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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . The finished preserver is shown in Fig. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. Toronto. 2. Fig. long will make six boomerangs. E. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. 1. until it is bound as shown in Fig. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. 1. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. A piece of plank 12 in. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. Ontario. with the hollow side away from you. grasp it and hold the same as a club. apart. It is held in this curve until dry. To throw a boomerang. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. wide and 2 ft.Fig. The pieces are then dressed round. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. 2. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. as shown in Fig. away. distant. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. --Contributed by J. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. as shown in Fig. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. Noble. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. 2 -. 1.

and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. but about 12 in. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. one inside of the circle and the other outside. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. made of 6-in. thick. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. and with a movable bottom. 6 in. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. the block will drop out. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. however. If the snow is of the right consistency. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. A wall. forcing it down closely. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. high and 4 or 5 in. long. minus the top. dry snow will not pack easily. blocks . and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. A very light. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. which makes the building simpler and easier. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. First. and it may be necessary to use a little water. or rather no bottom at all. it is not essential to the support of the walls. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward.

The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. D. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. is 6 or 8 in. and the young architect can imitate them. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. 3. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. C. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. 1. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. Fig. It also keeps them out. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. 2. above the ground. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. which is about 1 ft. 2. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. which can be made of wood. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. 1. long and 1 in. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. Union.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. Ore. or an old safe dial will do. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. --Contributed by Geo. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. Goodbrod. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. wide. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. Fig. The piece of wood. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . 3 -. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. Fig. A nail. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. There is no outward thrust. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. a.

I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. as the weight always draws them back to place. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Merrill. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. says the Sphinx. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. S. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. New York. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. --Contributed by R. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. one pair of special hinges. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. Syracuse. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. If ordinary butts are used. the box locked .

With the metal shears. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. Ga. one for each corner. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. Augusta. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. 2. To make a design similar to the one shown. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. All . It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. as shown in Fig. It remains to bend the flaps. Place the piece in a vise. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. allowing each coat time to dry. When the sieve is shaken. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side.and the performer steps out in view. Alberta Norrell. 1. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. about 1-32 of an inch. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. as shown in Fig. on drawing paper. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. Fig. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. smooth surface. draw one-half of it. If the measuring has been done properly. as shown. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. -Contributed by L. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. If they do not. proceed as follows: First. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. 3. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth.

such as are used for enameling bathtubs. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. Denver. is fitted tightly in the third hole. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. If a touch of color is desired. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. In boring through rubber corks. To keep the metal from tarnishing. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. After this has dried. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. which is about 6 in. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. if rolled under the shoe sole. in diameter. about 6 in. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. Galbreath. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. B. causing it to expand. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . used for insulation.the edges should be left smooth. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. The common cork. When the current is turned off. The current. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. from the back end. Colo. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. heats the strip of German-silver wire. H. as shown at AA. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. C. of No. and in the positions shown in the sketch. A resistance. A piece of porcelain tube. long. in passing through the lamp. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. 25 German-silver wire. 25 gauge German-silver wire. R. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. should be in the line. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. --Contributed by R. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly.

2. --Contributed by David Brown. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. 3. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable.bottom ring. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. . Mo. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. as shown in Fig. with thin strips of wood. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. Purchase two long book straps. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. leaving a space of 4 in. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. Fig. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. Kansas City. between them as shown in Fig. 1. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked.

N. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. Y. Pa. Doylestown. These are shown in Fig. 1. Syracuse. --Contributed by Katharine D. Two strips of brass. and a pocket battery. and tack smoothly. A. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. 36 in... The string is then tied. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. one weighing 15 lb. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. are mounted on the outside of the box. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. 3.An ordinary electric bell. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. C. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. Fig. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. and one weighing 25 lb. in diameter. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. The folds are made over the string. Fig. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Fig. Morse. --Contributed by James M. long. 1. 1. Kane. having a gong 2-1/2 in. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. to form a handle. just the right weight for a woman to use. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. When the aeroplane tips. 4. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. which is the right weight for family use. 2. as .

bookracks and shelves can be made with one. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. 1. if once used. bent as shown in Fig. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. Y. and many fancy knick-knacks. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. 3/32 or 1/4 in. 2. such as brackets. 2. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. AA. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. machine screws. --Contributed by Louis J. four washers and four square nuts. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. Frame Made of a Rod . becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. in diameter. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. two 1/8 -in. N. long. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. Floral Park. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. The saw. Day. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it.

Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. An Austrian Top [12] . Silver is the most desirable but. treat it with color. --Contributed by W. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. allowing each time to dry. of water. Of the leathers. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. it has the correct strength. though almost any color may be obtained.may be made of either brass. Scranton. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. A.. The buckle is to be purchased. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. File these edges. use them in place of the outside nuts. if copper or brass. Drying will cause this to change to purple. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. Watch Fob For coloring silver. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. after breaking up. green and browns are the most popular. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. 1 part sulphuric acid. or silver. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. For etching. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. as well as the depth of etching desired. If it colors the metal red. Rub off the highlights. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. of water in which dissolve. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. In the design shown. be covered the same as the back. of course. therefore. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. Michigan. the most expensive. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. as well as brass and copper. 1 part nitric acid. using a swab and an old stiff brush. copper. Detroit. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. Apply two coats. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk.

Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. 5-1/4 in. --Contributed by J. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. . The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. pass one end through the 1/16-in. A 1/16-in. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. 1-1/4 in. long. hole in this end for the top. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. A handle. Bore a 3/4-in. long. The handle is a piece of pine. allowing only 1-1/4 in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. Parts of the Top To spin the top.F. is formed on one end.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. 3/4 in. wide and 3/4 in. When the shank is covered. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Michigan. set the top in the 3/4 -in. hole. Tholl. thick. Ypsilanti. in diameter.

dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. Augusta. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. --Contributed by Miss L. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Alberta Norrell. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. --A. A. The baking surface. Northville. tarts or similar pastry. For black leathers. Mich. Ga. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Houghton. having no sides. .

glass fruit jar. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. two turns will remove the jar. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. the same as shown in the illustration. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. Centralia. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Stringing Wires [13] A. then solder cover and socket together. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. says Studio Light. When you desire to work by white light. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. the eyes forming bearings for the wire.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Mo. --Contributed by Irl Hicks.

Wis. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. 16 Horizontal bars. Janesville. 4 Braces. 4 Vertical pieces. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. and not tip over. as shown in the cross-section sketch. so it can be folded up. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 1-1/4 in. . The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. They are fastened. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost.for loading and development. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. square by 12 in. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. square by 62 in. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. 1-1/4 in.

was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. After rounding the ends of the studs. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. Cincinnati. H. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. Rosenthal. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. after filling the pail with water. Phillipsburg. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. and a loop made in the end. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. C. from scrap material. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. O. -Contributed by Charles Stem. The front can be covered . How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. --Contributed by Dr. The whole. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. New York. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. If the loop is tied at the proper place.

If the gate is raised slightly. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. FIG. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. you are. thoroughly fix. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. The . Wehr. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. --Contributed by Gilbert A. the color will be an undesirable. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. 1 FIG. By using the following method. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. In my own practice. Baltimore. and. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper. principally mayonnaise dressing. the mouth of which rests against a. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. The results will be poor. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. either for contact printing or enlargements. by all rules of the game. Develop them into strong prints. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. Md. if you try to tone them afterward. sickly one.

. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.... without previous wetting.. long to admit the angle support. The blotting paper can .. 2 oz.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. etc... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. in size.. in this solution. 5 by 15 in... as it will appear clean much longer than the white.. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. three times. Gray. L...... Water ... this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain...... when it starts to bleach. 16 oz..." Cyanide of potassium .... stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. preferably the colored kind.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. It will bleach slowly and evenly.... Cal.... The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes... to make it 5 by 5 in. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.... When the desired reduction has taken place...... With a little practice. but. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. 20 gr. 2. Place the dry print.. --Contributed by T. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig.... This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print....... where it will continue to bleach.. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. A good final washing completes the process. wide and 4 in. Iodide of potassium . An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.. 1 and again as in Fig. transfer it to a tray of water. San Francisco.. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses...

Monahan. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. and a length of 5 in.J. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Canada. having a width of 2-1/4 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. wide below the .Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. Make a design similar to that shown. wide. --Contributed by J. the head of which is 2 in. 3. 20 gauge. Wilson Aldred Toronto. Wisconsin. Oshkosh. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. the shaft 1 in. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. --Contributed by L.

4. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. but use a swab on a stick. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. deep.FIG. using a small metal saw. then coloring. freehand. With the metal shears. 1 part nitric acid. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. Make one-half of the design. after folding along the center line. as shown in Fig. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. . Pierce a hole with a small drill. using carbon paper. Do not put the hands in the solution. After the sawing. For coloring olive green. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Apply with a small brush. After this has dried. 3. Trace the design on the metal. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. 1 part sulphuric acid. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. then put on a second coat. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. 1 Fig. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. being held perpendicular to the work. Allow this to dry. then trace the other half in the usual way. 2. The metal must be held firmly. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. Fig. With files. using turpentine. 1. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. which gives the outline of the design Fig.

it does the work rapidly. When this is cold. Ii is an ordinary staple. Carl Cramer. on a chopping board. Cal. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. thick. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Conn. --Contributed by H. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. --Contributed by Katharine D. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. --Contributed by M. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. Burnett. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. M. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. . attach brass handles. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. Syracuse. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. Morse. New York. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. Richmond. East Hartford. as shown. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. After the stain has dried. then stain it a mahogany color.

holes. machine screws. thick. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. L. Kissimmee. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. Richmond. Florida. about 3/16 in. 1/4 in. Jaquythe. some pieces of brass. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. as shown at A. brass. --Contributed by W. A.. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. saucers or pans. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. square. . A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. --Contributed by Mrs. as shown in Fig. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. two enameled. 4. in width at the shank. also locate the drill holes. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. Atwell. and several 1/8-in. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. one shaft. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. indicating the depth of the slots. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. or tin. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. 1. thick and 4 in. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. H. not over 1/4 in. 53 steel pens. Cal. Fig. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time.

There should be a space of 1/16 in. 7. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. machine screws. about 1/32 in. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig.. into the hole. machine screws and nuts. 6. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. Fig. thick. hole. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. These are connected to a 3/8-in. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. and pins inserted. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. as shown in Fig. can be procured. brass and bolted to the casing. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. If the shaft is square. 2. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. with 1/8-in. with the face of the disk. hole is drilled to run off the water. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. 1. supply pipe. with a 3/8-in. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Fig. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. 3. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. lead should be run into the segments. in diameter and 1/32 in. 2. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. wide. as shown. hole in the center. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. a square shaft used.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. each about 1 in. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. Bend as shown in Fig. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. 5. A 3/4-in. long by 3/4 in. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. The shaft hole may also be filed square. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. using two nuts on each screw. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. 3. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. long and 5/16 in. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. thick. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. If metal dishes. Fig. as in Fig. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in.

--Contributed by S. Smith. Ill. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. screws. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. La Salle. long. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Stain the wood before putting in the . A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. from the top of the box. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. V. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. Cooke. Be sure to have the cover. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. When assembling. to make the bottom. square and 30-1/2 in. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. Canada. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. we will call the basket. --Contributed by F. high and 15 in. With a string or tape measure. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. from the bottom end of the legs. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. three of which are in the basket. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. or more in diameter. deep over all. Now you will have the box in two pieces. Fasten with 3/4-in. deep and 1-1/4 in. The four legs are each 3/4-in. 8-1/2 in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. Hamilton. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. using four to each leg. The lower part. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. make these seams come between the two back legs. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base.

If all the parts are well sandpapered. Fig. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. and gather it at that point. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. The side. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. When making the display. Packard. Baltimore. Mass. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. as shown in the sketch. 1. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. -Contributed by Stanley H.2 Fig. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. 2. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. wide and four strips 10 in. --also the lower edge when necessary. The folded part in the center is pasted together. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. sewing on the back side. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Sew on to the covered cardboards. wide. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. Md. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. you can. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Cover them with the cretonne. Boston.lining.

The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. L. saving all the solid part. 3. Crockett. It is not difficult to . are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. Mo. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. N. Gloversville. Y. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Cross Timbers. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. It is cleanly. When through using the pad. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. with slight modifications. Fig. Orlando Taylor. and. --Contributed by H. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. --Contributed by B. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads.

some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. it should be new and sharp. or if desired. remove the contents. After this is done. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Lowell. If a file is used. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. Bourne. S. and scrape out the rough parts. El Paso.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Lane. across the face. Mass. After stirring. -Contributed by C. Both of these methods are wasteful. and secure it in place with glue or paste. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Texas. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. --Contributed by Edith E. are shown in the diagram. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds.

and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. After several hours' drying. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Iowa. F. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. A Postcard Rack [25]. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Ill. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Ill. Oregon. He captured several pounds in a few hours. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. --Contributed by Geo. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Greenleaf. Turl.cooking utensil. Des Moines. The process works well and needs no watching. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. --Contributed by Loren Ward. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. The insects came to the light. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. As these were single-faced disk records. Canton. --Contributed by Marion P. Those having houses . and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. Oak Park. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. Wheeler. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics.

screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. plane and pocket knife. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. boards are preferable. --Contributed by Wm. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. Mass. thick. not even with the boards themselves. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. Rosenberg. the bottom being 3/8 in. the best material to use being matched boards. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. Conn. --Contributed by Thomas E. Both sides can be put together in this way. Only three pieces are required. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Lay the floor next. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner..Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Glenbrook. The single boards can then be fixed. one on each side of what will be the . will do as well. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. and both exactly alike. Worcester. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. and the second one for the developing bench. Dobbins. by 2 ft. 6 in. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. the height to the eaves being 6 ft.. material. and as they are simple in design. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. 6 in. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. but for cheapness 3/4 in.

One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig.. by screwing to the floor. 9 by 11 in. is cut. 6 and 9. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. 3 and 4. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. so that it will fit inside the sink. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. and should be zinc lined. 6. The developing bench is 18 in. nailing them to each other at the ridge. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 7. and act as a trap for the light. 6. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. At the top of the doorway. and to the outside board of the sides. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. and the top as at C in the same drawing. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. Fig. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. The roof boards may next be put on. the closing side as at B. 5. 11. below which is fixed the sink. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. 2 in section. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. 9). The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. 10). The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. 8.. of the top of the door for the same reason. which is fixed on as shown .. wide. etc. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. In hinging the door. and in the middle an opening. brown wrapping paper. as shown in Figs. hinged to it. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig.doorway. It is shown in detail in Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door.

Details of the Dark Rook .

hole bored in the center for a handle. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. it is better than anything on the market. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. and a tank stand on it. 16. Pennsylvania. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. as at I. 13. 14. 1. --Contributed by W. 6. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. 2. For beating up an egg in a glass. In use. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. after lining with brown paper. Fig. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. if desired. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. as at M. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. as shown in Fig. mixing flour and water. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. 18.in Fig. 17. as in Fig. A circular piece about 2 in. though this is hardly advisable. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. screwing them each way into the boards. four coats at first is not too many. Erie. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. 20. and a 3/8-in. The house will be much strengthened if strips. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. Karl Hilbrich. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. preferably maple or ash. Fig. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. Fig. which makes it possible to have white light. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. or the room may be made with a flat roof. The handle should be at least 12 in. but not the red glass and frame. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. these being shown in Fig. 13. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. or red light as at K. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. 19. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . 16. Fig. 15. as shown in the sections. are fastened in the corners inside.

A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. Kansas City. Mitchell. Schweiger. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. To operate. Eureka Springs. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Ark. about 3/8 in. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. which. L. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. for a handle. long. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. New York. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. Mo. Yonkers. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. G. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Smith. --Contributed by Wm. as shown in the sketch. D. when put together properly is a puzzle. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B.copper should be. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. --Contributed by L. -Contributed by E.

A number of 1/2-in. need them. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. to make it set level. The design shown in Fig. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. the rustic work should be varnished. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. 3. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. the box will require a greater height in front. holes should be drilled in the bottom. as well as improve its appearance. . The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. Having completed the bare box. in order to thoroughly preserve it. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. 2.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. 1. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. as shown in Fig. 3. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. The corks in use are shown in Fig. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. especially for filling-in purposes. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. as shown in Fig. Each cork is cut as in Fig. After the box is trimmed. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. If the sill is inclined. as is usually the case. which binds them together. for the moment. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box.

and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. cabbages. 3. When the corn is gone cucumbers. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. life in the summer time is a vexation. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. F. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. But I have solved the difficulty. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. 2. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. .. drilled at right angles. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. too dangerous. being partly eaten into. Each long projection represents a leg. 1. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. Traps do no good. can't use poison. share the same fate. 4. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. etc. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. as shown in Fig. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. and observe results. it's easy.

tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. Iowa. cut in 1/2-in. The solution can be used over and over again. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. -. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. . The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. About 9-1/2 ft. of No. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. and made up and kept in large bottles. If. long. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. by trial. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. strips. the coil does not heat sufficiently. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. cut some of it off and try again.

allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Pa. Morse. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. 1) removed. of gasoline. Dallas. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. but with unsatisfactory results. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Syracuse. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Knives. Texas. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. as shown in the sketch. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. D. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Do not wash them. N. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. hot-water pot. In cleaning silver. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. . Fig 2. Kane. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. coffee pot. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. C. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. forks. is a good size--in this compound. and a strip. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. of oleic acid with 1 gal. to cause the door to swing shut. Stir and mix thoroughly. --Contributed by Katharine D. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Doylestown. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. --Contributed by James M. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. Y. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. it falls to stop G.

The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. New Orleans. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. --Contributed by Theodore L. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . negatives. La. Waverly. but unfixed. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Ill. using the paper dry. later fixed and washed as usual. --Contributed by Oliver S. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. of course. Harrisburg. Fisher. which is. . If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Pa. Sprout. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall.

then . The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. metal. To obviate this difficulty. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. The harmonograph. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. 1. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. In this uncertainty lies the charm. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. a harmonograph is a good prescription. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. Fig. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident.

ceiling. Chicago. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak.. --Contributed by James T. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. A pedestal. A small weight.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. Holes up to 3 in. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. 1-3/4 by 2 in. as long as the other. exactly one-third. which can be regulated. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. G. 1. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. of about 30 or 40 lb. and unless the shorter pendulum is. one-fifth. as shown in the lower part of Fig. makes respectively 3. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. is about right for a 10-ft. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. what is most important. A length of 7 ft. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. K. Arizona. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. Punch a hole. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. Ingham. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. Gaffney. Rosemont. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. --Contributed by Wm. provides a means of support for the stylus. as shown in Fig. for instance. The length of the short pendulum H. 1.. J. A weight. Another weight of about 10 lb. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. that is. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. is attached as shown at H. A small table or platform. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. one-fourth. or the lines will overlap and blur. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. in the center of the circle to be cut. with a nail set or punch. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . R. in diameter. such as a shoe buttoner. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. etc. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. to prevent any side motion. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in.

The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. dividing them into quarters. 1. The capacity of the vise. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. and proceed as before.J. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. distributing them over the whole card. one for the sender and one for the receiver. 4. The two key cards are made alike. Fig. -Contributed by W. then put 2 at the top. a correspondent of . --Contributed by J. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. then 3 as in Fig. 6. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. 5. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. Morey. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. 3. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. Cape May City. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. of course. 2. Cruger. and 4 as in Fig. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever.H. Fig. N. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. Chicago. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory.J.

of the uprights. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Asbestos board is to be preferred. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. of 18-per-cent No. 30 gr. 6 gauge wires shown. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Cut through the center. To assemble. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. remove the prints. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. The two cut surfaces can be placed together. acetic acid and 4 oz. After preparing the base and uprights. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. 1/2 oz. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. respectively. drill 15 holes. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. wood-screws. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. --Contributed by L. If constructed of the former. citrate of iron and ammonia. 22 gauge German-silver wire. 1/4 in. the portion of the base under the coil. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. long. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. sheet of well made asbestos paper. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. of water. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. Augusta. Wind the successive turns of . of ferricyanide of potash. Alberta Norrell. says Popular Electricity. Ga. from the top and bottom. deep. After securing the tint desired.

but these are not necessary. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Y. Labels of some kind are needed. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. which. N. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. cut and dressed 1/2 in. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. rivets. Small knobs may be added if desired. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . Ward. The case may be made of 1/2-in. These may be procured from electrical supply houses.. etc. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. if one is not a smoker. square. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. screws. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Ampere. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. then fasten the upright in place. 16 gauge copper wire. as they are usually thrown away when empty. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. 14 gauge. --Contributed by Frederick E. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size.

it must be ground or filed to a point. brass. If the soldering copper is an old one. tinner's acid. . while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. G. Larson. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. or has become corroded. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. B. of glycerine to 16 oz. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. D. zinc. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. Heat it until hot (not red hot). The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. Ark. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. E and F. In soldering galvanized iron. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. Wis. as shown in the sketch. the pure muriatic acid should be used. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. --C. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. Kenosha. a piece of solder. then to the joint to be soldered. Copper. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. and labeled "Poison. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. and one made of poplar finished black. galvanized iron. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. tin. being careful about the heat. --Contributed by A. and rub the point of the copper on it. The material can be of any wood.. The parts are put together with dowel pins. sandpaper or steel wool. particularly so when the iron has once been used. Richmond. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. Eureka Springs.14 oz. especially if a large tub is used. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. California." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. lead. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. of water. C. --Contributed by W. A. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. Jaquythe. This is considerable annoyance. S.

if such metals are in plate or sheet form. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. thick and 1-1/4 in. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Six issues make a well proportioned book. with good results. and drill out the threads. wide. in diameter. which gives two bound volumes each year. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . Fig. nut. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Apart from this. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. Place the band. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. a ring may be made from any metal. round iron. C. such as copper. D. I bind my magazines at home evenings. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. N. The covers of the magazines are removed. This will leave a clear hole. Fig. W. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. 2. The disk will come out pan shaped. brass and silver. This completes the die. 7/8 in. however. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Troy. B. 1.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Y. Take a 3/4-in. -Contributed by H. Hankin. The punch A. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. The dimensions shown in Fig. Brass rings can be plated when finished. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. in diameter.

after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. Five cuts. 2. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. is used for the sewing material. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. of the ends extending on each side. 1/8 in. 1.4. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. Place the cardboard covers on the book. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. The sections are then prepared for sewing. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. 5. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. 1. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. The covering should be cut out 1 in. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. If started with the January or the July issue. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. The covering can be of cloth. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. is nailed across the top. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Start with the front of the book. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. through the notch on the left side of the string No. as shown in Fig. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. 2. and then to string No. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. Coarse white thread. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. and place them against the strings in the frame. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. threaded double. The string No. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. then back through the notch on the right side. using . Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. C. and a third piece. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. size 16 or larger. which is fastened the same as the first. After drawing the thread tightly. 1. allowing about 2 in. deep. . on all edges except the back. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. 1 in Fig.

zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. Cal. and mark around each one. Nebr. Divine. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Encanto. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. round iron. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. on which to hook the blade. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. --Contributed by Clyde E. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. For the blade an old talking-machine . glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. at opposite sides to each other. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. Place the cover on the book in the right position.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. Tinplate. and. College View.

A. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. B. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. hydraulic pipe.. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. by 1 in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. Miss. thick. C. with 10 teeth to the inch. Summitville. by 4-1/2 in. and another piece (B) 6 in. and 1/4 in. Hays. E. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. as it is sometimes called. in order to drill the holes in the ends. or double extra heavy. with a steel sleeve. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. F. thick. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. Ohio. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. bore.. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. and a long thread plug. Then on the board put . Make the blade 12 in. at the same end. -Contributed by Willard J. fuse hole at D. On the upper side. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. Moorhead. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). and file in the teeth. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. as shown. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. long. and 1/4 in.

and some No. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. --Contributed by Chas. of rubber-covered wire. Philadelphia. high around this apparatus. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. H. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. some sheet copper or brass for plates. Boyd. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. 4 jars. of wire to each coil. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. about 5 ft.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . A lid may be added if desired. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. using about 8 in. the jars need not be very large. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. as from batteries. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. Connect up as shown. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal.

wide and 3/4 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. as they are not substantial enough. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. however. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. 30 in. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. 7 in. 34 in. Z. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. & S. The illustration shows how to shape it. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. gives full current and full speed. See Fig. on No. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. by 5 in. by 5 in. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. wide. by 1 in. To wire the apparatus. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white. by 1-1/4 in. and for the rear runners: A. sheet brass 1 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. two pieces 30 in. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. 5 on switch. The connection between point No. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar.the way. oak boards. 2. 4) of 3/4-in. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. A variation of 1/16 in.. A 3/4-in. by 1-1/4 in. B. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. 2 in. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. Fig. square by 14 ft. 2 and 3. above the ground. The sled completed should be 15 ft. direct to wire across jars. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. 15-1/2 in. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. No. long. two pieces 34 in. or source of current. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. long by 22 in. 3 and No. At the front 24 or 26 in. wide and 2 in. then apply a coat of thin enamel. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 1 and so on for No. 2 is lower down than in No. 11 in. two pieces 14 in. 4 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. 3 in. The current then will flow through the motor... 2. and bolt through. For the brass trimmings use No. with the cushion about 15 in. long. is used to reduce friction. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. These are to keep the cushion from falling out.. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. 1 is connected to point No.. beginning at the rear. C. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. 3. 1. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. and plane it on all edges. Construct the auto front (Fig. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. For the front runners these measurements are: A. An iron washer. apart. Use no screws on the running surface. . Put arm of switch on point No. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. are important. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. 1 on switch. C. by 2 in. The top disk in jar No. The stock required for them is oak. and four pieces 14 in. B and C. 27 B. 4. Use no nails. Their size also depends on the voltage. by 6 in. long. by 2 in. In proportioning them the points A. On the door of the auto front put the . steel rod makes a good steering rod. two for each jar. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. B.. as they "snatch" the ice. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. long. First sandpaper all the wood. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through.. 16-1/2 in. wide by 3/4 in. making them clear those in the front runner. thick. 2. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. thick.

The best way is to get some strong. such as used on automobiles. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. which is somewhat moist. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. a brake may be added to the sled. If desired. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. long. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. to the wheel.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. fasten a cord through the loop. Then get some upholstery buttons. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. If the expense is greater than one can afford. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. by 30 in. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. If desired. Fasten a horn. or with these for $25. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. lunch. a number of boys may share in the ownership. brass plated. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. etc. to improve the appearance. may be stowed within. cutting it out of sheet brass. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. by 1/2 in. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. such as burlap. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. overshoes. parcels. cheap material.

