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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/17/2011

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Sections

  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother

THE BOY MECHANIC VOLUME I

Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)

BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I

THE

700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
HOW TO CONSTRUCT
WIRELESS OUTFITS, BOATS, CAMP EQUIPMENT, AERIAL. GLIDERS, KITES, SELF-PROPELLED VEHICLES ENGINES, MOTORS, ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, CAMERAS
AND

HUNDREDS OF OTHER THINGS WHICH DELIGHT EVERY BOY

WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
COPYRIGHTED, 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO

POPULAR MECHANICS CO.
PUBLISHERS

A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. 1. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. grasp it and hold the same as a club. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Toronto. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps. distant. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. wide and 2 ft. The pieces are then dressed round. E. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. away. apart. Ontario.Fig. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. Noble. 1. 2 -. Fig. as shown in Fig. with the hollow side away from you. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. 1. long will make six boomerangs. To throw a boomerang. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . A piece of plank 12 in. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. as shown in Fig. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. until it is bound as shown in Fig. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. 2.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. 2. It is held in this curve until dry. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. --Contributed by J. The finished preserver is shown in Fig.

and it may be necessary to use a little water. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. however. A very light. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. thick. forcing it down closely. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. or rather no bottom at all. but about 12 in. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. and with a movable bottom. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. If the snow is of the right consistency. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. which makes the building simpler and easier. high and 4 or 5 in. long. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter.the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. the block will drop out. dry snow will not pack easily. 6 in. made of 6-in. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. it is not essential to the support of the walls. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. blocks . and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. A wall. The top will then have a uniform inward slant. minus the top. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. one inside of the circle and the other outside. Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. First.

The piece of wood. 3. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. Goodbrod. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. which can be made of wood. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. or an old safe dial will do. a. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up. long and 1 in. A nail. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. above the ground. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. 3 -. Fig. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. There is no outward thrust. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. 1. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. 1. D. C. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. Ore. Fig. It also keeps them out. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. is 6 or 8 in. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. which is about 1 ft. 2. 2.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. Union. and the young architect can imitate them. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . wide. --Contributed by Geo. Fig. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding.

Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. Syracuse. --Contributed by R. says the Sphinx. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. New York. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. the box locked . The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. S. Merrill. as the weight always draws them back to place. one pair of special hinges. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. If ordinary butts are used. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes.When taking hot dishes from the stove. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board.

Make allowance for flaps on two sides. If the measuring has been done properly. 1. draw one-half of it. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. To make a design similar to the one shown. as shown. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. allowing each coat time to dry. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. When the sieve is shaken. Alberta Norrell. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. about 1-32 of an inch. one for each corner. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. 2. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. With the metal shears. on drawing paper. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. 3. Ga. All .and the performer steps out in view. then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. It remains to bend the flaps. as shown in Fig. If they do not. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. as shown in Fig. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. 1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. Augusta. -Contributed by L. smooth surface. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Fig. Place the piece in a vise. proceed as follows: First.

The current. R. Denver. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. Colo. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. is fitted tightly in the third hole. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. in passing through the lamp. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. about 6 in. in diameter. After this has dried. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. as shown at AA. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . In boring through rubber corks. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. Galbreath. C. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. if rolled under the shoe sole. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. To keep the metal from tarnishing. of No.the edges should be left smooth. The common cork. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. When the current is turned off. 25 gauge German-silver wire. 25 German-silver wire. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. --Contributed by R. and in the positions shown in the sketch. A piece of porcelain tube. causing it to expand. from the back end. should be in the line. A resistance. used for insulation. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. heats the strip of German-silver wire. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. If a touch of color is desired. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork. H. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. long. Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. which is about 6 in. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. B.

Purchase two long book straps. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Kansas City. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. 1. 3. 2. Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. leaving a space of 4 in. with thin strips of wood. Fig. Mo.bottom ring. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. . but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. as shown in Fig. between them as shown in Fig. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. --Contributed by David Brown. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering.

Kane. having a gong 2-1/2 in. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit. The string is then tied. 4. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. A. 1. Fig. Pa. C. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. are mounted on the outside of the box. just the right weight for a woman to use. When the aeroplane tips. Morse. Syracuse. --Contributed by Katharine D. and a pocket battery. and tack smoothly. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. The folds are made over the string. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. 3.An ordinary electric bell. one weighing 15 lb. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. in diameter. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. and one weighing 25 lb. --Contributed by James M. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown.. long. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. Two strips of brass. These are shown in Fig. Fig. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. Fig.. which is the right weight for family use. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. to form a handle. as . 1. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. 1. Y. 36 in. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. 2. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. N. Doylestown.

in diameter. bent as shown in Fig. 2. The saw. 1. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. N. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. machine screws. the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. 2. --Contributed by Louis J. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. if once used. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. such as brackets. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. Y. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. bookracks and shelves can be made with one. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. two 1/8 -in. AA. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. four washers and four square nuts. and many fancy knick-knacks. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. long. Day. 3/32 or 1/4 in. Floral Park. Frame Made of a Rod . These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match.

using a swab and an old stiff brush. Watch Fob For coloring silver. An Austrian Top [12] . as well as the depth of etching desired. Michigan. or silver. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. after breaking up. 1 part nitric acid. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Drying will cause this to change to purple. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. be covered the same as the back. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-.. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. therefore. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. green and browns are the most popular. Silver is the most desirable but. If it colors the metal red. it has the correct strength. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. of water. A. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. For etching. of water in which dissolve. of course. use them in place of the outside nuts. The buckle is to be purchased. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. Of the leathers. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. though almost any color may be obtained. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. if copper or brass.may be made of either brass. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish. the most expensive. File these edges. Apply two coats. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. as well as brass and copper. rounding and smoothing with emery paper. --Contributed by W. In the design shown. Scranton. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. Detroit. Rub off the highlights. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. allowing each time to dry. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. 1 part sulphuric acid. treat it with color. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. copper.

long. Ypsilanti. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. hole.F. 5-1/4 in. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. A handle. 3/4 in. in diameter. set the top in the 3/4 -in. The handle is a piece of pine.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. Tholl. 1-1/4 in. starting at the bottom and winding upward. Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. . hole in this end for the top. A 1/16-in. Michigan. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. wide and 3/4 in. When the shank is covered. long. thick. --Contributed by J. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. Parts of the Top To spin the top. Bore a 3/4-in. allowing only 1-1/4 in. is formed on one end. pass one end through the 1/16-in.

Ga. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. having no sides. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. Northville. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. For black leathers. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. Alberta Norrell. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. Augusta. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. --Contributed by Miss L. --A. tarts or similar pastry. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. Houghton. A. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. . The baking surface. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. Mich.

says Studio Light. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. glass fruit jar. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light . Stringing Wires [13] A. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. Centralia. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. then solder cover and socket together. Mo. two turns will remove the jar. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. When you desire to work by white light. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. the same as shown in the illustration. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked.

as shown in the cross-section sketch. Wis. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post.for loading and development. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. square by 12 in. 1-1/4 in. When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. They are fastened. and not tip over. 16 Horizontal bars. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. . The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. square by 62 in. 1-1/4 in. so it can be folded up. Janesville. 4 Vertical pieces. 4 Braces.

and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. and a loop made in the end. The front can be covered . A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. O. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. --Contributed by Dr. After rounding the ends of the studs. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. If the loop is tied at the proper place. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. Cincinnati. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. after filling the pail with water. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. C. The whole. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle. Rosenthal. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. Phillipsburg. -Contributed by Charles Stem. H. from scrap material. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. New York.

sickly one. FIG. --Contributed by Gilbert A. if you try to tone them afterward. In my own practice. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Develop them into strong prints. the mouth of which rests against a. and. thoroughly fix. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. By using the following method. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. Baltimore. the color will be an undesirable. 1 FIG. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. either for contact printing or enlargements. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. The results will be poor. The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. Wehr. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. The . If the gate is raised slightly. Md. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. by all rules of the game. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. you are. principally mayonnaise dressing. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints.

An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in. Cal.. 2 oz. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. L.. Iodide of potassium . as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away. without previous wetting. 5 by 15 in... Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig. to make it 5 by 5 in..... When the desired reduction has taken place.. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. Put one on each corner of the blotting paper. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper.. 2... With a little practice.. transfer it to a tray of water. long to admit the angle support. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses.. preferably the colored kind...... three times.. when it starts to bleach..." Cyanide of potassium . --Contributed by T.. etc...... They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder.. in size.. in this solution. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete.. The blotting paper can .. Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison....... 1 and again as in Fig... wide and 4 in. 20 gr..... but... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished.. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax.. Place the dry print. this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain. The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone. being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects.. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper. Gray. Water ... It will bleach slowly and evenly... A good final washing completes the process. where it will continue to bleach. 16 oz. San Francisco... as it will appear clean much longer than the white.........

Oshkosh. the head of which is 2 in. --Contributed by J. 3. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. --Contributed by L. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Canada. and a length of 5 in. and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. 20 gauge.J. Wilson Aldred Toronto. wide below the .Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. wide. Wisconsin. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Make a design similar to that shown. having a width of 2-1/4 in. Monahan. the shaft 1 in.

Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. then trace the other half in the usual way. as shown in Fig. then put on a second coat. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. With files. 2. then coloring. 1. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. Fig. deep. Do not put the hands in the solution. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. but use a swab on a stick. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. freehand. 1 part nitric acid. The metal must be held firmly. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. After this has dried. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. 1 part sulphuric acid. 4. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. using turpentine. Apply with a small brush. Allow this to dry. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. which gives the outline of the design Fig. .FIG. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. For coloring olive green. Make one-half of the design. Trace the design on the metal. 1 Fig. using carbon paper. With the metal shears. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. being held perpendicular to the work. after folding along the center line. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. After the sawing. 3. Pierce a hole with a small drill. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. using a small metal saw.

as shown. --Contributed by Katharine D. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. Cal. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. M. then stain it a mahogany color. East Hartford. --Contributed by H. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. When this is cold. thick. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. Conn. Carl Cramer. Syracuse. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other. driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. on a chopping board. . attach brass handles. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. Richmond. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. it does the work rapidly. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. Burnett. --Contributed by M. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Ii is an ordinary staple. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. Morse. New York. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. After the stain has dried. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal.

WARNECKE Procure some brass. Kissimmee. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. Fig. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. 4. 53 steel pens. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. --Contributed by Mrs. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. also locate the drill holes. in width at the shank. as shown at A.. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. Richmond. as shown in Fig. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. machine screws. indicating the depth of the slots. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut.A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. or tin. about 3/16 in. one shaft. saucers or pans. Jaquythe. 1. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. square. brass. --Contributed by W. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. holes. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. A. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. and several 1/8-in. Florida. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Cal. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. 1/4 in. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. thick and 4 in. H. thick. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. not over 1/4 in. L. some pieces of brass. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades. two enameled. Atwell. .

with 1/8-in. into the hole. 7. hole. in diameter and 1/32 in. wide and bend as shown in Fig. supply pipe.. Bend as shown in Fig. and the ends filed round for the bearings. Fig. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. machine screws. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. 5. Fig. as shown in Fig. about 1/32 in. The shaft hole may also be filed square. 3. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. with a 3/8-in. lead should be run into the segments. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. machine screws and nuts. 6. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. brass and bolted to the casing. If metal dishes. Fig. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. hole in the center. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. These are connected to a 3/8-in. as in Fig. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. 3. thick. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. as shown. A 3/4-in. hole is drilled to run off the water. using two nuts on each screw. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. can be procured. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. 2. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. 2. long by 3/4 in. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. each about 1 in. 1. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . Two nuts should be placed on each screw. and pins inserted. a square shaft used. with the face of the disk. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. long and 5/16 in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. There should be a space of 1/16 in. thick. If the shaft is square. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. wide. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play.

put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. high and 15 in. using four to each leg. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. three of which are in the basket. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. The four legs are each 3/4-in. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. When assembling. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. With a string or tape measure. screws. Be sure to have the cover. --Contributed by S. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. Canada. Stain the wood before putting in the . allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. Hamilton. Fasten with 3/4-in. long. La Salle. Ill. The lower part. Now you will have the box in two pieces. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. from the top of the box. --Contributed by F. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. make these seams come between the two back legs. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Smith. deep over all. to make the bottom. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. from the bottom end of the legs. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. deep and 1-1/4 in. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. V. square and 30-1/2 in. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. we will call the basket. Cooke. or more in diameter. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. 8-1/2 in. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge.

Fig. Packard. --also the lower edge when necessary. Baltimore. The folded part in the center is pasted together.lining. and gather it at that point. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. 2.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . Sew on to the covered cardboards. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. When making the display. as shown in the sketch. wide. sewing on the back side. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Mass. Md.2 Fig. Cover them with the cretonne. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. wide and four strips 10 in. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. 1. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. -Contributed by Stanley H. The side. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Boston. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. you can. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow.

Crockett. When through using the pad. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. 3. It is cleanly. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Mo. N. --Contributed by B. saving all the solid part. Y. Orlando Taylor. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. L. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. and. Cross Timbers. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. Gloversville. --Contributed by H. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Fig. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. with slight modifications. It is not difficult to .

Texas. Lowell. and scrape out the rough parts. After this is done. -Contributed by C. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. Lane. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters. across the face. Bourne. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. --Contributed by Edith E. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. or if desired. Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. If a file is used. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. S. and secure it in place with glue or paste.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. After stirring. it should be new and sharp. Both of these methods are wasteful. Mass. remove the contents. are shown in the diagram. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. El Paso.

Iowa. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. As these were single-faced disk records. Those having houses . The process works well and needs no watching. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. Ill. Ill. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. After several hours' drying. Des Moines. A Postcard Rack [25]. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork. He captured several pounds in a few hours. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. circled over the funnel and disappeared. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. --Contributed by Loren Ward. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. Oregon. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. F. Canton. Greenleaf. --Contributed by Geo.cooking utensil. Turl. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. The insects came to the light. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. --Contributed by Marion P. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. Wheeler. Oak Park.

and both exactly alike. The single boards can then be fixed. not even with the boards themselves. plane and pocket knife. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch.. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Glenbrook. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. will do as well. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. the bottom being 3/8 in. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. Conn. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. one on each side of what will be the . These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. Only three pieces are required. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. --Contributed by Thomas E. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. Lay the floor next. Dobbins. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. Rosenberg. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. Both sides can be put together in this way. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. 6 in. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. --Contributed by Wm. by 2 ft. but for cheapness 3/4 in. Mass. boards are preferable. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. Worcester. and the second one for the developing bench. place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth. material. the best material to use being matched boards. and as they are simple in design. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. thick.. 6 in. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in.

as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. as shown in Figs. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. It is shown in detail in Fig. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. and in the middle an opening. 8. and to the outside board of the sides. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves.. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. and act as a trap for the light. 6. In hinging the door. nailing them to each other at the ridge. below which is fixed the sink.. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. etc. wide. 10). so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. Fig. 6. so that it will fit inside the sink. Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. so that the water will drain off into the sink. The roof boards may next be put on. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. and should be zinc lined. 3 and 4. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. brown wrapping paper. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. by screwing to the floor. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig. At the top of the doorway. 6 and 9. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. The developing bench is 18 in. 9).. is cut. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. of the top of the door for the same reason. 7. the closing side as at B.doorway. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. hinged to it. 9 by 11 in. and the top as at C in the same drawing. which is fixed on as shown . 5. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. 11. 2 in section.

Details of the Dark Rook .

