine in a vise. and two 1/4-in. This is the same as Fig. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. in diameter must now be obtained. and the exhaust hole in projection b. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. until it is full. so that it will turn easily. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing.1. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. This is for a shaft. take an ordinary brace. Fig. Now take mold No. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. d. wide and 16 in. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and the other in the base. one in the projections. place it under the drill. and 3/8-in. true it up with a square. put the top of the brace through this hole. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. lay it on a level place. and lay it away to dry. and pour babbitt metal into it. A piece of mild steel 5 in. one in the lug. After it is fitted in. Put this together in mold No. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. and drill it entirely through.black dots in Fig. Pour metal into mold No. 4. Using the Brace . only the one is left-handed.2. the other right-handed. as shown in illustration. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. drill in it. 6. fasten a 3/8-in. screw down.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. see that the bolts are all tight.2. This will cast a paddle-wheel. instead of the right-handed piece. and run in babbitt metal again. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. holes at d. 5. and pouring metal in to fill it up. from the one end. and connect to the boiler. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. where the casting did not fill out. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. Commencing 1-1/2 in. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. 6. long. long. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. b. and drill them in the same manner. Then bolt the castings together. Let it stand for half an hour. holes. This is mold No. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. B. and bore three 1/4-in.1. over the defective part. 1. Now cut out one of the 12-in.

Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. and with three small screw holes around the edge.. piece and at right angles to it. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. while it is running at full speed. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. will do good service. turn the wheel to the shape desired. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. long. and. At each end of the 6ft. Then take a knife or a chisel. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. Plan of Ice Boat . and the other 8 ft. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. one 6 ft. with a boss and a set screw. and if instructions have been carefully followed. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood.

being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. 1. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. 2 by 3 in. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. at the top. long and 2-1/2 in. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. in front of the rudder block. plank. The spar should be 9 ft. in diameter at the base. The tiller. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . Fig. in diameter in the center. at the end. tapering to 1-1/2 in. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. Make your runners as long as possible. 3. at the butt and 1 in. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. in the top before the skate is put on. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. and about 8 in. in diameter. as the runners were fastened. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. Run the seam on a machine. This fits in the square hole. distant