Ill. .tree and bring. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. Lexington. The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. Leland. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. --Contributed by Stewart H.

must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. say 1 in. London. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. which. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. Fig. by drawing diameters. some files. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. made from 1/16-in. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. CD. Fig. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. A small clearance space. so that the center of the blade. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. 3. outside diameter and 1/16 in. though more difficult. 2. The straight-edge. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. thick. The Model Engineer.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. 4). a compass. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. 1. This guide should have a beveled edge. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. from F to G. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. FC. with twenty-four teeth. With no other tools than a hacksaw. when flat against it. will be over the line FG. First take the case of a small gearwheel. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. mild steel or iron. The first tooth may now be cut. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. Draw a circle on paper. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. the cut will be central on the line. sheet metal. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. the same diameter as the wheel. Fig. E.

place the prepared slide with the corner cut. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. ground it with a large piece of zinc. Focus the camera in the usual manner. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. 1. Then take one outlet wire. B. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. as shown in Fig. or several pieces bound tightly together. transmitter. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. some wire and some carbons. electric lamp. either the pencils for arc lamps. .Four Photos on One Plate of them. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. A bright. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. Make a hole in the other. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. hold in one hand. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. R. No shock will be perceptible. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. each in the center. 1. and the other outlet wire. If there is no faucet in the house. 2. B. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch.

of course. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. One like a loaf of bread. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. Pa. and about that size. a transmitter which induces no current is used. --Contributed by Geo. A is a wooden block. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. are also needed. one at the receiver can hear what is said. Dry batteries are most convenient. Several battery cells. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. under the gable. Slattery. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. They have screw ends. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. Wrenn. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. or more of the latter has been used. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. and again wind the wire around it. as shown. and will then burn the string C. Then set the whole core away to dry. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. For a base use a pine board 10 in. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. J. at each end for terminals. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. serves admirably. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . by 12 in. by 1 in. D D are binding posts for electric wires. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. If desired. But in this experiment. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. Ashland.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. Emsworth. leaving about 10 in. 36 wire around it. Ohio. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. B. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. as indicated by E E.

run a No. Fig. Turn on switch. in parallel. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. 12 or No. B B. Connect these three to switch. Fig. 1. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. The oven is now ready to be connected. Newark.. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. D. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. Place 16-cp. and one single post switch. in series with bindingpost. E. Ohio. until the hand points to zero on the scale. the terminal of the coil. From the other set of binding-posts. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. and the lamps. D. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. Jr. 14 wire. as shown. while C is open. These should have hollow ends. 2. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. The coil will commence to become warm. C. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. First make a support. as shown. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. connecting lamp receptacles.wire. C. The apparatus is now ready for operation. for the . and switch. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. B B. At one side secure two receptacles. F. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian.

Fig. E. from the lower end. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. 4 amperes. This may be made of wood. Dussault. 14 wire. deep. a variable resistance. long and make a loop. 3. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. inside measurements. 10 turns to each layer. C. as shown in the cut. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. The pointer or hand. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. thick. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. is made of wire. The core. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. At a point a little above the center.or 4-way valve or cock. Fig. --Contributed by J. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. If for 3-way. is made of iron. long. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. drill a hole as shown at H. long. but if for a 4way. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. After drilling. Fig.. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . 1/4 in. The box is 5-1/2 in. and D. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. remove the valve. 1/2 in. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. 14. 6. 5. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. until the scale is full. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. B. 3 amperes. 36 magnet wire instead of No. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. A wooden box. Fig. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. 2. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. wide and 1-3/4 in. to prevent it turning on the axle. D. a battery. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig.E. is then made and provided with a glass front. Montreal. 5. although copper or steel will do. It is 1 in. 1. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. D. wide and 1/8 in. wind with plenty of No. where A is the homemade ammeter. a standard ammeter. high. drill through the entire case and valve. drill in only to the opening already through. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. etc. This is slipped on the pivot. Mine is wound with two layers of No. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. 7. 4 in. To make one. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. 4. although brass is better. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. 1. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig.

When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. in thickness . A.performing electrical experiments. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. and the other connects with the water rheostat. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. provided with a rubber stopper. and a metal rod. One wire runs to the switch. By connecting the motor. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. in diameter. D. and the arc light. which is used for reducing the current. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. making two holes about 1/4 in. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. F. To start the light. B. high. This stopper should be pierced. as shown. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. E. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place.

Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. 1. Turn on the current and press the button. long. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. 2. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Having fixed the lead plate in position. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. Fig. A. As there shown. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Fig. If all adjustments are correct. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. Y. as shown in B. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. 2. Carthage. --Contributed by Harold L. Having finished the interrupter. 1. A piece of wood. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. B. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Jones. To insert the lead plate. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. where he is placed in an upright open . A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. N. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Fig. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. as shown in C. Fig. 1. If the interrupter does not work at first.

If everything is not black. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. should be colored a dull black. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. by 7 in. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. within the limits of an ordinary room. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. The model. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. and can be bought at Japanese stores. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. Its edges should nowhere be visible. until it is dark there. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. L and M. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. high. and must be thoroughly cleansed. by 7-1/2 in. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in.. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. The lights. from which the gong has been removed. inside dimensions. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. could expect from a skeleton. They need to give a fairly strong light. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. The glass should be the clearest possible. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. figures and lights. to aid the illusion. especially the joints and background near A. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. giving a limp. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. loosejointed effect. the illusion will be spoiled. with the exception of the glass. should be miniature electric lamps. light-colored garments. dressed in brilliant.coffin. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. If it is desired to place the box lower down. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. and wave his arms up and down. The skeleton is made of papier maché. especially L. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. A white shroud is thrown over his body. is constructed as shown in the drawings. All . as the entire interior. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. which can be run by three dry cells. A. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass.

A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. If a gradual transformation is desired. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. Two finishing nails were driven in. fat spark. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. after which it assumes its normal color. W. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. placed about a foot apart. Cal. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. square block. --Contributed by Geo. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. Fry. as shown in the sketch. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. San Jose. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for .that is necessary is a two-point switch.

A (see sketch). This is a wide-mouth bottle. Cohen. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. One of these plates is connected to metal top. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. In Fig. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. with two tubes. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. In Fig. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. 1. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. New York. the remaining space will be filled with air. -Contributed by Dudley H. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. or a solution of sal soda.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. F. by small pieces of wood. into the receiver G. The plates are separated 6 in. soldered in the top. If a lighted match . which is filled with melted rosin or wax. and should be separated about 1/8 in. to make it airtight. as shown. B and C. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. hydrogen gas is generated. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances.

One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . in diameter and 6 in. A. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. as is shown in the illustration. C C. which is plugged up at both ends. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. The distance between the nipple. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. N. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. Fig. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. 1-5/16 in. then a suitable burner is necessary. A piece of 1/8-in. from the bottom. London. A nipple. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. copper pipe. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. should be only 5/16 of an inch. N. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. or by direct contact with another magnet. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. either by passing a current of electricity around it. is then coiled around the brass tube. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. 2 shows the end view. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. A. by means of the clips. A. of No. says the Model Engineer. 1. B. long. long. 1/2 in. If desired. One row is drilled to come directly on top. A 1/64-in. Fig. which forms the vaporizing coil. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. and the ends of the tube. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. copper pipe. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. A. 36 insulated wire. P. is made by drilling a 1/8in. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple.

Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. should be cut to the diameter of the can. larger all around than the book.lamp cord. duck or linen. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. Fig. trim both ends and the front edge. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. this makes a much nicer book. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. 1. fold and cut it 1 in. Fig. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. 3. 2). or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. boards and all. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. leaving the folded edge uncut. Cut four pieces of cardboard. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . Take two strips of stout cloth. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. taking care not to bend the iron. longer and 1/4 in. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. 1/4 in. A disk of thin sheet-iron. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. smoothly. at the front and back for fly leaves. but if the paper knife cannot be used. Fig. cut to the size of the pages. Turn the book over and paste the other side. about 8 or 10 in. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. with a fine saw. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype).

pasting them down (Fig. as shown. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. is soldered onto tank A. is perforated with a number of holes. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. deep. but its diameter is a little smaller. without a head. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. 4).Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. or rather the top now. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. A gas cock. and a little can. is made the same depth as B. as shown in the sketch. is fitted in it and soldered. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. Va. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Another tank. E. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. Noble. This will cause some air to be enclosed. in diameter and 30 in. which will just slip inside the little can. . --Contributed by James E. --Contributed by Joseph N. H. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. Bedford City. Another can. In the bottom. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. C. is turned on it. the joint will be gas tight. Toronto. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. B. Parker. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. Ont. A. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. of tank A is cut a hole. D. 18 in. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry.

N. S. as shown at C. long. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. Bott. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. B. If the back armature. B. and the four diagonal struts. tacks. 2. A. The small guards. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. The armature. If the pushbutton A is closed. J. 1. Fig. D. Fig. The wiring diagram. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. shows how the connections are to be made. B. should be 3/8 in. basswood or white pine. The diagonal struts. which moves to either right or left. exactly 12 in. should be cut a little too long. A A. should be 1/4 in. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. -Contributed by H. The longitudinal corner spines. C. making the width. to prevent splitting. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. The bridle knots. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. by 1/2 in. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. square by 42 in. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. fastened in the bottom. and about 26 in. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. thus adjusting the . so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. H is a square knot. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. Beverly. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook.. with an electric-bell magnet. and sewed double to give extra strength. are shown in detail at H and J. D. when finished. which may be either spruce. long. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. E. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2.

Closing either key will operate both sounders. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. Chicago. Stoddard. Clay Center.lengths of F and G. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. with gratifying results. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. --Contributed by Edw. --Contributed by A. that refuse to slide easily. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. E. as shown. and. If the kite is used in a light wind. A bowline knot should be tied at J. the batteries do not run down for a long time. can be made of a wooden . Kan. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. Harbert. shift toward F. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. for producing electricity direct from heat. D. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. thus shortening G and lengthening F. and if a strong wind is blowing. however. to prevent slipping.

Turn the spool in a north and south direction. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. B. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. with a number of nails. to the cannon.frame. C. placed on top. The wood screw. A. A. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. A and B. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. E.. 16 single-covered wire. or parallel with the compass needle. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. C. When the cannon is loaded. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. Then. in position. C. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. which conducts the current into the cannon. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. Chicago. 14 or No. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. with a pocket compass. by means of machine screws or. A. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. F. Fasten a piece of wood. and the current may then be detected by means. E. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. D. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. spark. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. and also holds the pieces of wood. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. --Contributed by A. a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore.

To unlock the door. 1. screw is bored in the block. A. but no weights or strings. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. press the button. Keil. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. requiring a strong magnet. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. To lock the door. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. A hole for a 1/2 in. 1. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. Bend the strips BB (Fig. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. A and S. Fig. A and S. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. --Contributed by Joseph B. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. in this position the door is locked. Big Rapids. where there is a staple. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. 1. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. --Contributed by Henry Peck. Chicago. . Connect as shown in the illustration. Mich. In Fig. L. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. H. within the reach of the magnet. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position.the current is shut off. now at A' and S'. to receive the screw in the center. with the long arm at L'. Fig. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. Marion. Ohio. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. To reverse. B. when in position at A'. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. square and 3/8 in. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind.

In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. Thread the other end of the pipe. West Somerville. pipe with 1-2-in. if enameled white on the concave side. --Contributed by C. J. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. are enameled a jet black. gas-pipe. hole. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. and if desired the handles may . More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. and C is a dumbbell. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. put in the handle. and may be made at very slight expense. long. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. Rand. or for microscopic work. When the holes are finished and your lines set. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. When ready for use. The standard and base. about 18 in. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. Mass. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings.

as shown at A in the sketch. Make a cylindrical core of wood. Fig. with a cover. --Contributed by C. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. A. 1. 8 in. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. 1.. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. Warren. Mass. long and 8 in. D. which shall project at least 2 in. North Easton. inside the pail. B. across. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . E. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. M.be covered with leather. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. across. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. This peculiar property is also found in ice. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. Fig. high by 1 ft. Get an iron pail about 1 ft.

bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. the firing should be gradual. The 2 in. Line the pail. 25%. of fine wire. layer of the clay mixture. Set aside for a few days until well dried. 15%. It is placed inside the kiln. bottom and sides. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. say 1/4 in. pack this space-top. Wind about 1/8 in. passing wire nails through and clinching them. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. Fig.. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. let this dry thoroughly. in diameter. or make one yourself. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. 1). The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. Cover with paper and shellac as before. W.-G. C. as dictated by fancy and expense. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. long. and cut it 3-1/2 in.mixture of clay.. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. When lighted. pipe 2-ft. 60%. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. and varnish. which is the hottest part. After removing all the paper. thick. the point of the blue flame. thick. make two wood ends. and 3/4 in. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. as is shown in the sketch. cutting the hole a little smaller. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends.. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. strip of sheet iron. C. hotel china. diameter. long over the lid hole as a chimney. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. C. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. if you have the materials. 3) with false top and bottom. 2. full length of iron core. in diameter. 1330°. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. 1390°-1410°. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. This done. 1). After finishing the core. L. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. and on it set the paper wrapped core. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. and your kiln is ready for business. and graphite. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. and 3/8 in. 2 in. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. carefully centering it. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. but it will burn a great deal of gas. E. such . Fit all the parts together snugly. pipe. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. Whatever burner is used. wider than the kiln. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. sand. If the cover of the pail has no rim. to hold the clay mixture. projecting from each end (Fig. hard porcelain. but will be cheaper in operation. and with especial caution the first time. if there is to be any glazing done. about 1 in.

Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. D.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. every alternate card being the same color. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. 2. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. Chicago. around the coil. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. --Contributed by J. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. and plane off about 1/16 in. the next black. Then. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. Then take the black cards. red and black. taking care to have the first card red. and so on. diameter. length of . leaving long terminals. about 1/16 in. square them up. T. procure a new deck. 2). 2. Next restore all the cards to one pack. as in Fig.. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. with a plane. You can display either color called for. Take the red cards. C. square them up and place in a vise. Of course. 8 in. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. bind tightly with black silk. B. A. The funnel. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. R. C. C. and divide it into two piles. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. 1. overlaps and rests on the body. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. all cards facing the same way. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. as in Fig.53 in. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. Washington. and discharges into the tube. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. . and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. as shown in the sketch herewith.

1 gill of litharge. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. The bottom glass should be a good fit. B. through the holes already drilled. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. thus making all the holes coincide. To find the fall of snow. B. about 20 in. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. the same ends will come together again.C. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. stove bolts. so that when they are assembled. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. 1. F. Fig. All the horizontal pieces. of the frame. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. 1 gill of fine white sand. E. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. A.. The upright pieces. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. the first thing to decide on is the size. and then the frame is ready to assemble. to form a dovetail joint as shown. Let . but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. The cement. angle iron for the frame. D. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. A. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in.J. E. B. Drill all the horizontal pieces. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. N. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. Long Branch. It should be placed in an exposed location. When the glass is put in the frame a space. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. stove bolts. C. as the difficulties increase with the size. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. and this is inexpensive to build.

B. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. a centerpiece (A. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. Fasten the lever. and. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. Aquarium Finished If desired. A. if desired. Fig. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. to the door knob. having a swinging connection at C. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. D. on the door by means of a metal plate. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B.

long. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. 1. according to the slant given C. Two short boards 1 in. screwed to the door frame. and another. thus doing away with the spring. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. 3 shows one of the paddles. another. with a water pressure of 70 lb. They are shown in Fig. I referred this question to my husband. long. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. soldered to the end of the cylinder. White. 26 in. B. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. Fig. Fig. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Cut two pieces 30 in. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. hoping it may solve the same question for them. Fig. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. several lengths of scantling 3 in. to form the slanting part. PAUL S. to form the main supports of the frame. Do not fasten these boards now. 1. showing the paddle-wheel in position. as at E. wide by 1 in. approximately 1 ft. E. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Fig. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. Fig. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. to keep the frame from spreading. F. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. which is 15 in. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. 1 . D. --Contributed by Orton E. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. 1 is the motor with one side removed. N. 2 at GG. Buffalo. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. long.. 2 ft. another. and Fig. will open the door about 1/2 in. To make the frame. wide . WINTER In these days of modern improvements. A small piece of spring brass. C. but mark their position on the frame. Cut two of them 4 ft.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. AA. long. 6 in. Y. Fig. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. 2 is an end view. for the top. from the outside top of the frame.

with the wheel and shaft in place. 4. from one end by means of a key. 2) form a substantial base. long and filling it with babbitt metal. Make this hole conical. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. pipe. 2) and another 1 in. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. and a 1/4 -in. 2) with a 5/8-in. Fig. after which drill a 5/8 in. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. that is. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK.burlap will do -. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. long to the wheel about 8 in. GG. take down the crosspieces. then drill a 3/16-in. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. iron 3 by 4 in. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. hole to form the bearings. Now block the wheel. iron. in diameter.along the edges under the zinc to form . These are the paddles. 24 in. Tack one side on. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Fig. hole through their sides centrally. and drill a 1/8-in. tapering from 3/16 in. by 1-1/2 in. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. as shown in Fig. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. When it has cooled. (I. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. holes. Take the side pieces. hole through the exact center of the wheel. steel shaft 12 in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. thick. Next secure a 5/8-in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. and drill a 1-in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. Fig. Drill 1/8-in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. Fasten them in their proper position. hole through its center. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. 1. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. to a full 1/2 in. hole through them. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. thick (HH. remove the cardboard. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw.

The best plate to use is a very slow one. shutting out all light from above and the sides. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. . any window will do. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. Darken the rest of the window. start the motor. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. and the subject may move. ice-cream freezer. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. It is obvious that. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. Do not stop down the lens. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. and as near to it as possible. but now I put them in the machine. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft.a water-tight joint. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. Raise the window shade half way. as this makes long exposure necessary. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. place the outlet over a drain. remove any white curtains there may be. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. sewing machine. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. If the bearings are now oiled. If sheet-iron is used. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. says the Photographic Times. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. as shown in the sketch at B. Focus the camera carefully. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. Drill a hole through the zinc. drill press. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. or what is called a process plate. but as it would have cost several times as much. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. on the lens. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. and leave them for an hour or so. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. it would be more durable. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. of course. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. light and the plate. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. Correct exposure depends. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in.

The core C.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. With a piece of black paper. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. and a base. as shown in Fig. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. a glass tube. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. B. hard rubber. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. until the core slowly rises. with binding posts as shown. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. full of water. a core. D. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. 2. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. 2. without detail in the face. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. the core is drawn down out of sight. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. or wood. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. A. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. by twisting. On completing . C. or can be taken from an old magnet. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. The glass tube may be a test tube. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. and without fog. The current required is very small. or an empty developer tube. an empty pill bottle may be used. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. which is made of iron and cork. as a slight current will answer.

and one not easy to explain. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . and are changed by reversing the rotation. water and 3 oz. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. and make a pinhole in the center. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. 1 pt. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. 1. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. is Benham's color top. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. whale oil. according to his control of the current. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. white lead. 1 lb. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. The colors appear different to different people. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. finest graphite.

This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. especially if the deck is a new one. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. A.. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. In prize games. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . fan-like. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. -Contributed by D. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant.B. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. deuce. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. nearly every time. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. C. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. As this device is easily upset.L. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. B. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. thus partly filling bottles A and C. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results. before cutting. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. Chicago. when the action ceases. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. or three spot. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. In making hydrogen. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C.

to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig. long and 3 in. Form a cone of heavy paper. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. --Contributed by F. 3). making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. . 12 in. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Detroit. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. Fig. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. 1. 2 is also an enlarged sketch.. 10 in. W. Huron. (Fig. 2. S.. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. 9 in. Make a 10-sided stick. Bently. 4. Dak. that will fit loosely in the tube A. --Contributed by C. Detail of Phonograph Horn . S. Fig. in diameter. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. long. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. in length and 3 in. J. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Jr. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. as shown in Fig. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box.

in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. on one side and the top. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. but bends toward D. allowing 1 in. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . push back the bolt. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. A. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. 6. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. Cut out paper sections (Fig. A piece of tin. making it three-ply thick. Denver. about the size of a leadpencil. Remove the form. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. long. with a pin driven in each end. A second piece of silk thread. Fig. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. it is equally easy to block that trick. E. bend it at right angles throughout its length. C. will cause an increased movement of C. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. --Contributed by Reader. and walk in. Fortunately.

are 7 ft. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. long. The 2 by 4-in. Jr. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. Minn. and rest on a brick placed under each end. is connected each point to a battery. posts. The feet. S S.strip. West St. 4 ft. while the lower switch. will last for several years. The upper switch. put together as shown in the sketch. A. B. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. W. The reverse switch. By this arrangement one. or left to right. long. are made 2 by 4 in. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. S. as shown. Paul. S. B. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . R. --Contributed by J. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them.. Two wood-base switches. Fremont Hilscher. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine.. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. The reverse lever when moved from right to left.

is an old bicycle pump. either an old sewing-machine wheel. The base is made of wood. and in Fig. and the crank bearing C. thick. E. and has two wood blocks. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. and a cylindrical . In Fig. which is made of tin. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. or anything available. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. The piston is made of a stove bolt. H and K.every house. FF. The hose E connects to the boiler. 3/8 in. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. 2 and 3. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. Fig. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. and valve crank S. cut in half. 1. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. the size of the hole in the bearing B. Fig. pulley wheel. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. the other parts being used for the bearing B. with two washers. which will be described later. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. The steam chest D. The valve motion is shown in Figs. 2. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood.

or galvanized iron. Eustice. at that. can be an old oil can. of Cuba. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. G. and the desired result is obtained. Fry. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. and a very amusing trick. 4. The boiler. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. to receive the connecting rod H. as it is merely a trick of photography. is cut out of tin. Fig. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. using the positive wire as a pen. Schuh and A. Wis. W. First. powder can. 3.piece of hard wood. G. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. . Cal. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. San Jose. J. The valve crank S. This engine was built by W. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. C. and saturated with thick oil. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. as shown in Fig. Fig. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. --Contributed by Geo. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. This is wound with soft string. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. 1.

A curious effect can be produced with Fig. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. and pass ropes around . Fig. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. 1 will be seen to rotate. to cross in the center. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. They may be of any size. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. and Fig. Cut half circles out of each stave. diameter. Fig. B. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. Fig. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. as shown. C. The smaller wheel. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. 1 by covering up Figs. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. and place a bell on the four ends. B. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. as shown at AA. When turning.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution.

A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in.G. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. such as clothes lines. This in turn will act on the transmitter. produces a higher magnifying power). The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. --Contributed by H. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. To make this lensless microscope. From a piece of thin . St..Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. A (a short spool. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry. but not on all. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. Mo. say 1/2 or 3/4 in.M. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. procure a wooden spool. long. Louis. which allows the use of small sized ropes. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. which accounts for the sound. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. W. from the transmitter. as shown in the illustration.

C. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. if the distance is reduced to one-third. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. A. An innocent-looking drop of water. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. can be made of brass and the armature. To use this microscope. 1. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. and look through the hole D. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. place a small object on the transparent disk. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. as in all microscopes of any power. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature.. is made of iron. 3. (The area would appear 64 times as large. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. by means of brads. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. darting across the field in every direction. which costs little or nothing to make. fastened to a wooden base. the object should be of a transparent nature. B. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. otherwise the image will be blurred. is fastened at each end by pins.. and has the general appearance shown in Fig.) But an object 3/4-in. The pivot. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. which are pieces of hard wood. H. The spring. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. if the distance is reduced to one-half. Viewed through this microscope. or 64 times.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. B. D. Fig. C. held at arm's length. D. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. e. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. bent as shown. and at the center. i. E. 2. cut out a small disk. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. . is made from an old electric-bell magnet. in which hay has been soaking for several days. the diameter will appear three times as large. the diameter will appear twice as large. The lever. and so on.

brass: B. brass. Fig. can be made panel as shown. D.SOUNDER-A. wide. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. in length and 16 in. between the armature and the magnet. B. A. wood. C. F. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. binding posts: H spring The stop. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. and are connected to the contacts. 26 wire: E. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. wide. which are made to receive a pivot. E. wide and set in between sides AA. is cut from a board about 36 in. wide. should be about 22 in. fastened near the end. brass or iron soldered to nail. The base of the key. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. HH. soft iron. wide. K. or taken from a small one-point switch. long by 16 in. AA. nail soldered on A. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. wood: C. thick. KEY-A. 16 in. wood: F. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. K. connection of D to nail. The door. long. D. Fig. or a single piece. The binding posts. . All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. Each side. The back. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. C. 1. brass: E. wide and about 20 in. 2. long and 14-1/2 in. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. FF. DD. 16 in. D. similar to the one used in the sounder. Cut the top. B. A switch. coils wound with No.

--Contributed by Carl Formhals. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. 13-1/2 in. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. Garfield. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. In operation. long.. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. with 3/4-in. 2 and made from 1/4-in. When the electrical waves strike the needle. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. AA. material. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. Make 12 cleats. as shown. E. as shown in the sketch. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. brads. Ill. cut in them.

The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. N. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. When the pipe is used. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. C. the magnet. J.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. A (see sketch). which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. and thus decreases the resistance. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. Fairport. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . B. --Contributed by John Koehler. down into the water increases the surface in contact. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. will give a greater speed. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. N. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. A. F. pulls down the armature. filled with water. E. Pushing the wire. through which a piece of wire is passed. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. when used with a motor. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. in order to increase the surface. A fairly stiff spring. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. The cord is also fastened to a lever. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. A. and. Ridgewood. Y. Brown. --Contributed by R.

After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. N. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. Gachville. B. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Borden. thus discharging the contents of the hopper.for the secret contact. --Contributed by Perry A. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. Of course. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. even those who read this description. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. if desired. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning.

Dobson. wide. Two drawers are fitted in this space. as shown in Fig. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. H. long and full 12-in. 1. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. E. --Contributed by H. Compton. wide. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. long and 5 in. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Dr. C. Jr. East Orange. for 10in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in.. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. Connect switch to post B. D. records. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. The top board is made 28-in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. in a semicircle 2 in. With about 9 ft. Cal. for 6-in. J. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. wide. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. C. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. wide. 2. The three shelves are cut 25-in. wide. From a piece of brass a switch. thick and 12-in. deep and 3/4 in. N. . Mangold. and on both sides of the middle shelf. Washington. A. Nails for stops are placed at DD. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes.whenever the bell rings. apart. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. from the bottom. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. where the other end of wire is fastened. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. records and 5-5/8 in. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in.

A.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. which in operation is bent. Roanoke. as shown in Fig. as shown by the dotted lines. closed. E. B. 1. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. to which is fastened a cord. Va. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. When the cord is passed over pulley C.

Notice the break (S) in the track. thick (A. B. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. in diameter. 5) when they are placed. 1 in. Fig. to turn on pins of stout wire. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. deep and 1/2 in. apart. Do not fasten the sides too . On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. it too loose. Bore two 1/4 in. 1. they will bind. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. as shown in the illustration. in diameter. 3. deep. Cut two grooves. long. holes (HH. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Fig. but a larger one could be built in proportion. D. Put the rubber tube. E. In these grooves place wheels. CC. through one of these holes. Now put all these parts together. which should be about 1/2 in. one in each end. in diameter. 1 in. thick. square and 7/8 in. in diameter. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. they will let the air through. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. wide. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. against which the rubber tubing. If the wheels fit too tightly. 3). In the sides (Fig. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. is compressed by wheels. Figs. These wheels should be 3/4 in. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. Fig. wide. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. Figs. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. 4 shows the wheel-holder. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. excepting the crank and tubing. E. The crankpin should fit tightly.

Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Then turn the crank from left to right. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. 17-1/2 in. AA. Fig. stands 20 in. For ease in handling the pump. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. To use the pump. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. and are 30 in. A in Fig. 1. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. long. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. as it gives steadiness to the motion. Fig. The screen which is shown in Fig. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. the other wheel has reached the bottom. The animal does not fear to enter the box. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. In the two cross bars 1 in. as shown in Fig. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. from each end.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. Fig. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. from that mark the next hole. 2. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. Two feet of 1/4-in. of material. beyond each of these two. iron. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. from the bottom and 2 in. and 3-1/2 in. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. is all the expense necessary. 1. from each end. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. B. a platform should be added. though a small iron wheel is better. 15 in. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Cut six pieces. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. Take the center of the bar. because he can . Idana. 1. 1. AA. and mark for a hole. Hubbard. 1. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. costing 10 cents. mark again. Fig. the pump will give a steady stream.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. mark for hole and 3 in. from each end. If the motion of the wheels is regular. 2. Kan. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. --Contributed by Dan H. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. The three legs marked BBB. tubing.

It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. shuts him in. long having two thumb screws. sulphuric acid. Place the carbon in the jar. rub the zinc well. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. dropping. and touches the bait the lid is released and. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. 14 copper wire. It is useful for running induction coils. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. To cause a flow of electricity. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. 2). it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. Meyer. C. there is too much liquid in the jar. . Philadelphia. until it is within 3 in. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. however. The battery is now complete. acid 1 part). of the top. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. or small electric motors. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. If it is wet. 4 oz. of water dissolve 4 oz. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. some of it should be poured out. When through using the battery. stirring constantly. When the bichromate has all dissolved. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. or. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts.see through it: when he enters. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. silvery appearance. 1) must be prepared. If the solution touches the zinc. The battery is now ready for use. The mercury will adhere. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. potassium bichromate. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. and the solution (Fig. add slowly. giving it a bright. --Contributed by H. but if one casts his own zinc. The truncated. If the battery has been used before.

the jump-spark coil . If. --Contributed by Edward Whitney.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. however. After putting in the coal. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit.. which opens the door. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. with slight changes. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. Madison. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. Wis. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. The price of the coil depends upon its size.Fig. e. the battery circuit. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. pressing the pedal closes the door. i. while the coal door is being opened.

Change the coil described. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. being a 1-in. . Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. which is made of light copper wire. apart. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. 7. in a partial vacuum. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. and closer for longer distances. W W. coil. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. W W. diameter. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. 6. 6. 7. After winding. 7). the full length of the coil.described elsewhere in this book. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". Now for the receiving apparatus. Fig. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. while a 12-in. as shown in Fig. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. made of No. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in.7. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. This coil. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. in a straight line from top to bottom. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. 5. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. as shown in Fig. This will make an excellent receiver.

To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. 1). to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. which will be described later. to the direction of the current. These circles. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. and hence the aerial line. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. 90°. 1 to 4. being at right angles. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. in the air. Figs. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. A. may be easily made at very little expense. For an illustration. No. above the ground. A large cone pulley would then be required. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. The writer does not claim to be the originator. I run my lathe by power. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. B the bed and C the tailstock. but simply illustrates the above to show that. . Run a wire from the other binding post. after all. 90°. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. are analogous to the flow of induction. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No.The aerial line. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. at any point to any metal which is grounded. being vertical. to the direction of the force that caused the circles.6 stranded. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. using an electric motor and countershaft. where A is the headstock. but it could be run by foot power if desired. only. as it matches the color well.

too. but not hot enough to burn it. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . pitch and 1/8 in. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. The bearing is then ready to be poured. 5. If the bearing has been properly made. which pass through a piece of wood. 4. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. A. and runs in babbitt bearings. thick. 6. one of which is shown in Fig. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. B. on the under side of the bed. Fig. and it is well to have the shaft hot. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. The bolts B (Fig. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. which are let into holes FIG. The headstock. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. To make these bearings. Fig. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. Heat the babbitt well. Fig. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. just touching the shaft. and Fig. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. Fig. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. tapered wooden pin. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. 6 Headstock Details D. After pouring. 4. deep. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. 2 and 3. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. 5. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. steel tubing about 1/8 in.

J. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. A. FIG.other machines. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. Ill. lock nut. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. they may be turned up after assembling. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. If not perfectly true. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. B. This prevents corrosion. Take up about 5 ft. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. the alarm is easy to fix up. If one has a wooden walk. embedded in the wood. Oak Park. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. The tail stock (Fig. so I had to buy one. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. and a 1/2-in. Newark. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. of the walk . N. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock.

Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. Minn. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. Fig. of water. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. hang the articles on the wires. clean the articles thoroughly. to roughen the surface slightly. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. before dipping them in the potash solution. silver or other metal. add potassium cyanide again. Connect up an electric bell. Finally. S. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. Do not touch the work with the hands again. water. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. (A. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. 2). Minneapolis. so that they will not touch. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. save when a weight is on the trap. leaving a clear solution. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. to remove all traces of grease. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. and the alarm is complete. To avoid touching it. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Jackson. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. --Contributed by R. Then make the solution . by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath.

The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. and the larger part (F. make a key and keyhole. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. which is held by catch B. The wooden block C. long. Make a somewhat larger block (E. To provide the keyhole. Having finished washing the precipitate. which . saw a piece of wood. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. I. The wooden catch. 3) strikes the bent wire L. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. Screw the two blocks together. copper. 3) directly over the hole. nickel and such metals. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. and then treated as copper. When all this is set up. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. 1 not only unlocks. --Model Engineer. In rigging it to a sliding door. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. zinc. 1 in. if one does not possess a buffing machine. B should be of the same wood. with water. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. Fig. This solution. Can be made of a 2-in. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. as at F. but opens the door. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. thick by 3 in. light strokes. Take quick. German silver. of clothesline rope and some No. 1). the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. a hand scratch brush is good. must be about 1 in. of water. also. with the pivot 2 in. Fig. when the point of the key touches the tin. Fig. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. 1). Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. lead. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. Where Bunsen cells are used. pewter. long.5 to 4 volts. With an electric pressure of 3. 3. silver can be plated direct. use 2 volts for large articles. as shown in Fig. and 4 volts for very small ones. Fig. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. from the lower end. piece of broomstick. Then. which is advised. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. 1. will serve for the key. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. with water. hole in its center. Before silver plating. A 1/4 in. such metals as iron. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. On brass. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole.up to 2 qt. about 25 ft. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. A (Fig. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. 10 in. shaking. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. 18 wire. If accumulators are used. an old electric bell or buzzer. If more solution is required. square. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. Repeat six times. a circuit is completed. it is only necessary to double all given quantities.

Receiving the bowl again. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. floor. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. On either side of the box. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. and hands its contents round to the audience. with the lights turned low. Fig. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. in his shirt sleeves. Objects appear and disappear. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. East Orange. 3. He removes the bowl from the black box. and black art reigns supreme. --Contributed by E. heighten the illusion.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. some black paint. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. between the parlor and the room back of it. cut in one side. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. New Jersey. Fig. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. enlarged. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. one-third of the length from the remaining end. In front of you. and finally lined inside with black cloth. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. top. which unlocks the door. Fig. H. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. no painting inside is required. such as forks. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. B. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. half way from open end to closed end. 2. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. so much the better. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. or cave. .. Heavy metal objects. to throw the light toward the audience. spoons and jackknives. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. 1. with a switch as in Fig. The magician stands in front of this. Next. surrounding a perfectly black space. The interior must be a dead black. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. the box should be painted black both inside and out. a few simple tools. 0. Thus. Fig. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. sides and end. Klipstein. the illumination in front must be arranged. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. Next. 2. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. 116 Prospect St. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. 1. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. he points with one finger to the box. although a little more trouble. is the cut through which the rope runs. and plenty of candles. and a slit. the requisites are a large soap box. One end is removed. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). H. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. should be cut a hole. One thing changes to another and back again. The box must be altered first. H. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. To prepare such a magic cave. shows catch B. he tosses it into the cave. some black cloth.

had a big stage. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. is on a table) so much the better. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. The illusion. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. But illusions suggest themselves. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. you must have an assistant. and pours them from the bag into a dish. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. which are let down through the slit in the top. a screen must be used. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other.Finally. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. The audience room should have only low lights. if. was identical with this. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. the room where the cave is should be dark. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. Consequently. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. which can be made to dance either by strings. one on each side of the box. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. his confederate behind inserts his hand. of course. of course. as presented by Hermann. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and several black drop curtains. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. and if portieres are impossible. in which are oranges and apples. The exhibitor should be . into the eyes of him who looks. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. only he. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton.

Finally. c2. by 4 in. held down on disk F by two other terminals. their one end just slips under the strips b1. b2. 1. is shown in the diagram. terminal c3 will show +. respectively. or binding posts. a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. square. with three brass strips. and c2 to the zinc.. 1. On the disk G are two brass strips. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. f2. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. b2. FIG. when handle K is turned to one side. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. respectively. c3. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. as shown in Fig. e1 and e2. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. held down by another disk F (Fig. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . if you turn handle K to the right. held down on it by two terminals. b3. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. A represents a pine board 4 in. b1. b3. 2. d. terminal c3 will show . 2. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. Fig. by means of two wood screws. making contact with them as shown at y. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled.a boy who can talk. or b2. c1. A. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. respectively. and c4 + electricity. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. vice versa. c4. so arranged that. 2). at L. Then. and c1 – electricity. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. and a common screw.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. About the center piece H moves a disk. making contact with them.

Joerin. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. Newark. . 4. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in.. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . and when on No. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. thus making the message audible in the receiver. 1. and then hold the receiver to your ear. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. when on No. -Contributed by A. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. from four batteries. 3. when A is on No. from five batteries. Tuttle. and C and C1 are binding posts. Ohio. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. jump spark coil. when on No. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. E. 5.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. from three batteries. --Contributed by Eugene F. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. you have the current of one battery. When switch B is closed and A is on No. B is a onepoint switch. Jr. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer.

P. A. The alarm clock rests on a shelf.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. Wis. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. over the bent portion of the rule. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. mark. mark. A. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. New Orleans. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. and placed on the windowsill of the car. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. is the device of H. of Burlington. La. per second for each second. Thus. traveled by the thread. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. E. The device thus arranged. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. which may be a button or other small object. When you do not have a graduate at hand. A. and supporting the small weight. so one can see the time. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. Handy Electric Alarm . A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. B. per second.. as shown in the sketch. rule. Redmond. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer.

. Instead. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. Then if a mishap comes. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. S. Pa. --C. Lane. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. Crafton. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. soldered to the alarm winder. wrapping the wire around the can several times.which has a piece of metal. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. for a wetting is the inevitable result. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. but may be closed at F any time desired. When the alarm goes off. B. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. --Contributed by Gordon T. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. and with the same result. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. which illuminates the face of the clock. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. C.

Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . ornaments of various kinds. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. 1. Two cleats. New York City. models and miniature objects. Macey. engines. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. binding posts. cannons. BE. whence it is soon tracked into the house. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. AA. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. but it is a mistake to try to do this. which may. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. L. bearings. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. when it is being prepared. 1 . to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. and duplicates of all these. With the easily made devices about to be described. and many other interesting and useful articles. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. The first thing to make is a molding bench. as shown in Fig. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. If there is no foundry Fig. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. A. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. --Contributed by A. small machinery parts. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. It is possible to make molds without a bench. as shown. battery zincs. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. C.

A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. as shown. 2 . For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. II . If desired the sieve may be homemade. It is made of wood and is in two halves. An old teaspoon. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. A A. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. by 6 in. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. say 12 in. a little larger than the outside of the flask. is about the right mesh. which can be made of a knitted stocking. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. H. The cloth bag. as shown. If the box is not very strong. which can be either aluminum. J. The flask.How to Make a Mold [96] . but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. which should be nailed in. nailed to replace the bottom of a box." or lower part. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. the "cope. and the lower pieces. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. high. and a sieve. is filled with coal dust. The rammer. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. CC.near at hand. A wedge-shaped piece. will be required. previous to sawing. The dowels. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. F. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. 1. 2. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. makes a very good sieve. and this. is shown more clearly in Fig. and saw it in half longitudinally." or upper half. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. Fig. CC. D. is made of wood. but this operation will be described more fully later on. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. G.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. and the "drag. DD. 1. E. Fig. white metal. try using sand from other sources. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. A slight shake of the bag Fig. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. is nailed to each end of the cope. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. by 8 in.

and scatter about 1/16 in. or "cope. where they can watch the molders at work. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. and then more sand is added until Fig. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. turn the drag other side up. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. In finishing the ramming. Place another cover board on top. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. or "drag. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. but care should be taken not to get it too wet. as shown at D. as shown at E. as shown. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. and thus judge for himself. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture." in position. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. the surface of the sand at . It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. and by grasping with both hands. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. as described. in order to remove the lumps. After ramming. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. It is then rammed again as before." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. as shown at C. and if water is added. as it is much easier to learn by observation. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. The sand is then ready for molding.

The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. Place a brick or other flat. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. as shown at G. as shown in the sketch. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. to give the air a chance to escape. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. Fig. and then pour. place the cope back on the drag. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. as shown at H. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes." or pouring-hole. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern.E should be covered with coal-dust. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. as shown at H. thus making a dirty casting. . made out of steel rod. in diameter. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. thus holding the crucible securely. This is done with a spoon. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. III. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. is next cut. in order to prevent overheating. as shown at F. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. after being poured. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. deep. After drawing the pattern. as shown at J. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. it shows that the sand is too wet. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. The "sprue. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. wide and about 1/4 in. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing.

although somewhat expensive. and. Referring to the figure. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. 15% lead. battery zincs. Although the effect in the illustration . babbitt. Morton. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. --Contributed by Harold S. the following device will be found most convenient. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. is very desirable. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. Minneapolis. but any reasonable number may be used. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. If a good furnace is available. white metal and other scrap available. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. or from any adjacent pair of cells. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. In my own case I used four batteries. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. used only for zinc. and the casting is then ready for finishing. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. may be used in either direction.

may be made of hardwood. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. Make one of these pieces for each arm. Put a sharp needle point. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. A. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. which will be sufficient to hold it. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. B. 3/4 in. The bearings. connected by cords to the rudder. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. Fig. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. as shown at A. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. outward. backward. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. To make it take a sheet-iron band.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. 2. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. as shown in the illustration. The brass rings also appear distorted. Then replace the table. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. If desired. Chicago. By replacing the oars with paddles. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. shaft made. Then walk down among the audience. --Contributed by Draughtsman. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. B.

and a weight. 3. should be made of wood. 1. A block of ice. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. 1. Snow. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. as shown in Fig. C. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. being simply finely divided ice. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. or the paint will come off. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. If galvanized iron is used. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. but when in motion. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. E. when it will again return to its original state. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. A. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. The covers. It may seem strange that ice . This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. 2 and 3. spoiling its appearance. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. In the same way. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. or under pressure. W. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. D. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. If babbitt is used. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. as shown in Fig. The hubs.melted babbitt. 1. Fig. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. 2.

--Contributed by Gordon T. Crafton. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. sometimes only one or two feet a day. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. as per sketch. in. P. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. thus giving a high resistance contact. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. Pressing either push button. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. B. The rate of flow is often very slow. by 2 in. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. as shown on page 65. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. Lane. which resembles ice in this respect. by 5 in. but. it will gradually change from the original shape A. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. but by placing it between books. by 1/4.should flow like water. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. Pa. and assume the shape shown at B. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. brass. whenever there is any connection made at all. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. square. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. or supporting it in some similar way. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line.. by 1/2 in. no matter how slow the motion may be. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. The current is flowing through both bells all the time.

--Contributed by A. cord. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. the induction coil.000 ft. E. about the size used for automobiles. alarm clock. A is the circuit breaker. and C. Indianapolis. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. K . Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. horizontal lever. J. H. D. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. as shown. Pa.thumb screws. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two. I. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. and five dry batteries. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. C. Wilkinsburg. weight. draft. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. The parts are: A. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. B. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. as shown. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. vertical lever. pulleys. furnace. G. B. F. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. wooden supports. The success depends upon a slow current. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. In the wiring diagram. Ward. G. the battery. draft chain.

Mich. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. 2 are dressed to the right angle. 3. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. Artistic Window Boxes The top. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. where house plants are kept in the home. The frame (Fig. which will provide a fine place for the plants. such as used for a storm window. will fit nicely in them. Kalamazoo. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . material framed together as shown in Fig. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. as well as the bottom.

Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. multiples of series of three. in this connection. S. for some time very satisfactorily. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. since a battery is the most popular source of power. Canada. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. and will give the . a cork and a needle. However. i. However. It must be remembered. Thus. in diameter. This is more economical than dry cells. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. after a rest. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. in any system of lamps. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. which sells for 25 cents. can be connected up in series. as indicated by Fig.. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. so as to increase the current. where they are glad to have them taken away. The 1/2-cp. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it.. 1 each complete with base. but maintain the voltage constant. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. Halifax. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. 1 cp. this must be done with very great caution. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. --Contributed by Wm. and cost 27 cents FIG.. one can regulate the batteries as required. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. and a suitable source of power. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. N. Grant. by connecting them in series. A certain number of these. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. e. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. as if drawn upon for its total output. is something that will interest the average American boy. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. W. Push the needle into the cork. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. and the instrument will then be complete. 1.

and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. lamp. double insulated wire wherever needed. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. So. each. lamps. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. by the proper combination of these. . and diffused light in a room. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. to secure light by this method. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. for display of show cases. and running the series in parallel. if wound for 6 volts. 11 series.proper voltage. Fig. In conclusion. we simply turn on the water. where the water pressure is the greatest. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. However. If wound for 10 volts. FIG. 1-cp. generates the power for the lights.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. although the first cost is greater. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. These will give 3 cp. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. 18 B & S.. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. making. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. Thus. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. 3. Thus. especially those of low internal resistance. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. lamps. which is the same as that of one battery. and then lead No. as in Fig. and for Christmas trees. according to the water pressure obtainable. Chicago. 2 shows the scheme. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. or 22 lights.

The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. brushes of motor. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. outside points of switch. switch. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. . --Contributed by F. the letters indicate as follows: FF. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. AA. B. or a tempting bone. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. bars of pole-changing switch. center points of switch. Cal. Ind. field of motor. A indicates the ground. CC. Emig. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. After I connected up my induction coil. as shown in the sketch. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. and C. we were not bothered with them. thus reversing the machine. B. BB. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. a bait of meat. and the sides. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. --Contributed by Leonard E. DD. or from one pattern. A. To reverse the motor. Plymouth. Parker. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. simply change the switch. Santa Clara. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. are cut just alike.

When the circuit is broken a weight. merely push the button E. one cell being sufficient. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. San Jose. a hammer. a piece of string. Melchior. Hutchinson. as it is the key to the lock. The button can be hidden. To unlock the door. and a table or bench. Fry. If it is not. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. which is in the door. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. -Contributed by Claude B. 903 Vine St.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. Cal. or would remain locked. attached to the end of the armature B. The experiment works best . W. A. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. thus locking the door. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. Minn..

P. attached at the other end. Schmidt. the stick falls away. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. D..Contributed by F. 3. . On another block of wood fasten two wires. where it will remain suspended as shown. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. as shown in Fig. Canada. Porto Rico. forming a loop. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. 18 Gorham St. 2. the key turns. W. 4). releasing the weight. C. Wis. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. 1). Culebra. When the alarm rings in the early morning. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Tie the ends of the string together. A. the current flows with the small arrows. Madison. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. in the ceiling and has a window weight. --Contributed by Geo. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. 3. run through a pulley. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. I. Crawford Curry.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. which pulls the draft open. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Brockville. -. Ontario. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord.

and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. R. square and 1 in. running one direct to the receiver. J. thick. --Contributed by Wm.. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. or tree. and break the corners off to make them round. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. N. made with his own hands. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. Farley. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. Connect two wires to the transmitter. 6 in. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. and . and then to the receiver. The cut shows the arrangement. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. Camden. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. which fasten to the horn. including the mouthpiece. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. J. or from a bed of flowers. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. and the other to the battery. D. First. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. Use a barrel to work on. S. thence to a switch. Jr. get two pieces of plate glass.

2. set the speculum against the wall. in length. by the side of the lamp. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. L. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. then 8 minutes. and label. Fig. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. or it will not polish evenly. using straight strokes 2 in. a round 4-in. unless a longer focal length is wanted. and a large lamp. twice the focal length away. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. or less. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. so the light . Have ready six large dishes. melt 1 lb. Fig.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. When polishing the speculum. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles.. 1. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. When done the glass should be semitransparent. while walking around the barrel. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. Fasten. also rotate the glass. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. When dry. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. Use a binger to spread it on with. Then warm and press again with the speculum. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. the coarse grinding must be continued. In a dark room. spaces. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. wet till soft like paint. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light.. of water. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. wide around the convex glass or tool. 2. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. with 1/4-in. A. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. and is ready for polishing. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. wetting it to the consistency of cream. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. then take 2 lb. and the under glass or tool convex. and spread on the glass. as in Fig. with pitch. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in.

shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Two glass or earthenware dishes.………………………………. as in K.. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. deep. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. 2. long to the back of the speculum. 25 gr. Fig. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. the speculum is ready to be silvered. the speculum will show some dark rings.. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …. add the ammonia solution drop by drop.. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. If not.. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. also how the rays R from a star . of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right. Place the speculum S.……………. Solution D: Sugar loaf . The polishing and testing done. Fig. face down. 100 gr. Then add 1 oz. With pitch. from the lamp. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. fill the dish with distilled water. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes.……………………………. 2..Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. or hills. cement a strip of board 8 in. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. Now add enough of the solution A. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia... Then add solution B. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside.100 gr. 39 gr. if a hill in the center. Nitric acid . When dry. touched with rouge. 4 oz. longer strokes.. then ammonia until bath is clear. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. When the focus is found. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. that was set aside. must be procured. and pour the rest into the empty dish. The knife should not be more than 6 in.. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. 840 gr. 4 oz. Silver nitrate ……………………………. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. Place the speculum. with distilled water. Fig. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears..

it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration.John E. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. Place over lens. slightly wider than the lens mount. with an outlay of only a few dollars.. long and cost me just $15. stop down well after focusing. two glass prisms. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. cover with paper and cloth. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. . is a satisfactory angle. The flatter they are the less they will distort. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. and proceed as for any picture. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. Make the tube I of sheet iron. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. Then I made the one described. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. deg. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. About 20. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. My telescope is 64 in. Thus an excellent 6-in. which proves to be easy of execution. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. telescope can be made at home.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. using strawboard and black paper. Mellish.

Boody. as shown in Fig. and reflect through the negative. The rays of the clear. add the plaster gradually to the water. -Contributed by A. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. 1. D. instead of the contrary. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. Fig. To unlock. unobstructed light strike the mirror. Do not stir it. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. . which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. Ill. or powdered alum. says the Master Painter. B. push the button D. 2. The paper is exposed. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. but will not preserve its hardening. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. A. Zimmerman. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. then add a little sulphate of potash. through the lens of the camera and on the board.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. complete the arrangement. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps.

and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. use a string. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. so that it can rotate about these points. also provide them with a handle. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 1). If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. but will remain suspended without any visible support. as at A and B. Fig. 2. 3. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. 2. To reverse. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. as shown in the sketch. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. Fasten on the switch lever. Then blow through the spool. as in Fig. throw .Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe.

Push one end of the tire into the hole. . Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. North Bend. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. C C. Tex.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. San Antonio. Go McVicker. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Take out. binding posts. B. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. although this is not necessary. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. A is the electricbell magnet. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. --Contributed by R. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Geo. Thomas. L. and E E. Tex. wash in running water. carbons. Neb. San Marcos. and rub dry with linen cloth. -Contributed by Morris L. rinse in alcohol. In the sketch. the armature. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. D. Levy. carbon sockets. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap.

it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. wound evenly about this core. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. --Contributed by Joseph B. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. By means of two or more layers of No. 16 magnet wire. Bell. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. 14 or No. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Brooklyn. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. long or more. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. 36 magnet wire.

which is desirable. hole is bored in the center of one end. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. about 6 in. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. coil illustrates the general details of the work. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. long and 2-5/8 in. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. 4. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. A 7/8-in. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. wide. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. a box like that shown in Fig.which would be better to buy ready-made. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. long and 5 in. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. as shown in Fig. which is an important factor of the coil. at a time. The following method of completing a 1-in. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. No. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. The primary is made of fine annealed No. This makes a condenser which may be folded. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. in length. 2 yd. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. In shaping the condenser. making two layers. or 8 in. 1. Beginning half an inch from one end. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. as the maker prefers. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. diameter. the entire core may be purchased readymade. then the strip of tin-foil. and finally the fourth strip of paper. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. The condenser is next wrapped . one piece of the paper is laid down. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. with room also for a small condenser. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. and the results are often unsatisfactory. After the core wires are bundled. in diameter. but if it is not convenient to do this work. When cut and laid in one continuous length. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case.

and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. whole length. F. by 12 in. copper lever with 1-in. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. the letters indicate as follows: A. which is insulated from the first. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. long and 12 in. 3. shows how the connections are made. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. lines H. forms the other pole or terminal. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. Fig. I. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. to the door. bell. shelf for clock. G. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. battery . This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. and the other sheet. spark. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. flange turned on one side. E. B. 4 in. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. one from bell. C. A. V-shaped copper strip. long to key. go. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. round so that the inside . D. switch. B.) The wiring diagram. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell.securely with bands of paper or tape. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. The alarm key will turn and drop down. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell.. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. wide. which allows wiring at the back. ready for assembling. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. and one from battery. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. open switch C.

If desired for use immediately. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. of blue stone.diameter is 7 in. 2 in. . of zinc sulphate. That is what they are for. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. Line the furnace. Short-circuit for three hours. London. and then rivet the seam.. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. do not shortcircuit. but add 5 or 6 oz. This is for blowing. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. and the battery is ready for use. instead of close to it. from the bottom. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. says the Model Engineer. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. but with the circuit. Use a glass or metal shade. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in.

or think they can do the same let them try it. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. and therein is the trick. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. herein I describe a much better trick. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. for some it will turn one way. for others the opposite way. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. If any or your audience presume to dispute. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. To operate the trick. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. long. 2." which created much merriment. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. At least it is amusing. affects . and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. 1. below the bottom of the zinc. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. imparting to them a violet tinge. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. and then. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. thus producing two different vibrations. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. g. oxygen to ozone. the second finger along the side. Ohio. square and about 9 in. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. If too low. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. porcelain and paper. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. changes white phosphorus to yellow.9 of a volt. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. while for others it will not revolve at all. but the thing would not move at all. Try it and see. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Outside of the scientific side involved.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. Enlarge the hole slightly. as in the other movement.. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. grip the stick firmly in one hand. This type of battery will give about 0.

which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. but this is less satisfactory. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. and. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. an old tripod screw. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. and one of them is photomicrography. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. a means for holding it vertical. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. To the front board is attached a box. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. insects. if possible. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. but small flowers. a short-focus lens. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. however. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. says the Photographic Times. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. chemicals. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. but not essential. earth.