An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. as at M. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. In use. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. 18. hole bored in the center for a handle. 2. which makes it possible to have white light. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. 20. The handle should be at least 12 in. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. if desired. 16. Fig. 16. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. 19. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. and a tank stand on it. as in Fig. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. Fig. though this is hardly advisable. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. 1. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. are fastened in the corners inside. Fig. For beating up an egg in a glass. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. The house will be much strengthened if strips. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. as at I. A circular piece about 2 in. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. as shown in Fig. or the room may be made with a flat roof. Karl Hilbrich. 13. after lining with brown paper.in Fig. Erie. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. these being shown in Fig. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle. it is better than anything on the market. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. Pennsylvania. mixing flour and water. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. 15. 14. 13. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. preferably maple or ash. or red light as at K. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. four coats at first is not too many. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. 6. 17. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. but not the red glass and frame. as shown in the sections. screwing them each way into the boards. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. --Contributed by W. and a 3/8-in. Fig. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater.

Yonkers. the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Ark. D. when put together properly is a puzzle. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. --Contributed by Wm. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Mitchell. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. long. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. --Contributed by L. New York.copper should be. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed. Mo. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. as shown in the sketch. To operate. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. Eureka Springs. L. for a handle. Schweiger. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood. about 3/8 in. Kansas City. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. G. Smith. which. -Contributed by E.

The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. need them. as well as improve its appearance. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. as is usually the case. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. 3. The design shown in Fig. holes should be drilled in the bottom. . Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. the box will require a greater height in front. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. as shown in Fig. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box. in order to thoroughly preserve it.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. The corks in use are shown in Fig. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. as shown in Fig. Each cork is cut as in Fig. If the sill is inclined. A number of 1/2-in. 3. which binds them together. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. to make it set level. for the moment. 2. Having completed the bare box. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers. especially for filling-in purposes. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. the rustic work should be varnished. 1. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. After the box is trimmed. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends.

which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. too dangerous. and observe results. it's easy. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. But I have solved the difficulty.. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. F. as shown in Fig.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. life in the summer time is a vexation. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. drilled at right angles. When the corn is gone cucumbers. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. Traps do no good. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. being partly eaten into. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. Each long projection represents a leg. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. share the same fate. 3. cabbages. 1. etc. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. can't use poison. . but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. 2. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. 4. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place.

About 9-1/2 ft. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. . of No. If. by trial. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. and made up and kept in large bottles. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. long.Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. strips. -. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. The solution can be used over and over again. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. Iowa. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. cut in 1/2-in. the coil does not heat sufficiently. cut some of it off and try again.

Texas. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. Kane. forks. Pa. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. Do not wash them. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. 1) removed. . Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. Y. coffee pot. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. is a good size--in this compound. of oleic acid with 1 gal. of whiting and 1/2 oz.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. Fig 2. Doylestown. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. Morse. In cleaning silver. N. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor. hot-water pot. C. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig. as shown in the sketch. Stir and mix thoroughly. Syracuse. of gasoline. to cause the door to swing shut. Dallas. but with unsatisfactory results. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. --Contributed by James M. it falls to stop G. Knives. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. D. and a strip. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. --Contributed by Katharine D. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B.

Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. of course. Harrisburg. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. later fixed and washed as usual. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. Sprout. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. La. . --Contributed by Oliver S. Waverly. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. Pa. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. but unfixed. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. negatives. Ill. Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. using the paper dry. Fisher. --Contributed by Theodore L. New Orleans. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. which is.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions.

which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The harmonograph. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. a harmonograph is a good prescription. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint. In this uncertainty lies the charm. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. then . but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. Fig. To obviate this difficulty. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. metal. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. 1. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. graceful sweep of the long pendulum. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E.

The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. as long as the other. Gaffney. is about right for a 10-ft. The length of the short pendulum H. which can be regulated. exactly one-third. one-fifth. Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. such as a shoe buttoner. 1. provides a means of support for the stylus. etc. in diameter. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. one-fourth. makes respectively 3. for instance. A weight. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum. A length of 7 ft. A small table or platform. Chicago. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. G. what is most important. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. to prevent any side motion. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Ingham. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. J. with a nail set or punch. Arizona. is attached as shown at H. --Contributed by Wm. K. or the lines will overlap and blur. 1-3/4 by 2 in. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. Punch a hole. that is. Another weight of about 10 lb. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. as shown in the lower part of Fig. Rosemont. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. 1. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. Holes up to 3 in. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. and unless the shorter pendulum is. R. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. A pedestal. --Contributed by James T. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. of about 30 or 40 lb. A small weight.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. in the center of the circle to be cut. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . ceiling. as shown in Fig...

dividing them into quarters. Morey. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. Cape May City. then 3 as in Fig. a correspondent of . Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. 5. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. 3. 1. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 4. and proceed as before. 2. Fig. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. The capacity of the vise. of course. one for the sender and one for the receiver.J. then put 2 at the top. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever.H.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. 6. The two key cards are made alike. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. Fig. -Contributed by W. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. --Contributed by J. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. distributing them over the whole card. N. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. and 4 as in Fig.J. Cruger. Chicago.

wood-screws. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. Cut through the center. deep. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. of the uprights. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. drill 15 holes. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. --Contributed by L. Ga. long. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. To assemble. 1/2 oz. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. Alberta Norrell. of water. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. sheet of well made asbestos paper. remove the prints. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No. Wind the successive turns of . The two cut surfaces can be placed together. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. citrate of iron and ammonia. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. After preparing the base and uprights. 1/4 in. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. of 18-per-cent No. Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. Augusta. 30 gr. acetic acid and 4 oz. says Popular Electricity.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. 6 gauge wires shown. the portion of the base under the coil. of ferricyanide of potash. The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. from the top and bottom. 22 gauge German-silver wire. If constructed of the former. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Asbestos board is to be preferred. respectively. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. After securing the tint desired.

but these are not necessary. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. rivets. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. etc. square. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. --Contributed by Frederick E. Ward. 14 gauge. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage.. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. Small knobs may be added if desired.wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. Ampere. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. if one is not a smoker. N. Labels of some kind are needed. as they are usually thrown away when empty. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . then fasten the upright in place. Y. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. cut and dressed 1/2 in. 16 gauge copper wire. screws. The case may be made of 1/2-in. which. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head.

Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A.14 oz. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. as shown in the sketch. a piece of solder. D. G. . Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. then to the joint to be soldered. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. Wis. particularly so when the iron has once been used. Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. The parts are put together with dowel pins. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve. Copper. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. --C. being careful about the heat. California. Eureka Springs. Ark. Larson. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. Richmond. or has become corroded. of glycerine to 16 oz. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. sandpaper or steel wool. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. C. zinc. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. E and F. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. it must be ground or filed to a point. Heat it until hot (not red hot). and labeled "Poison. brass. and rub the point of the copper on it. In soldering galvanized iron." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them.. galvanized iron. tin. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. This is considerable annoyance. If the soldering copper is an old one. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. --Contributed by A. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket. --Contributed by W. especially if a large tub is used. lead. the pure muriatic acid should be used. A. of water. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. The material can be of any wood. tinner's acid. Jaquythe. B. S. Kenosha. and one made of poplar finished black. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper.

1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. Six issues make a well proportioned book. The disk will come out pan shaped. D. N. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. however. C. with good results. brass and silver. Hankin. 1. Place the band. This completes the die. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Apart from this. This will leave a clear hole. 7/8 in. Fig. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. The covers of the magazines are removed. in diameter. Y. Troy. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. B. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. in diameter. I bind my magazines at home evenings. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. Fig. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. wide. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. W. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. The punch A.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. 2. such as copper. Brass rings can be plated when finished. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . and drill out the threads. The dimensions shown in Fig. which gives two bound volumes each year. Take a 3/4-in. round iron. nut. thick and 1-1/4 in. -Contributed by H. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. a ring may be made from any metal.

Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. C. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. then back through the notch on the right side. 1. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. Start with the front of the book.4. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. 1. Five cuts. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. on all edges except the back. as shown in Fig. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. and a third piece. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book. 1. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. The covering should be cut out 1 in. Place the cardboard covers on the book. After drawing the thread tightly. is nailed across the top. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. If started with the January or the July issue. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. The sections are then prepared for sewing. Coarse white thread. These sections are each removed in turn from the others. deep. 2. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it. 1 in Fig. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. allowing about 2 in. threaded double. . 1/8 in. which is fastened the same as the first. and place them against the strings in the frame. The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. size 16 or larger. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. 5. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. through the notch on the left side of the string No. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. using . A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. and then to string No. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. is used for the sewing material. The covering can be of cloth. The string No. of the ends extending on each side. 2. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired.

The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. --Contributed by Clyde E. at opposite sides to each other. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Tinplate. Cal.Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Nebr. Divine. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. Encanto. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. round iron. and. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. For the blade an old talking-machine . and mark around each one. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. College View. on which to hook the blade.

.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. and file in the teeth. Summitville. Hays. with 10 teeth to the inch. thick. B. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. as it is sometimes called. long. at the same end. Then on the board put . F. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. in order to drill the holes in the ends. thick. and 1/4 in. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. fuse hole at D. by 1 in. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). bore. Ohio.. by 4-1/2 in. Miss. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. Make the blade 12 in. Moorhead. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. with a steel sleeve. A. and a long thread plug. On the upper side. and another piece (B) 6 in. -Contributed by Willard J. E. as shown. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. or double extra heavy. and 1/4 in. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. hydraulic pipe. C. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise.

Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . Connect up as shown. some sheet copper or brass for plates. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. If you are going to use a current of low tension. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. as from batteries. 4 jars. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. of rubber-covered wire. using about 8 in.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. Boyd. --Contributed by Chas. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. about 5 ft. A lid may be added if desired. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. Philadelphia. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. the jars need not be very large. 18 gauge wire for the wiring. H. and some No. of wire to each coil. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. high around this apparatus.

On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. No. oak boards. & S. For the front runners these measurements are: A. Fig. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. 4) of 3/4-in. An iron washer. C. wide. sheet brass 1 in. by 6 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. The illustration shows how to shape it. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in. making them clear those in the front runner. two pieces 14 in. with the cushion about 15 in. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. wide and 2 in. by 5 in. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. however. 1. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. 2. above the ground. long. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. as they "snatch" the ice. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. and bolt through. by 1-1/4 in. two for each jar. by 1 in. For the brass trimmings use No. To wire the apparatus. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. . This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. 4 in. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. by 2 in. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. 2 in. Z. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. two pieces 34 in. by 5 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. B and C. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. The top disk in jar No. is used to reduce friction. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. 2. 1 and so on for No.. wide and 3/4 in. Equip block X with screw eyes. 4. 15-1/2 in. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. 3. apart. The stock required for them is oak. C. 11 in. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. gives full current and full speed. as they are not substantial enough.. square by 14 ft. B. 5 on switch. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. beginning at the rear. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. Use no nails. Use no screws on the running surface. then apply a coat of thin enamel.. The sled completed should be 15 ft. See Fig. 1 is connected to point No. 3 in. on No. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. direct to wire across jars. 34 in. wide by 3/4 in. long by 22 in. 3 and No. long. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. 2. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. First sandpaper all the wood. In proportioning them the points A. and for the rear runners: A. 27 B.. At the front 24 or 26 in. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. 1 on switch. A variation of 1/16 in. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. are important. 2 and 3. 2 is lower down than in No. On the door of the auto front put the . The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. two pieces 30 in. and plane it on all edges. A 3/4-in. long.. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. 30 in. or source of current. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. The current then will flow through the motor. and four pieces 14 in. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. by 1-1/4 in. 16-1/2 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. thick. B. thick. Their size also depends on the voltage. long. Put arm of switch on point No. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 7 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. The connection between point No. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs.the way.. by 2 in.. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white.

A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. a brake may be added to the sled. overshoes. to improve the appearance. cutting it out of sheet brass. The best way is to get some strong. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. such as burlap. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . Fasten a horn. which is somewhat moist. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. If the expense is greater than one can afford. by 1/2 in. etc. bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. long. If desired. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. parcels. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. to the wheel.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. Then get some upholstery buttons. may be stowed within. such as used on automobiles. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. a number of boys may share in the ownership. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. cheap material. lunch. fasten a cord through the loop. by 30 in. brass plated. or with these for $25. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. If desired.

the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same. the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. Ill. . The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks.tree and bring. Leland. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. --Contributed by Stewart H. Lexington.

by drawing diameters. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. 4). and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. when flat against it. the cut will be central on the line. which. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. some files. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. 3. Fig. FC. sheet metal. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. A small clearance space.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. Fig. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. so that the center of the blade. from F to G. E. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. Draw a circle on paper. will be over the line FG. outside diameter and 1/16 in. a compass. though more difficult. with twenty-four teeth. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. mild steel or iron. CD. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. the same diameter as the wheel. The straight-edge. say 1 in. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. 1. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. Fig. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. First take the case of a small gearwheel. With no other tools than a hacksaw. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. This guide should have a beveled edge. 2. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. The Model Engineer. made from 1/16-in. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made. London. The first tooth may now be cut. thick.

2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. electric lamp. or several pieces bound tightly together. hold in one hand. transmitter. A bright. some wire and some carbons. 2. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. If there is no faucet in the house. Focus the camera in the usual manner. as shown in Fig. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. 1. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts.Four Photos on One Plate of them. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass. ground it with a large piece of zinc. each in the center. Then take one outlet wire. Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. either the pencils for arc lamps. 1. R. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground. and the other outlet wire. No shock will be perceptible. B. B. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. Make a hole in the other. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. .

When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. by 1 in. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. But in this experiment. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. Dry batteries are most convenient. serves admirably. B. 36 wire around it. If desired. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. are also needed. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. J. or more of the latter has been used. by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. They have screw ends. at each end for terminals. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. by 12 in. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. leaving about 10 in. a transmitter which induces no current is used. of course. For a base use a pine board 10 in. A is a wooden block. as indicated by E E. One like a loaf of bread. Slattery. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm. Several battery cells. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. and again wind the wire around it. --Contributed by Geo. Emsworth. D D are binding posts for electric wires. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. one at the receiver can hear what is said. and will then burn the string C. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. Pa. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. Ohio. as shown.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. Ashland. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Wrenn. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. Then set the whole core away to dry. under the gable. and about that size.

in series with bindingpost. F. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. Place 16-cp. in parallel. 14 wire. Ohio. The apparatus is now ready for operation. Connect these three to switch. as shown. until the hand points to zero on the scale. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. B B. Newark. and one single post switch. connecting lamp receptacles. These should have hollow ends. and the lamps. while C is open. 2. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. From the other set of binding-posts. as shown. Jr. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. D. 12 or No. The coil will commence to become warm. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. C. At one side secure two receptacles. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. B B. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. for the . 1.wire. E. First make a support. The oven is now ready to be connected.. D. the terminal of the coil. Turn on switch. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. Fig. run a No. C. Fig. and switch. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter.

take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work.. The pointer or hand. drill through the entire case and valve. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. inside measurements. At a point a little above the center. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. drill in only to the opening already through. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. but if for a 4way. is made of wire. is made of iron. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. --Contributed by J. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . where A is the homemade ammeter. E. wind with plenty of No. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. 3. 3 amperes. a battery. 1/4 in. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. long. although copper or steel will do. long. 36 magnet wire instead of No. The box is 5-1/2 in. 1/2 in. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 14 wire. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. 4. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. Fig. 5. D. or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. 14. to prevent it turning on the axle. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. B. high. The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. a variable resistance. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. 10 turns to each layer. Dussault. This may be made of wood. Fig. etc. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. long and make a loop. 7. It is 1 in. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. 1. a standard ammeter. 4 in. D. Montreal. 5. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. although brass is better. To make one. from the lower end. is then made and provided with a glass front. Mine is wound with two layers of No. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. deep. thick. This is slipped on the pivot. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3.E. Fig. as shown in the cut. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D.or 4-way valve or cock. remove the valve. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. until the scale is full. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. 4 amperes. C. A wooden box. If for 3-way. 6. and D. wide and 1-3/4 in. Fig. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. drill a hole as shown at H.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. The core. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. wide and 1/8 in. After drilling. 1. 2.

which is used for reducing the current. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. high. as shown. provided with a rubber stopper. A. in diameter. F. By connecting the motor. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in.performing electrical experiments. One wire runs to the switch. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. D. B. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. and the other connects with the water rheostat. in thickness . making two holes about 1/4 in. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. This stopper should be pierced. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. To start the light. and the arc light. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. E. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. and a metal rod. When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple.

the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. A. To insert the lead plate. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. N. Fig. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. as shown in B. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. As there shown. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. as shown in C. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. Having finished the interrupter. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. 2. long. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. where he is placed in an upright open . Carthage. A piece of wood. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. Y. 2. If the interrupter does not work at first. B. Fig. --Contributed by Harold L. 1. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. Jones. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Turn on the current and press the button. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. Having fixed the lead plate in position. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. Fig. 1. 1. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. Fig. If all adjustments are correct.