The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. 113 7 lb. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. in diameter. 6 ft. Boston.--Contributed by George C.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. 10 ft 523 33 lb. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 697 44 lb. in Cu. 7 ft. A line. or 31 ft. 905 57 lb. The following table will give the size. or 3 ft. 12 ft. 9 ft. 11 ft. 179 11 lb. 7-1/2 in. Cap. 8 ft. Fig. AB. 381 24 lb. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 1. 5 in. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. If the balloon is 10 ft. balloon. 268 17 lb. Ft Lifting Power. 65 4 lb. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 7-1/2 in. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. wide from which to cut a pattern. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. which is 15 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. and a line. CD. Divide one-quarter of the circle . We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. Madison. 5 ft. Mass. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. long and 3 ft. while it is not so with the quill.

cutting all four quarters at the same time. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. This test will show if the bag is airtight. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. of beeswax and boil well together. The amounts necessary for a 10- . When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. keeping the marked part on the outside. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. The cloth segments are sewed together. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. 2. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. 4. The pattern is now cut. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. and so on. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. Procure 1 gal. of the very best heavy body. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. 70 thread. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. using a fine needle and No. making a double seam as shown in Fig. 3. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. Repeat this operation four times. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. on the curved line from B to C.

of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. 1 lb. if it is good it will dry off. should not enter into the water over 8 in. capacity and connect them.. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. A. The outlet. it is not fit to use. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. of iron. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. ft. A. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. with the iron borings. of gas in one hour. or dusting with a dry brush. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. of sulphuric acid. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. B. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. 1 lb. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. above the level of the water in barrel A. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. Fill the other barrel. leaving the hand quite clean. a clean white rag. oil the spindle holes carefully. Water 1 oz. or a fan. this should be repeated frequently. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. as shown in Fig. The 3/4-in. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces.ft. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. of iron borings and 125 lb. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. 150 gr. using a fine brush. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. B. balloon are 125 lb. 5 . pipe extending down into the cooling tank. pipe. In the barrel. . to the bag. After washing a part. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. but if any grease remains on the hand. All FIG. C. by fixing. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. with 3/4in. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. with water 2 in. B.Green Iron ammonium citrate . When the clock has dried. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. A. About 15 lb. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. of water will make 4 cu. ]. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. . Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. Vegetable oils should never be used. until no more dirt is seen. 5. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. which may sound rather absurd. C.

This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry.Water 1 oz. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. or carbon. This aerial collector can be made in . A cold. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. The negative pole. toning first if desired. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. . to avoid blackened skin. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. of any make. Dry in the dark. and keep in the dark until used. keeping the fingers out of the solution. 20 to 30 minutes. The positive pole.000 ft. Port Melbourne.. Dry the plates in the dark. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. or zinc. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. . Printing is done in the sun. and a vigorous negative must be used. Exposure. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. fix in hypo. dry atmosphere will give best results. or battery. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. at the time of employment. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. says the Moving Picture World. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. The miniature 16 cp. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. A longer exposure will be necessary.

To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. making a ground with one wire. a positive and a negative. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in.various ways. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. when left exposed to the air. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. and have the other connected with another aerial line. will soon become dry and useless. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. holes . the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. and as less current will flow the short way. If the wave ceases. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. lead pipe. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. 5 in. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. As the telephone offers a high resistance. the resistance is less. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. as described below. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. in diameter. I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. long. forming a cup of the pipe. This will complete the receiving station. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. The storage cell. lay a needle. If the waves strike across the needle. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. both positive and negative.

is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. an oblong one and a triangular one. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. B. of course. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. does not need to be watertight. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . Two binding-posts should be attached. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. D. one to the positive. or tube C. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. This support or block. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. namely: a square hole. This box can be square. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. by soldering the joint. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. This. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. a round one. says the Pathfinder. on each end. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. When mixing the acid and water. and the other to the negative. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. or tube B. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes.as possible. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. except for about 1 in. The other plate is connected to the zinc. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency.

The third piece of brass. in place on the wood. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. deep and 4 ft. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. as shown in Fig. and match them together. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. This punt. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. C. wide. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. back and under. . as shown in Fig. Ill. long. is built 15 ft. C. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. 3. were fitted by this one plug. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. as it is not readily overturned. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. Chicago. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. thick cut two pieces alike. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. A and B. 2. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. 2. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. and has plenty of good seating capacity. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. wide. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. about 20 in. Only galvanized nails should be used. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. leaving about 1/16 in. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. 1. 1. all around the edge.

Wash. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. In Fig. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. is cut 1 in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. A. square (Fig 2). Tacoma. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. B. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. gas pipe. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . thick and 3-1/2 in. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. A piece of 1/4-in.

Wagner. which the writer has made.--Contributed by Charles H. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . lamp. says the Model Engineer. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. which can be developed in the usual manner. if possible. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. and to consume.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning. may be of interest to some of our readers. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. In designing. without auxiliary phase. no special materials could be obtained. no more current than a 16-cp. it had to be borne in mind that." has no connection with the outside circuit. or "rotor. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. H. The winding of the armature. with the exception of insulated wire.

as shown in Fig. They are not particularly accurate as it is. bolts put in and tightened up." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. The stator is wound full with No. no steel being obtainable. were then drilled and 1/4-in. 1. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. 5. B. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. this little machine is not self-starting. as shown in Fig. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. also varnished before they were put in. 4. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. Unfortunately. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. After assembling a second time. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. wrought iron. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. in diameter were drilled in the corners. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. being used. C. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. Holes 5-32 in. with the dotted line. 2. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth.the field-magnet. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. and all sparking is avoided. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. or "stator. while the beginnings . thick. to be filed out after they are placed together. 3. and filled with rivets. about 2-1/2 lb. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. holes. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. A.

and as the motor runs at constant speed. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. The image should . 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. if applied immediately.. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. and especially of colored ones. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. and as each layer of wire was wound. as shown in Fig. as a means of illustrating songs. 2. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. and all wound in the same direction. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. N. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. One is by contact. a regulating resistance is not needed. and would not easily get out of order. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. as before stated. 3-Contributed by C. No starting resistance is needed. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. Jr. This type of motor has drawbacks. it would be very simple to build. and the other by reduction in the camera. McKinney. having no commutator or brushes. Newark. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. 1. All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. J. If too late for alcohol to be of use. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. In making slides by contact. film to film.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. The lantern slide is a glass plate. The rotor is wound with No. E. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density.

over the mat. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. 2. 3. also. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. 4. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. Fig. as shown in Fig. C. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. to use a plain fixing bath. about a minute. they are much used by travelers. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. D. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. A. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. Draw lines with a pencil. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. as shown in Fig. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. except that the binding is different. 1. These can be purchased from any photo material store. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. B. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. Select a room with one window. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] .appear in. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. a little extra work will be necessary. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. if possible. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. and then a plain glass. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. Being unbreakable. the formulas being found in each package of plates. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. If the exposure has been correct. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. 5. It is best. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size.

Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. 1. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. while the dot will be in front of the other. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. A piece of canvas. 2. as shown in Fig. holes bored in the end pieces. Corinth. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. Fig. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. long. in diameter and 20 in. is to be used for the seat. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. from the ends. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. known as rods and cones. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. or other stout cloth. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. 1. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. as shown at B. in diameter and 40 in. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. long. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. Vt. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. These longer pieces can be made square. Fig. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. Hastings. long. If the star is in front of the left eye. as shown at A. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. 16 in. from the end piece of the chair. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. wide and 50 in. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. from the center of this dot draw a star. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in.

was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk.-Contributed by P. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. per square inch. as well as to operate other household machines. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. Cal. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. as shown in Fig. 1. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. in thickness and 10 in. made from an ordinary sash cord. . as shown in Fig. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. J. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. O'Gara. 2. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. A belt. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. Auburn. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. A disk 1 in. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances.

Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. Bore a 1/4-in. thick and 2-1/2 in. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. then removing the object. with as fine a thread as possible. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. Put the bolt in the hole. divided by the number of threads to the inch. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. A simple. screwing it through the nut. to the top of the bench. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. it serves a very useful purpose. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. wide. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. fairly accurate. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. says the Scientific American. leaving it shaped like a bench. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. The part of a rotation of the bolt. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. direction. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. square for a support. and the construction is complete.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. long. 3/4 in. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. Cut out a piece from the block combination. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. will be the thickness of the object. . so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. or inconvenient to measure. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks.

hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. which show up fine at night. piece of wood 12 ft. The wheel should be open . Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Santa Maria.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. material 12 ft. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. long is used for the center pole. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. beyond the end of the wood. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. globe that has been thrown away as useless. long. bolt in each hole. Place a 3/4-in. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. Oal. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. Bore a 3/4-in. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe.

C. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. long. thick is used for the armature. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. The spool . 1/2 in. long. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. which should be 1/4 in. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. wide and 1/8 in. The boards may be nailed or bolted. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. Graham. pieces used for the spokes. wide and 1/8 in.-Contributed by A. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. thick. P. L. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. The coil. A piece of brass 2 in. square and 3 or 4 in. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. and the lower part 61/2 in. A. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. B. of the ends with boards. made of the same material. from the ends. from the top end. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. C. in diameter. long. Tex. at the top and 4 in. long. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. at the bottom. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. Fort Worth. to be operated by the magnet coil. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. H and J. thick. A cross bar. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. and on its lower end a socket. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. O. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core.Side and Top View or have spokes. is soldered.

000. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. . which may be had by using German silver wire. Bradlev. D and E. R. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. F. is drilled. and place it against a door or window casing. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. and directly centering the holes H and J. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. that holds the lower carbon. by soldering. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied.E. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. Mass. Randolph. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. C.--A. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. 2 the hat hanging on it. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame.000 for irrigation work. At the bottom end of the frame. one without either rubber or metal end. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. 1. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. When you slide the pencil along the casing. and in numerous other like instances. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. do it without any apparent effort. This tie can be used on grain sacks. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. A soft piece of iron. 2.J. long. for insulating the brass ferrule. S. --Contributed by Arthur D. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. B. The armature. then with a firm. This is a very neat trick if performed right. S. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. A. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. or a water rheostat heretofore described. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig.is about 2-1/2 in.

The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. F. with a 3/16-in. from the core and directly opposite. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. is constructed in the usual manner. The vibrator. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. long and 1 in. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. and then 1. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. for the primary. D. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. about 1/8 in. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. 1. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. about 3/16 in. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. 2. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. The coil ends are made from cardboard. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. The core of the coil. wide. Fig. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. thick. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. for the secondary. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. in diameter. S. About 70 turns of No. Fig. hole in the center. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. The vibrator B. C. leaving the projections as shown. mixed with water to form a paste. in diameter and 2 in. The switch. Experiment with Heat [134] . for adjustment. B. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. A. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. where it can be pressed without attracting attention.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. 1. long. about 1 in. is connected to a flash lamp battery. S. in diameter and 1/16 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core.500 turns of No. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. in diameter. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick.

This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. as shown in the sketch. lighted. long and when placed over the board. Fig. The lock. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. 16 in. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. 1. which is cut with two holes. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. in an ordinary water glass. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. board. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. brass plate. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together.Place a small piece of paper. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. 2 to fit the two holes. . which is only 3/8-in. between the boards. and the same distance inside of the new board. with which to operate the dial. and then well clinched. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The tin is 4 in. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. it laps down about 8 in. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. The three screws were then put in the hasp. as shown. The hasp. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. was to be secured by only three brass screws. wide. which seemed to be insufficient. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. thick on the inside. The knob on the dial extends out too far. 1. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial.

an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. square and 10-1/2 in. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. When the rear part is illuminated. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. not shiny. which completely divides the box into two parts. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. but when the front part is illuminated. When making of wood. the glass. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. one in each division. or in the larger size mentioned. square and 8-1/2 in. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. high for use in window displays. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. If the box is made large enough.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. black color. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. any article placed therein will be reflected in. clear glass as shown. and the back left dark. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars.

This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. long and 1 ft. When using as a window display. and with the proper illumination one is changed. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. wide will be about the right size. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. When there is no electric current available.. a tank 2 ft. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. above the top of the tank.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. alternately. as shown in the sketch. as it appears. into the other. as shown at A in the sketch. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. .

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. as shown. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. each. 2 ft. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. and boring two holes with a 1-in. and 6 ft. using a 3/4-in. one for each side. is built on the front. hole bored the full length through the center. square and 40 in. under sides together. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. wide. O. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. 5 ft. however. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. This hole must be continued . but with a length of 12 in. 6 in. or ferrous sulphate. Three windows are provided. 1 in. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. Shape the under sides first. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. and a solution of iron sulphate added. and a door in front. long. The pieces can then be taken out. square. then use a red-hot iron to finish. Columbus. long. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. bit. If a planing mill is near. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. radius. with a length of 13 in. The 13-in. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. This precipitate is then washed. Iron sulphate. lines gauged on each side of each. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. A small platform. high. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. gauge for depth. two pieces 1-1/8 in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. wide. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. from the ground. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. thick and 3 in. bore from each end. is the green vitriol. hole. from either end and in the crack between the pieces.

if shade is purchased. Directions will be found on the filler cans. For art-glass the metal panels are . three or four may be attached as shown. Electric globes--two. hole in each block. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. When the filler has hardened. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. apply two coats of wax. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. If the parts are to be riveted. When this is dry. The sketch shows one method of attaching. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. Saw the two blocks apart. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. square and drawing a diagonal on each. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together.through the pieces forming the base. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. A better way. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. thick and 3 in. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap.

the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.Construction of Shade .The Completed Lamp cut out. METAL SHADE . such as copper. as brass.

The arms holding the glass. one way and 1/2 in. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. 2 the front view of this stand. Figure 1 shows the side. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. the object and the background. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. as shown in the sketch. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. the other. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. as in ordinary devices. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. and Fig. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board.

wide and 11 in. thick 5/8-in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. as shown in the cut. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. as shown in the sketch. long. wide and 6-5/16 in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. in diameter. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. pointing north and south. as it is very poisonous. and an inside diameter of 9 in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . outside diameter. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. and swinging freely. Put the ring in place on the base. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. in diameter for a base. uncork and recork again. thus forming a 1/4-in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. about 1-1/4 in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. If the light becomes dim. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. Before mounting the ring on the base. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. An ordinary pocket compass. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. Cut another circular piece 11 in. channel in the circumference of the ring. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor.

For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . Corresponding mirrors. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. The results given should be multiplied by 1. B. from the second to the third. EE. 1 oz. above the half can. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders.182 . How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work.289 .865 1. to which a wire has been soldered for connections.715 .500 . Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz.420 . Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. are mounted on a base. AA. Place on top the so- .cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. and mirrors. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. into these cylinders. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings.088 . in diameter and 8 in. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. CC. black oxide of copper. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. and north of the Ohio river. of the top.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.600 . The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.

Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. alcohol. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. University Park. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. says Metal Worker. the wheel will revolve in one direction. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. then they will not rust fast. slender bottle. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. 31 gr. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. which otherwise remains clear. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . In Fig. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. 62 gr. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Put the solution in a long. Colo. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. always remove the oil with a siphon. little crystals forming in the liquid. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. When renewing. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. of pulverized campor. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve.

A paper-fastener box. floating on a solution. --Contributed by C. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. This is used in place of the spoon. Lloyd Enos. Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. If zinc and copper are used. on the under side of the cork. will allow the magnet to point north and south. Attach to the wires. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. If two of them are floating on the same solution. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. Solder in the side of the box . leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. If zinc and carbon are used. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. about 1-1/4 in. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork.

and on the other around the glass tube. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight.in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. E. A.Contributed by J. H. can be made of oak. 3 in. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports.not shorter than 18 in. D. The standard. of No. 10 wire about 10 in. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. stained and varnished. A. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. 14 wire will do. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. as shown in Fig. Wind evenly about 2 oz. wide and 6 in. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. 1/2. long. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. C. D. Use a board 1/2. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . thick. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. Put ends. E. wide and 2-1/2 in. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. A circular piece of cardboard. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. . is made from a piece of No. and connect the two wires from the coil to them.in. F. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. one on each side of the board. long that has about 1/4-in. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. If the hose is not a tight fit. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. to it. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. B. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. or made with a little black paint. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. and then solder on the cover. The spring should be about 1 in. G--No. Take a small piece of soft iron. Thos. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. 1-1/4 in. To this standard solder the supporting wire. C. The base. hole. away. 1. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. B. long. of wire on each end extending from the coil. piece of 1/4-in. Rhamstine. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. D.1-in. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. brass tubing. The bottom of the box. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. Bore holes for binding-posts. C. glass tubing .

Cuba. as shown in Fig. Smith. canvas. . Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. of No. Teasdale. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. Y.of the coil. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. 3. Wis. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. four hinges. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. in diameter. from the right hand. When the glass becomes soft. of platinum wire in one end of the tube.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. The iron plunger. long. four pieces 1-1/2 ft.--Contributed by Edward M. is drawn nearer to the coil. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. of 8-oz. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. square of which two pieces are 6 ft. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. 3-in. long.--Contributed by R. long. E. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. long. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. J. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. N. 1. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. 5. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. About 1-1/2 lb. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. 2. D. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. 3 in. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. of mercury will be sufficient. long. long are used for the legs. about 1 in. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale. two pieces 2 ft. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. Milwaukee. making a support as shown in Fig.

Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. of vacuum at the top. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. Take 1/2 in. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. thus leaving a. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. --Contributed by David A.. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. Toronto. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. long. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. small aperture in the long tube. This tube as described will be 8 in. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. 6. expelling all the air. Measure 8 in. leaving 8 in. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. 3.. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. Keys. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. holding in the left hand. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. 4. Break off the piece of glass. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. Can. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. 2. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Fig. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. 5. The tube now must be filled completely. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig.

as shown in Fig. 2. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . These are bent and nailed. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. material 2 in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. FIG. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. but yellow pine is the best. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. 3. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. thick. Fig. 6. long. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. cut in the shape shown in Fig. This forms a slot. wide and 5 ft. long. 9 in.6 -. 4. and 1/4 in. from the end of same. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. Four blocks 1/4 in. joint be accurately put together. wide and 3 in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. as shown in Fig. thick.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. in diameter. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. 5. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. 1. The large pulley is about 14 in. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. thick. wood screws. thick. wide and 5 ft. 3 in. thick. 3 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. 1 in. 4 in. long. wide and 5 ft. The frame is put together as shown in Fig.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. A crosspiece 3/4-in. wide and 12 in. 7. as in Fig. with each projection 3-in. long. 1 in.

Manhattan. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. Welsh. above the runner level. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. . Water 1 oz. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. attach runners and use it on the ice. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Kan. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. first removing the crank. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. R.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. says Photography. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. --Contributed by C. by 1-in. The runners can be made from 1/4-in.

Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. and very much cheaper. Printing is carried rather far. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. --Contributed by Wallace C. 2. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. --Contributed by Edward M. 1. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Treasdale. 3. as shown in Fig. This is done with a camel's hair brush. . then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. 1 oz.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. also. of water. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Leominster. Mass. Newton. The print is washed. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. from an ordinary clamp skate. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. as shown in Fig. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat.

A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. Fig. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. long. Va. say. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. which represents the back side of the door. high for rabbits. Church. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. Place a 10-in. and bend them as shown in the sketch. and 3 ft. about 10 in. wide and 4 in. from one end. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. Take two glass tubes. wide. A. square piece. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. causing the door to swing back and up. 1-1/2 ft. as shown in the sketch. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. extending the width of the box. 1. too. fasten a 2-in. The swing door B. The thread is broken off at the . Alexandria. high. hole. 1. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. Fig. F. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. with about 1/8-in. 2. --Contributed by H. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. and to the bottom. Then. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. 1 ft.

Chicago. -Contributed by William M. camera and wish to use some 4. as shown in Fig. says Camera Craft. in size. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around.proper place to make a small hole. Crilly. long. . horses and dogs. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. trolley cars. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. 1. C. say 8 in. long. shorter. plates. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. Out two rectangular holes. 1 in. Fig. This opening. B. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. Paste a piece of strong black paper. A and B. from the edge on each side of these openings. wide. Fig. in size.by 7-in. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. 10 in. to be used as a driving pulley. black surfaced if possible. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. 2. D. but cut it 1/4 in. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Jr.by 5-in. being 1/8 in. inside of the opening. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. Take two pieces of pasteboard.. and exactly 5 by 7 in. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. wide. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. and go in the holder in the same way. 3. Cut an opening in the other piece. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. wide and 5 in. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. high and 12 in. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. automobiles. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. shorter at each end. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage.

in.. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. if it has previously been magnetized. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. long and 6 in. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. A cell of this kind can easily be made." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. wide will be required. in diameter. into which the dog is harnessed. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. The needle will then point north and south. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. making a . and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass.

when the paraffin is melted. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. Do not paint any surface. with narrow flanges. fuel and packing purposes. says Electrician and Mechanic. pine. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. for a connection. Place the pan on the stove. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. Form a 1/2-in. B is a base of 1 in. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. This makes the wire smooth.in. plaster of paris. leaving about 1/2-in.watertight receptacle. A is a block of l-in. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. Pack the paste in. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. in which P is the pan. sal ammoniac. filter. of water. . layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. in diameter and 6 in. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. of the plate at one end. beeswax melted together. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. 1/4 lb. pull out the wire as needed. F is a spool. 1 lb. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. zinc oxide. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. long which are copper plated. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. under the spool in the paraffin. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. one that will hold about 1 qt. of rosin and 2 oz. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. File the rods to remove the copper plate. of the top. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. and a notch between the base and the pan. short time. 3/4 lb. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. fodder. only the joints.

In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. and one friend tells me that they were . * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. Toledo. Try it and see. long. 2. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. while for others it will not revolve at all. Ohio. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. Enlarge the hole slightly. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. and then. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. by the Hindoos in India. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. At least it is amusing. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. g. but the thing would not move at all. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. as in the other movement. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. or think they can do the same. and he finally. square and about 9 in. thus producing two different vibrations.. for others the opposite way. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. for some it will turn one way. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. and therein is the trick. let them try it. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick." which created much merriment. If any of your audience presume to dispute. from vexation. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top.

one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. 4. 5. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. A square stick with notches on edge is best. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. no rotation resulted. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. secondly. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. rotation was obtained. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. gave the best results. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. and. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. and I think the results may be of interest. 3. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. If the pressure was upon an edge. The experiments were as follows: 1. m. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. Speeds between 700 and 1. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. 7. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. To operate. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. 6. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. 2. the rotation may be obtained. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. by means of a center punch.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. Thus a circular or . rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression.100 r. p. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward.

instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. as shown. a piece of wire and a candle. at first. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. the upper portion is. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. or greasy. Minn. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough.. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. A. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. Washington. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. if the pressure is from the left. it will be clockwise. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. is driven violently away. Lloyd. --Contributed by M. ..elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). D. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. Ph. C. and the resultant "basket splash. A wire is tied around the can. Sloan. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. so far as can be seen from the photographs. forming a handle for carrying. G.D. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. unwetted by the liquid. and the height of the fall about 6 in. --Contributed by G. Duluth. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

flange and a 1/4-in. thick and 1 in. 1. Each wheel is 1/4 in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. long. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. hole drilled in the center. as shown in Fig. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . as shown. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. in diameter. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. axle. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. about 2-5/8 in. with a 1/16-in. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe.

6. which must be 110 volt alternating current. of No. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. Texas. and the locomotive is ready for running. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. San Antonio. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. with cardboard 3 in. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. The parts. Fig. bottom side up. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. as shown in Fig. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. Fig.50. 5. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. These ends are fastened together. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. put together complete. each in its proper place. If the ends are to be soldered. is made from a piece of clock spring. is made from brass. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. A trolley. 3. or main part of the frame. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. wood. 4. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Maurice E. bent as shown. Fuller. as shown in Fig. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. 1 from 1/4-in. This will save buying a track. 2. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. 2. lamp in series with the coil. wide and 16 in. The motor is now bolted. The first piece. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . holes 1 in. The current. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. long. 3. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. 3/4 in. are shown in Fig.brass.

How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. When cold treat the other end in the same way. and as this end . If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. then continue to tighten much more. the length of a paper clip. Fig 1. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. Fig. 3. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. as shown in Fig. 2. and holes drilled in them. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. but do not heat the center. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. 1. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Cincinnati. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. as shown in Fig.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. The quarter will not go all the way down. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. O.

belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. has finished a cut for a tooth. and adjusted . never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. 2 and 1 respectively. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. When the cutter A. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. A pair of centers are fitted. or should the lathe head be raised. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. In the sketch. or apparent security of the knot. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. When the trick is to be performed.

holding it in place with the left hand. trace the outline. Bott. Fig. or one-half of the design. Fold over along these center lines. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. such as brass or marble. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. (5. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. about 1-1/2 in. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. Second row: -Two book marks.) Place the paper design on the leather and.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. (3.to run true. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. In this manner gears 3 in. gentleman's card case or bill book. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. tea cosey. if but two parts. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. --Contributed by Howard S. Bunker. book mark. twisted around itself and soldered. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. coin purse. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Brooklyn. When connecting to batteries. at the same time striking light. blotter back. long. 1. watch fob ready for fastenings. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. (1. and a nut pick. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks). Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster.) Make on paper the design wanted. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. if four parts are to be alike. --Contributed by Samuel C. (4. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick .) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. The frame holding the mandrel. note book. lady's belt bag. Y. tea cosey. (6. 2. draw center lines across the required space. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. lady's card case. dividing it into as many parts as desired. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. (2. An ordinary machine will do. above the surface. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. swing lathe. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. N.

Secure . and an ordinary bottle.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. some heavy rubber hose.

Thrust a pin. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. Florida. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. a distance of 900 miles. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. from Key West. and push it through a cork. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. C. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. D. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle.C. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. B. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. into which fit a small piece of tube. The electrodes are made . If the needle is not horizontal. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. A. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. and bore a hole through the center. where it condenses.. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube.

The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. thick. wide and 4 ft. Connect as shown in the illustration. thick. thick. 3. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. long for the body of the operator. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. 1. both laterally and longitudinally. Four long beams 3/4 in. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. wide and 20 ft. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. D. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. If 20-ft. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. The operator can then land safely and . The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. Powell. use 10-ft. or flying-machine. as shown in Fig. slacken speed and settle. 2. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in. long. long. which is tacked to the front edge. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. 1-1/2 in. thick. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. --Contributed by Edwin L. 1-1/4 in. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. 1/2. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. C. 1. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. using a high resistance receiver. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. wide and 4 ft long. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. 16 piano wire. 1. 2 arm sticks 1 in. 2 in. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. All wiring is done with No. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. long. wide and 3 ft. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. Washington. apart and extend 1 ft. lumber cannot be procured. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. thick. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away.in. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. several strips 1/2 in. by 3/4 in. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. square and 8 ft long. free from knots. and also to keep it steady in its flight. take the glider to the top of a hill. long. To make a glide. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. as shown in Fig. lengths and splice them. long. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. wide and 4 ft. 2. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. 12 uprights 1/2 in. wide and 3 ft. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam.

the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Of course. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. but this must be found by experience.gently on his feet. Great care should be . The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. Glides are always made against the wind.

2. which causes the dip in the line. --Contributed by L. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. M. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. Bellingham. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. When heated a little. half man and half horse. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] .exercised in making landings. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. a creature of Greek mythology. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. Olson. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. as shown in Fig. 1. the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place.

Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. 14 in. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. about the size of door screen wire. The light from the . at the other. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. square. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. long. in diameter. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. will complete the material list. making it 2-1/2 in. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. long and about 3/8 in. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. a piece of brass or steel wire. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. While at the drug store get 3 ft. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. about the size of stove pipe wire. this will cost about 15 cents. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. outside the box. of small rubber tubing. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in.

while others will fail time after time. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. 1. Dayton. M. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. O. as shown in the sketch. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. 2. If done properly the card will flyaway. as shown in Fig.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. . Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. --Photo by M. as shown in Fig. Hunting. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. This is very simple when you know how. leaving the penny poised on the finger end.

If a certain color is to be more prominent. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. as before. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. Cool in water and dry. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve." or the Chinese students' favorite game. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. closing both hands quickly. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. as described. hold the lump over the flame. then put it on the hatpin head. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. This game is played by five persons. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. When the desired shape has been obtained. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. as shown. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. place the other two.

square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. distribute electric charges . Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. or more in width. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. passing through neutralizing brushes. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. these sectors. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented.

in diameter. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. in diameter. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. and 4 in. and pins inserted and soldered. The collectors are made. 2. D. and this should be done before cutting the circle. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. in diameter. long and the shank 4 in. 1 in. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. wide. The drive wheels. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. long and the standards 3 in. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. 1-1/2 in. 3/4 in. C C. 1. and the outer end 11/2 in. are made from solid. EE. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. wide at one end. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. These pins. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. at the other. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The plates are trued up. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. 3. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. from about 1/4-in. in diameter. in diameter and 15 in.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. The fork part is 6 in. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. brass tubing and the discharging rods. GG. long. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. in diameter. material 7 in. as shown in Fig. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. in diameter. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. Fig. The two pieces. or teeth. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. Fig. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. and of a uniform thickness. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. to which insulating handles . Two solid glass rods. RR. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. the side pieces being 24 in. 3. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. 4. turned wood pieces. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. The plates. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. are made from 7/8-in. Two pieces of 1-in. after they are mounted. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. long. free from wrinkles. as shown in Fig.

Colo. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. and the work was done by themselves. --Contributed by C. 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. in diameter. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. wide and 22 ft. D. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. which are bent as shown. ball and the other one 3/4 in. Lloyd Enos. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. long. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays .are attached. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. 12 ft.. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. Colorado City. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. KK. one having a 2-in. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates.

Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. as at A. string together. using a 1-in. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. deep. bit. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork.is a good one. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. yet such a thing can be done. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. pens . When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. The key will drop from the string. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. They can be used to keep pins and needles.

draw on paper an oblong to represent it. Use . require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. Proceed as follows: 1. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. they make attractive little pieces to have about. etc. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray.and pencils. file. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. Inside this oblong. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. 23 gauge. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. about 3/4-in. using a nail filed to chisel edge. The second oblong was 3/4 in. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. two spikes. stamp the background promiscuously. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. etc. Raise the ends. slim screw.. 3. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. very rapid progress can be made. also trace the decorative design. inside the first on all. then the other side. 7. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. They are easily made. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. and the third one 1/4 in. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. 4. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. 8. or cigar ashes. This is to make a clean. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears.. Having determined the size of the tray. When the stamping is completed. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Draw one-half the design free hand. inside the second on all. 5. unless it would be the metal shears. 2. 9. 6. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. extra metal on each of the four sides. sharp division between background and design. above the metal. flat and round-nosed pliers.

the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. and the effect will be most pleasing. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. first fingers. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. third fingers. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. and fourth fingers. In the first numbering. 6. 7. 8. 10. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. The eyes. second fingers. 9. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine.

Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. thumbs. and the six lower fingers as six tens. but being simple it saves time and trouble. there are no fingers above. In the second numbering. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. etc. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. . or 60.. 25 times 25. Put your thumbs together.. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. as high as you want to go. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. etc. which would be 70. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. or the product of 8 times 9. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. which would be 16. the product of 12 times 12. above 20 times 20. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. or numbers above 10. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. renumber your fingers. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. Let us multiply 12 by 12. first fingers. 400. 12. or 80. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. 11. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. At a glance you see four tens or 40. etc. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. or the product of 6 times 6. 600. viz. above 15 times 15 it is 200. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. if we wish. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. 2 times 2 equals 4. Two times one are two. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. Still. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100.. which tens are added. and 70 plus 2 equals 72.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20.

2. 7. or what. the inversion takes place against his will. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. Take For example 18 times 18. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. twenties. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. 75 and 85. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. lastly. first finger 17. being 80). thirties. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. 8. For figures ending in 6. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. The inversion and reversion did not take place. not rotation. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. further. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. forties. whether the one described in second or third numbering. beginning the thumbs with 16. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. thumbs. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. when he removes his spectacles. the revolution seems to reverse. and. adding 400 instead of 100. or from above or from below. which is the half-way point between the two fives.. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. in the case of a nearsighted person. first fingers 22. And the lump sum to add. as one might suppose. It takes place also.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. about a vertical axis. and so on. the value which the upper fingers have. at the will of the observer. the value of the upper fingers being 20. For example. Proceed as in the second lumbering. however. etc. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. 3. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. the lump sum to add. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. 21. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. any two figures between 45 and 55. . At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324.

sometimes the point towards him. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. and putting a cork on the point. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. as . The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. Looking at it in semidarkness.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. the other appearance asserts itself. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. tee. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. The ports were not easy to make. when he knows which direction is right. A flat slide valve was used.

and make in one end a hollow. across and 1/2 in. Beating copper tends to harden it and. H. Kutscher. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. pipe. While this engine does not give much power. if continued too long without proper treatment. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. Ill. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. -Contributed by W. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. The tools are simple and can be made easily. bottom side up. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. it is easily built. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. deep. such as is shown in the illustration. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. across the head. . round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. as in a vise. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. If nothing better is at hand. saw off a section of a broom handle. The eccentric is constructed of washers. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. Fasten the block solidly. in diameter. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. pipe 10 in. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. Next take a block of wood. Springfield. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. The steam chest is round. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. apart. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in.. secure a piece of No. inexpensive. about 2 in.

cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. This process is called annealing. especially when the object is near to the observer. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. To overcome this hardness. Hay. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . C. and. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper.will cause the metal to break. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. Camden. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. To produce color effects on copper. S. as it softens the metal. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. the other to the left. --Contributed by W. O. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. Vinegar. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border.

If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. The red portions of the picture are not seen. however. and lies to the right on the picture. although they pass through the screen. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. would serve the same purpose. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. with the stereograph. So with the stereograph. because. But they seem black. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. the one for the left eye being blue. In order to make them appear before the card. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. It is just as though they were not there. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange.stereoscope. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. and without any picture. while both eyes together see a white background. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. the further from the card will the composite image appear. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. it. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. the left eye sees through a blue screen. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. not two mounted side by side. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. in the proper choice of colors. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. . disappears fully. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. only the orange rays may pass through. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. orange. from the stereograph. they must be a very trifle apart. because of the rays coming from them. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. that for the right. diameter. The further apart the pictures are." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. as for instance red and green.

in the shape of a crank. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. long and a hole drilled in each end. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. 12 gauge wire. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The weight of the air in round . in diameter. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Place a NO. thick. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. Two types of make-and-break connection are used.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. or the middle of the bottle. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. 1/4 in. Cal. San Francisco. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. This should only be bored about half way through the block. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. wireless. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. A No. wide and 1 in. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. etc. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire.

In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. The 4 in. internal diameter and about 34 in. . Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury.6) 1 in. if accurately constructed. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. 30 in. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. high. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather.. long. wide and 4 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. 34 ft. if you choose. But if a standard barometer is not available. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. a glass tube 1/8 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. pine 3 in. thick. wide and 40 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. square. long. the contrary. the instrument. or. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. a bottle 1 in. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. will calibrate itself. high. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. and a slow fall. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. long. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow.numbers is 15 lb. In general. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. square. but before attempting to put in the mercury. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. Before fastening the scale. Only redistilled mercury should be used. inside diameter and 2 in. high.

The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. 5. thick. which is slipped quickly over the end. a cover from a baking powder can will do. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. long. Procure a metal can cover. 1. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed. Number the pieces 1. 3. the size of the outside of the bottle. wide and 10 in. Mark out seven 1-in. 2. 6 and 7. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. and place them as shown in Fig.

Move 4-Jump No. procure unbleached tent duck. 1. Move 14-Jump No.J. Move 5-Jump No. 6. 3 into No.-Contributed by W. 2's place. 5 over No. 1 to No. Move 8-Jump No. This can be done on a checker board. Move 6-Move No. Move 12-Jump No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Move 15-Move No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 6 into No. Move 7-Jump No. 2 over No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 7 over No. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. Move 2-Jump No. 2. 1 into No. 7's place. 6. 6 over No. 3. Cape May Point. 3 to the center. l over No. 3. which is the very best material for the purpose. long and 2 ft. 2's place. as well as for a boy's camping outfit. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 5. as shown in Fig. 2. 6 in. 2 . 3 over No. 2 over No. Move ll-Jump No. in diameter. 7 over No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. Move 10-Move No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 5 over No. N. using checkers for men. 5's place. Make 22 sections. Woolson. 3. Move 3-Move No. Move 13-Move No. 7. Move 9-Jump No. To make such a tent. 5's place. each 10 ft. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 6 to No. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. 1. L. shaped like Fig.

The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. Have the tent pole 3 in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. in diameter. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. Emsworth. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. 9 by 12 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. 6-in. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. to a smooth board of soft wood. --Contributed by G. wide at the bottom. will do. as in Fig. high. 3 in. 2. leaving the rest for an opening. added. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. about 9 in. wide by 12 in. Fig. 5) stuck in the ground. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. Fig. diameter. Pa. After transferring the design to the brass. long. Nail a thin sheet of brass. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Tress. These are ventilators. Use blocks. 2 in. fill with canvas edging. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. 5. wide at the bottom. Punch holes in the brass in . from the top. In raising the tent. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. As shown in the sketch.. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. long and 4 in. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. round galvanized iron. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. 6.J.in. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. made in two sections. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass.

the spaces around the outlined figures. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. but before punching the holes. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. The pattern is traced as before. Chicago. When all the holes are punched. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. apart. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. Corr. excepting the 1/4-in. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. cut out the brass on the outside lines. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. It will not. . then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. When the edges are brought together by bending. around the outside of the pattern. bend into shape.

Que. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. pipe is used for the hub. These pipes are . Badger. Oregon. A cast-iron ring. or center on which the frame swings. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. A 6-in. E. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. G. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Dunham. --Contributed by H. Stevens. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. allowing 2 ft. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. pipe. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. If a wheel is selected. between which is placed the fruit jar. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. --Contributed by Geo. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. or less. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. Mayger. or. partially filled with cream.. better still.however. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in.

The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. pipe. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. Four braces made from 1/2-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. pipe clamps. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. An extra wheel 18 in. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. bent to the desired circle. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee.

and the guide withdrawn. which was placed in an upright position. 1. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. as shown in Fig. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. while doing this. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The performer. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. and dropped on the table. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. 3.

cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. Harkins. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. White. F. Denver. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. The box can be made of selected oak or . Louis. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. and second. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Colo. D. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. -Contributed by C. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. in a half circle. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. Mo. it requires no expensive condensing lens. first. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. St. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. 2. in diameter on another piece of tin. 1. --Contributed by H. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in.

fit into the runners. An open space 4 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. as shown in Fig. 5-1/2 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. 3-1/2 in. long. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. long. high and must . The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. and 2 in. and. wide and 5 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. long and should be placed vertically. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. high and 11 in. wide. focal length. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip.mahogany. This will be 3/4 in. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. from each end of the outside of the box. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. The door covering this hole in the back. represented by the dotted line in Fig. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. AA. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. 2. If a camera lens is used. from each end. Two or three holes about 1 in. 1. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. but not tight. wide by 5 in.

C. Bradley. the article may be propped up .." etc. This process is rather a difficult one. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. West Toledo. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. provided it is airtight. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. and extending the whole height of the lantern. calling this February. 1. and so on. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. calling that knuckle January. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. Ohio. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. then the second knuckle will be March. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. April. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. as it requires an airtight case. June and November. --Contributed by Chas.

1 and 2.with small sticks. in. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. Y. In each place two electrodes. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. Schenectady. 1. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. the lid or cover closed. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. but waxed. The top of a table will do. . H. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. N. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. giving it an occasional stir. or suspended by a string. one of lead and one of aluminum. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. in. fruit jars are required. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. and the lead 24 sq. taking care to have all the edges closed. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. and set aside for half a day. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. --Contributed by J. Crawford. In both Fig. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. Pour in a little turpentine. running small motors and lighting small lamps. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. 2.

he throws the other. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. as you have held it all the time. O. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. you remove the glass. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. After a few seconds' time. which you warm with your hands. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. He. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Cleveland. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. as well as others.. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. This trick is very simple. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated.

-Contributed by E. . Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. but by being careful at shores. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. on a table. it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear.take the handiest one. Crocker. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. if any snags are encountered. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. but in making one. put it under the glass. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Be sure that this is the right one. Victor. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. Colo. Pull the ends quickly. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. near a partition or curtain. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. J. in diameter in the center. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use.

the smaller is placed 3 ft. from the stern. Fig. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. and the other 12 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. ducking. thick and 3/4 in. long. 9 ft. 7 ft. by 12 in. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. and is removed after the ribs are in place. of 1-1/2-yd. for center deck braces. are as follows: 1 keelson. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 50 ft. wide 12-oz. drilled and fastened with screws. and fastened with screws. 2 gunwales. 1 piece. 1 in. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. 1 in. 8 yd. 11 yd. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. 1 in. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. by 8 in. 1/8 in. 1 mast. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. from each end to 1 in. by 15 ft. wide. for cockpit frame. for the stern piece. long. 3 in. 1 in. by 2 in. 2 and braced with an iron band. square by 16 ft. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. selected pine. of 1-yd.. from the bow and the large one. Paint. by 16 ft. 3 and 4. long. of rope. by 2 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. for the bow. 2 in. 14 rib bands. by 10 ft. apart. screws and cleats. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. The keelson. 3 in. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. wide and 12 ft. 1/4 in. one 6 in. 1 piece. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. 8 in.. long. as illustrated in the engraving. wide unbleached muslin. clear pine. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. and. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. 1. wide and 12 ft. Both ends are mortised. 4 outwales. is 14 ft. at the ends. by 16 ft.

long is well soaked in water. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. thick 1-1/2 in. 6 in. The deck is not so hard to do. 4 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. Fig. thick. and fastened to them with bolts. The trimming is wood. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. long. wide. thick. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. wide and 24 in. This block. screws. corner braces. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. 9. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. 6. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. A piece of oak. 3-1/2 ft. doubled. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. Before making the deck. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. 6 and 7. 1/4 in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. . wide and 3 ft. 1 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. in diameter through the block. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. from the bow. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. wide and 14 in. thick and 1/2 in. 1 in. a piece 1/4 in. Braces. is a cube having sides 6 in. These are put in 6 in. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. long.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. also. thick and 12 in. The 11-yd. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. length of canvas is cut in the center. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. 7 and 8. apart. long. A 6-in. They are 1 in. 5. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. wood screws. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. A block of pine. A seam should be made along the center piece. wide. Figs. Fig. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. gunwales and keelson.

which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. The sail is a triangle. thick by 2 in. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. The mast has two side and one front stay. Ill. Fig. wide. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. wide at one end and 12 in. 10 with a movable handle. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. A strip 1 in. The keel. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. 12. . long. at the other. each 1 in. Tronnes. 11. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. E. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. --Contributed by O. long. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. apart in the muslin. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. Wilmette. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. are used for the boom and gaff. The house will accommodate 20 families. is 6 in. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. in diameter and 10 ft. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel.

wide. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. wide. as shown in Fig. and the other 18 in. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. wide and 30 in. Bevel both sides of the pieces. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. with the ends and the other side rounding. Ill. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. and 3 ft. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. long and five 1/2-in. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. E. one 11-1/2 in. flat on one side. 2-1/2 in. flat-headed screws. --Contributed by O. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 2 in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. about 5/16 in. Take this and fold it over . The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. flat headed screws. thick. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. thick. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. Cut the maple. wide and 2 ft. long. Wilmette. square. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. 2-1/2 in. 3. thick. five 1/2-in. 4. long. 1. 5. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. Tronnes. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. Fig. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. long. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind.into two 14-in. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. 2. 1 yd.

long. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. wide . An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. wide and 3 ft. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. After the glue. as well as the edges around the opening. square. Glue a three cornered piece. then centered. wide and 2-3/4 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. and take care that the pieces are all square. 3 in. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. wide and 5 in.once. C. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. long. C. B. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. this square box is well sandpapered. long. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. About 1/2 in. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. 1. about 3/8 in. thick. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. wide and 4-1/2 in. 1-1/4 in. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. When the glue is set. F. St. 3/8 in. and the four outside edges. Mo. forming an eye for a screw. wide and 2-1/2 in. The bag is then turned inside out. D. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. but can be governed by circumstances. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. the mechanical parts can be put together. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. Another piece. square. Bliss. A. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. Cut another piece of board. are rounded. long. soaked with water and blown up. 3-1/4 in. Figs. A. wide and 6-3/4 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. 6-1/2 in. thick and 3 in. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. of each end unwound for connections. pieces 2-5/8 in. long. Make a double stitch all around the edge. the top and bottom. and make a turn in each end of the wires. Wind three layers of about No. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. long. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. Louis. E. The sides are 3-1/4 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. If carefully and neatly made. 5 from 1/16-in. leaving a small opening at one corner. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. Fig. is set. 2 and 3. The front. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. --Contributed by W. long. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. thick. long.

wide and 9 in. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. When the current flows through the coil. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. C. Austwick Hall. F. thick. 4. Fig. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. 5. so it will just clear the tin. Chapman. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. and fasten in place. long. long. 5-1/2 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. A pointer 12 in. 4 is not movable. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. from one end. 1/16 in. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. long. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. I. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. Place the tin.A. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Fig. from the spindle. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. Like poles repel each other. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. These wires should be about 1 in. in diameter. showing a greater defection of the pointer. The end of the polar axis B. hole is fastened to the pointer. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. and the farther apart they will be forced. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. The resistance is now adjusted to show . --Contributed by George Heimroth. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. Richmond Hill. board. bored in the back. The stronger the current. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. W. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. that has the end turned with a shoulder. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. R. G. the part carrying the pointer moves away. the same size as the first. The base is a board 5 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. L. and as the part Fig. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply.R. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. Another strip of tin. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. 1/4 in. The instrument is now ready for calibrating.S. 4. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. Yorkshire.and 2-5/8 in. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in.

The following formula will show how this may be found. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. at 9 hr.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. say Venus at the date of observation. thus: 9 hr. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. 1881. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. 10 min. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. M. A. shows mean siderial. 10 min. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. and vice . 30 min.

f. . Conn. and then verify its correctness by measurement. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch.The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. owing to the low internal resistance. Hall. if one of these cannot be had. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. --Contributed by Robert W. or. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid.m. New Haven. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid.

long. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. arsenic to every 20 lb. The boring bar. Wet paper will answer. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. and heap the glowing coals on top. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. 3/8 in. When the follower is screwed down. cover up with the same. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. thick. put the fish among the ashes. 1-3/4 in.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. leaves or bark. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. Fig. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. of alum and 4 oz. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. inside diameter and about 5 in. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. as shown in the accompanying picture. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. 1. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . fresh grass. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. especially for cooking fish. Then.

Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. about 1/2 in. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. when they were turned in. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. and threaded on both ends. thick. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. pipe. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. fastened with a pin. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. pipe.

This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. It . The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. 4. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. 5. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. Fig. but never one which required so little material. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. 30 in. square iron. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. bent in the shape of a U. Fig. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. Fig. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. a jump spark would be much better. A 1-in. was then finished on an emery wheel. and which gave such satisfactory results. Iowa. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. The rough frame. Clermont. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. 2. thick and 3 in. 3. long. labor and time. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. as the one illustrated herewith. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. If the valve keeps dripping. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. however. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. the float is too high. then it should be ground to a fit. wide. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal.valve stems. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. This plate also supports the rocker arms.

strengthened by a piece 4 in. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. long is the pivot. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. being held in position by spikes as shown. so it must be strong enough. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. The crosspiece is 2 in. hole bored in the post. and a little junk. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. square and 5 ft. extending above. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. 12 ft. set 3 ft. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. Nieman. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. long. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . As there is no bracing. square. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. long. rope is not too heavy." little and big. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. no matter what your age or size may be. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. A malleable iron bolt. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. from the center. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. long. Use a heavy washer at the head. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. 3/4 in. in fact. from all over the neighborhood. with no trees or buildings in the way. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. This makes an easy adjustment. completes the merry-go-round. butting against short stakes. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. It looks like a toy. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. A 3/4 -in. strong clear material only should be employed. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. --Contributed by C. W. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. The seats are regular swing boards. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. and. for the "motive power" to grasp. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. The illustration largely explains itself. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. timber. in the ground with 8 ft. in diameter and 15 in. square and 2 ft. If it is to be used for adults. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine.

as shown in Fig. away. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. Both have large reels full of . 1/4 by 3/32 in. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. 1. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. and sent to earth. 4. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. a wreck. long. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. if nothing better is at hand. Having placed the backbone in position. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. 2. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down.2 emery. To wind the string upon the reel.the fingers. A reel is next made. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. then it is securely fastened. These ends are placed about 14 in. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. square. The backbone is flat. light and strong. and 18 in. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. The bow is now bent. one for the backbone and one for the bow. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft.

The handle end is held down with a staple. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. First. C. or glass-covered string.-Contributed by S. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. N. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. often several hundred yards of it. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. the balance. Newburyport. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. --Contributed' by Harry S. Bunker. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Mass. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull.string. common packing thread. he pays out a large amount of string. Brooklyn. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. If the second kite is close enough. Y. Moody.

then draw the string up tight. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Corinth. length of 2-in. Vt. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Hastings. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. must be attached to a 3-ft. square (Fig. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Cut four pieces of canton flannel. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. then a dust protector. each the size of half the table top. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. make the pad as shown in the illustration. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. If the table is round. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. lengths (Fig. such as mill men use. --Contributed by Earl R. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish.

trace the design carefully on the leather. hard pencil.. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather.. Oakland. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. 6-1/4 in. 16-1/4 in. from C to D. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B.. and E to G. from E to F.9-1/4 in.-Contributed by H. G to H. E. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. Calif. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. trace this or some other appropriate design on it. . If leaves are wanted in extending the table. 2-1/4 in. Wharton. Use a smooth. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. which spoils the leather effect. 17-1/2 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Moisten the .

if not more than 1 in. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. and lace through the holes. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. get something with which to make a lining. G-J. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. and corresponding lines on the other side. place both together and with a leather punch. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. about 1/8 in. Cut it the same size as the bag. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. Trace the openings for the handles.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. To complete the bag. is taken off at a time. with the rounded sides of the tools. I made this motor . H-B. also lines A-G. Now cut narrow thongs. and E-G. wide. apart. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory.

The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. --Contributed by J. 1. 2-1/4 in. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. each being a half circle. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. iron. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. 2. in length.M. 1. as shown in Fig. Pasadena. B. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. D. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft. Shannon. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. Calif. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. of No. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. . 24 gauge magnet wire. long.

near the center. are the best kind to make.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. and the gores cut from these. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. 1. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. balloon should be about 8 ft. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . The gores for a 6-ft. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. from the bottom end. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. pasted in alternately. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. high. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors.

is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. B. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. In removing grease from wood. A. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. The steam. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. These are to hold the wick ball. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. If the gores have been put together right. 3. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. as shown in Fig. The boat soon attains considerable speed. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. In starting the balloon on its flight. Fig. leaving a long wake behind. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. coming through the small pipe A. After washing. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. somewhat larger in size. 1. after which the paint will adhere permanently. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible.widest point. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. saturating it thoroughly. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. so it will hang as shown in Fig. 4. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. lap on the edges. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. Staunton. leaving the solution on over night. as shown in Fig. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. using about 1/2-in. in diameter. 2. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. --Contributed by R. 5. As the boat is driven forward by this force. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. E.

in bowling form.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. if you have several copies of the photograph. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. wide by 6 in. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. high and 8 in. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. There are three ways of doing this: First. In using either of the two methods described. apart on these lines. long and each provided with a handle. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. long. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. as is shown in Fig. Third. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. The blocks are about 6 in. Second. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. 1. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first.

The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . not pointed down at the road at an angle. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. 2. thick. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. Albany. being careful not to dent the metal. N. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. Fig. Rinse the plate in cold water. --Contributed by John A. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead.Fig. Y. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Hellwig. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching.

thick. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. A circular piece of wood. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. and. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. 5 in. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. Paine. A. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. 2 the front view. Richmond. through which passes the set screw S. which is 4 in. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. Break off the frame. wide and 8 in. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. Corner irons. are screwed to the circular piece. --Contributed by R. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. In Fig. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. and not produce the right sound. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. is fastened to a common camera tripod. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. in diameter. wide and of any desired height. long for the base. CC. 1 Fig. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. and Fig. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. A. B. Va. These corner irons are also screwed to. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. With this device. S. 6 in.upon any particular object. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. with a set screw. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith.

-Contributed by John Sidelmier. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. R. D.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. . Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. as only the can is visible. La Salle. pine boards. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. This will make a very compact electric horn. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. Lake Preston. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. Ill. in diameter of some 1-in. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Kidder. I made a wheel 26 in. This horn. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. S. -1. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. thus producing sound waves. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can.

If the collection consists of only a few coins. B. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. If there is a large collection of coins. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. square. Ghent. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Fig. O. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. 1. Kane. Feet may be added to the base if desired. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. The frame is made of a heavy card. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. 2. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. --Contributed by C. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. the same thickness as the coins.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. --Contributed by James R. thick and 12 in. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. Doylestown. A. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . 1. Purdy.

Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. several large nails. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. melted and applied with a brush. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. The material required is a sheet of No.E. Wis. Cal. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. Neyer. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that.J. cut and grooved. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. thick. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. though not absolutely necessary. border all around. If desired. a hammer or mallet. A rivet punch is desirable. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. --Contributed by J. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. Toronto. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. into which to place the screws . they become uninteresting. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. plus a 3/8-in. Milwaukee. It will hold 4 oz. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. --Contributed by R. of developer. Noble. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. --Contributed by August T. One Cloud. A lead pencil. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Smith. for after the slides have been shown a few times. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. and then glued together as indicated. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. Canada.

The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. using 1/2-in. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. like the one shown. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. both outline and decoration. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. Take the nail. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . and file it to a chisel edge. draw one part. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. never upon the metal directly. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. There are several ways of working up the design.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. screws placed about 1 in. Remove the screws.

using a 1/2in.wall. each 1 in. long. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. square and 181/2 in. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. Provide four lengths for the legs. 2. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. The pedal. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. long. as shown in Fig. Do not bend it over or flatten it. . 1. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. 3/4 in. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. square. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. About 1/2 yd. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. square and 11 in. long. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. 3. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. for the top. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. being ball bearing. up from the lower end. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. l-1/8 in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. for the lower rails. in the other. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. and two lengths. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. of 11-in. two lengths. Rivet the band to the holder.

F. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. Attalla. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. --Contributed by W. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. --Contributed by John Shahan. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. New York City. Quackenbush. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . Ala. as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. having quite a length of threads.

of sal-soda in one pailful of water. one about 1 in. college or lodge colors. Assemble as shown in the sketch. long.. Luther. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. The desired emblem. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. from the end. making a lap of about 1 in. something that is carbonated. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. stitched on both edges for appearance. from one end. D. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . Purchase a 1/2-in. wide and 4-1/4 in. long. and the other 2-3/4 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. in depth. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. Two pieces of felt. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. long. and 3/8 in. wide and 8-1/4 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. --Contributed by C. Ironwood. each 1-1/4 in. and two holes in the other. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. Mich.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. using class. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. initial. the end of the other piece is folded over. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb.

in diameter and 2 in. 2.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. in the cover and the bottom. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. or a pasteboard box. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. Fig. Indianapolis. as shown at B. from the center and opposite each other. --Contributed by John H. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. Ind. Schatz. or more in height. if desired by the operator. about 2 in. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. and the cork will be driven out. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. 1/4 in. 1. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. as shown in the sketch. This method allows a wide range of designs. Punch two holes A. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. A piece of lead. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. which can be procured from a plumber. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of .

Fig. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. are turned up as in Fig. When the can is rolled away from you. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. allowing the two ends to be free.Rolling Can Toy lead. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. and the ends of the bands looped over them. on both top and bottom. 4. putting in the design. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. The pieces of tin between the holes A. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. 1. O. . 5. A piece of thick glass. as shown in Fig. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. 3. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. or marble will serve. metal. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. Columbus. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. it winds up the rubber band.

New York City. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. If it is desired to "line" the inside. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. long and bored a 1/2-in. 3 in. thick. and. deep in its face. face up. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. from each end. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. Next place the leather on the glass. After this has been done. mark over the design. hole through it. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. wide and 20 in. or more thick on each side. A pencil may be used the first time over. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. I secured a board 3/4 in. The edges should be about 1/8 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. thicker than the pinion. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. 1 in. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove.

square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. 1 top board. 2 crosspieces. 1 by 9 by 80 in. M. --Contributed by A. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. 1 piece for clamp. and fit it in place for the side vise. 4 guides. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 2 side rails. in diameter. 3 by 3 by 6 in. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. Y. 1 by 12 by 77 in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. 2. pieces for the vise slides. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked.in the board into the bench top. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1 piece. lag screws as shown. Cut the 2-in. Fig. 3 by 3 by 20 in. N. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. Brooklyn. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. Now fit up the two clamps. 3 by 3 by 36. New York. 1. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Rice. 1 back board. 2 by 12 by 77 in. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 1 top board. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. 1 piece for clamp. 2 by 2 by 18 in. Make the lower frame first. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1 screw block. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 2 end rails. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. much of the hard labor will be saved. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. Syracuse. thick top board.

1 pocket level.screws. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 pair dividers. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. in diameter. 1 compass saw. 1 pair pliers. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 countersink. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. Only the long run. 3 and 6 in. 1 wood scraper. The amateur workman. If each tool is kept in a certain place.. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. rule. 1 claw hammer. 1 brace and set of bits. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. 1 set chisels. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 marking gauge. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. as well as the pattern maker. 1 nail set. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need.. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. 1 monkey wrench. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 jack plane or smoother. The bench is now complete. 1 rip saw. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 24 in. 24 in. 1 set gimlets. 1 cross cut saw. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 2 screwdrivers. 1 2-ft. ..

Fig. will sink into the handle as shown at D. will be easier to work. ---Contributed by James M. Pa. Fig. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 2. Kane. Fig. 1 oilstone. 1. becomes like A. after constant use.1 6-in. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. No. Doylestown. The calf skin. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. 3. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 1. Fig.1. being softer. the projecting point A. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. 2 and 00 sandpaper. try square. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. but will not make .

Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. After the outlines are traced. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. If calf skin is to be used. New York City. The form can be made of a stick of wood. Having prepared the two sides. which steam. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. when dry. If cow hide is preferred. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. lay the design on the face. the same method of treatment is used. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side.as rigid a case as the cow skin. such as copper or brass. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. White. secure a piece of modeling calf. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. Turn the leather. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. . and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. water or heat will not affect. First draw the design on paper. then prepare the leather. -Contributed by Julia A. and the length 6-5/8 in. will do just as well. cover it completely with water enamel and. but a V-shaped nut pick. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. Two pieces will be required of this size.

Richmond. C. A. Herrman. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Cobb. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. --Contributed by Chester L. --Contributed by W.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. . Portland. Maine. Cal. and an adjustable friction-held loop. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. as shown in the sketch. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Jaquythe. --Contributed by Chas. New York City. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations.

This was very difficult. was marked out as shown. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. an inverted stewpan. or anyone that can shape tin and solder.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. --Contributed by Geo. Conn. --Contributed by Wm. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. for instance. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Wright. Roberts. Cambridge. Middletown. Mass. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. B. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. . A thick piece of tin. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in.. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly.

Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. --Contributed by Paul Keller. F. on a clear piece of glass. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Indianapolis. well calcined and powdered. A beautifully bound book. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Herbert. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. such as chair seats. and quite new. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. Chicago. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. pulverized and applied. apply powdered calcined magnesia. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. but only an odor which soon vanished. If any traces of the grease are left. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. so some bones were quickly calcined. The next morning there was no trace of oil. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. There was no quicklime to be had. but not running over. of boiling water. as shown. . A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. When dry.. face down. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Bone. L. and the grease will disappear. which has been tried out several times with success. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. If the article is highly polished. Illinois. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. used as part of furniture. --Contributed by C.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Ind. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water.

Howe. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner.. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. 2 in. wide and 12 in. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. The pieces marked S are single. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. high and are bolted to a block of wood. New York. thick. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. says Scientific American.. If properly adjusted. --Contributed by Geo. 6 in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. soft steel with the opening 6 in. set and thumbscrews. This coaster is simple and easy to make. Tarrytown.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. the pieces . A. long. deep and 5 in.

Their size depends on the plate used. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. says Camera Craft. no doubt. The seat is a board. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. for sending to friends. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. to the underside of which is a block. A sharp knife. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. If the letters are all cut the same height. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. E. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. albums and the like. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. they will look remarkably uniform.

to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. for example. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. pasting the prints on some thin card." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. So made. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. photographing them down to the desired size. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. after. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. In cutting out an 0. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. using care to get it in the right position. mount them on short pieces of corks. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. and. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. The puzzle is to get . but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. So arranged.

The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes.-Contributed by I. squeezes along past the center of the tube. of its top. so they will lie horizontal. He smells the bait. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. the tube righting itself at once for another catch. A hole 6 or 7 in. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand .Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. Bayley. with the longest end outside. N. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. G. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. says the American Thresherman.J. snow or anything to hide it. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. hung on pivots. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. Cape May Point.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. Old-Time Magic . long that will just fit are set in.

The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Rhode Island. Szerlip. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. --Contributed by L. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. or rub the hands a little before doing so. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. E. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Brooklyn. Parker. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. Y. Idaho. --Contributed by L.faced up. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Pawtucket. --Contributed by Charles Graham. then spread the string. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Press the hands together. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Pocatello. N. then expose again. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand.

remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. When the whole is quite dry. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. end of the blade. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. says the English Mechanic. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. and if carefully made. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. in building up his work from the illustrations. whether he requires a single sword only. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle.Genuine antique swords and armor. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. 1. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. wipe the blade . then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. When the glue is thoroughly dry. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. long. or a complete suit of armor. narrower.. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. The handle is next made. using a straightedge and a pencil. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. wide and 2 in. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. full size. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. in width. Glue the other side of the blade.. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. 2 Fig. near the point end. thick. The pieces. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. The blade should be about 27 in. dark red. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. or green oil paint. 4 on the blade. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. if any. they will look very much like the genuine article.

2. 1. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. 1. 1/8 in. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. Both edges of the blade are sharp. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. in the widest part at the lower end. 1. in diameter. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. 3. preferably of contrasting colors. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. allowing for a good hold with both hands. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. should be about 9 in. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. In making this scimitar. the illustration. In making.. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. thick and 5 in. 4. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. and 3 in. This sword is about 68 in. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. of course. 3. not for use only in cases of tableaux. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. 1. long. Fig. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. The length of the handle. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. the length of the blade 28 in. the other two are identical. about 1-1/2 in. the other is flat or half-round. 2.. shows only two sides. the other is flat or halfround. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig.with light strokes up and down several times. take two pieces of wood. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. follow the directions as for Fig. In the finished piece. as it is . The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. square and of any length desired. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. wind it around in a continuous line closely together.

long. as can the pitch bed or block. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. as shown in the sketch. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. The thinness of the plank. 2 in. A piece of mild steel. Syracuse. Mass. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. at the lower end. square. Y. --Contributed by John Blake. piping and jackets by hard water. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. --Contributed by Katharine D. about 3/8 in. however. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Doctors probed for the button without success. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. On each edge of the board. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. or an insecure fastening. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. A cold . N. Franklin. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. Morse. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. It is made of a plank. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. and. in an attempt to remove it.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. as there was some at hand. and if so. Both can be made easily. each about 1 ft. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand.

on the pitch. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. When this has been done. When the desired form has been obtained.. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. To put it in another way. 18 gauge. design down. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. 5 lb. Trim up the edges and file them . 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. using a small metal saw. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. plaster of Paris. tallow. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. secure a piece of brass of about No. 5 lb. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. The illustration shows an iron receptacle.. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. a file to reduce the ends to shape. To remedy this. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees.

A. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. 30 ft. Clean the metal thoroughly. The smaller is placed within the larger. That is lifting 33. in diameter (Fig. --Contributed by Harold H. Before giving the description. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. and hang a bird swing. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. in one minute or 550 lb.000 lb. 3. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. in one second. 2). Cutter. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. Fig. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. . or fraction of a horsepower. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. lb. 1 ft.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. lb. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. one 18 in. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. make an unusual show window attraction.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Fill the 3-in. per second. in the center. over the smaller vessel. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen.smooth. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. space between the vessels with water. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. This in turn divided by 33. using powdered pumice with lye. or 550 ft. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. per minute. to keep it from floating. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. 1) and the other 12 in.000 ft. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. and still revolve. 1 ft. in diameter (Fig. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. but not to stop it. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do.

A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes.18 in. Diameter 12 in. 1 Fig.3 Fig. --Contributed by J. or on a pedestal. The effect is surprising. Mass. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . F. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. --Contributed. Brooklyn. N. Y. by L. 2 Fig. Szerlip. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Somerville. Diameter Fig. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Campbell.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water.

Trim the sharp corners off slightly. Polish both of these pieces. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated.copper of No. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. with the pliers. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. In riveting. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. and the clay . then by drawing a straightedge over it. as a rule. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. is. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. which may be of wood or tin. and cut out the shape with the shears. which. the same as removing writing from a slate. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. after which it is ready for use. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Rivet the cup to the base. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. keeping the center high. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. with other defects. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. using any of the common metal polishes. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. This compound is impervious to water. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. often render it useless after a few months service. and then. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. to keep the metal from tarnishing. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. away from the edge. unsatisfactory. Do not be content merely to bend them over. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay.

1. Scotland. the device will work for an indefinite time. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. 2. 3/4 in. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. --Contributed by A. Mich. --Contributed by John T. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. as shown in Fig. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. It is made of a glass tube. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. Dunlop. Shettleston. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. long. Northville. Mich. The siphon is made of glass tubes. .can be pressed back and leveled. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. Grand Rapids. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. DeLoof. Houghton. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. -Contributed by Thos. in diameter and 5 in. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. A. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below.

long. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. As the handle is to . long with the crossguard and blade of steel. stilettos and battle-axes. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade.FIG.1 FIG. in width and 2 in. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. put up as ornaments. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. London. 1. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. This sword is 4 ft.

A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. very broad. one about 1/2 in. sometimes called cuirass breakers. The ball is made as described in Fig. the upper part iron or steel. with both edges sharp. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. 4. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. In Fig. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. long with a dark handle of wood. in length. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. sharp edges on both sides. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. These must be cut from pieces of wood.represent copper. Cut two strips of tinfoil. in width. with both edges of the blade sharp. In Fig. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. 9. 11 were used. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. When the glue is thoroughly dry. This weapon is also about 1 ft. Both handle and axe are of steel. 20 spike. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. paint it a dark brown or black. long. small rope and round-headed nails. This weapon is about 1 ft. the axe is of steel. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. is shown in Fig. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. firmly glued on. This sword is about 4 ft. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. with wire or string' bound handle. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The sword shown in Fig. This axe is made similar to the one . Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. A German stiletto. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. 5. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. Three large. When dry. string. The crossbar and blade are steel. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. This stiletto has a wood handle. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. When the whole is quite dry. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. 8. A German poniard is shown in Fig. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. which is about 2-1/2 ft. 3 is shown a claymore. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. narrower. glue and put it in place. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. in length. The handle is of wood. then glued on the blade as shown. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. the same as used on the end of the handle. The lower half of the handle is of wood. wood with a keyhole saw. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. 6. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. 7. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. In Fig. studded with brass or steel nails. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig.

described in Fig. will pull where other belts slip. This will make a very good flexible belt. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. so the contents cannot be seen. When wrapped all the way around. 10. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. --Contributed by E. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. the ends are tied and cut off. Davis. Old-Time Magic . use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. . W. high. such as braided fishline. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. 2. together as shown in Fig. Chicago.

The dotted lines in Fig. --Contributed by A. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. S. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. some of the liquid. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. As zinc is much lighter than iron. an acid. Macdonald. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. about one-third the way down from the top. held in the right hand. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. or using small wedges of wood. Calif. Before the performance. To make the flowers grow in an instant. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end.J. Oakland. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. with the circle centrally located. There will be no change in color. four glass tumblers. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. 1 and put together as in Fig. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. in a few seconds' time. N. 2. causing the flowers to grow. apparently. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. filled with water. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. These wires are put in the jar. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Bridgeton. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand.

The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. practical and costs nothing. unless some special device is used. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. If the size wanted is No. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. This outlines the desired opening. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. which are numbered for convenience in working. When many slides are to be masked. 2 for height. Cal. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. A. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. Jaquythe. --Contributed by W. says a correspondent of Photo Era. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. and equally worthy of individual treatment. not only because of the fact just mentioned. and kept ready for use at any time. 4 for width and No. Richmond.

not the water into the acid. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. is about right for the No. and the extreme length 7 in. This done. or a pair of old tongs. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. the paper is folded along the center line. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. The decoration. too. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. or. Draw a design. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. about half and half. which is dangerous. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. and do not inhale the fumes. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. the margin and the entire back of the metal. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. 16 gauge. a little less acid than water. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. paint the design. With a stick. When etched to the desired depth. but they can be easily revived. Secure a sheet of No. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. using the carbon paper. possibly. The one shown is merely suggestive. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. may be changed. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in.

They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. so that when it is pressed down. 2. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. Fig. It may be either nailed or screwed down. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. Nail a board. When the button S is pressed. it will touch post F. high. the bell will ring. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. about 8 in. wide. 5. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. about 3 ft. long. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Fig. Paint the table any color desired. and about 2-1/2 ft. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. J is another wire attached in the same way. as in Fig. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. . 2. with the wires underneath. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. Fig. 3/8 in. 5. C and D. wide and of the same length as the table. or more wide. and bore two holes. 2. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. The connections are simple: I. about 2-1/2 in. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. thick. 0 indicates the batteries. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. repeat as many times as is necessary. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. as at H. long and 1 ft. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. 1. in diameter and 1/4 in. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. to the table. A. as shown in Fig. 4. attached to a post at each end. 24 parts water. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. Cut out a piece of tin. through it. 3. Fig. about 1 in. Then get two posts. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. Fig. as shown in the illustration.

A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. but they are somewhat difficult to make. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. thick. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. The entire weapon. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. 2. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. says the English Mechanic. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. long. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. The imitation articles are made of wood. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel.Imitation Arms and Armor . After the glue is dry. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. These rings can be carved out. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. The circle is marked out with a compass. such as . the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. handle and all. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. long serves as the dowel. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. 1. is to appear as steel. A wood peg about 2 in.. the wood peg inserted in one of them. This weapon is about 22 in. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. flowers. All of these axes are about the same length. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. 2. This weapon is about 22 in. leaves. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. is shown in Fig. the hammer and spike. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The lower half of the handle is wood. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. The entire handle should be made of one piece. with a sharp carving tool. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. 6. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. Its length is about 3 ft. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. used at the end of the fifteenth century. 3. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. as shown. 8. 5. The upper half of the handle is steel. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. etc. If such a tool is not at hand. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The axe is shown in steel. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. studded with large brass or steel nails. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. The handle is of wood. The handle is of steel imitation. as described in Fig. The spikes are cut out of wood. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. . Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. covered with red velvet. long. or the amateur cannot use it well. also.ornamental scrolls. as before mentioned.

A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. 5. calls for a home run. as in Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. . 4). Each person plays until three outs have been made. then the other plays. the knife resting on its back. Fig. as shown in Fig. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. and so on for nine innings.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. a three-base hit. 3. 7) calls for one out. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. 6. The knife falling on its side (Fig. 2. Chicago. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. 1. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig.

while the committee is tying him up. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. with the rope laced in the cloth. 1. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. of water for an hour or two. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. Campbell. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. F.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. 2. Somerville. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. of the rope and holds it.-Contributed by J. It may be found that the negative is not colored. 3. Old-Time Magic . Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. Mass. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. one of them burning . When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. This he does. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. If it is spotted at all. as shown in Fig. hypo to 1 pt. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film.

When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. and. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. 3/4 in. 4 oz. 4 oz. B. Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. --Contributed by C. He then walks over to the other candle. Thome. etc. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. of sugar. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. --Contributed by L. with which he is going to light the other candle. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. shades the light for a few seconds. showing that there is nothing between them. the other without a light. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. of plumbago. Evans. . He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire.Contributed by Andrew G. Lebanon. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. The magician walks over to the burning candle. of water and 1 oz. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. Drill Gauge screw. thick. bolt. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. New York City. Ky. Ky. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. of turpentine.brightly. invisible to them (the audience). the lamp having been removed and the back opened. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. Louisville. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger.. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. thus causing it to light. Brown.

add the acid to the water with constant stirring. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. In making up the solution. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. To make the porous cell. Its current strength is about one volt. about 5 in. steady current. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. diameter. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. into a tube of several thicknesses. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. thick. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. Denniston. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. H. or blotting paper. long. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. N. for the material. which will give a strong. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. Do not add water to the acid. 5 in. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. Pulteney. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Y. --Contributed by C. but is not so good. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. but can be made up into any required voltage in series.

) may be obtained. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. One hole was bored as well as possible. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. steel. To insure this. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. a positive adjustment was provided. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in.station. one drawing them together. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. steel. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. while the other end is attached by two screws. the other holding them apart. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. carrying the hour circle at one end. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. steel. The . The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. After much experimentation with bearings. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. As to thickness. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. but somewhat lighter. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. long with a bearing at each end. Finally.

The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. need not be changed. Cassiopiae. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The aperture should be 1/4 in. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. Point it approximately to the north star. in each direction from two points 180 deg. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis." Only a rough setting is necessary. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. and 15 min. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. Instead. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. subtract 24. is provided with this adjustment. once carefully made. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. If the result is more than 24 hours. turn the pointer to the star. Set the declination circle to its reading. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. and if it is not again directed to the same point. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. All these adjustments. The pointer is directed to Alpha. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. 45 min. To find a star in the heavens. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. It is. The pole is 1 deg. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer." When this is done. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. save the one in the pipe. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. excepting those on the declination axis.. When properly set it will describe a great circle. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . are tightened.. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. Each shaft. apart. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. Declination is read directly. To locate a known star on the map." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. All set screws. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars.

Plain City. The dance will begin. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. The ball is found to be the genuine article. Ohio. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. the others . La. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball.. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. In reality the first ball. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. a great effect will be produced. of ether. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. add a little more benzole. is folded several times. cannon balls. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. as shown in the sketch.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. New Orleans. -Contributed by Ray E. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. which is the one examined. 3 or 4 in. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. If this will be too transparent. Strosnider. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. is the real cannon ball. then add 1 2-3 dr. benzole. long. taking care not to add too much.

--Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. Somerville. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card.. etc. --Contributed by J. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. without taking up any great amount of space. Return the card to the pack. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. small brooches. San Francisco. 2. Milwaukee. taps. Cal. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. as shown in the illustration. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. In boxes having a sliding cover. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. Fig. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Campbell. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. 1). F. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Wis. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Mass.

but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. round pieces 2-1/4 in. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. prints.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. Connecticut. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. Beller. This box has done good service. slides and extra brushes. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Hartford. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. . At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. from the bottom of the box. thus giving ample store room for colors. as shown in the illustration. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors.

-Contributed by C. holes in the bottom of one. O. FIG. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. tacking the gauze well at the corners. . Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. Mass. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. When the ends are turned under. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. or placed against a wall. West Lynn. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. Fill the upper tub. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. about threefourths full. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. with well packed horse manure. costing 5 cents. 2). will answer the purpose. Darke. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. 1). then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in.

Eifel. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. --Contributed by L. when they are raised from the pan. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. Chicago. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. they should be knocked out. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. If plugs are found in any of the holes. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. If the following directions are carried out. oil or other fluid. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. M. if this is not available. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. cutting the cane between the holes. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. and each bundle contains . and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors.

a square pointed wedge. it should be held by a plug. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. 1. after having been pulled tight. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. held there by inserting another plug. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. as shown in Fig. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. and. No plugs . First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. put about 3 or 4 in. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. then across and down. as it must be removed again. In addition to the cane. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off.

but the most common. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. --Contributed by M. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. and for lat. is the horizontal dial. as it always equals the latitude of the place. Michigan. 40°. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. we have 4. The style or gnomon. 41 °-30'. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. or the style. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. as shown in Fig. as the height of the line BC for lat. 42° is 4. using the same holes as for the first layer. 3. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. 1 lat. the height of the line BC. 5.= 4. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving.075 in. After completing the second layer. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon.075 in.5 in. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. for 2°. the next smallest. 1. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. W.2 in. D. No weaving has been done up to this time. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. Even with this lubrication. called the gnomon.2+. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. It consists of a flat circular table. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. Patrick. 5 in. From table No. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. If you have a table of natural functions. 3. During the weaving. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. the height of which is taken from table No. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. Fig. If handled with a little care. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. it is 4. in this case) times the . Their difference is . The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. trim off the surplus rosin. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. This will make three layers. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. All added to the lesser or 40°.15 in. Start at one corner and weave diagonally.3 in. Detroit. R. -Contributed by E. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair.42 in. is the base (5 in. 41°-30'. as shown in Fig. and for 1° it would be . stretch the third one. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. 1. and the one we shall describe in this article. as for example. 4. 1.15+. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. There are several different designs of sundials. When cool. Fig. lat. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired.

Fig.27 2.39 . for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.46 .94 1.64 4 8 3.42 45 .87 4. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.02 1.30 1.89 50° 5.16 40 . Table NO.57 3. .26 4.66 latitude. base. with a radius of 5 in.63 56° 7.18 28° 2.85 1. or if of stone. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.00 40° 4.12 52° 6.06 2. using the points A and C as centers. 1. For latitudes not given.82 5. according to the size of the dial. Chords in inches for a 10 in.33 .32 6.99 2. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.82 3.55 46° 5. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. A line EF drawn through the points A and C.77 2.37 5. 2.97 5 7 4.88 36° 3.14 5.44 44° 4.33 42° 4. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.55 4. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.41 38° 3.49 3.16 1.tangent of the degree of latitude.37 54° 6. an inch or two.57 1.46 3.40 34° 3.55 30° 2.91 58° 8.96 32° 3. To layout the hour circle. Height of stile in inches for a 5in.20 60° 8.42 .59 2. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. Draw two semi-circles.19 1. Draw the line AD. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.03 3. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .85 35 .23 6. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. 2 for given latitudes. which will represent the base in length and thickness.76 1.79 4.30 2.56 . and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No. and intersecting the semicircles.66 1.93 2.29 4-30 7-30 3.42 1.93 6. long.82 2.11 3. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.38 . and perpendicular to the base or style.50 26° 2.83 27° 2. gives the 6 o'clock points.28 . 2. circle Sundial.49 30 .40 1. Its thickness.07 4.87 1.10 6.68 5-30 6-30 5. if of metal. or more. and for this size dial (10 in.81 4.55 5.66 48° 5. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.

Sioux City. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. after allowing for the declination. if west.46 5. This correction can be added to the values in table No.14 1. E. Mitchell.79 6. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. and on these dates the dial needs no correction.10 4. Each weapon is cut from wood.49 5. and the . will enable one to set the dial. Iowa. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. London.53 1.add those marked + subtract those Marked . 3 Corrections in minutes to change.63 1. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. it will be faster.21 2. and for the difference between standard and local time. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. 25. An ordinary compass.71 2. 3. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.46 4. then the watch is slower.54 60 . 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position.60 4.93 6.77 3.37 2. June 15.89 3. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .from Sundial lime.01 1. 2 and Dec. Sept. says the English Mechanic. As they are the genuine reproductions. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.50 .87 6.50 55 .98 4. 900 Chicago. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York.06 2. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.82 3. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.means that the dial is faster than the sun. adding to each piece interest and value. The + means that the clock is faster. Sun time to local mean time.49 3.52 Table No.68 3.19 2.72 5. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. April 16. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. --Contributed by J. 3.30 2.12 5.24 5. each article can be labelled with the name.08 1. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.34 5. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon.57 1.

A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side.. Partisan. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. 1. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. . The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. When putting on the tinfoil. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. the length of which is about 5 ft. 3. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig.

It is about 6 ft. long with a round wooden handle. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. 6 ft. The extreme length is 9 ft. . with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. long with a round staff or handle. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. the holes being about 1/4 in. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. used about the seventeenth century. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. 7. The edges are sharp.. A gisarm or glaive. 8. The spear is steel. This weapon is about 6 ft. in diameter. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. long. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. 5. sharp on the outer edges. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. which are a part of the axe. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. long. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. is shown in Fig. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. about 4 in. press it well into the carved depressions.which is square.

a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. as shown in Fig. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. Loudonville.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. H. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. 1. the cross cords. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood.-Contributed by R. Cut all the cords the same length. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. 5. Ohio. This is important to secure neatness. They can be made of various materials. used for spacing and binding the whole together. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. or in holes punched in a leather strap. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. In Figs. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. the most durable being bamboo. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. apart. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. 2 and 3. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. The twisted cross cords should . Workman. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. are less durable and will quickly show wear. 4. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. Substances such as straw. are put in place. B. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire.

Four V-shaped notches were cut. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. Lockport. below the top to within 1/4 in. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. New Orleans. La. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. shaped as shown at C.be of such material. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. Harrer. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. for a length extending from a point 2 in. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. -Contributed by Geo. The first design shown is for using bamboo. A slit was cut in the bottom. This was turned over the top of the other can. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail. wide. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. in which was placed a piece of glass. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . as shown at B. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. 3 in. New York. of the bottom. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. To remedy this. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. bamboo or rolled paper. M.

gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. --Contributed by Chas.tape from sticking to the carpet. --Contributed by Joseph H. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Sanford. After this is finished. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. Schaffner. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. do not throw away the gloves. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. This should be done gradually. the brass is loosened from the block. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. and two along the side for attaching the staff. Shay. It would be well to polish the brass at first. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. N. This plank. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. Cal. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. --Contributed by W. Maywood. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. turned over but not fastened. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. wide. Y. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. Newburgh. Ill. H. is shown in the accompanying sketch. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. giving the appearance of hammered brass. about 1/16 in. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. Pasadena.