It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. The model. the illusion will be spoiled. inside dimensions. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. The skeleton is made of papier maché. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. L and M. and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. light-colored garments.. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. as the entire interior. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. The glass should be the clearest possible. A white shroud is thrown over his body. especially the joints and background near A. If everything is not black. The lights. giving a limp. figures and lights. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. from which the gong has been removed. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. by 7 in. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. especially L. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. and must be thoroughly cleansed. loosejointed effect. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. If it is desired to place the box lower down. dressed in brilliant. and can be bought at Japanese stores. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. with the exception of the glass. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. to aid the illusion. All . high. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. A. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. within the limits of an ordinary room. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. They need to give a fairly strong light. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. by 7-1/2 in. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. should be colored a dull black. should be miniature electric lamps. and wave his arms up and down. until it is dark there. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine.coffin. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone. could expect from a skeleton. which can be run by three dry cells. is constructed as shown in the drawings. Its edges should nowhere be visible.

To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. San Jose. fat spark. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. after which it assumes its normal color. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. If a gradual transformation is desired. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. W. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. placed about a foot apart. Two finishing nails were driven in. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth.that is necessary is a two-point switch. square block. as shown in the sketch. Fry. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. --Contributed by Geo. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. Cal.

If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. The plates are separated 6 in. One of these plates is connected to metal top. soldered in the top. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. New York. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. by small pieces of wood. The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. or a solution of sal soda. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. as shown. 1 is seen the sending apparatus. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. A (see sketch). In Fig. 1. If a lighted match . The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. with two tubes. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells. hydrogen gas is generated. into the receiver G. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. -Contributed by Dudley H. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. and should be separated about 1/8 in. the remaining space will be filled with air. B and C. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. Cohen. In Fig. F. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. to make it airtight. This is a wide-mouth bottle.

Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. as is shown in the illustration. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. from the bottom. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. 1. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. by means of the clips. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. of No. London. which is plugged up at both ends. 2 shows the end view. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . B. 1-5/16 in. A. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. is then coiled around the brass tube. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. N. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. One row is drilled to come directly on top. The distance between the nipple. A piece of 1/8-in. either by passing a current of electricity around it. Fig. and the ends of the tube. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. Fig. A. If desired. N. long. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. says the Model Engineer. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. P. A 1/64-in. C C. then a suitable burner is necessary. in diameter and 6 in. 1/2 in. copper pipe. long. is made by drilling a 1/8in. copper pipe. A nipple. A. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. should be only 5/16 of an inch. A. 36 insulated wire. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. or by direct contact with another magnet. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. which forms the vaporizing coil. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard.

narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. Cut four pieces of cardboard. taking care not to bend the iron. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. Fig. should be cut to the diameter of the can. about 8 or 10 in. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. deep and slanting as shown at A and B. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. at the front and back for fly leaves. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . but if the paper knife cannot be used. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. this makes a much nicer book. leaving the folded edge uncut. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. larger all around than the book. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. Fig.lamp cord. Take two strips of stout cloth. cut to the size of the pages. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. 3. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. 1/4 in. Turn the book over and paste the other side. fold and cut it 1 in. Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. duck or linen. trim both ends and the front edge. 2). boards and all. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. smoothly. 1. with a fine saw. longer and 1/4 in. A disk of thin sheet-iron. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. Fig. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out.

pasting them down (Fig. or rather the top now. as shown in the sketch. without a head. is fitted in it and soldered. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. is made the same depth as B. D. Another tank. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. In the bottom. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. but its diameter is a little smaller. . Ont. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. as shown. Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. --Contributed by Joseph N. A. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. and a little can. 18 in. Bedford City. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. A gas cock. This will cause some air to be enclosed. Va. the joint will be gas tight. C. is perforated with a number of holes. --Contributed by James E. H. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. is turned on it.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. deep. in diameter and 30 in. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. which will just slip inside the little can. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Toronto. 4). Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. E. is soldered onto tank A. B. from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. of tank A is cut a hole. Another can. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. Parker. Noble.

either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. S. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. are shown in detail at H and J. The armature. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. tacks.. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. Fig. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. B. which moves to either right or left. long. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. -Contributed by H. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. and sewed double to give extra strength. The diagonal struts. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. H is a square knot. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. J. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. and the four diagonal struts. D. 1. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. B. making the width. shows how the connections are to be made. exactly 12 in.Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. should be 1/4 in. N. with an electric-bell magnet. basswood or white pine. B. to prevent splitting. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. If the pushbutton A is closed. fastened in the bottom. as shown at C. by 1/2 in. C. Fig. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat. Beverly. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. E. thus adjusting the . If the back armature. Bott. The longitudinal corner spines. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. when finished. which may be either spruce. long. The wiring diagram. A. The bridle knots. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. D. A A. should be 3/8 in. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. and about 26 in. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. 2. square by 42 in. should be cut a little too long. The small guards.

as shown. with gratifying results. that refuse to slide easily. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. Kan. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. to prevent slipping. for producing electricity direct from heat. Stoddard. E.lengths of F and G. --Contributed by Edw. and if a strong wind is blowing. and. thus shortening G and lengthening F. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. shift toward F. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. A bowline knot should be tied at J. --Contributed by A. If the kite is used in a light wind. D. however. Harbert. can be made of a wooden . Clay Center. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. Chicago. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Closing either key will operate both sounders. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery.

a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. spark. 16 single-covered wire. Then. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw.frame. C. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. and the current may then be detected by means. F. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. E. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. with a pocket compass. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. B. with a number of nails. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. C. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. placed on top. A. in position. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. or parallel with the compass needle. to the cannon. --Contributed by A. C. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. Fasten a piece of wood. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon. by means of machine screws or. E. which conducts the current into the cannon. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. When the cannon is loaded. The wood screw. 14 or No. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. Chicago. and also holds the pieces of wood. The connections should all be soldered to give good results. A. A. A and B. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after .. D.

To unlock the door. Chicago. but no weights or strings. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. screw is bored in the block. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. in this position the door is locked. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. A. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. when in position at A'. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block.the current is shut off. Ohio. 1. to receive the screw in the center. Fig. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. A and S. --Contributed by Joseph B. Marion. within the reach of the magnet. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. --Contributed by Henry Peck. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. In Fig. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. where there is a staple. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Big Rapids. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. H. now at A' and S'. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. Fig. Bend the strips BB (Fig. square and 3/8 in. To lock the door. A and S. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. To reverse. press the button. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. 1. L. 1. Keil. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Mich. requiring a strong magnet. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. . B. A hole for a 1/2 in. with the long arm at L'. Connect as shown in the illustration. Before putting the reverse block on the motor. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook.

and then tap it for a 3/8-in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in. couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. and if desired the handles may . are enameled a jet black. or for microscopic work. When ready for use. and may be made at very slight expense. if enameled white on the concave side. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. gas-pipe. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. hole. and C is a dumbbell. J. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. about 18 in. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. pipe with 1-2-in. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. When the holes are finished and your lines set. long. Mass. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. --Contributed by C. The standard and base. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. put in the handle. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. West Somerville. Rand. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. Thread the other end of the pipe.

Fig. North Easton. 8 in. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. which shall project at least 2 in. E. This peculiar property is also found in ice. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . 1. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. A. B. Mass. Fig. Warren. D. with a cover. as shown at A in the sketch.be covered with leather. --Contributed by C. 1. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. inside the pail. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. Make a cylindrical core of wood.. across. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. high by 1 ft. long and 8 in. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. M. across. round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug.

the point of the blue flame. pack this space-top. If the cover of the pail has no rim. 2. wider than the kiln. 25%. strip of sheet iron. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. to hold the clay mixture. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. The 2 in. bottom and sides. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. say 1/4 in. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back. and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in. hard porcelain. This is a clay cylinder (Fig. and 3/4 in. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. carefully centering it. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. and with especial caution the first time. projecting from each end (Fig. 2 in. and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. which is the hottest part. or make one yourself. full length of iron core. make two wood ends. as dictated by fancy and expense. Whatever burner is used. if you have the materials. E. After finishing the core. sand. 1). if there is to be any glazing done. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. This done. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. as is shown in the sketch. cutting the hole a little smaller. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. hotel china. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. Fit all the parts together snugly. let this dry thoroughly. of fine wire. W. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. in diameter. Set aside for a few days until well dried. and graphite. 60%. with heavy paper and cover the core with same.mixture of clay. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in.. Line the pail. in diameter. but will be cheaper in operation.-G. C. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. thick. 1330°. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. such . and 3/8 in. long over the lid hole as a chimney. It is placed inside the kiln. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. L. Wind about 1/8 in. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. After removing all the paper. thick. diameter. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. and cut it 3-1/2 in. pipe 2-ft. long. C. layer of the clay mixture. 3) with false top and bottom. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. C. and on it set the paper wrapped core. Fig. the firing should be gradual. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. passing wire nails through and clinching them. When lighted. and varnish. While these are drying you may be making a muffle.. about 1 in.. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. and your kiln is ready for business. pipe. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. Cover with paper and shellac as before. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. 1). 15%. 1390°-1410°. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in. but it will burn a great deal of gas.

Next restore all the cards to one pack. as in Fig. bind tightly with black silk. every alternate card being the same color. Washington. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. C. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. and so on. and divide it into two piles. leaving long terminals. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. A. The funnel. diameter. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. C. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. Chicago. around the coil. T. the next black. and plane off about 1/16 in. 1. Of course. overlaps and rests on the body. square them up. as shown in the sketch herewith. D.53 in. --Contributed by J. all cards facing the same way. 2). square them up and place in a vise. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. You can display either color called for. a regulator must be had for the vibrator. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. taking care to have the first card red. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. Take the red cards. with a plane. B. about 1/16 in. Then. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. and discharges into the tube. R. .. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel. 2. 2. 8 in. red and black. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. as in Fig. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. length of . C. procure a new deck. Then take the black cards. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience.

thus making all the holes coincide.. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. When the glass is put in the frame a space. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. B. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. to form a dovetail joint as shown. Let . as the difficulties increase with the size. The upright pieces. Drill all the horizontal pieces. It should be placed in an exposed location. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. and this is inexpensive to build. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. through the holes already drilled. N. the same ends will come together again. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. The cement. C. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. stove bolts. the first thing to decide on is the size. Long Branch. F. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. B. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. All the horizontal pieces. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson. D. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. E.C. angle iron for the frame. stove bolts. A. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. 1 gill of fine white sand. of the frame. A. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. and then the frame is ready to assemble. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. 1. so that when they are assembled. B. Fig. 1 gill of litharge. about 20 in. The bottom glass should be a good fit. To find the fall of snow.J. E.

and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . Fasten the lever. D. having a swinging connection at C. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. B. to the door knob. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. Aquarium Finished If desired.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. and. on the door by means of a metal plate. a centerpiece (A. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. Fig. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. if desired. A. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish.

2 at GG. Cut two of them 4 ft. hoping it may solve the same question for them. another. to keep the frame from spreading. C. long. Fig. Fig. Y. 6 in. for the top. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. Fig. A small piece of spring brass. --Contributed by Orton E. with a water pressure of 70 lb. E. and another. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration.. D. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. 1. 1 . most houses are equipped with a washing machine. long. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. according to the slant given C. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. soldered to the end of the cylinder. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. long. They are shown in Fig. thus doing away with the spring. In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley. several lengths of scantling 3 in. but mark their position on the frame. to form the slanting part. Fig. and Fig. Two short boards 1 in. To make the frame. when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. another. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. Do not fasten these boards now. to form the main supports of the frame. B. screwed to the door frame. Fig. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. as at E. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. wide . I referred this question to my husband. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. 26 in. White. wide by 1 in. from the outside top of the frame. 2 ft. which is 15 in. approximately 1 ft. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. AA. showing the paddle-wheel in position. Fig. F. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. will open the door about 1/2 in. 2 is an end view. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. 1. N. 3 shows one of the paddles. Cut two pieces 30 in.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. Buffalo. 1 is the motor with one side removed. PAUL S. long.

iron 3 by 4 in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. holes. as shown in Fig. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. hole to form the bearings. Fig. and a 1/4 -in. to a full 1/2 in. hole through the exact center of the wheel. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. Drill 1/8-in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. hole through them. by 1-1/2 in. thick (HH. (I. Fig. tapering from 3/16 in. 2) with a 5/8-in. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. GG. Tack one side on. long to the wheel about 8 in. hole through its center. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. 2) and another 1 in. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. 24 in. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. and drill a 1/8-in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. steel shaft 12 in. 1. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. thick. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. from one end by means of a key. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. These are the paddles. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). with the wheel and shaft in place. iron. hole from the tops to the 1-in.along the edges under the zinc to form . Fig. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw.burlap will do -.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. Take the side pieces. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. in diameter. This is best done by using a square taper reamer. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. 4. long and filling it with babbitt metal. 2) form a substantial base. pipe. after which drill a 5/8 in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. then drill a 3/16-in. Now block the wheel. take down the crosspieces. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. hole through their sides centrally. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. When it has cooled. and drill a 1-in. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. remove the cardboard. that is. Make this hole conical. Next secure a 5/8-in. Fasten them in their proper position.

says the Photographic Times. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. If sheet-iron is used.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. Correct exposure depends. place the outlet over a drain. it would be more durable. If the bearings are now oiled. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. Drill a hole through the zinc. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. light and the plate. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. Focus the camera carefully. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose. and as near to it as possible. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. It is obvious that. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. remove any white curtains there may be. sewing machine. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. and the subject may move. but as it would have cost several times as much. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. drill press. start the motor. Raise the window shade half way. as this makes long exposure necessary. but now I put them in the machine. of course. . Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. ice-cream freezer. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end.a water-tight joint. on the lens. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. Do not stop down the lens. shutting out all light from above and the sides. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. as shown in the sketch at B. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. The best plate to use is a very slow one. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. and leave them for an hour or so. any window will do. or what is called a process plate. Darken the rest of the window.

The core C. an empty pill bottle may be used. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. or wood. C. a glass tube. On completing . The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. until the core slowly rises. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. 2. and a base. B. a core. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. D. with binding posts as shown. is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. and without fog. by twisting. full of water. or can be taken from an old magnet. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. or an empty developer tube. hard rubber. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. without detail in the face. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. A. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. the core is drawn down out of sight. 2. With a piece of black paper. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. as a slight current will answer. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. The current required is very small. which is made of iron and cork. as shown in Fig. The glass tube may be a test tube.

and are changed by reversing the rotation. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. The colors appear different to different people. and make a pinhole in the center. This is a mysterious looking instrument. 1 lb. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. the core will obey his command to rise or fall. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. white lead. according to his control of the current. finest graphite. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part. is Benham's color top. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected. 1. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. whale oil. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. water and 3 oz. 1 pt. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. and one not easy to explain.