It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. in diameter. Richmond. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. K. Ill. Jaquythe. the pendulum swings . Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. Cal. Marshall. A. --E. Unlike most clocks. Oak Park. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. bent as shown. -Contributed by W.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall.

high. Metzech. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. Chicago. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. C. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. Fasten another board. in diameter. is an electromagnet. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. about 12 in. 5/16 in. high and 1/4 in. away. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. and the other two 2-5/8 in. long and at each side of this. by 1-5/16 in. high. --Contributed by V. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. to the first one with screws or glue. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. 3/4 in. about 6 in. only have the opposite side up. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. B. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. the center one being 2-3/4 in. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Two uprights. . letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. thick. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. Secure a board. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. on the board B. high. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in.. says the Scientific American. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. The construction is very simple. are secured in the base bar. 6 in. wide that is perfectly flat. Now place the board to be joined. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. bar. A. bearing on the latter. In using this method. such as this one. wide. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. 7-1/2 in.

or more. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. is fastened in the hole A. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. plates should be made 8 in. square inside. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. as shown at A. --Contributed by Elmer A. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. 1. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. square. Vanderslice. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. long. Fig. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. by driving a pin through the wood. 3. Fig. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. Phoenixville. . Pa. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The trigger. wide and 5 in. wide and 1 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. from one end. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. 2. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. 1. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. 4.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. whose dimensions are given in Fig. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. 1.

-Contributed by J. if only two bands are put in the . 2 parts of whiting. Simonis. Fostoria. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. 5 parts of black filler. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. square. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed.A. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 3 parts of stiff keg lead.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. as shown in the illustration. Ohio. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. one-half the length of the side pieces. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. rubbing varnish and turpentine. which allows 1/4 in. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. by weight.

wide and about 1 ft. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. Grand Rapids. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. No. A mirror. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. 1. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. is set at an angle of 45 deg. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. In use. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. in the opposite end of the box. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. Michigan. In constructing helmets. as shown in Fig. preferably copper. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. which may be either of ground or plain glass. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. place tracing paper on its surface. Dartmouth. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. and the picture can be drawn as described. deep. If a plain glass is used. A double convex lens. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. A piece of metal. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. --Contributed by Thos. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. is necessary. Shaw. says the English Mechanic. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. Mass. long. London. G. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. DeLoof. II. It must be kept moist and well . keeps the strong light out when sketching. 8 in.lower strings. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. -Contributed by Abner B. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. and it may be made as a model or full sized.

This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. joined closely together. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. on which to place the clay. This being done. as shown in Fig. 1.kneaded. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. and over the crest on top. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. and the deft use of the fingers. and left over night to soak. with a keyhole saw. After the clay model is finished. or some thin glue. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. 1. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. shown in Fig. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. Scraps of thin. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. The clay. 3. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. as in bas-relief. take. 2. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. the clay model oiled. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and continue until the clay is completely covered. All being ready. a few clay-modeling tools. will be necessary. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. brown. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses.

and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. The center of the ear guards are perforated. then another coating of glue. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. The whole helmet. Indianapolis. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. When perfectly dry. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. will make it look neat. --Contributed by Paul Keller. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. a few lines running down. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. a crest on top. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. 1. When the helmet is off the model. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. Before taking it off the model. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . owing to the clay being oiled. should be modeled and made in one piece. and so on. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The band is decorated with brass studs. which should be no difficult matter. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. 5. In Fig. with the exception of the vizor. or. When dry.as possible. square in shape. They are all covered with tinfoil. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. the skullcap. 9. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. Indiana. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. one for each side. and the ear guards in two pieces. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. the piecing could not be detected. This contrivance should be made of wood. 7. In Fig. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. as seen in the other part of the sketch. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. as shown: in the design.

one fuse block. 1 in. E and F. Fig. 1. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. is shown in Fig. GG. JJ. AA. if this cannot be obtained. The holes B and C are about 3 in. two ordinary binding posts. of fire clay. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. AA. The two holes. 4. thick sheet asbestos. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. screws. 4. for connections. to receive screws for holding it to the base. Fig. the fuse block. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. Fig. above the collar. A round collar of galvanized iron. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. This will allow the plate. This will make an open space between the plates. 2. Fig. one oblong piece of wood. 1. 1. until it is within 1 in. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. thick. 12 in. and. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. AA. Fig. Fig. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. If asbestos is used. The mineral wool. Fig. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. as shown in Fig. Fig. also the switch B and the fuse block C. one small switch. 4. 4. Fig. as shown in Fig. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. if the measurements are correct. wide and 15 in. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. are allowed to project about 1 in. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. 4. German-silver wire is better. one glass tube. should extend about 1/4 in. long. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. as it stands a higher temperature. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. 4. 1. which can be bought from a local druggist. when they are placed in opposite positions. Fig. 2. Fig. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. If a neat appearance is desired. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. 1. about 1/4 in. high. and C. of mineral wool.same size. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. or. Fig. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. 2. 1. in diameter and 9 in. The reverse side of the base. The plate. 22 gauge resistance wire. the holes leading to the switch. FF. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. about 1 lb. 4 lb. about 80 ft. is then packed down inside the collar. of the top. Fig. as shown in Fig. and two large 3in. 3. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. 4. with slits cut for the wires. each 4-1/2 in. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. long. long. 3 in. of No.

or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. H. When the tile is in place. II. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. A file can be used to remove any rough places. using care not to get it too wet. The clay. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. A. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. will slip and come in contact with each other. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. when heated. Richmond. It should not be left heated in this condition. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. Can. above the rim. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. If this is the case. causing a short circuit. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. When this is done. deep. --Contributed by R. It should not be set on end. 4. This completes the stove. Fig. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. apart. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. Catherines. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. Cut a 1/2-in. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. when cool. as the turns of the wires. KK. As these connections cannot be soldered. it leaves a gate for the metal. then. more wire should be added. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. Fig. --Contributed by W. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. Cover over about 1 in. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. and pressed into it. Jaquythe. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. 2. Cnonyn. steam will form when the current is applied. so that the circuit will not become broken. While the clay is damp. St. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. This point marks the proper length to cut it. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. Next. allowing a space between each turn. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. If it is not thoroughly dry. Cal.

as shown." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. Thorne. and the prints will dry rapidly. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. constructed of 3/4-in. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. square material in any size. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. the pie will be damaged. Then clip a little off the . --Contributed by Andrew G. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Ky. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. the air can enter from both top and bottom. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. says the Photographic Times. and the frame set near a window. but 12 by 24 in. is large enough. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Louisville. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle.

This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. 1 and 3. at GG. high. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. high. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. wide and 7 in. causing a break in the current. 1. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. thick and 3 in. 1/2 in. 22 gauge magnet wire. As the shaft revolves. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. The upright B. Two supports. thick. Fig. 2-1/2 in. A 1/8-in. 1/2 in. Fig. high. in diameter and about 4 in. An offset is bent in the center. thereby saving time and washing. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. long. in diameter. 14 in. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. long. 2.Paper Funnel point. The board can be raised to place . long. -Contributed by S. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. Iowa. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. 1. for the crank. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. which are fastened to the base. thick and 3 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. open out. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. Le Mars. Fig. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. 1. W. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. Herron. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. allowing each end to project for connections. each 1 in. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. The connecting rod E. wide. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. Figs. as shown. long. each 1/2 in. The driving arm D. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. wide and 3 in. 4 in. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. slip on two cardboard washers. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. 1. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. 3. The connections are made as shown in Fig.

and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. Stecher. --Contributed by William F. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. Place the pot. 3 in. In designing the roost. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. as shown in the sketch. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. in height. Dorchester. Mass. . and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. One or more pots may be used. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. making a framework suitable for a roost. on a board. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. bottom side up.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him.

that it is heated. when combined. F. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. 1. grills and gratings for doors. 1.. paraffin and paint or varnish. and give it time to dry.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. without any corresponding benefit. The bottom part of the sketch. windows. ordinary glue. F.. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. as shown in Fig. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. odd corners. will produce the pattern desired. adopt the method described. The materials required are rope or. in diameter. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. shelves. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. etc. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. if it is other than straight lines. it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. preferably. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. Fig. Wind the . then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired.

2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. Harrer. -Contributed by Geo. N. 2. Y.Fig. cut and glue them together. Lockport. six designs are shown. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . Fig. M. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig.

etc. says the English Mechanic.. 1. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches.. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. As the . The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. This piece of horse armor. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. and the sides do not cover the jaws. London. when it will be observed that any organic matter. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. etc. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. which was used in front of a horse's head.. but no farther. chips of iron rust.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. will be retained by the cotton. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay.

A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. 6 and 7. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. which can be made in any size. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. and the clay model oiled. 2. The armor is now removed from the model. and therefore it is not described. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. In Fig. 8. All being ready. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. the same as in Fig. but for . except the thumb and fingers. An arrangement is shown in Fig. 4. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. and will require less clay. the rougher the better. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. 2. then another coat of glue. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. This being done. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. but the back is not necessary. This triangularshaped support. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. with the exception of the thumb shield. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. This can be made in one piece. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. This will make the model light and easy to move around. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. as shown in the sketch. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. which is separate. as the surface will hold the clay. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper.

A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. are glued to it. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. . in depth. The two pieces of foil. the two pieces of foil will draw together. the foils will not move. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. each about 1/4 in. La Rue. long. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. are better shown in Fig. Fasten a polished brass ball to. wide and 1/2 in. N. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. 2. Y. cut into the shape shown in Fig. When locating the place for the screw eyes. and the instrument is ready for use. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. Redondo Beach. 9. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. 1/2 in. fastened to the rod. Calif. Buxton. --Contributed by Ralph L. but 3-1/2 in. two in each jaw. If it does not hold a charge. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. --Contributed by John G. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. will be about right. running down the plate.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. Goshen. the top of the rod. two for the jaws and one a wedge. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. A piece of board. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint.

long. A. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. as indicated in the . is made of a 1/4-in. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. as shown in the illustration. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. as this will cut under the water without splashing. hole bored through it. from the smaller end. silvered. about 15 in. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. When a fish is hooked. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. Corsicana. The can may be bronzed. 2-1/2 in. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. pine board. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. enameled or otherwise decorated. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. M. --Contributed by Mrs. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. Texas. Bryan. At a point 6 in. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham.

The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Any kind of wood will do. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. take a piece of thin wood. will do as well as the more expensive woods. 3/8 or 1/4 in. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Basswood or butternut. thick. If soft wood. put a coat or two of wax and polish . punch the holes." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. Polish the metal. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. using a piece of carbon paper. A good size is 5 in. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. Next prepare the metal holder. and trace upon it the design and outline. Having completed the drawing. or even pine. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. When it has dried over night. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. using powdered pumice and lye. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. 22 is plenty heavy enough. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. such as basswood or pine was used. as shown. then with a nail. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. long over all.Match Holder accompanying sketch. wide by 6 in.

Richmond. Two wire nails. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. thick. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. 1/2 in. 2 in. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. of pure olive oil. long. Jaquythe. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. --Contributed by W. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. If carving is contemplated. . At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. long. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Cal. If one has some insight in carving. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. It is useful for photographers. A. are used for the cores of the magnets. Instead of the usual two short ropes. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. is used for the base of this instrument. can be made on the same standards. each 1 in. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. wide and 5 in. the whole being finished in linseed oil.

and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. 25 gauge. . 3. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. when the key is pushed down. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. H. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. --Contributed by W. acts as a spring to keep the key open. About 1 in. cut in the shape of the letter T. in the shape shown in the sketch. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. A rubber band. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. leaving about 1/4 in. the paper covering put on. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. All of the parts for the armor have been described. except that for the legs. A piece of tin. London. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. 1. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. cloth or baize to represent the legs. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. as shown in Fig. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. at A. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. similar to that used in electric bells. then covered with red. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. Lynas. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. says the English Mechanic. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. as shown by the dotted lines. about No.

but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. A 1/4-in. By moving the position of the bolt from. 1 in.. 2. 3 in. apart. or ordinary plaster laths will do. Secure two strips of wood. hole in the center. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. 1 and drill a 1/4in. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. flat headed carriage bolt. drill six 1/4-in. Cut them to a length or 40 in. The two pieces are bolted together. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. make the same series of eight small holes and. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. Take the piece shown in Fig. In one end of the piece. completes the equipment. Fig. about 1 in. at each end. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. long. not too tight. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. one to another . says Camera Craft. holes. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Silver paper will do very well. Instead of using brass headed nails. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. So set up. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. apart. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. can be made in a few minutes' time. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. and eight small holes. in the other end. for the sake of lightness.

Then take B and lay it over A. doubled and run through the web of A. In this sketch. but instead of reversing . as shown in Fig. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. 1. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A.of the larger holes in the strip. of the ends remain unwoven. and lay it over the one to the right. lay Cover B and the one under D. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. Start with one end. 2. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. and the one beneath C. 4. 2. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. D over A and C. Then draw all four ends up snugly. Fig. A is the first string and B is the second. for instance. then B over C and the end stuck under A. C over D and B. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. the one marked A. taking the same start as for the square fob. as in portraiture and the like. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. 2. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. A round fob is made in a similar way. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. in Fig. long.

especially if silk strings are used. The round fob is shown in Fig. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. as in making the square fob. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. over the one to its right. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . as B. Monroeville. 3. always lap one string. 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by John P. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. Rupp. is left out at the center before starting on one side. as at A in Fig. long. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. A loop. the design of which is shown herewith. 5. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. Ohio. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. Other designs can be made in the same manner. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. is to be made of leather.

The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. it can be easily renewed. filling them with wax. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. Any smooth piece of steel. door facing or door panel. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. -Contributed by A. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. When the supply of wax is exhausted. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. pressing it against the wood. . Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. Houghton. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. using the reverse side. Northville. A. such as a nut pick. beeswax or paraffin. Mich. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work.

and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. N. long. Ill. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. leaving about 1/4 in. says Photographic Times. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. J. and about 12 in. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. . it is best to leave a plain white margin. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. --Contributed by O. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Fold together on lines C. The tacks should be about 1 in. apart and driven in only part way. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. those on matte paper will work best. Y. although tin ones can be used with good success. Enough plaster should. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. but any kind that will not stick may be used. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. Thompson. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. place it face down in the dish. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. if blueprints are used. and after wetting. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. E and F. New York. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. remaining above the surface of the board. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Petersburg. thick. D. Select the print you wish to mount.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick.

When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. violets. will be rendered perfectly white. One of the .. as shown in the right of the sketch. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Lower into the test tube a wire. without mixing the solutions. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. bell flowers. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. etc. roses. filling the same about onehalf full. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. as shown at the left in the sketch.

The sound box. as shown in the sketch. thick. turned a little tapering. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. about 1/8s in. When soldering these parts together.. South Dakota. The tin horn can be easily made. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. 1-7/8 in. is about 2-1/2 in. --Contributed by L. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. in diameter and 1 in. Fig. to keep the core from coming off in turning. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. but which will not wobble loose. or delicate tints of the egg. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. L. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. 2. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. 3. shading. long. 1. Shabino. not too tightly. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. A rod that will fit the brass tube. and at the larger end. as shown. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. made of heavy tin. long and made of wood. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. Millstown. should be soldered to the box. The first point should be ground blunt. The diaphragm.

and weighted it with a heavy stone. Gold. put a board on top. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. E. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Victor. Ill. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. says the Iowa Homestead. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. wondering what it was.Contributed by E. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. Jr. Chicago. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. and. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Colo. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. mice in the bottom. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy.

. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. --Contributed by Lyndwode. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. Pereira. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Can. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. N. Buffalo. Ottawa. Y.

longer than the length of the can. Mich. Jaquythe. Grand Rapids. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. as shown. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. Put a small nail 2 in. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. a piece of tin. Cal. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so .How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by Thos. cut round. This cart has no axle. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. De Loof. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. as it can be made quickly in any size. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. Richmond. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. A. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. through which several holes have been punched. and at one end of the stick fasten. by means of a flatheaded tack. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. above the end of the dasher.

apart. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. 1 ft. The candles. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. deep and 3 in. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. La.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. wide and 1/8 in. board. of course. long. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. I reversed a door gong. Pa. wide. 1/4 in. A wedge-shaped piece of . The baseboard and top are separable. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. 1-1/2 in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. 2. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. --Contributed by James M. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. New Orleans. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. Fig. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. Notches 1/8 in. as shown. were below the level of the bullseye.1. thick. 1. screwed it on the inside of a store box. Kane. cut in the center of the rounding edge. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. Doylestown. 2 in. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. wide and 3 ft. 2. wide and as long as the box. 2.

The block can also be used as a paperweight. A. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. wide rubber bands or felt. dressing one surface of each piece. Ia. After the glue has dried. When not in use.. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. when placed as in Fig. 1. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. can be picked up without any trouble. After completing the handle. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. Needles. to prevent its scratching the desk top. --Contributed by G. the reason being that if both were solid. stone or wood. 3. Wood. will. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. it can be removed without marring the casing. by cutting away the ends. scissors. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. as shown in Fig. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Cover the block with rubber. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. Mass. Worcester. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. For the handle. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. the shelf could not be put on the window. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. etc. take two pieces of hard wood. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. wide into each side of the casing. West Union.Book Back Holders metal. This device is very convenient for invalids. the blade is put back into the groove .

A. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. Jacobs. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. long. . Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. thus carrying the car up the incline. Ohio. --Contributed by H. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. as shown in Fig. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. A notch is cut in one side. 1 in. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. 1. S. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. 2. If desired. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Maud McKee. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Mass. square and 4 in. Hutchins. Erie. is shown in the accompanying sketch. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Pa. -Contributed by W. Malden. Cleveland.and sharpened to a cutting edge. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it.

N. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. Prepare a design for the front. This will insure having all parts alike. If one such as is shown is to be used.J. 6 by 9-1/2 in. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. One sheet of metal. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. a board on which to work it.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy.. will be needed. and an awl and hammer. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. . Cape May Point. The letters can be put on afterward.

So impressive are the results. flat brush. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. behind or through the center of a table leg. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. The stick may be placed by the side of. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand.Fasten the metal to the board. On the back. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. If any polishing is required. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. The music will not sound natural. . which is desirable. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise." In all appearance. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. varnish. One coat will do. turpentine. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. Remove the metal. 2 parts white vitriol. paste the paper design right on the metal. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. a violin. to right angles. placed on a table. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. as shown. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. says Master Painter. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. in the waste metal. or. 3/4 part. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. but weird and distant. 1/4 part. if desired. applied by means of a brush. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. only the marginal line is to be pierced. 1 part. mandolin or guitar. that can be worked in your own parlor.

long and measuring 26 in. apart. round-head machine screws. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. is bent square so as to form two uprights. wide. long. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. square bar iron. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. are shaped as shown in Fig. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. long and spread about 8 in. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. each 28 in. thick by 1/2 in. 3. London. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. across the top. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. and is easy to construct. . without them. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. each 6 in. With proper tools this is easy. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. it might be difficult. which should be about 5-1/2 ft.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. The longest piece. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. Two pairs of feet. 2. says Work.

The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. While the piece of lead D. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. 5. 5. D. lead. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. Fig. cut a long piece of lead. or. and the base border. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. The design is formed in the lead. the latter being tapped to . 7. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The glass. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. 4. A. C. The brads are then removed. on it as shown. special flux purchased for this purpose. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. is held by the brads. After the glass is cut. better still. 6. using rosin as a flux. Place the corner piece of glass. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. After the joints are soldered. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. in the grooves of the borders. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. Fig. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. B. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. as shown in Fig. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw.

Fasten the plates to the block B. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Two styles of hand holds are shown. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. This ring can be made of 1-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used.. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. thick and drill 3/4-in. Camden. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. This . lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. --Contributed by W. long. square and of the length given in the drawing. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. in diameter and 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. and round the corners of one end for a ring. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. plank about 12 ft.the base of the clip. The center pin is 3/4-in. bolt. plates. Make three washers 3-in. then drill a 3/4-in. then flatten its end on the under side. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. in diameter and about 9 in. H. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Jr. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Secure a post. wood screws in each washer. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. A and B. rounded at the top as shown. long. one on each side and central with the hole. bolt. long. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. and two wood blocks. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. not less than 4 in. Bore a 3/4-in. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. rocker bolt. N. holes through their centers. Bore a 5/8-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. J. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. Dreier. 8.

3 in. 4 in. hickory. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. 3/4 by 3 in. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. To substitute small. The four 7-in. chestnut or ash. straight-grained hickory. La. 4 pieces. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. maple.will make an excellent cover for a pot. because it will not stand the weather. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. 4 in. 9 in. long and 1 piece. 4 filler pieces. 2-1/2 in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. shanks. of 1/4-in. 4 pieces. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. long. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. square by 9-1/2 ft. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. by 3 ft. If trees are convenient. in diameter and 7 in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. long. long. 2 by 4 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. bolts and rope. 1-1/4in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. boards along the side of each from end to end. can make a first class gymnasium. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. square by 5 ft. 7 in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. Draw a line on the four 7-in. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. by 6-1/2 ft. and some one can swing an axe. apart for a distance of 3 ft. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. long. 1/2 in. long. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 50 ft. 1 by 7 in. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. from one edge. 1. long. New Orleans. bit. screws. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 16 screws. horse and rings. by 2 ft. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work.

It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. apart. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each.bored. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. at each end. from the end. Bore a 9/16-in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. boards coincide. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. apart.. each 3 ft. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. piece of wood. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . so the 1/2-in. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. 2. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. deep and remove all loose dirt. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in.. 8 in. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. then buried to a depth of 2 ft.

which at once gave the suggestion of distance. When the interest of the crowd.. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. in an endless belt. passing through a screweye at either end. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem." which skimmed along the distant horizon. and materially heightened the illusion. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. which at once gathered. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. And all he used was a black thread. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. not even the tumbler. He stretched the thread between two buildings. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. and ascends the stem. apart. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. the effect is very striking. it follows the edge for about 1 in. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. disappearing only to reappear again. If the tumbler is rotated. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. was at its height. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. not much to look at in daytime. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. . In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. just visible against the dark evening sky. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. and then passes in a curve across the base. it is taken to the edge of the foot. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. about 100 ft. W. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. but most deceptive at dusk.

Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. long. 8 in.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. 4 in. long. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. by 10 ft. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. beginning at a point 9 in. by 2 ft. 4 in. so the point will be on top. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. A wire about No. 4 wood screws. To make the apparatus. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. long. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. Fig. long. 2 by 3 in. long. long. 2 by 4 in. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. Bevel the ends of . large spikes. long. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. 2 in. long and 1 doz. 4 bolts. and turned in a spiral D. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. preferably cedar. square and 51/2 ft. 2 side braces. 2 by 4 in. 7 in. 6 in. 4 knee braces. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 2 by 4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. wide and 1 in. deep. Chisel out two notches 4 in. long. from either side of the center. by 3 ft. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. 8 bolts. The cork will come out easily. 8 in. New Orleans. 2 cross braces. La. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. square and 6 ft. 1. 8 in. by 7 ft. 2 base pieces. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B.

screws. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. additional long. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. leave it undressed. ( To be Continued. jellies.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. as shown in the diagram. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. The wood so treated will last for years. using four of the 7-in bolts. and countersinking the heads. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. of 7 ft. which face each other. Cal. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. A. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. so the bolts in both will not meet. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. After the trenches are dug. Richmond. --Contributed by W. equipped with a strainer. .the knee braces. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. except the bars. etc. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces.. If using mill-cut lumber. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. leaving the strainer always in position. save the bars. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. These will allow the ladle to be turned. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. but even unpainted they are very durable. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. Jaquythe. A large sized ladle. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. Two endpieces must be made. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks.

This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. A. or various cutting compounds of oil. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. If a little turpentine is added to the oil.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. it is necessary to place a stick. thus holding the pail as shown. milling machine. partly a barrier for jumps. which seems impossible. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. of sufficient 1ength. drill press or planer. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. . In order to accomplish this experiment. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. Oil. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog.

apart. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. The round part of this log must be planed. 4 in. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . but 5 ft. bolt. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. long. ten 1/2-in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. square by 5 ft. 1 in. 1 cross brace. 2 bases. long. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. by 3 ft. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. from each end. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. Procure from a saw mill. bolts. To construct. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. 4 in. long. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. 3 in. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. bolts. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. projections and splinters. and free from knots. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 2 adjusting pieces. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. These are well nailed in place. to fasten the knee braces at the top. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. in diameter--the larger the better. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. piece of 2 by 4-in. bolts. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. These are placed 18 in. 2 by 4 in. is a good length. 7 in. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. The material required is as follows: Two posts. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. stud cut rounding on one edge. long. 2 by 4 in. long.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. long. beginning 1-1/2 in. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. by 3 ft. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. Hand holds must be provided next.. square by 5-1/2 ft. by 3 ft.. 4 knee braces. wood yard or from the woods. apart in a central position on the horse. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. long. in the ground. 4 in. two 1/2-in. 2 by 4 in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. 4-1/2 in. long.

no one is responsible but himself. but nevertheless. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. water.horse top. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. etc. Cal. such as a dent. Also. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Such a hand sled can be made in a . it is caused by some obstruction. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration.--Contributed by W. it is caused by an overloaded shell. A. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Jaquythe. snow. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. then bending to the shape desired. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Richmond. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. pipe and fittings. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. over and around.

with a pair of flat-nose pliers. 1/4 or 3/16 in. The end elevation. in width and 1/32 in. W. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. --Contributed by Arthur E. 2. France. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. . The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. Paris.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. when complete. These. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. at E and F. will give the length. which. 1. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Toronto. are all the tools necessary. Ontario. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. --Contributed by James E. Boston. is much better than a wood sled. --Contributed by J. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. Noble. Joerin. when straightened out. Vener. thick. then run a string over each part. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Mass.

Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. and the latter will take on a bright luster. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. It is best to use soft water. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. nor that which is partly oxidized. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. 3. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. AA and BB. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. 4. . 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. are nailed. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. The method shown in Figs.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc.

Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. or unequal widths as in Fig. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. 1). . If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. or various rulings may be made. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman. 2. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. as shown in Fig. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. Percy Ashley in Rudder. The materials used are: backbone. 2. 4. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. class ice-yacht. 8 and 9. A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. as shown in Fig. Broad lines can be made. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 3.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The headstock is made of two tees. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. pipe. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. 1. pins to keep them from turning. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. a tee and a forging. a larger size of pipe should be used. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. It can be made longer or shorter. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. Both the lower . The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. A good and substantial homemade lathe. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. long. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. about 30 in. out from the collar. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. but if it is made much longer. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center.Fig. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. bent and drilled as shown.

Indiana. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Man. Musgrove. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by W. a straight line should be scratched Fig. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. W. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. 2. To do this. UpDeGraff. or a key can be used as well. Held. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. 2. 3/4 or 1 in.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. 1. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. It is about 1 in. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. --Contributed by M. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. Cal. thick as desired. a corresponding line made on this. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Fruitvale. M. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. Laporte. and will answer for a great variety of work. 2. else taper turning will result. . but also their insulating properties. Boissevain. --Contributed by W. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. as shown in Fig.