. -Contributed by D. In making hydrogen. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. fan-like. A. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. nearly every time.B. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. and asks an observer to withdraw a card. Chicago.L. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. especially if the deck is a new one. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. In prize games. B. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. when the action ceases. which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . deuce. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. or three spot. As this device is easily upset.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. C. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. before cutting. thus partly filling bottles A and C. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results.

connecting the bottom by cross pieces. Jr. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Fig. as shown in Fig. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. in length and 3 in. 12 in. 2. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. Form a cone of heavy paper. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Detroit. in diameter. J. Huron. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation.. Bently. 1. Make ten pieces about 1 ft. --Contributed by C. S. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. 3). . 10 in. W. --Contributed by F. 9 in.. long. long and 3 in. The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Dak. Make a 10-sided stick. 4. that will fit loosely in the tube A. (Fig. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. Fig. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. S.

is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. and walk in. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. A second piece of silk thread. making it three-ply thick. Fasten the sections all around in like manner.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. 6. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. C. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. A piece of tin. --Contributed by Reader. Fortunately. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. E. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. bend it at right angles throughout its length. A. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. about the size of a leadpencil. will cause an increased movement of C. Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. push back the bolt. long. Cut out paper sections (Fig. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. Remove the form. with a pin driven in each end. Fig. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. on one side and the top. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. allowing 1 in. Denver. it is equally easy to block that trick. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. but bends toward D.

Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. Minn. B. are made 2 by 4 in. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. West St. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. The feet. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. while the lower switch. posts. Fremont Hilscher. R. 4 ft. will last for several years. is connected each point to a battery. and rest on a brick placed under each end. put together as shown in the sketch. S S.strip. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. Paul. Two wood-base switches. The 2 by 4-in. S. Jr. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor.. long. B.. W. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. long. --Contributed by J. are 7 ft. S. or left to right. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. The upper switch. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. as shown. By this arrangement one. The reverse switch. A. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly .

and has two wood blocks. or anything available. The valve motion is shown in Figs. is an old bicycle pump. and in Fig. E. which is made of tin. In Fig. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. 2. The hose E connects to the boiler. thick. pulley wheel. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. the other parts being used for the bearing B. The base is made of wood. 1. and a cylindrical . H and K. We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. which will be described later. and valve crank S. with two washers. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. and the crank bearing C. the size of the hole in the bearing B. either an old sewing-machine wheel. The steam chest D. Fig. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. FF. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. 3/8 in. Fig. 2 and 3. cut in half. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape.every house. The piston is made of a stove bolt.

G. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background.piece of hard wood. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. The valve crank S. powder can. Wis. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. using the positive wire as a pen. to receive the connecting rod H. San Jose. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. of Cuba. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. Fry. is cut out of tin. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. 4. This engine was built by W. First. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. . photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. G. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. C. Cal. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. and saturated with thick oil. Fig. can be an old oil can. 3. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. --Contributed by Geo. and a very amusing trick. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. and the desired result is obtained. Schuh and A. at that. Fig. The boiler. 1. Eustice. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. or galvanized iron. as it is merely a trick of photography. W. This is wound with soft string. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. as shown in Fig. J.

2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. as shown at AA. considering the nature of the material employed in making it.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. C. B. and place a bell on the four ends. Fig. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. and Fig. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. They may be of any size. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. Fig. and pass ropes around . in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. to cross in the center. Fig. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. 1 will be seen to rotate. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. When turning. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Cut half circles out of each stave. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. The smaller wheel. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. B. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. diameter. 1 by covering up Figs. as shown.

When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. but not on all. long. produces a higher magnifying power). Mo. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope. Louis.M. as shown in the illustration. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. St. This in turn will act on the transmitter. which allows the use of small sized ropes. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. W. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. procure a wooden spool. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. To make this lensless microscope. When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B.G. which accounts for the sound. from the transmitter.. such as clothes lines. A (a short spool. From a piece of thin . --Contributed by H. and enlarge the bore a little at one end.

is fastened at each end by pins. The spring. To use this microscope. The lever.) But an object 3/4-in. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after.. cut out a small disk. if the distance is reduced to one-half. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. can be made of brass and the armature. B. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. D. place a small object on the transparent disk. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. which are pieces of hard wood. Fig. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. held at arm's length. the diameter will appear three times as large. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. e. darting across the field in every direction. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. otherwise the image will be blurred. . D. or 64 times. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. C. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. 2. 1. (The area would appear 64 times as large. Viewed through this microscope. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. and at the center. if the distance is reduced to one-third. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings. fastened to a wooden base.. as in all microscopes of any power. The pivot. is made of iron. which costs little or nothing to make. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. C. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. bent as shown.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. It is very important that the hole D should be very small. E. the object should be of a transparent nature. and look through the hole D. i. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. An innocent-looking drop of water. the diameter will appear twice as large. H. in which hay has been soaking for several days. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. B. by means of brads. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. and so on. A. 3.

similar to the one used in the sounder. C. in length and 16 in. connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. is cut from a board about 36 in. brass: E. FF. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. The binding posts. E. or taken from a small one-point switch. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. long and 14-1/2 in. wood: F. . D. K. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. brass: B. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. thick. 1. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. coils wound with No. binding posts: H spring The stop. wide and set in between sides AA. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. connection of D to nail. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. wide and about 20 in. F. The base of the key. 26 wire: E. which are made to receive a pivot. 16 in. soft iron. nail soldered on A. between the armature and the magnet. brass. D. KEY-A. long by 16 in.SOUNDER-A. and are connected to the contacts. brass or iron soldered to nail. C. can be made panel as shown. A switch. The back. or a single piece. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. DD. Fig. Cut the top. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. AA. Each side. D. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. B. wood. fastened near the end. The door. wide. A. wide. HH. 2. 16 in. wood: C. B. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. Fig. K. long. wide. should be about 22 in. wide.

E. 13-1/2 in. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. material. brads. Garfield. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. as shown in the sketch.. AA. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense. cut in them. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. 2 and made from 1/4-in. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Make 12 cleats. Ill. long. with 3/4-in. as shown. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. In operation. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. --Contributed by Carl Formhals. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. When the electrical waves strike the needle.

and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. N. C. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. and. B. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. will give a greater speed. pulls down the armature. N. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. Ridgewood. Fairport. Brown. in order to increase the surface. --Contributed by R. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. J. down into the water increases the surface in contact. Pushing the wire. filled with water. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. A. A (see sketch). A fairly stiff spring. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. the magnet. and thus decreases the resistance. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. when used with a motor. E. through which a piece of wire is passed. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. F. --Contributed by John Koehler. Y. When the pipe is used. A. The cord is also fastened to a lever. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger.

In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door.for the secret contact. --Contributed by Perry A. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. if desired. Of course. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. B. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. even those who read this description. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts. By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. N. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Borden. Gachville. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder .

A. C. From a piece of brass a switch. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. for 10in. Mangold. With about 9 ft. . deep and 3/4 in. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. 2. 1. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes.whenever the bell rings. from the bottom. where the other end of wire is fastened. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. The three shelves are cut 25-in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. E. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. The top board is made 28-in. wide. J. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. N. records and 5-5/8 in.. East Orange. thick and 12-in. Two drawers are fitted in this space. Compton. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. Connect switch to post B. Jr. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. Cal. wide. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. in a semicircle 2 in. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. D. --Contributed by Dr. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. H. records. long and full 12-in. Dobson. Washington. --Contributed by H. long and 5 in. Nails for stops are placed at DD. and on both sides of the middle shelf. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. for 6-in. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. apart. wide. as shown in Fig. C. wide. as shown in Fig. wide.

Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . to which is fastened a cord. which in operation is bent. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. B. Va. as shown by the dotted lines. A. closed. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. as shown in Fig. Roanoke. --Contributed by Douglas Royer. 1. E. An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. When the cord is passed over pulley C. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel.

it too loose. against which the rubber tubing. apart. one in each end. wide. in diameter. excepting the crank and tubing. Fig. E. Fig. In these grooves place wheels. B. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. 4 shows the wheel-holder. thick. D. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. Put the rubber tube.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. square and 7/8 in. deep and 1/2 in. CC. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. which should be about 1/2 in. Notice the break (S) in the track. in diameter. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. is compressed by wheels. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. Figs. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. Bore two 1/4 in. in diameter. wide. 4 and 5 show all the parts needed. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. to turn on pins of stout wire. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. 1 in. through one of these holes. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. 1 in. These wheels should be 3/4 in. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. E. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. Now put all these parts together. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. long. 3. Cut two grooves. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. as shown in the illustration. 5) when they are placed. Do not fasten the sides too . in diameter. 1. they will let the air through. Fig. In the sides (Fig. but a larger one could be built in proportion. 3). thick (A. Figs. The crankpin should fit tightly. deep. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. If the wheels fit too tightly. they will bind. holes (HH.

--Contributed by Dan H. Fig. mark again. The top and bottom pieces marked AA. The screen which is shown in Fig. the other wheel has reached the bottom. Idana. of material. Take the center of the bar. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. If the motion of the wheels is regular.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. is all the expense necessary. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. Fig. 17-1/2 in. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. 1. AA. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. as shown in Fig. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. and 3-1/2 in. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. because he can . and mark for a hole. 1. 1.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. from each end. stands 20 in. from each end. Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. tubing. though a small iron wheel is better. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. mark for hole and 3 in. 1. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. The three legs marked BBB. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. 2. a platform should be added. The animal does not fear to enter the box. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. B. A in Fig. beyond each of these two. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. costing 10 cents. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. as it gives steadiness to the motion. 2. Fig. 15 in. Cut six pieces. from each end. In the two cross bars 1 in. Then turn the crank from left to right. To use the pump. AA. 1. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. Two feet of 1/4-in. the pump will give a steady stream. Hubbard. from the bottom and 2 in. long. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. and are 30 in. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Kan. iron. For ease in handling the pump. Fig. from that mark the next hole. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube.

take out the carbon and lower the zinc. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. It is useful for running induction coils. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. When through using the battery. When the bichromate has all dissolved.see through it: when he enters. --Contributed by H. Place the carbon in the jar. or. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. 4 oz. and the solution (Fig. The battery is now ready for use. C. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. To cause a flow of electricity. If the solution touches the zinc. there is too much liquid in the jar. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. acid 1 part). Philadelphia. 1) must be prepared. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. The battery is now complete. If it is wet. Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. Meyer. add slowly. some of it should be poured out. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. long having two thumb screws. of the top. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. The mercury will adhere. of water dissolve 4 oz. or small electric motors. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. 14 copper wire. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. silvery appearance. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. potassium bichromate. 2). sulphuric acid. If the battery has been used before. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. stirring constantly. however. dropping. . It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. giving it a bright. rub the zinc well. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. shuts him in. but if one casts his own zinc. until it is within 3 in. and touches the bait the lid is released and. The truncated. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts.

A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor.Fig.. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. Wis. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. If. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. with slight changes. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. After putting in the coal. Madison. The price of the coil depends upon its size. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. the battery circuit. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door. i. the jump-spark coil . which opens the door. pressing the pedal closes the door. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. e.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. while the coal door is being opened. however. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use.

as shown in Fig. . apart. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used.described elsewhere in this book. 5. diameter. Now for the receiving apparatus. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. W W. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. as shown in Fig. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp.7. 7. in a straight line from top to bottom. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. being a 1-in. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. 6. This will make an excellent receiver. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. This coil. which is made of light copper wire. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. made of No. W W. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. 7. After winding. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. 7). coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. in a partial vacuum. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. Change the coil described. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". the full length of the coil. while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. while a 12-in. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. Fig. 6. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. coil. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. and closer for longer distances. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece.

after all. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. as it matches the color well. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. may be easily made at very little expense. 1 to 4.The aerial line. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. using an electric motor and countershaft. Figs. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire. For an illustration. in the air. above the ground. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. Run a wire from the other binding post. being vertical. The writer does not claim to be the originator. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. 1). suitable for turning wood or small metal articles.6 stranded. which will be described later. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. but it could be run by foot power if desired. These circles. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. are analogous to the flow of induction. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. but simply illustrates the above to show that. 90°. only. B the bed and C the tailstock. where A is the headstock. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. A. and hence the aerial line. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. at any point to any metal which is grounded. I run my lathe by power. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. being at right angles. No. 90°. . Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. A large cone pulley would then be required. to the direction of the current. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles.

A. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. which pass through a piece of wood. too. thick. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . Fig. Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. The headstock. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. 6 Headstock Details D. Heat the babbitt well. 4. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. 5. 2 and 3. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. Fig. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. which are let into holes FIG. Fig. on the under side of the bed. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. and runs in babbitt bearings. To make these bearings. The bearing is then ready to be poured. Fig. The bolts B (Fig. but not hot enough to burn it. pitch and 1/8 in. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. 4. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces. steel tubing about 1/8 in. 6. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. If the bearing has been properly made. and Fig. and it is well to have the shaft hot. After pouring. just touching the shaft. tapered wooden pin. 5. B. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. one of which is shown in Fig. deep. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead.

I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. If one has a wooden walk. --Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. This prevents corrosion. and a 1/2-in. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft.7 Details of Tailstock pipe. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. the alarm is easy to fix up. A. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. If not perfectly true.J. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. Take up about 5 ft. Oak Park. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. B. which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. embedded in the wood. lock nut. they may be turned up after assembling. FIG. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. of the walk . so I had to buy one. The tail stock (Fig. Newark.other machines. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. N. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. Ill. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator.

Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. Fig. of water. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. and the alarm is complete. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. Minn. leaving a clear solution. (A. hang the articles on the wires. to remove all traces of grease. 2). copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. save when a weight is on the trap. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash.and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. so that they will not touch. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. Finally. Jackson. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. S. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears. clean the articles thoroughly. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. To avoid touching it. water. silver or other metal. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Then make the solution . to roughen the surface slightly. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. --Contributed by R. Minneapolis. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. before dipping them in the potash solution. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. add potassium cyanide again. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. Connect up an electric bell.

of clothesline rope and some No. hole in its center. Fig. and then treated as copper. 18 wire. and 4 volts for very small ones. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. Fig. A 1/4 in. long. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. from the lower end. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. as shown in Fig. silver can be plated direct. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. When all this is set up. With an electric pressure of 3. 1 not only unlocks. with the pivot 2 in. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. which is advised. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. a circuit is completed. In rigging it to a sliding door. Then. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. German silver. Screw the two blocks together. square. On brass. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. shaking. copper. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. 3. which . Where Bunsen cells are used. nickel and such metals. and the larger part (F. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. also. will serve for the key. 3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. 1 in. lead. If accumulators are used. --Model Engineer. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. 1). If more solution is required. 3) directly over the hole. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. must be about 1 in. with water. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. light strokes. Make a somewhat larger block (E. when the point of the key touches the tin. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. long. make a key and keyhole. The wooden block C. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. zinc. Fig. 3) strikes the bent wire L. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. piece of broomstick. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other. of water. 1. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. Take quick. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. Fig. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. such metals as iron. 1). as at F. This solution. Having finished washing the precipitate. which is held by catch B. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. but opens the door. A (Fig. Repeat six times. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. Before silver plating. use 2 volts for large articles. with water. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. pewter. Can be made of a 2-in. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. To provide the keyhole.up to 2 qt. if one does not possess a buffing machine. The wooden catch. 10 in. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. I. saw a piece of wood. about 25 ft. B should be of the same wood. thick by 3 in. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. an old electric bell or buzzer. a hand scratch brush is good.5 to 4 volts.

but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. the illumination in front must be arranged. and plenty of candles. 2. and finally lined inside with black cloth. or cave. Fig. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. The interior must be a dead black. no painting inside is required. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. The box must be altered first. cut in one side. some black cloth. H. some black paint. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. to throw the light toward the audience. H. so much the better. 1. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. he tosses it into the cave. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). with a switch as in Fig. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. Fig. Next. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. a few simple tools. The magician stands in front of this. Klipstein. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. --Contributed by E. in his shirt sleeves. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. New Jersey. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. Fig. H. Thus. Heavy metal objects. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. Fig. To prepare such a magic cave. Objects appear and disappear. and a slit. enlarged. 0. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. is the cut through which the rope runs. with the lights turned low. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. the requisites are a large soap box. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. sides and end. such as forks. One end is removed. top. between the parlor and the room back of it.. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. although a little more trouble. floor. and hands its contents round to the audience. Receiving the bowl again. surrounding a perfectly black space. heighten the illusion. B. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. he points with one finger to the box. and black art reigns supreme. which unlocks the door. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. should be cut a hole. . and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. one-third of the length from the remaining end. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. On either side of the box. Next. One thing changes to another and back again. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. In front of you. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. East Orange. shows catch B. 2. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. 3. 1. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. half way from open end to closed end. 116 Prospect St. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. He removes the bowl from the black box. the box should be painted black both inside and out. spoons and jackknives.

Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. you must have an assistant. into the eyes of him who looks. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. The illusion. The exhibitor should be . There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. was identical with this. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated. is on a table) so much the better. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. and if portieres are impossible. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. Consequently. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. one on each side of the box. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. and several black drop curtains. as presented by Hermann. Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. in which are oranges and apples. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant.Finally. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. his confederate behind inserts his hand. which can be made to dance either by strings. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. only he. the room where the cave is should be dark. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. of course. and pours them from the bag into a dish. But illusions suggest themselves. a screen must be used. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. which are let down through the slit in the top. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. had a big stage. of course. if. The audience room should have only low lights.

so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. On the disk G are two brass strips. A represents a pine board 4 in. held down on it by two terminals. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. d. if you turn handle K to the right.a boy who can talk. 2). a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. so arranged that. by 4 in. respectively. held down on disk F by two other terminals.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. Then. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. held down by another disk F (Fig. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). f2. square. b2. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1.. by means of two wood screws. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. and a common screw. at L. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. and c4 + electricity. About the center piece H moves a disk. as shown in Fig. FIG. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. their one end just slips under the strips b1. 1. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. making contact with them. 1. and c1 – electricity. terminal c3 will show . How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. making contact with them as shown at y. Fig. vice versa. or b2. and c2 to the zinc. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. with three brass strips. c1. c2. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. b2. respectively. b1. respectively. Finally. or binding posts. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. c4. when handle K is turned to one side. A. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in. b3. e1 and e2. is shown in the diagram. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. c3. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. 2. 2. b3. terminal c3 will show +.

Joerin. Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. and then hold the receiver to your ear. When switch B is closed and A is on No. -Contributed by A. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. from three batteries. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. B is a onepoint switch. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. . Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) .in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). you have the current of one battery. 4. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving.. 1. from four batteries. E. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. from five batteries. 3. thus making the message audible in the receiver. Ohio. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. when A is on No. 5. and C and C1 are binding posts. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. and when on No. Tuttle. --Contributed by Eugene F. Jr. jump spark coil. Newark. when on No. when on No.

If the thread is tied at the 17-in.. New Orleans. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. B. The device thus arranged. A. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. Thus. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain. as shown in the sketch. of Burlington. and supporting the small weight. E. per second. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. A. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. which may be a button or other small object. so one can see the time.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. over the bent portion of the rule. rule. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. When you do not have a graduate at hand. P. Thus if the thread moves 1 in. per second for each second. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. Redmond. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. A. mark. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. La. mark. Handy Electric Alarm . and placed on the windowsill of the car. Wis. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. traveled by the thread. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. is the device of H.

To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. --Contributed by Gordon T. which illuminates the face of the clock. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways. but may be closed at F any time desired. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. --C.which has a piece of metal. Then if a mishap comes. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. C. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. and with the same result. S. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch. Pa. When the alarm goes off. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. Lane. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. Crafton. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. B. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. wrapping the wire around the can several times. for a wetting is the inevitable result. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. . the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. Instead. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. soldered to the alarm winder. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon.

With the easily made devices about to be described. thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. 1. but it is a mistake to try to do this. bearings. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. when it is being prepared.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . Two cleats. New York City. Macey. as shown. ornaments of various kinds. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. and many other interesting and useful articles. battery zincs. models and miniature objects. engines. whence it is soon tracked into the house. binding posts. If there is no foundry Fig. L. AA. cannons. --Contributed by A. The first thing to make is a molding bench. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. as shown in Fig. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. small machinery parts. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. which may. 1 . BE. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. and duplicates of all these.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. It is possible to make molds without a bench. C. A. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required.

will be required. the "cope. An old teaspoon. is shown more clearly in Fig. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold. and this. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. H. and saw it in half longitudinally. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together.near at hand. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. high. A slight shake of the bag Fig. which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated.How to Make a Mold [96] . In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. but this operation will be described more fully later on. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. DD. CC. which can be made of a knitted stocking. 2. is made of wood. If the box is not very strong." or upper half. The cloth bag. which should be nailed in. by 8 in. previous to sawing. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. II . G. is about the right mesh. If desired the sieve may be homemade. by 6 in. which can be either aluminum. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient. 2 . The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. 1. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. say 12 in. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. and the lower pieces. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. A A. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. The rammer. and the "drag. The flask. This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. try using sand from other sources. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. makes a very good sieve. and a sieve. It is made of wood and is in two halves. The dowels. D. a little larger than the outside of the flask. is nailed to each end of the cope. CC. as shown. white metal. Fig. as shown. E. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. A wedge-shaped piece. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. F. is filled with coal dust. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. Fig." or lower part.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. 1. J.

It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. After ramming. and if water is added. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. and then more sand is added until Fig. It is then rammed again as before." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks. where they can watch the molders at work. turn the drag other side up. as shown at D. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. as it is much easier to learn by observation. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. and by grasping with both hands. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. as shown. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. and scatter about 1/16 in. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. as described.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. Place another cover board on top. or "drag. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. the surface of the sand at . as shown at C. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. in order to remove the lumps. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. but care should be taken not to get it too wet." in position. as shown at E. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. and thus judge for himself. In finishing the ramming. The sand is then ready for molding. or "cope. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard.

After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. as shown in the sketch. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. as shown at F. as shown at H. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. and then pour. as shown at G.E should be covered with coal-dust. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. Fig. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. This is done with a spoon. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. to give the air a chance to escape. in order to prevent overheating. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. The "sprue. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. deep. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle." or pouring-hole. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. thus making a dirty casting. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. Place a brick or other flat. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. III. After drawing the pattern. made out of steel rod. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. in diameter. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. as shown at J. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. thus holding the crucible securely. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. after being poured. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. as shown at H. it shows that the sand is too wet. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. is next cut. . which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. wide and about 1/4 in. place the cope back on the drag.

A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. and the casting is then ready for finishing. or from any adjacent pair of cells. battery zincs. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. may be used in either direction. white metal and other scrap available. is very desirable. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. used only for zinc. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. If a good furnace is available. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. Morton. --Contributed by Harold S. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. the following device will be found most convenient. although somewhat expensive. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. Although the effect in the illustration . and. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. Minneapolis. In my own case I used four batteries. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. babbitt. 15% lead. but any reasonable number may be used. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. Referring to the figure.

as shown at A. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. connected by cords to the rudder. which will be sufficient to hold it. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. 2. Then walk down among the audience. B. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. may be made of hardwood. B. To make it take a sheet-iron band. Make one of these pieces for each arm. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. A. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. If desired.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. Then replace the table. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. By replacing the oars with paddles. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. as shown in the illustration. backward. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. Fig. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. Put a sharp needle point. 3/4 in. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. The brass rings also appear distorted. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. outward. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. The bearings. Chicago. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. shaft made. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. --Contributed by Draughtsman. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars.

it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. It may seem strange that ice . spoiling its appearance. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. as shown in Fig. C. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. 1. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. Snow. as shown in Fig. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. being simply finely divided ice. or under pressure. or the paint will come off. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. A block of ice. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. If galvanized iron is used. The hubs. E. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards. Fig. W. If babbitt is used. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. The covers. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. 2. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. D. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. In the same way. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. 2 and 3. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. but when in motion. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. A. should be made of wood. 1.melted babbitt. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. 3. and a weight. when it will again return to its original state. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. 1.

square. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. and assume the shape shown at B.. as per sketch. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends. B. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. by 1/4. by 2 in. Crafton. but by placing it between books. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. or supporting it in some similar way. it will gradually change from the original shape A. which resembles ice in this respect. Pa. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. --Contributed by Gordon T. Pressing either push button. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. whenever there is any connection made at all. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. but. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. sometimes only one or two feet a day. by 1/2 in.should flow like water. Lane. P. thus giving a high resistance contact. the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. by 5 in. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. The rate of flow is often very slow. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. as shown on page 65. in. no matter how slow the motion may be. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . brass. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown.

The parts are: A. Wilkinsburg. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch. furnace. as shown. The success depends upon a slow current. D. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. In the wiring diagram. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. G. as shown. cord. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. wooden supports. the induction coil. and C. B. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated.000 ft. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. --Contributed by A. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. draft. alarm clock. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. C. I. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. Pa. G. K . about the size used for automobiles. weight. and five dry batteries. J. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two.thumb screws. H. A is the circuit breaker. draft chain. E. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. the battery. horizontal lever. Indianapolis. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit. vertical lever. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. F. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. B. pulleys. Ward.

material framed together as shown in Fig. as well as the bottom. Artistic Window Boxes The top. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. will fit nicely in them. 2 are dressed to the right angle. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. such as used for a storm window.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . Kalamazoo. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. Mich. which will provide a fine place for the plants. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. 3. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. The frame (Fig. When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. where house plants are kept in the home.

1 each complete with base. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. N.. Halifax. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. S. in any system of lamps. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. for some time very satisfactorily. but maintain the voltage constant. Thus. e. W. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. this must be done with very great caution. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage. and will give the . a cork and a needle. However. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. 1 cp. It must be remembered. This is more economical than dry cells. and cost 27 cents FIG. A certain number of these. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. one can regulate the batteries as required. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. after a rest. as indicated by Fig. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch.. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. where they are glad to have them taken away. as if drawn upon for its total output. 1. Canada. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power. multiples of series of three. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. and the instrument will then be complete. and a suitable source of power. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. can be connected up in series. Push the needle into the cork. in diameter. i. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. by connecting them in series. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. in this connection.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. is something that will interest the average American boy. However. so as to increase the current. The 1/2-cp. since a battery is the most popular source of power.. --Contributed by Wm. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. which sells for 25 cents. Grant.

--Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. by the proper combination of these. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement. we simply turn on the water. for display of show cases. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. where the water pressure is the greatest. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. lamp. Thus. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo. double insulated wire wherever needed. In conclusion. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. 11 series. and running the series in parallel. and cost about the same as a 32-cp.proper voltage. So. if wound for 6 volts. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. and then lead No. 1-cp. Chicago. 3. Fig. These will give 3 cp. and for Christmas trees. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. to secure light by this method. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. according to the water pressure obtainable. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. which is the same as that of one battery. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. lamps. as in Fig. lamps. FIG. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. If wound for 10 volts. Thus. Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. generates the power for the lights. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. 18 B & S. However. . Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical.. and diffused light in a room. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. or 22 lights. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. although the first cost is greater. making. especially those of low internal resistance. 2 shows the scheme. each. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current.

The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. CC. After I connected up my induction coil. field of motor. bars of pole-changing switch. simply change the switch. as shown in the sketch. Santa Clara. --Contributed by F. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. A. Emig. B. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. DD. are cut just alike. AA. Cal. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. A indicates the ground. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. Plymouth.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. thus reversing the machine. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. brushes of motor. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. a bait of meat. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. outside points of switch. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. center points of switch. BB. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. we were not bothered with them. Ind. switch. . Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. and the sides. B. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized. --Contributed by Leonard E. or a tempting bone. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. or from one pattern. To reverse the motor. and C. Parker. the letters indicate as follows: FF.

merely push the button E.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule.. Hutchinson. The button can be hidden. The experiment works best . attached to the end of the armature B. a piece of string. Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. 903 Vine St. If it is not. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. or would remain locked. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. Fry. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. Cal. one cell being sufficient. Minn. Melchior. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. San Jose. thus locking the door. W. a hammer. To unlock the door. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked. -Contributed by Claude B. as it is the key to the lock. and a table or bench. which is in the door. A. When the circuit is broken a weight.

Crawford Curry.Contributed by F. Porto Rico.. 4). D. W. the stick falls away. releasing the weight. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Ontario. . the current flows with the small arrows. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. On another block of wood fasten two wires. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. run through a pulley. Madison. forming a loop. where it will remain suspended as shown. in the ceiling and has a window weight. as shown in Fig. I. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. 3. --Contributed by Geo. the key turns. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Culebra. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. Canada. When the alarm rings in the early morning. P. Brockville. 1). 18 Gorham St. attached at the other end. C. Tie the ends of the string together. Schmidt.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. -. 3. 2. Wis. A. which pulls the draft open.

D. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. including the mouthpiece. and the other to the battery. and then to the receiver. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. --Contributed by Wm. Jr. which fasten to the horn. or from a bed of flowers. get two pieces of plate glass. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. and . or tree. R. The cut shows the arrangement. 6 in. and break the corners off to make them round. S. N.. but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. thick.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. made with his own hands. Camden. J. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. running one direct to the receiver. First. Use a barrel to work on. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. square and 1 in. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. J. thence to a switch. Connect two wires to the transmitter. Farley.

Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. A. In a dark room. unless a longer focal length is wanted. a round 4-in. Have ready six large dishes. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum. of water. 1. Use a binger to spread it on with. so the light . then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. spaces. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. When polishing the speculum. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. Fasten. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. 2. wetting it to the consistency of cream.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. and label. while walking around the barrel. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding. wide around the convex glass or tool.. melt 1 lb. in length. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. Fig. also rotate the glass. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. L. and the under glass or tool convex. with pitch. and spread on the glass. by the side of the lamp. wet till soft like paint. When done the glass should be semitransparent. set the speculum against the wall.. twice the focal length away. When dry. Then warm and press again with the speculum. as in Fig. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. the coarse grinding must be continued. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. 2. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. with 1/4-in. Fig. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. using straight strokes 2 in. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. then 8 minutes. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. and is ready for polishing. or it will not polish evenly. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. then take 2 lb. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. or less. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. and a large lamp.

Fig. Fig. Place the speculum S. fill the dish with distilled water. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right.. When the focus is found.. that was set aside. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. 39 gr. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. If not.. must be procured. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. 2. then ammonia until bath is clear. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. Silver nitrate ……………………………. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. 100 gr. and pour the rest into the empty dish. Two glass or earthenware dishes. 4 oz. With pitch. face down. Solution D: Sugar loaf . If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. Alcohol (Pure) ……………. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. 840 gr. or hills. from the lamp. if a hill in the center. Place the speculum.. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. The knife should not be more than 6 in.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. the speculum will show some dark rings. touched with rouge. 25 gr. The polishing and testing done. long to the back of the speculum.………………………………. cement a strip of board 8 in.. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. 4 oz. Now add enough of the solution A. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube.100 gr. with distilled water. as in K. longer strokes.……………………………. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. deep. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears. the speculum is ready to be silvered. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. 2. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark... also how the rays R from a star .. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. Then add 1 oz. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) …... Then add solution B. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. Nitric acid . the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin. Fig. When dry. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it.…………….

telescope can be made at home. with an outlay of only a few dollars. which proves to be easy of execution. using strawboard and black paper. The flatter they are the less they will distort. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. deg. long and cost me just $15. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber. . it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. About 20.John E. My telescope is 64 in. and proceed as for any picture. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. slightly wider than the lens mount. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely.. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers. Thus an excellent 6-in. two glass prisms. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. Then I made the one described. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. cover with paper and cloth. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. is a satisfactory angle. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. stop down well after focusing. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. Make the tube I of sheet iron. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Mellish. Place over lens. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford.