The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. To obviate this. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The handle is of pine about 18 in. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. J. In use. as shown. --Contributed by E. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Smith. Ark. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. long. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. Cline. Ft. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle.

--Contributed by Walter W. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. This prevents the drill from wobbling. face off the end of the piece. take .An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. if this method is followed: First. New Orleans. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Denver. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. La. Colo. After being entered. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club. White. the drill does not need the tool. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. on starting the lathe. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. centering is just one operation too many. which should be backed out of contact. and when once in true up to its size. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and.

is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. a long piece of glass tubing. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. all the better. It can be used in a great number of tricks. In doing this. shorter t h a n the wand. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. as shown in D. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. is put into the paper tube A. and can be varied to suit the performer. shown at C. The glass tube B. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. a bout 1/2 in. After the wand is removed. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. unknown to the spectators. and this given to someone to hold. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. the cap is placed over the paper tube. The handkerchief rod. says the Sphinx. after being shown empty. vanishing wand. by applying caustic soda or . This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish.

every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 1 Bottom.potash around the edges of the letters. The sides. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. 1 Neck. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. 2 Sides. Glue strips of soft wood. with the back side rounding. cut to any shape desired. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. As the cement softens. by 14 by 17 in. Cut a piece of hard wood. preferably hard maple. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. long. thick. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. Glue the neck to the box. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. square and 1-7/8 in. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. across the front and back to strengthen them. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. This dimension and those for the frets . With care and patience. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. as shown by K. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. 1. The brace at D is 1 in. 1 End. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. 3/16. can be made by the home mechanic. and glue it to the neck at F. and if care is taken in selecting the material. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 1/4 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. End.

toward each end. H. Frary. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. Carbondale. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. When it is completed you will have a canoe. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. E.should be made accurately. thick and about 1 ft. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. O. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. wide and 11-1/2 ft. in diameter. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. and beveled . Stoddard.Pa. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. but it is not. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. long is used for a keel. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. 3/16 in. 1) on which to stretch the paper. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. -Contributed by J. Six holes. A board 1 in. or backbone. Norwalk. --Contributed by Chas.

are next put in.) in notches. two twigs may be used to make one rib. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. The ribs. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. when made of green elm. two strips of wood (b. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. Any tough. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. . will answer nearly as well. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. or other place. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. 3. Green wood is preferable. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. a. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. 2). and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. 4. Fig. wide by 26 in. The cross-boards (B. procure at a carriage factory. 1 and 2. In drying. b. Fig. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. such as is used for making chairbottoms. Shape these as shown by A. 3). while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. Fig. These are better. apart. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. Fig. b. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. slender switches of osier willow. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. 4). Fig. as they are apt to do. long. 2. thick. 3. C. 2). the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. twigs 5 or 6 ft. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out.. as shown in Fig. Fig. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. with long stout screws. some tight strips of ash. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. by means of a string or wire. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. and are not fastened. the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. Fig. and so. 3/8 in. buy some split cane or rattan. long are required. For the gunwales (a. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. or similar material. but before doing this. the loose strips of ash (b. thick. Osiers probably make the best ribs. Fig. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. in thickness and should be cut. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. which are easily made of long. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. b. Fig. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. C. 1. probably. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. in such cases. but twigs of some other trees. 13 in. such as hazel or birch. B. and notched at the end to receive them (B. as before described. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. and. 3). It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout.

but neither stiff nor very thick. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. It should be drawn tight along the edges. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. When thoroughly dry. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. You may put in . Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. and as soon as that has soaked in. after wetting it. of very strong wrapping-paper. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Fig. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. and held in place by means of small clamps. and very tough. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. and steady in the water.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. but with less turpentine. tacking it to the bottom-board. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. When the paper is dry. however. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. Then take some of the split rattan and. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. If not. apply a second coat of the same varnish. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. if it has been properly constructed of good material. It should be smooth on the surface. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Being made in long rolls. 5). wide. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. B. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. and light oars. If the paper be 1 yd. The paper is then trimmed. preferably iron.

Fig. to fit it easily. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. and make a movable seat (A. Fig. 5. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. they will support very heavy weights. The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. 5). Fig. We procured a box and made a frame. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. 2. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. 1 and the end in . We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. fore and aft. 1.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. and if driven as shown in the cut. Drive the lower nail first. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry.

more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. This way has its drawbacks. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat.Fig. being softer where the flame has been applied. this makes the tube airtight. A good way to handle this work. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. Close the other end with the same operation. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. and the glass. 3. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. 5. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. Pittsburg. This is an easy . 4. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. Pa. and the result is. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in.

This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet.way to make a thermometer tube. very rapid progress can be made. -Contributed by A. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. above the metal. or six arms. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. then reverse. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. four. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. fourth. After the bulb is formed. with a piece of carbon paper. rivet punch. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. The candle holders may have two. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. Sixth. extra metal all around. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. also trace the decorative design. file. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. three. Give the metal a circular motion. flat and round-nosed pliers. Oswald. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. metal shears. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. fifth. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. thin screw. third. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. 23 gauge. above the work and striking it with the hammer. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. Seventh. second.

How To Make a Hectograph [326] .Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. Having pierced the bracket. Metal polish of any kind will do. drip cup. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. and holder. Small copper rivets are used. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.

If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. if it has not absorbed too much ink. Soak 1 oz. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. alcohol 2 parts. the stick at the bottom of the sail. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. The gaff. I steer with the front wheel. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. and water 24 parts. Heat 6-1/2 oz. is a broomstick. and other things as they were needed. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. and it will be ready for future use. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. thus it was utilized. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. A saw. Shiloh. N. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. and brace and bit were the tools used. and add the gelatine. Fifty.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. Mother let me have a sheet. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. hammer. glycerine 4 parts. of glycerine to about 200 deg. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. Twenty cents was all I spent. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. when it will be ready for use. deep. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. using a steel pen. they were like an ice boat with a sail. F. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. smooth it down and then remove as before. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. except they had wheels instead of runners. and in a week . sugar 1 part. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. winding the ends where they came together with wire. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. on a water bath. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. The boom. all the rest I found. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. J. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens .

circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. wide and 15 in. above the center. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. This ring is made up from two rings. and the lens slide. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. and. 1. at a distance of 24 ft. 3. wire brads. The board is centered both ways. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. long. about 2 ft. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. slide to about 6 ft. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. E. If a small saw is used. as desired. and the work carefully done. thick. Fig. wide. DD. describe a 9-in. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. and a projecting lens 2 in. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. H. The slide support. high.. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. or glue. but if such a box is not found. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. are . The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. and 14 in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. G. A and B. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. provided the material is of metal. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. or a lens of 12-in. 1/2 to 3/4 in. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. 8 in. well seasoned pine. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. A table. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. at a point 1 in. focus enlarging a 3-in. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in.

How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. To reach the water. of safe.-Contributed by G. the strips II serving as guides. the water at once extinguishes the flame. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. light burning oil. St. The arrangement is quite safe as. A sheet . Paul. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. and when the right position is found for each. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. B. P. E. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. should the glass happen to upset. apply two coats of shellac varnish. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. placed on the water. Minn. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. but not long enough.constructed to slip easily on the table. Small strips of tin. JJ.

The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. 3. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. form a piece of wire in the same shape. N. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. 4. then the corners on one end are doubled over. from a tent company. Y. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 1. Schenectady. 12 ft. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. Crawford. 3 in. 9 in. If one of these clips is not at hand. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. Fig.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. by 12 ft. 3. 2. I ordered a canvas bag. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. --Contributed by J.. Fig.H. to cover the mattresses.

V. D. Teasdale. for amperes and the other post. Attach a piece of steel rod. first mark the binding-post A. Pa. White. Fig. long. Do not use too strong a rubber. Fold two strips of light cardboard. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. Colo. to keep it from unwinding. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. thick. --Contributed by Edward M. To calibrate the instrument. 2. A Film Washing Trough [331] . using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. 1/2 in. 1. and insert two binding-posts. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. 2. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. A rubber band. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. drill two 3/16 in.each edge. holes in the edge. open on the edges. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. so as to form two oblong boxes. 1/2 in. C. wide. Denver. in the center coil. 1. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Walter W. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. apart. through which the indicator works. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. 3/4 in. 2. An arc is cut in the paper. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Warren. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. Fig. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. 3/4 in. long and 3/16 in. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. 3 to swing freely on the tack. insulating them from the case with cardboard. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. to the coil of small wire for volts.

Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. as shown. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. Wood Burning [331] . with the large hole up. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. --Contributed by M. Dayton. M. Place this can on one end of the trough. Hunting. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. Cut a 1/4-in. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. O. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet.

Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. mouth downward. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . then into this bottle place.

Place the small bottle in as before. If the cork is adjusted properly. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. as shown in the sketch. thick. If the small bottle used is opaque. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. 1. Upper Troy.Y. Auburn. long. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. many puzzling effects may be obtained. but not very thick. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. 3/4 in. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. Whitehouse. --Contributed by John Shahan. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. wide and 4 in. N. This will make a very pretty ornament. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. --Contributed by Fred W. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. provided the bottle is wide. 2. Ala.

Its smaller parts. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. A staple. which was nailed to the face plate. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. I. Fig. pulley. 4. The 21/2-in. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. 2. Fig. The bearing blocks were 3 in. Both bearings were made in this manner. G. 1. K. thick. B. long. in diameter and 1 in. which was 6 in. even in a light breeze. pulley F. On a 1000-ft. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. 3. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. high without the upper half. as shown in Fig. thick and 3 in. was 1/4in. If a transmitter is used. by the method shown in Fig. to the shaft. iron rod. 1 in. wide. --Contributed by D. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Fig. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. 1. thick.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. were constructed of 1-in. 1. The shaft C. line. 1. Fig. or ordinary telephone transmitters. which extended to the ground. such as blades and pulleys. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. Milter. Fig. sugar pine on account of its softness. 2 ft. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. W. The wire L was put . was keyed to shaft C. which gave considerable power for its size. 1. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters.

2. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. Fig. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. strips. square to the board P at the top of the tower. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. top down also. There a 1/4-in. in diameter. 1. Fig. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. was tacked. long. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. G. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. providing one has a few old materials on hand. Two washers were placed on shaft C. To make the key.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. The bed plate D. as. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. so that the 1/4-in. for instance. a 1/2-in. apart in the tower. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. 25 ft. 1. 1. This fan was made of 1/4-in. The power was put to various uses. Fig. Fig. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. 3 in. with brass headed furniture tacks. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. long and 3 in. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. cut out another piece of tin (X. hole for the shaft G was in the center. was 2 ft. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. washers were placed under pulley F. long and 1/2 in. and was cut the shape shown. Fig. This board was 12 in. 0. 1. If you have no bell. long. hole was bored for it. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. 1) 4 in. long and bend it as shown at A. with all parts in place. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. across the thin edge of a board. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. The smaller one. 6. Fig. This completes the receiver or sounder. Fig. H. The other lid. through the latter. pine 18 by 12 in. wide and 1 in. 6. long and bend it as . R. To lessen the friction here. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. 5. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. when the windmill needed oiling. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. in the center of the board P.

The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. causing a buzzing sound. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. The rear barrels are. leaving the other wire as it is. -Contributed by John R. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. Now. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Thus a center drive is made. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. like many another device boys make. When tired of this instrument. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. McConnell. 2. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. after the manner of bicycle wheels. at the front. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. Going back to Fig. although it can be made with but two. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. using cleats to hold the board frame. as indicated. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. fitted with paddles as at M. By adjusting the coils. 1. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Before tacking it to the board. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. as shown at Water.shown. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. and. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish.

can be built. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. copper piping and brass tubing for base. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. as shown in Fig. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. 3. which will give any amount of pleasure. If the journals thus made are well oiled. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. There is no danger. feet on the pedals. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. or even a little houseboat. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. 1. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. To propel it. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. The speed is slow at first. there will not be much friction.

place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Fig. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. Then melt out the rosin or lead. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. 1. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. 2. Shape small blocks of boxwood. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. 2. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. then the glass disc and then the other ring. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. Fig. D. Place one brass ring in cylinder. and so creating a false circuit. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. 2. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. A. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. If magnifying glass cannot be had. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. B. Turn a small circle of wood. 1. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Fig. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. or it may be put to other uses if desired. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. 1. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. C. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. Fig. If it is desired to make the light very complete.of pleasure for a little work.

set alarm key as shown in diagram.. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. after two turns have been made on the key. 5-1/4 by 10 in. switch. bell. S. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. Swissvale. while lying in bed. bracket. and pulled tight. wire from bell to switch. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. key of alarm clock. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. Utah. E. long. Ogden. --Contributed by C. Throw lever off from the right to center. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. thick. by having the switch on the baseboard. In placing clock on shelf. contact post. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. near the bed. wide and 1/16 in. Chatland. T. I. wire from light to switch. To get the cylinder into its carriage. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. B. wire from batteries to switch. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. When alarm goes off. 4-1/2 in. if too small. 4 in. F. dry batteries. To operate this. G. after setting alarm. or 1/4in. Pa. D. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) .india rubber tubing. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. long. brass rod. J. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. some glue will secure them. copper tubing. which stops bell ringing. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . such as is used for cycle valves. shelf. C. brass strip. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. To throw on light throw levers to the left. Brinkerhoff. 3/8 in. X. C. The parts indicated are as follows: A. --Contributed by Geo. H.

Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. 2. being careful not to get the sand in it. Lanesboro. in diameter. about 3-1/2 in. beyond the end of the spindle. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. making it as true and smooth as possible. This is to form the fuse hole. as at A. A flannel bag. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. S. long. letting it extend 3/4 in. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. 1/4 in. gives the heater a more finished appearance. All that is required is a tin covering. Pull out the nail and stick. wide. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. from one end. A small lamp of about 5 cp. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. 2. for instance. Having finished this. Make the spindle as in Fig. as at B. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Fig. 4 in. as . Fig. Minn. a bed warmer. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. will do the heating. about 6 in. as at A. Make a shoulder. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. 3. --Contributed by Chas. which can be made of an old can. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. 1. in diameter.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. 1. place stick and all in a pail of sand. as in Fig. Fig. Chapman.

The bow is made from straight-grained oak. good straight-grained pine will do. 1 in. 11/2 in. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . long. 6 in.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. ash. deep. 5/8 in. The illustration shows how this is done. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. thick. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. spring and arrows. wide and 3 ft. Joerin. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 1. thick. but if this wood cannot be procured. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. this is to keep the edges from splitting. or hickory. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. wide and 3/8 in. A piece of oak. 3/8 in. wide and 6 ft. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. A piece of tin. thick. will be sufficient to make the trigger. long. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. long. --Contributed by Arthur E. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. The material must be 1-1/2 in.

insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. wide at each end. To throw the arrow. as shown in Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. Trownes. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. 6. from the end of the stock. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. in diameter. 4. --Contributed by O. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. To shoot the crossbow. from the opposite end. Ill. E. Wilmette. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. The trigger. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. and one for the trigger 12 in. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. as shown in Fig. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. thick. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. having the latter swing quite freely. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. When the trigger is pulled.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. 3. place the arrow in the groove. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. it lifts the spring up. Such a temporary safe light may be . which is 1/4 in. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. or through the necessity of. Fig. 9. better still. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. The bow is not fastened in the stock. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. 2. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. 8. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. 7. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. Fig. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. A spring. The stick for the bow. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. Fig.

Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. By chopping the trunk almost through. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. or only as a camp on a short excursion. The hinged cover E. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. Moreover. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. is used as a door. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. make the frame of the wigwam. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. since the flame of the candle is above A. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. The cut should be about 5 ft. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. from the ground. and nail it in position as shown at A. respectively. from the ground. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. and replace as shown at B. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. C. Remove the bottom of the box. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Remove one end. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. making lighting and trimming convenient. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. the bark lean-to is a . it is the easiest camp to make. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. apart. says Photo Era. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. This lamp is safe.

A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. For a foot in the middle of the stick. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. and when the camp is pitched. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. Tongs are very useful in camp. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. Sheets of bark. long and 2 or 3 ft. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. wide and 6 ft. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. 6 ft. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. make the best kind of a camp bed. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. For a permanent camp. are a convenient size for camp construction. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. thick. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. and split the tops with an ax. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. selecting a site for a camp. 3 ft. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. deep and covered with blankets. nails are necessary to hold it in place. long and 1-1/2 in. In the early summer. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. long. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. A piece of elm or hickory. Where bark is used. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. spruce. wide. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. a 2-in. . will dry flat. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. piled 2 or 3 ft. and cedar.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. makes a good pair of tongs. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in.

hinges.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and affording accommodation for several persons. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. .

about 4 in. 1. Kane. Doylestown. A. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. --Contributed by James M. Fig.. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. changing the water both morning and night. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. B. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. to another .Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. the interior can. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. I drove a small cork. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. B. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. Pa. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. deep and 4 in. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. wide. and provide a cover or door. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge.

for instance. to pass through an increasing resistance. fused into one side. C. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. limit. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. a liquid. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. 4 and 5). shows how the connections to the supply current are made. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. 2. 2.glass tube. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. which project inside and outside of the tube. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. Fig. The current is thus compelled. The diagram. This makes . and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. E. if necessary. such as ether. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. until. for instance. 3. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises.

when several pieces are placed together. or pattern. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. drill the four rivet holes. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. making it 1/16 in. 3-3/8 in. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. on a lathe. as shown in the left-hand sketch. thick. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. cannot be used so often. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. The bearing studs are now made. After cleaning them with the solution. When the frame is finished so far. which may be of any thickness so that. which will make it uniform in size. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. Fig. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. is composed of wrought sheet iron. 3-3/8 in. two holes. A 5/8in. 1. between centers. and for the outside of the frame. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. by turning the lathe with the hand. larger than the dimensions given. 3. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. tap. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. in diameter. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. 2. thick. to allow for finishing. assemble and rivet them solidly. Alpena. A. clamp the template. brass or iron. These holes are for the bearing studs. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. Then the field can be finished to these marks. If the thickness is sufficient. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. or even 1/16 in. After the template is marked out. mark off a space. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. Before removing the field from the lathe. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. therefore. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. 4-1/2 in. Fig. hole is . in diameter. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. brass. but merely discolored.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. screws. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. Michigan. bent at right angles as shown. thicker. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. set at 1/8 in. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. they will make a frame 3/4 in.

into which a piece of 5/8-in.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. When the bearings are located. The shaft of the armature. or otherwise finished. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. Fig. brass rod is inserted. soldered into place. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. is turned up from machine steel. 4. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. and build up the solder well. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . solder them to the supports. file them out to make the proper adjustment.

follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. wide. as shown in Fig. 1-1/8 in. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. When this is accomplished.. as shown in Fig. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. washers. then drill a 1/8-in. as shown in Fig. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. to allow for finishing to size. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. thick and 1/4 in. 3. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. 9. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. thick are cut like the pattern. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. After they . When annealed. and held with a setscrew. 7. inside diameter. hole and tap it for a pin. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. 1/8 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. 3. Procure 12 strips of mica. Rivet them together. 3/4 in. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. The pins are made of brass. by 1-1/2 in. and then they are soaked in warm water. 8. 6. as shown in Fig. sheet fiber. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. deep and 7/16 in. thick. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. thick. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. 6. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. After the pieces are cut out. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. wide. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. Find the centers of each segment at one end. being formed for the ends. threaded. as shown in Fig. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. Make the core 3/4 in. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. brass rod. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. or segments. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. as shown m Fig. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. The sides are also faced off and finished. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. Armature-Ring Core. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. 5. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. holes through them for rivets. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. thick. 3/4 in.

insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. Run one end of the field wire. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. and bring the end of the wire out at B. All connections should be securely soldered. the two ends of the wire. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. shown at A. When the glue is set. are soldered together. or side. 8 in. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. about 100 ft. The field is wound with No. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. of the end to protrude. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. sheet fiber. wide and 1 in. Fig. after the motor is on the stand. After one coil. 1. long. To connect the wires. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. of No. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. 6 in. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. 5. and wind on four layers. In starting to wind. This winding is for a series motor. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. of the wire. The winding is started at A. by bending the end around one of the projections.have dried. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. 1. yet it shows a series of . The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. until the 12 slots are filled. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. The two ends are joined at B. Fig. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. being required. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. sheet fiber. The source of current is connected to the terminals. shown at B. they are glued to the core insulation. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. which will take 50 ft. thick.

you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. which serves as the ground wire. A 1/2-in. still more simply. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. is fastened to the metallic body. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. or. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. one from each of the eight contacts. Nine wires run from the timer.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . as in the case of a spiral. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. and one. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses.

wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. circle. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. Without this attachment. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. It should be . 6 in. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. long. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. 45 deg. thus giving 16 different directions. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. board. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. of the dial.The Wind Vane. Covering these is a thin.

-Contributed by James L. called a chip carving knife. is most satisfactory. if not too high. To work these outlines. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. will be enough for the two sides. or. Blackmer. Y. and about 6 in. N. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. long to give the best results. according to who is going to use it. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. thus making a universal joint. Before tacking the fourth side. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. 14 by 18 in. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. will answer the purpose just as well. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. though a special knife. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. high. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. . The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. To make it. also a piece of new carpet. will be sufficient. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. Buffalo. making it heavy or light. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. however. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Fill the box with any handy ballast. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. and securely nail on the top of the box. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. Place the leather on some level." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find.about 6 ft. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. Cut 3-in.

fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. A good leather paste will be required. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. An ordinary sewing-machine . Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.

and tie them together securely at the bottom. rather than the smooth side. N. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. a needle and some feathers. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. B. Y. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. of water. can be thrown away when no longer needed. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. away from it. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap.will do if a good stout needle is used. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. or a hip that has been wrenched. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. --Contributed by Katharine D. If a fire breaks out. square and tying a piece of . A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. Morse. of common salt and 10 lb. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. as in cases of a sprained ankle. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. temporary lameness. Syracuse. and fasten the feathers inside of it.

A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. setting traps. Wis.J. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. long. The end is filed to an edge. long. Hellwig.string to each corner. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. board all around the bottom on the inside. Gordon Dempsey. 1/8 in. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. F. laying poisoned meat and meal. --Contributed by J. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. wound on the head end. which is the essential part of the instrument. G. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. but not sharp. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. as shown. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. Ashland. deep. high. The coil is 1 in. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. etc. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. the corners being wired. Albany. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. A small wooden or fiber end. made up of four layers of No. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. N. The diaphragm C. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. N. and tacked it to the boards. is cut on the wood. The strings should be about 15 in.. This not only keeps the rats out. Paterson. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. Y. One end is removed entirely. commonly called tintype tin. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. and a coil of wire. cut to the length of the spool. A. There is a 1-in. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. wide and 1/16 in. E. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. thus helping the rats to enter. . syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. B. and the receiver is ready for use. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. The body of the receiver. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. letting it go at arm's length. --Contributed by John A. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast.

then dry and polish with a linen cloth. To clean small articles. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. begin with the smallest scrolls. A single line will be sufficient. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. gold. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. better still. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. wide. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. a piece of small wire. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. Take a piece of string or. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. and bend each strip in shape. The vase is to have three supports. to .

This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. wide when stitching up the purse. 4-1/4 in. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. Work down the outside line of the design. 3-1/2 in. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1.. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. using a duller point of the tool. and does not require coloring. Trace also the line around the purse. through which to slip the fly AGH. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Fold the leather on the line EF. . Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side.which the supports are fastened with rivets. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. sharp pencil. from the lines EF on the piece. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. from C to D.. Press or model down the leather all around the design. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. After taking off the pattern. 6-3/8 in.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. as shown in the sketch. thus raising it. 3-1/4 in. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. from E to F. About 1 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint.

Procure a thin board 1/4 in. with pins or small nails. and cut out a wheel.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. When it is finished. Cut off six pieces 12 in. Fit this to the two . all the way around. around the wheel. Now take another piece of wood. then place the square piece out of which Fig. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. 3. deep. It can be made without the use of a lathe. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. by 12 ft. 1/2 in. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. and cut it out as shown in Fig. square. deep.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. with a compass saw. as well as useful. with the open side down. long. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. b. and the projections B. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. being cast in wooden molds. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. and which will be very interesting. as shown in Fig. It is neat and efficient. 1. thick. following the dotted lines. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. Make the lug 1/4 in. with the largest side down. and. Then nail the wheel down firmly. the "open" side. 1 was cut. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. 2. First. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. and a model for speed and power. and tack the other piece slightly. This also should be slightly beveled. leaving the lug a. then nail it.

Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. one of which should have a 3/8-in.pieces just finished. 4. place it between two of the 12-in. holes through it. and boring a 3/8-in. hole entirely through at the same place. in the center of it. as shown by the . Now put mold No. Now take another of the 12-in. bolts. then bolt it together. deep. Take the mold apart. square pieces of wood. and bore six 1/4-in. hole 1/4 in. square pieces of wood. slightly beveled. hole bored through its center. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and clean all the shavings out of it.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. After it is finished. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and cut it out as shown in Fig. 1. and lay it away to dry.

one in the lug. put the top of the brace through this hole. instead of the right-handed piece. After it is fitted in. Let it stand for half an hour. and drill them in the same manner. and bore three 1/4-in. Now take mold No. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. b. 5. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. Commencing 1-1/2 in. 1. long. d. true it up with a square. as shown in illustration. and the exhaust hole in projection b. and lay it away to dry. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. wide and 16 in. place the entire machine in a vise. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. Now cut out one of the 12-in. where the casting did not fill out.1. Put this together in mold No. Using the Brace . in diameter must now be obtained. fasten a 3/8-in.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig.2. and connect to the boiler. This is mold No. place it under the drill. This is for a shaft. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. Pour metal into mold No. lay it on a level place. so that it will turn easily. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. and 3/8-in. 4. until it is full. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. take an ordinary brace. A piece of mild steel 5 in. Fig. from the one end. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench.1. the other right-handed. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. Then bolt the castings together. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings.black dots in Fig. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. as shown by the black dots in Fig. holes at d. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. and the other in the base. and run in babbitt metal again. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. see that the bolts are all tight. one in the projections. 6. and pour babbitt metal into it. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. This will cast a paddle-wheel. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. drill in it.2. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. only the one is left-handed. over the defective part. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. and pouring metal in to fill it up. B. holes. and two 1/4-in. This is the same as Fig. long. and drill it entirely through. screw down. 6.

How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Your turbine engine is now ready for work.. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. turn the wheel to the shape desired. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. and the other 8 ft. At each end of the 6ft. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. and with three small screw holes around the edge. and. long. one 6 ft. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Plan of Ice Boat . while it is running at full speed. Then take a knife or a chisel. piece and at right angles to it. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. and if instructions have been carefully followed.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. will do good service. with a boss and a set screw.

Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. boards to make the platform. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. Make your runners as long as possible. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. in diameter. in diameter in the center. Run the seam on a machine. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. which may come in handy in heavy winds. distant. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . 8 a reef point knot. at the end. and about 8 in. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. in diameter at the base. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. as the runners were fastened. at the top. plank. projecting as in Fig. The spar should be 9 ft. in the top before the skate is put on. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. Figure 2 shows the rudder post. plank nail 8-in. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. leaving 1 ft. so much the better will be your boat. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. lo