The window must be darkened all around the shelf. Zimmerman. -Contributed by A. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. Do not stir it. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. and reflect through the negative. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. complete the arrangement. B.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. through the lens of the camera and on the board. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting. instead of the contrary. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. then add a little sulphate of potash. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. D. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. 2. but will not preserve its hardening. push the button D. Boody. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Fig. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. unobstructed light strike the mirror. 1. A. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. or powdered alum. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. The rays of the clear. Ill. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. add the plaster gradually to the water. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this. . To unlock. The paper is exposed. as shown in Fig. says the Master Painter. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion.

so that it can rotate about these points. use a string. throw . as shown in the sketch. 2. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. Fasten on the switch lever.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. but will remain suspended without any visible support. Then blow through the spool. 2. 1). To reverse. and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. as at A and B. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. Fig. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. also provide them with a handle. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass. 3. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. as in Fig. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore.

rinse in alcohol. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. C C.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. Neb. L. Push one end of the tire into the hole. carbons. wash in running water. Tex. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. D. North Bend. -Contributed by Morris L. Thomas. --Contributed by R. the armature. as shown in the sketch. Levy. B. Tex. and rub dry with linen cloth. San Marcos. Go McVicker. carbon sockets. . binding posts. --Contributed by Geo. San Antonio. Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. A is the electricbell magnet. and E E. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. In the sketch. although this is not necessary. Take out. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons.

and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. 36 magnet wire. By means of two or more layers of No. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. 16 magnet wire. wound evenly about this core. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. --Contributed by Joseph B. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . Bell. long or more. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. Divested of nearly all technical phrases. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. 14 or No. Brooklyn.

long and 5 in. in length. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. In shaping the condenser. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. diameter. and finally the fourth strip of paper. with room also for a small condenser. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed.which would be better to buy ready-made. in diameter. wide. No. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. This makes a condenser which may be folded. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. When cut and laid in one continuous length. Beginning half an inch from one end. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. one piece of the paper is laid down. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. as the maker prefers. and the results are often unsatisfactory. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. then the strip of tin-foil. about 6 in. The primary is made of fine annealed No. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. or 8 in. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. a box like that shown in Fig. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. the entire core may be purchased readymade. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. which is an important factor of the coil. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. as shown in Fig. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. 2 yd. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. which is desirable. The condenser is next wrapped . and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. The following method of completing a 1-in. 1. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. hole is bored in the center of one end. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. making two layers. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. 4. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. at a time. A 7/8-in. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. long and 2-5/8 in. After the core wires are bundled. but if it is not convenient to do this work. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. coil illustrates the general details of the work.

Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. spark. V-shaped copper strip. long and 12 in. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. G. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. bell. whole length. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. forms the other pole or terminal. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. wide. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. 4 in.. by 12 in. Fig. B. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. C. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. and the other sheet. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C. flange turned on one side. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. A. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. D. E. the letters indicate as follows: A. battery . Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. to the door. copper lever with 1-in. shows how the connections are made. go. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. F. one from bell. open switch C. ready for assembling. which is insulated from the first. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. which allows wiring at the back. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. shelf for clock. switch. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. and one from battery. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. round so that the inside .securely with bands of paper or tape. B. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. lines H. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. 3. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. I. long to key. The alarm key will turn and drop down.) The wiring diagram.

They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. . If desired for use immediately.diameter is 7 in. London. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage. from the bottom. Use a glass or metal shade. That is what they are for. instead of close to it. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. of zinc sulphate. but add 5 or 6 oz. and the battery is ready for use. and then rivet the seam. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. 2 in. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. but with the circuit. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Short-circuit for three hours. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. says the Model Engineer.. do not shortcircuit. This is for blowing. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. Line the furnace. The circuit should also have a high resistance. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. of blue stone. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells.

Try it and see. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. If too low. as in the other movement. thus producing two different vibrations. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. while for others it will not revolve at all. At least it is amusing. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. Enlarge the hole slightly. herein I describe a much better trick. g. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. but the thing would not move at all. Ohio. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. changes white phosphorus to yellow. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified." which created much merriment. for others the opposite way. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. If any or your audience presume to dispute. Outside of the scientific side involved. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water. below the bottom of the zinc. long. 2. This type of battery will give about 0. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. and then. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right.. grip the stick firmly in one hand. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. imparting to them a violet tinge. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. affects . 1. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. or think they can do the same let them try it. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. for some it will turn one way. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. porcelain and paper. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm.9 of a volt. and therein is the trick. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. square and about 9 in. To operate the trick. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. oxygen to ozone. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. the second finger along the side.

but this is less satisfactory. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. but not essential. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. a short-focus lens. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. To the front board is attached a box. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. however. an old tripod screw. and one of them is photomicrography.a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. but small flowers. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. chemicals. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. says the Photographic Times. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. if possible. insects. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. a means for holding it vertical. and. earth.

We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. Madison. 905 57 lb. and a line. 5 in. 5 ft. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. Mass. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. 6 ft. 8 ft. 268 17 lb. 7-1/2 in. AB. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. Fig. 65 4 lb. The following table will give the size. 7 ft. or 3 ft. 7-1/2 in. If the balloon is 10 ft. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. long and 3 ft. Ft Lifting Power. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. 697 44 lb. which is 15 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. Cap. 12 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. 11 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments.--Contributed by George C. in diameter. wide from which to cut a pattern. CD. or 31 ft. 9 ft. A line. 381 24 lb. Divide one-quarter of the circle . 1. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. 10 ft 523 33 lb. The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. in Cu. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. balloon. 113 7 lb. 179 11 lb. while it is not so with the quill.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. Boston.

using a fine needle and No. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. of beeswax and boil well together. 70 thread. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. and so on. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Procure 1 gal. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. The pattern is now cut. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. making a double seam as shown in Fig. 2. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. 3. The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. on the curved line from B to C. keeping the marked part on the outside. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. The cloth segments are sewed together. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. 4. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. cutting all four quarters at the same time. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. This test will show if the bag is airtight. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. Repeat this operation four times. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. of the very best heavy body. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig.

When the clock has dried. of sulphuric acid. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured.. B. C. . 5. capacity and connect them. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. B. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. Fill the other barrel.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. leaving the hand quite clean. of iron. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. After washing a part. A. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. it is not fit to use. with the iron borings. About 15 lb. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. above the level of the water in barrel A. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb.Green Iron ammonium citrate . with water 2 in. 1 lb. of iron borings and 125 lb. oil the spindle holes carefully. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. using a fine brush. of gas in one hour. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. ft. B. with 3/4in. until no more dirt is seen. All FIG. which may sound rather absurd. by fixing. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. or a fan. or dusting with a dry brush. this should be repeated frequently. Vegetable oils should never be used. 150 gr. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. a clean white rag. as shown in Fig. The 3/4-in. balloon are 125 lb. A. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. of water will make 4 cu. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. The outlet.ft. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel. ]. . should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. 5 . pipe. In the barrel. to the bag. Water 1 oz. 1 lb. if it is good it will dry off. A. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. C. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. should not enter into the water over 8 in. but if any grease remains on the hand.

Dry the plates in the dark. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. fix in hypo. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. A cold. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. Printing is done in the sun. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. dry atmosphere will give best results. of any make. at the time of employment. to avoid blackened skin. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. or carbon. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. and a vigorous negative must be used..Water 1 oz. keeping the fingers out of the solution. The positive pole. A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. . leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking.000 ft. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. 20 to 30 minutes. Port Melbourne. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. and keep in the dark until used. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. toning first if desired. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. or zinc. . of the cell is connected to a ground wire. The miniature 16 cp. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. This aerial collector can be made in . Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz. A longer exposure will be necessary. or battery. Dry in the dark. says the Moving Picture World. The negative pole. Exposure.

I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. making a ground with one wire. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates. and as less current will flow the short way. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. as described below. will soon become dry and useless. holes . a positive and a negative. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. and have the other connected with another aerial line. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. the resistance is less. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver.various ways. when left exposed to the air. To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made. lead pipe. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. This will complete the receiving station. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. in diameter. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. both positive and negative. If the wave ceases. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. long. lay a needle. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. As the telephone offers a high resistance. forming a cup of the pipe. If the waves strike across the needle. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. The storage cell. 5 in.

Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. namely: a square hole. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. does not need to be watertight. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. says the Pathfinder. The other plate is connected to the zinc. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. Two binding-posts should be attached. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. D. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. by soldering the joint. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. or tube C. and the other to the negative. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. This box can be square. or tube B. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. B. an oblong one and a triangular one. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. This. of course. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . When mixing the acid and water. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled.as possible. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. on each end. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid. a round one. one to the positive. This support or block. except for about 1 in.

One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. 3. back and under. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. leaving about 1/16 in. The third piece of brass. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. A and B. and match them together. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. Chicago. One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. 2. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. 1. 1. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. . The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. about 20 in. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. wide. long. 2. C. as shown in Fig. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. deep and 4 ft. as shown in Fig. thick cut two pieces alike. Only galvanized nails should be used. is built 15 ft. Ill. as it is not readily overturned. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. C. in place on the wood. and has plenty of good seating capacity. This punt. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. wide. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. were fitted by this one plug. all around the edge.

Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. thick and 3-1/2 in. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. Wash. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. A. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in. In Fig. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . Tacoma. square (Fig 2). The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. is cut 1 in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. B. A piece of 1/4-in. gas pipe.

The winding of the armature. if possible. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. without auxiliary phase. which the writer has made. Wagner.--Contributed by Charles H. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. it had to be borne in mind that. no special materials could be obtained. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum. lamp. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. may be of interest to some of our readers. H. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor. and to consume. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning." has no connection with the outside circuit. no more current than a 16-cp. which can be developed in the usual manner. In designing. says the Model Engineer. with the exception of insulated wire. or "rotor.

A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. 5. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. being used. holes. 2. thick. B. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. about 2-1/2 lb. with the dotted line. as shown in Fig. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. wrought iron. C. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. The stator is wound full with No. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips.the field-magnet. After assembling a second time. A. and all sparking is avoided. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. as shown in Fig. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. They are not particularly accurate as it is. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. also varnished before they were put in. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. while the beginnings . in diameter were drilled in the corners. and filled with rivets. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. Unfortunately. this little machine is not self-starting. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. or "stator. to be filed out after they are placed together. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. bolts put in and tightened up. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. were then drilled and 1/4-in. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. Holes 5-32 in. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. 4. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in. 1. no steel being obtainable. 3. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth.

All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. E. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. and all wound in the same direction. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. No starting resistance is needed. and the other by reduction in the camera. N. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. and as each layer of wire was wound. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. The lantern slide is a glass plate.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. One is by contact. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. This type of motor has drawbacks. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways. J. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. as shown in Fig. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in. Newark. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. film to film. if applied immediately. McKinney. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. If too late for alcohol to be of use. 3-Contributed by C. a regulating resistance is not needed. 2. The image should . having no commutator or brushes.. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. 1. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. and as the motor runs at constant speed. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. The rotor is wound with No. it would be very simple to build. as a means of illustrating songs. and would not easily get out of order. Jr. as before stated. it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. In making slides by contact. and especially of colored ones. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines.

B. 5. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. It is best. if possible. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. as shown in Fig. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. 3. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. D. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. a little extra work will be necessary. also. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. These can be purchased from any photo material store. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. C. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. over the mat. to use a plain fixing bath. 1. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. except that the binding is different. 2. as shown in Fig. A. and development should be over in three or four minutes.appear in. Being unbreakable. they are much used by travelers. Fig. Draw lines with a pencil. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. about a minute. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. 4. Select a room with one window. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. If the exposure has been correct. and then a plain glass. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. the formulas being found in each package of plates. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate.

The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. in diameter and 20 in. is to be used for the seat. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. If the star is in front of the left eye. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook. long. from the center of this dot draw a star. or other stout cloth. wide and 50 in. from the end piece of the chair. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. as shown at A. as shown in Fig. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. as shown at B. Corinth. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. known as rods and cones. Fig. in diameter and 40 in. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. long. A piece of canvas. in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. Fig. These longer pieces can be made square. Vt. holes bored in the end pieces. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. 16 in. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. from the ends. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. 2. long. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. 1. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . while the dot will be in front of the other. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. 1. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in. The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. Hastings. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook.

allowing the shaft to project through the holes. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. as shown in Fig. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. Auburn.-Contributed by P. as shown in Fig. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. Cal. A disk 1 in. A belt. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. J. in thickness and 10 in. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. made from an ordinary sash cord. 1. . per square inch. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. 2. as well as to operate other household machines. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. O'Gara. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion.

The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. Put the bolt in the hole. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. and the construction is complete. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. thick and 2-1/2 in. with as fine a thread as possible. Bore a 1/4-in. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. says the Scientific American. fairly accurate. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. it serves a very useful purpose. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. 3/4 in. square for a support. divided by the number of threads to the inch. leaving it shaped like a bench. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. or inconvenient to measure. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. . that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. The part of a rotation of the bolt. to the top of the bench. long. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. will be the thickness of the object. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. direction.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. wide. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. screwing it through the nut. then removing the object. A simple.

Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. bolt in each hole. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. long is used for the center pole. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. Bore a 3/4-in. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. globe that has been thrown away as useless. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Oal. the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. Santa Maria. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. The wheel should be open . This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. piece of wood 12 ft. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan. material 12 ft. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. beyond the end of the wood. Place a 3/4-in. long. which show up fine at night. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed.

is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. The width should be about 5-1/4 in. thick. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. B. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. Tex. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. L. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings. long. and on its lower end a socket. at the bottom. made of the same material. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. long.-Contributed by A. A cross bar. pieces used for the spokes. square and 3 or 4 in. Graham. which should be 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. C. This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. of the ends with boards. A piece of brass 2 in. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. The boards may be nailed or bolted. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. C. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. The coil. from the ends. A. H and J. P. thick.Side and Top View or have spokes. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. from the top end. and the lower part 61/2 in. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. 1/2 in. O. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. Fort Worth. to be operated by the magnet coil. long. long. The spool . are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. at the top and 4 in. thick is used for the armature. is soldered. wide and 1/8 in. in diameter. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft.

2 the hat hanging on it. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied.J. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. S.--A. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. The armature. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. is drilled. D and E. This is a very neat trick if performed right. R. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. and place it against a door or window casing. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. do it without any apparent effort. When you slide the pencil along the casing. At the bottom end of the frame. that holds the lower carbon. A soft piece of iron. --Contributed by Arthur D.E. 1. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. making a hole just a little larger than the rod. then with a firm. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. one without either rubber or metal end. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. S. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. Bradlev. and in numerous other like instances. Randolph. by soldering. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25. 2. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. or a water rheostat heretofore described. F. which may be had by using German silver wire. B. A. long. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. Mass. This tie can be used on grain sacks. and directly centering the holes H and J.000. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. . for insulating the brass ferrule. C. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post.is about 2-1/2 in.000 for irrigation work.

After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. Fig. in diameter and 1/16 in. wide. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. A. about 1/8 in. The core of the coil. for adjustment. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. leaving the projections as shown. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. S. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. S. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. About 70 turns of No. is constructed in the usual manner. thick. B. Fig.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. in diameter. in diameter. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. is connected to a flash lamp battery. in diameter and 2 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. F. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. mixed with water to form a paste. long and 1 in. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. about 3/16 in. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. long. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. D. 1. hole in the center. 2. The switch. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. 1. with a 3/16-in. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket.500 turns of No. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. The coil ends are made from cardboard. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. The vibrator B. and then 1. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home. for the primary. C. about 1 in. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. The vibrator. from the core and directly opposite. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. Experiment with Heat [134] . for the secondary. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary.

. The hasp. and the same distance inside of the new board. 1. as shown. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. was to be secured by only three brass screws. Fig. The knob on the dial extends out too far. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. which seemed to be insufficient. and then well clinched. wide. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. The three screws were then put in the hasp. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. as shown in the sketch. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. it laps down about 8 in. which is cut with two holes. with which to operate the dial. thick on the inside. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. 1. between the boards. which is only 3/8-in. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. The tin is 4 in. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. lighted. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. board. long and when placed over the board. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. The lock. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. 2 to fit the two holes. brass plate. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in. in an ordinary water glass. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. 16 in.Place a small piece of paper. if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock.

When making of wood. any article placed therein will be reflected in. not shiny. square and 8-1/2 in. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. high for use in window displays. which completely divides the box into two parts. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull. but when the front part is illuminated. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. the glass. one in each division. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. or in the larger size mentioned. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . When the rear part is illuminated. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. black color. clear glass as shown. square and 10-1/2 in. and the back left dark. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. If the box is made large enough. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish.

above the top of the tank. . This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. as it appears. and with the proper illumination one is changed. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. alternately. When there is no electric current available. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. wide will be about the right size. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. a tank 2 ft. as shown in the sketch.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. into the other. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. or a piece of this width put on the bottom.. long and 1 ft. as shown at A in the sketch. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. When using as a window display.

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. using a 3/4-in. 1 in. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. long. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. radius. and a door in front. under sides together. The pieces can then be taken out. square and 40 in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. high. Three windows are provided. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. Columbus. wide. Shape the under sides first. wide. Iron sulphate. 2 ft. 5 ft. square. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. bit. hole. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. and boring two holes with a 1-in. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. bore from each end. hole bored the full length through the center. lines gauged on each side of each. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. A small platform. and a solution of iron sulphate added. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. or ferrous sulphate. from the ground. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. thick and 3 in. one for each side. If a planing mill is near. 6 in. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. gauge for depth. This precipitate is then washed. This hole must be continued . The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. The 13-in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. is the green vitriol. but with a length of 12 in. is built on the front. with a length of 13 in. dried and mixed with linseed oil. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. however. O. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. and 6 ft. two pieces 1-1/8 in. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. each. then use a red-hot iron to finish. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. long. as shown.

is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. If the parts are to be riveted. A better way. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. For art-glass the metal panels are . three or four may be attached as shown. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. if shade is purchased. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain.through the pieces forming the base. thick and 3 in. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Directions will be found on the filler cans. square and drawing a diagonal on each. apply two coats of wax. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. Electric globes--two. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. hole in each block. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. Saw the two blocks apart. When the filler has hardened. The sketch shows one method of attaching. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. When this is dry. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each.

the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal.The Completed Lamp cut out. METAL SHADE .Construction of Shade . such as copper. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal. as brass.

Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. one way and 1/2 in. the object and the background. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. Figure 1 shows the side. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. as in ordinary devices. the other. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. The arms holding the glass. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. and Fig. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. as shown in the sketch. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. 2 the front view of this stand.

thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. in diameter. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. and swinging freely. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. uncork and recork again. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. wide and 6-5/16 in. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. Put the ring in place on the base. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. long. as it is very poisonous. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. If the light becomes dim. Cut another circular piece 11 in. An ordinary pocket compass. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. pointing north and south. Before mounting the ring on the base. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. in diameter for a base. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. outside diameter. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. and an inside diameter of 9 in. thick 5/8-in. about 1-1/4 in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. thus forming a 1/4-in. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. channel in the circumference of the ring.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. wide and 11 in. as shown in the sketch. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. as shown in the cut. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used.

cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. The results given should be multiplied by 1.715 . to which a wire has been soldered for connections. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere.600 . AA. of the top. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.289 .500 . How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. CC. Corresponding mirrors. B. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. EE. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. black oxide of copper. and mirrors. and north of the Ohio river.182 .088 . are mounted on a base. Place on top the so- . from the second to the third. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg.375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. into these cylinders.865 1. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . 1 oz.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in. The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.420 . above the half can. in diameter and 8 in.

slender bottle. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. In Fig. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. little crystals forming in the liquid. alcohol. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. 31 gr. of pulverized campor. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. the wheel will revolve in one direction. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. then they will not rust fast. which otherwise remains clear. always remove the oil with a siphon. says Metal Worker. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. When renewing. 62 gr. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. Put the solution in a long. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. Colo. University Park. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. -Contributed by Robert Canfield. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat.

the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. floating on a solution. This is used in place of the spoon. If zinc and copper are used. will allow the magnet to point north and south. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. Lloyd Enos. Solder in the side of the box . Air Thermometer deep and 2 in.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork. If zinc and carbon are used. Attach to the wires. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. about 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by C. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. A paper-fastener box. If two of them are floating on the same solution. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. on the under side of the cork.

in. 10 wire about 10 in. . Take a small piece of soft iron. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid.in. A.Contributed by J. D. wide and 2-1/2 in. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. thick. B. wide and 6 in. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. The spring should be about 1 in. stained and varnished. of wire on each end extending from the coil. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. long that has about 1/4-in. The base. G--No. to it. 1-1/4 in. away. Rhamstine. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. piece of 1/4-in. Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. H. Thos. can be made of oak. Use a board 1/2. long. one on each side of the board. The bottom of the box. A circular piece of cardboard. C. Wind evenly about 2 oz. If the hose is not a tight fit. To this standard solder the supporting wire. E. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. is made from a piece of No.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. The standard. A. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. brass tubing. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. Put ends. 1/2.1-in. D. and then solder on the cover. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . long. 14 wire will do. 1. E. D. long for the base and fasten the coil to it.not shorter than 18 in. F. or made with a little black paint. Bore holes for binding-posts. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. C. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. of No. 3 in. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. hole. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. C. B. glass tubing . cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. and on the other around the glass tube. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. Secure a piece of 1/4-in.

J. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. of mercury will be sufficient. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. 3. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. of 8-oz. Milwaukee. as shown in Fig. four hinges. in diameter. Smith. square of which two pieces are 6 ft.--Contributed by Edward M.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. long. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. 3-in. of No. is drawn nearer to the coil. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks. of platinum wire in one end of the tube.--Contributed by R. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. Cuba. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. making a support as shown in Fig. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. D. E. Teasdale. Wis. When the glass becomes soft. . 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. 1. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. about 1 in. About 1-1/2 lb. long. long. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. N. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. two pieces 2 ft. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. long. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale.of the coil. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer. from the right hand. Y. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. The iron plunger. long. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. 5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. 5. long are used for the legs. canvas. 2. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. 3 in.

although nearly any size could be made in the same way. 6. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . small aperture in the long tube. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. Can. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. --Contributed by David A. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. leaving 8 in. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. This tube as described will be 8 in. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. Toronto. expelling all the air. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. 4. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. Measure 8 in. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. thus leaving a. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. 5. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. The tube now must be filled completely. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. Break off the piece of glass. Fig. Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. holding in the left hand. Keys. long. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. 3. of vacuum at the top. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. 2.. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig.. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. Take 1/2 in.

wide and 5 ft. thick. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. material 2 in. in diameter. 1 in. thick. 1 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. wide and 5 ft. long. Four blocks 1/4 in. 4. as in Fig. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. with each projection 3-in. long. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. from the end of same.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. thick. The large pulley is about 14 in. 3 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. FIG. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. 7. long. cut in the shape shown in Fig. joint be accurately put together. wide and 5 ft.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . 4 in. 3. 6. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. and 1/4 in. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. thick. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. 3 in. long. 9 in. 1. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. 5. This forms a slot.6 -. These are bent and nailed. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. as shown in Fig. Fig. long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. wood screws. wide and 3 in. as shown in Fig. but yellow pine is the best. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. 2. wide and 12 in. thick.

and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. Welsh. Kan. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. . R. by 1-in. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. Manhattan. says Photography. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. first removing the crank. Water 1 oz. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. attach runners and use it on the ice. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string. --Contributed by C. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. above the runner level.

then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. 3. 1. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. as shown in Fig.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. also. Treasdale. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. This is done with a camel's hair brush. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. 2. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. --Contributed by Edward M. The print is washed. of water. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. . --Contributed by Wallace C. Leominster. as shown in Fig. and very much cheaper. from an ordinary clamp skate. Mass. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. Printing is carried rather far. 1 oz. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. Newton. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws.

fasten a 2-in. Fig. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. F. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. which represents the back side of the door. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. and bend them as shown in the sketch. Take two glass tubes. as shown in the sketch. Fig. long. A. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. Alexandria. 1 ft. high for rabbits. --Contributed by H. causing the door to swing back and up. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. The thread is broken off at the . is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. hole. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. square piece. wide and 4 in. wide. with about 1/8-in. extending the width of the box. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. 1. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. too. and 3 ft. Then. Church. 1. high. from one end. 2. 1-1/2 ft. about 10 in. Place a 10-in. Va. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. say. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. and to the bottom. The swing door B.

B. says Camera Craft. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people. -Contributed by William M. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. inside of the opening. Jr. . being 1/8 in. shorter. Take two pieces of pasteboard. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. say 8 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. as shown in Fig. Cut an opening in the other piece. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. wide.by 5-in. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. C.. and exactly 5 by 7 in. 2. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. wide and 5 in. from the edge on each side of these openings. 1 in. but cut it 1/4 in. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. 1. A and B. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. and go in the holder in the same way. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Chicago. black surfaced if possible. to be used as a driving pulley. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in.by 7-in. wide. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. long. in size. 10 in. shorter at each end. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. Crilly. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. plates. This opening. high and 12 in. long. in size. automobiles. horses and dogs. D. 3. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used.proper place to make a small hole. Fig. Paste a piece of strong black paper. Fig. camera and wish to use some 4. trolley cars. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. Out two rectangular holes.

The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles. into which the dog is harnessed. The needle will then point north and south. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. if it has previously been magnetized." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. long and 6 in.. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam.in. in diameter. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. wide will be required. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. making a . and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent. A cell of this kind can easily be made. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear.

Carbons used in arc lamps will do. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin. 1 lb.in. pine. Form a 1/2-in. in diameter and 6 in. This makes the wire smooth. . allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. fuel and packing purposes. beeswax melted together. in which P is the pan. of the plate at one end. Place the pan on the stove. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. Pack the paste in. zinc oxide. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. leaving about 1/2-in. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. of the top. of water. A is a block of l-in. under the spool in the paraffin. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. says Electrician and Mechanic. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. short time. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. Secure three carbon rods 1/2.watertight receptacle. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. for a connection. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. of rosin and 2 oz. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. B is a base of 1 in. 1/4 lb. long which are copper plated. File the rods to remove the copper plate. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. F is a spool. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. fodder. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. one that will hold about 1 qt. and a notch between the base and the pan. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. 3/4 lb. only the joints. sal ammoniac. Do not paint any surface. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. with narrow flanges. pull out the wire as needed. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. filter. when the paraffin is melted. plaster of paris. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a.

in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. and he finally. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. from vexation. At least it is amusing.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. 2. while for others it will not revolve at all. for others the opposite way. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and then. as in the other movement. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. Try it and see. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right." which created much merriment. and therein is the trick. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. grip the stick firmly in one hand. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. or think they can do the same. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. Enlarge the hole slightly. let them try it. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. g. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. square and about 9 in. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. for some it will turn one way. Ohio. by the Hindoos in India. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. but the thing would not move at all. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. If any of your audience presume to dispute.. long. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. Toledo. and one friend tells me that they were . thus producing two different vibrations.

A square stick with notches on edge is best. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. and. secondly. the rotation may be obtained. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. Speeds between 700 and 1. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. To operate. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. p. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. by means of a center punch. rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. rotation was obtained. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. The experiments were as follows: 1. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. 3. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. Thus a circular or . The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained.100 r.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. 6. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. If the pressure was upon an edge. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed. gave the best results. 4. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. 5. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. m. 2. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. and I think the results may be of interest. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. 7. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. no rotation resulted.

. and the resultant "basket splash. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops. the upper portion is. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. so far as can be seen from the photographs. a piece of wire and a candle. --Contributed by G. --Contributed by M. Duluth. and not to friction of the pin in the hole." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid.D. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can. at first. A wire is tied around the can. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. and the height of the fall about 6 in. Lloyd. Minn. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. it will be clockwise. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. or greasy. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. C.. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. D.. Ph. if the pressure is from the left. G. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. unwetted by the liquid. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. Sloan. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. as shown. forming a handle for carrying. A. Washington. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. is driven violently away. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

thick and 1 in. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. axle. flange and a 1/4-in. about 2-5/8 in. as shown. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen. Each wheel is 1/4 in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. long. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. 1. in diameter. with a 1/16-in. hole drilled in the center. How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. as shown in Fig. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece.

Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. San Antonio. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. 3. 3.50. 1 from 1/4-in.brass. each in its proper place. 3/4 in. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. Fuller. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. Fig. 2. The parts. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. as shown in Fig. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. 4. of No. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. The current. put together complete. lamp in series with the coil. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. 6. holes 1 in. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. wide and 16 in. A trolley. The first piece. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. If the ends are to be soldered. is made from brass. which must be 110 volt alternating current. wood. long. Texas. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. 2. Fig. These ends are fastened together. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. and the locomotive is ready for running. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. bottom side up. as shown in Fig. 5. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. is made from a piece of clock spring. bent as shown. --Contributed by Maurice E. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. with cardboard 3 in. or main part of the frame. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. This will save buying a track. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . The other binding-post is connected to the frame. are shown in Fig. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. The motor is now bolted. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig.

1. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. as shown in Fig. 3. Fig 1. Cincinnati. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. The quarter will not go all the way down.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. and holes drilled in them. How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. O. but do not heat the center. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. then continue to tighten much more. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. and as this end . 2. the length of a paper clip. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. When cold treat the other end in the same way. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. Fig. as shown in Fig. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top.

When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. When the cutter A. has finished a cut for a tooth. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. When the trick is to be performed. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. or should the lathe head be raised. The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. 2 and 1 respectively. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. or apparent security of the knot. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form. A pair of centers are fitted. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. In the sketch. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. and adjusted . The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them.

) Place the paper design on the leather and.) Make on paper the design wanted. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks).) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material. With such objects as coin purses and card cases. book mark.to run true. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). (6. note book. (4. (1. at the same time striking light. In this manner gears 3 in. coin purse. An ordinary machine will do. Second row: -Two book marks. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. tea cosey. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. lady's belt bag. N. Y. or one-half of the design. lady's card case. draw center lines across the required space.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. long. Brooklyn. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. Fig. Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. (5. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. blotter back. and a nut pick. dividing it into as many parts as desired. 1. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. about 1-1/2 in. The frame holding the mandrel. if but two parts. such as brass or marble. watch fob ready for fastenings. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. (2. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. twisted around itself and soldered. The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. trace the outline. 2. tea cosey. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . (3. When connecting to batteries. above the surface. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. Bunker. --Contributed by Howard S. holding it in place with the left hand. Fold over along these center lines. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. swing lathe. if four parts are to be alike. gentleman's card case or bill book. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. --Contributed by Samuel C. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. Bott.

some heavy rubber hose.How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube. and an ordinary bottle. Secure .

a distance of 900 miles. from Key West. A. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. and push it through a cork. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. where it condenses. The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle.C. The electrodes are made . into which fit a small piece of tube. and bore a hole through the center. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. Florida. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown. D. B. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches.. a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. Thrust a pin. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. If the needle is not horizontal. C. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube.

square and 8 ft long. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. as shown in Fig. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. as shown in Fig. long. To make a glide. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. or flying-machine. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. thick. slacken speed and settle. 2 in. long for the body of the operator. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. 12 uprights 1/2 in. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. 1. 1. as shown in Fig. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards. both laterally and longitudinally. wide and 4 ft. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. 16 piano wire. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. and also to keep it steady in its flight. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. The operator can then land safely and . take the glider to the top of a hill. Washington. 3. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. 2. thick. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. wide and 3 ft. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. long. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. wide and 4 ft. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. thick. which is tacked to the front edge. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. thick. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. long. 1-1/4 in. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. Powell. lumber cannot be procured. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. If 20-ft. Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. Four long beams 3/4 in. C. 1/2. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. using a high resistance receiver. use 10-ft. 3/4 in. lengths and splice them. by 3/4 in. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. All wiring is done with No. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. wide and 3 ft. 1-1/2 in.in. thick. 2 arm sticks 1 in. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. wide and 4 ft long. --Contributed by Edwin L. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. 1. D. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. several strips 1/2 in. wide and 20 ft. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. Connect as shown in the illustration. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. free from knots.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. long. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. apart and extend 1 ft. long. 2. beyond the rear edges of the main frames.

but this must be found by experience. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. Glides are always made against the wind. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. Of course.gently on his feet. Great care should be . The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour.

half man and half horse. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. which causes the dip in the line. Bellingham.exercised in making landings. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. When heated a little. 1. The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover. --Contributed by L. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. as shown in Fig. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. 2. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. a creature of Greek mythology. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. M. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Olson.

square. about the size of stove pipe wire.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. When through with the lamp place the cover over it. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. in diameter. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. 14 in. of small rubber tubing. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. making it 2-1/2 in. Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. The light from the . The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. this will cost about 15 cents. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. long and about 3/8 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. about the size of door screen wire. long. at the other. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. outside the box. will complete the material list. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. a piece of brass or steel wire. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in.

This is very simple when you know how. . but puzzling when the trick is first seen. If done properly the card will flyaway. Hunting. Dayton. Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. 1. as shown in the sketch. as shown in Fig. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. while others will fail time after time. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. 2. M. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. as shown in Fig. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic. --Photo by M.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. O.

four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. as described. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. This game is played by five persons.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. as shown. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. When the desired shape has been obtained. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. closing both hands quickly. as before. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl." or the Chinese students' favorite game. Cool in water and dry. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. place the other two. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. then put it on the hatpin head. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop. hold the lump over the flame. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. If a certain color is to be more prominent. Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick.

using a fine needle to make the smaller lines. these sectors. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. or more in width. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. distribute electric charges . Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. passing through neutralizing brushes. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal.

and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. long. are made from solid. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. GG. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. in diameter. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. and 4 in. in diameter and 15 in. in diameter. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. These pins. free from wrinkles. 3. long and the standards 3 in. or teeth. 4. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. 3. long. Two solid glass rods. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. wide. after they are mounted. 2. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. The plates. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. at the other. turned wood pieces. and of a uniform thickness. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. The collectors are made. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. D. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. material 7 in. 1-1/2 in. in diameter. The two pieces. and the outer end 11/2 in. brass tubing and the discharging rods. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. are made from 7/8-in. Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. The fork part is 6 in. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. the side pieces being 24 in. in diameter. The drive wheels. in diameter. Two pieces of 1-in. long and the shank 4 in. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. Fig. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. EE. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. from about 1/4-in. RR. in diameter. and pins inserted and soldered. The plates are trued up. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. Fig. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. and this should be done before cutting the circle. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. 1 in. 3/4 in. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. C C. as shown in Fig. wide at one end. as shown in Fig. 1. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. to which insulating handles .

. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. KK. Colorado City. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. Colo. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. wide and 22 ft. long. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. ball and the other one 3/4 in. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. Lloyd Enos. in diameter. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. D. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. 12 ft.are attached. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. --Contributed by C. Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. which are bent as shown. one having a 2-in. and the work was done by themselves.

"The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. yet such a thing can be done. string together. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. They can be used to keep pins and needles. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. The key will drop from the string. as at A. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. and bore a hole 1/2 in.is a good one. using a 1-in. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. bit. deep. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. pens . Start the bit with the screw point in the fold.

8. Use . Inside this oblong. slim screw.. 9. 4.and pencils. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. unless it would be the metal shears. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. draw on paper an oblong to represent it.. 7. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. 6. inside the second on all. above the work and striking it with the hammer. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. using a nail filed to chisel edge. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. Raise the ends. Draw one-half the design free hand. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. two spikes. inside the first on all. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. stamp the background promiscuously. above the metal. 23 gauge. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. 5. and the third one 1/4 in. etc. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. The second oblong was 3/4 in. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. also trace the decorative design. then the other side. file. When the stamping is completed. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. about 3/4-in. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. This is to make a clean. extra metal on each of the four sides. sharp division between background and design. they make attractive little pieces to have about. Having determined the size of the tray. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. very rapid progress can be made. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. etc. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. Proceed as follows: 1. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. or cigar ashes. 3. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. flat and round-nosed pliers. They are easily made. 2. screw-driver and sheet copper of No.

Bradley All machinists use mathematics. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9.the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. 6. The eyes. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow. A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. and fourth fingers. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. 10. third fingers. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. second fingers. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are . begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. 8. 9. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. and the effect will be most pleasing. 7. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. In the first numbering. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. first fingers. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color.

which tens are added. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. which would be 70. or the product of 6 times 6. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. if we wish. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. 2 times 2 equals 4. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. or numbers above 10. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. etc.. Two times one are two.. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. In the second numbering. Still. At a glance you see four tens or 40.. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. thumbs. and the six lower fingers as six tens. 11. which would be 16. or the product of 8 times 9. . The addition of 100 is arbitrary. Put your thumbs together. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one. 400. first fingers. viz. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. or 60. but being simple it saves time and trouble. as high as you want to go. renumber your fingers. 600. 12. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. Let us multiply 12 by 12. above 15 times 15 it is 200. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. 25 times 25. the product of 12 times 12. above 20 times 20. etc.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. or 80. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. etc. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. there are no fingers above.

whether the one described in second or third numbering. first fingers 22. the upper fingers representing a value of 20. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. For example. 2. any two figures between 45 and 55. twenties. or what. the value of the upper fingers being 20. in the case of a nearsighted person. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. first finger 17. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. 7. which is the half-way point between the two fives.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. further. or from above or from below. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324.. Take For example 18 times 18. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. And the lump sum to add. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. beginning the thumbs with 16. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. Proceed as in the second lumbering. adding 400 instead of 100. when he removes his spectacles. The inversion and reversion did not take place. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. lastly. 21. etc. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. about a vertical axis. . the revolution seems to reverse. the lump sum to add. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. 3. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. and. forties. It takes place also. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. as one might suppose. being 80). at the will of the observer. not rotation. the inversion takes place against his will. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. 75 and 85. the value which the upper fingers have. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. 8. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. and so on. however. thirties. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. For figures ending in 6. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. thumbs.

one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. A flat slide valve was used. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. tee. the other appearance asserts itself. The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. sometimes the point towards him. Looking at it in semidarkness. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. and putting a cork on the point. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. as . The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. when he knows which direction is right. The ports were not easy to make. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance.

which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. Beating copper tends to harden it and. pipe. Next take a block of wood. pipe 10 in. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. Fasten the block solidly. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. inexpensive. and make in one end a hollow. The tools are simple and can be made easily. The eccentric is constructed of washers. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. Kutscher. H.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. deep. bottom side up. . and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. Ill. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. secure a piece of No. The steam chest is round. in diameter. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. it is easily built. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. such as is shown in the illustration. about 2 in. apart. Springfield. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. across the head. If nothing better is at hand. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. saw off a section of a broom handle. as in a vise.. if continued too long without proper treatment. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in. across and 1/2 in. While this engine does not give much power. -Contributed by W. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim.

heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. as it softens the metal. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. S. This process is called annealing. To overcome this hardness. Camden. Hay. --Contributed by W. To produce color effects on copper. especially when the object is near to the observer. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. the other to the left. and. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid.will cause the metal to break. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. C. O. Vinegar. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish.

as for instance red and green. The further apart the pictures are. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. But they seem black. because of the rays coming from them. it. that for the right. So with the stereograph. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. diameter. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. and without any picture. If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. the one for the left eye being blue. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. they must be a very trifle apart. and lies to the right on the picture. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. only the orange rays may pass through. because. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background.stereoscope. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. not two mounted side by side. In order to make them appear before the card. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. It is just as though they were not there. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. with the stereograph. . and then with the left eye through the blue glass. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. in the proper choice of colors. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. orange. the left eye sees through a blue screen. from the stereograph. would serve the same purpose. The red portions of the picture are not seen. although they pass through the screen. the further from the card will the composite image appear. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. disappears fully. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. however. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. while both eyes together see a white background. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works.

Place a NO.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. or the middle of the bottle. Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. 12 gauge wire. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. A No. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. Cal. long and a hole drilled in each end. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. wireless. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. Two types of make-and-break connection are used.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. San Francisco. This should only be bored about half way through the block. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. in the shape of a crank. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The weight of the air in round . 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. etc. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece. How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. thick. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. 1/4 in. in diameter. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. wide and 1 in. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results.

the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. The 4 in. or a column of mercury (density 13. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. if you choose. 34 ft. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are. but before attempting to put in the mercury. wide and 4 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. a glass tube 1/8 in. high. thick. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in.. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. inside diameter and 2 in. high. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. square. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. pine 3 in. In general. a bottle 1 in. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. . long. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner.numbers is 15 lb. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. high. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. square. or. internal diameter and about 34 in. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. wide and 40 in. Before fastening the scale. if accurately constructed. Only redistilled mercury should be used.6) 1 in. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. long. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. 30 in. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. will calibrate itself. and a slow fall. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. the contrary. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in. the instrument. long. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. But if a standard barometer is not available.

Mark out seven 1-in. 6 and 7. wide and 10 in. the size of the outside of the bottle. Procure a metal can cover. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. 2. a cover from a baking powder can will do. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. 3. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. long. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. which is slipped quickly over the end. and place them as shown in Fig. 5. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. 1. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. thick. Number the pieces 1.

as well as for a boy's camping outfit. L. shaped like Fig. This can be done on a checker board. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 6. 1. Make 22 sections. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. procure unbleached tent duck. 7 over No. 6 in. 2. Move 10-Move No. 5 over No. Move 13-Move No.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 6 over No. 5 over No. 7. Move 15-Move No. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. 2's place. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 6-Move No. 5. 6. as shown in Fig. 2 over No. 3.-Contributed by W. Move 14-Jump No. To make such a tent. Move 4-Jump No. 3. 6 to No. 1. 2's place. 7's place. Move 9-Jump No. Move 7-Jump No. Woolson. Move 3-Move No.J. 1 to No. Move ll-Jump No. each 10 ft. N. 2 . This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 7 over No. 2 over No. 6 into No. Move 12-Jump No. 3 to the center. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. Move 5-Jump No. Cape May Point. 2. l over No. 1 into No. 3 over No. long and 2 ft. 3 into No. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. which is the very best material for the purpose. using checkers for men. 3. Move 8-Jump No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. 5's place. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. Move 2-Jump No. 5's place. in diameter.

Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. made in two sections. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. Fig. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. diameter. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. Use blocks. 2. As shown in the sketch. Fig. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. added. After transferring the design to the brass. wide by 12 in. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. 5) stuck in the ground.. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. 5. round galvanized iron.in. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. 9 by 12 in. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. long and 4 in. 2 in. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. about 9 in. Punch holes in the brass in . back of the rice paper and before a bright light. will do. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. wide at the bottom. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing.J. Pa. --Contributed by G. Emsworth. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. Have the tent pole 3 in. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. In raising the tent. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. 6-in. 3 in. leaving the rest for an opening. Nail a thin sheet of brass. Tress. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. from the top. 6. wide at the bottom. These are ventilators. to a smooth board of soft wood. fill with canvas edging. long. as in Fig. in diameter. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. high. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper.

apart. bend into shape. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. It will not. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. When the edges are brought together by bending. . The pattern is traced as before. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes.the spaces around the outlined figures. around the outside of the pattern. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. When all the holes are punched. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. but before punching the holes. Chicago. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. cut out the brass on the outside lines. excepting the 1/4-in. Corr. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in.

The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. better still. or less. Oregon. Dunham. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. partially filled with cream. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in.. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. allowing 2 ft. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. E. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. Mayger. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. Stevens. A cast-iron ring. pipe. G. between which is placed the fruit jar. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. A 6-in. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. --Contributed by H. pipe is used for the hub. --Contributed by Geo. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. Que. or center on which the frame swings. or. Badger.however. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. These pipes are . If a wheel is selected.

The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. pipe. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. bent to the desired circle. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. pipe clamps. Four braces made from 1/2-in. A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. An extra wheel 18 in. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed.

1. The performer. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. which was placed in an upright position. as shown in Fig. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. and the guide withdrawn. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. 3. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. and dropped on the table. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. while doing this. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes.

Denver. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. Harkins. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. -Contributed by C. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. in a half circle. The box can be made of selected oak or . the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. in diameter on another piece of tin. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. St. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. Colo. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. it requires no expensive condensing lens. Mo. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. F.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. --Contributed by H. D. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. 2. first. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. Louis. White. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. 1. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. and second. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box.

mahogany. wide. and. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. An open space 4 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. high and 11 in. wide and 5 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. The door covering this hole in the back. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. If a camera lens is used. represented by the dotted line in Fig. focal length. long. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. from each end. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. AA. 1. and 2 in. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. This will be 3/4 in. from each end of the outside of the box. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. high and must . long and should be placed vertically. wide and 6-1/2 in. fit into the runners. but not tight. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. Two or three holes about 1 in. wide by 5 in. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. 2. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. 3-1/2 in. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. as shown in Fig. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. 5-1/2 in. long.

Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. This process is rather a difficult one. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown. as it requires an airtight case. then the second knuckle will be March. Bradley. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig.. West Toledo. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. provided it is airtight. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. C. 1. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. and extending the whole height of the lantern. Ohio. calling that knuckle January. June and November. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia." etc. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. the article may be propped up . and so on. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. --Contributed by Chas.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. calling this February. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. April.

H. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. running small motors and lighting small lamps. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. Y. 1. or suspended by a string. one of lead and one of aluminum. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. --Contributed by J. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. giving it an occasional stir. Schenectady. Pour in a little turpentine. and the lead 24 sq. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. and set aside for half a day. taking care to have all the edges closed. The top of a table will do. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. fruit jars are required. Crawford. In each place two electrodes. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. 1 and 2. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. . How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. in. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt.with small sticks. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. the lid or cover closed. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. In both Fig. N. but waxed. in. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. 2. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown.

Cleveland. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. After a few seconds' time.. which you warm with your hands. This trick is very simple. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. as well as others. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. he throws the other. O. you remove the glass. He. You have an understanding with some one in the company. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. as you have held it all the time. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug.

it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. put it under the glass. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. Pull the ends quickly. in diameter in the center.-Contributed by E. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. Be sure that this is the right one. Colo. on a table. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. Crocker. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. if any snags are encountered. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear.take the handiest one. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. . so it will appear to be a part of the table top. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. J. near a partition or curtain. Victor. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. but by being careful at shores. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. but in making one. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use.

wide unbleached muslin. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. by 16 ft. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. the smaller is placed 3 ft. at the ends.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. long. wide and 12 ft. 7 ft. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 2 gunwales. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. The keelson. wide and 12 ft. from each end to 1 in. 11 yd. selected pine. apart. are as follows: 1 keelson. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. by 16 ft. by 2 in. ducking. one 6 in. for the bow. 1 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . Paint. of rope. drilled and fastened with screws. 4 outwales. 1/8 in. 9 ft. of 1-yd. and fastened with screws. long. 2 in. for center deck braces. screws and cleats. by 12 in. 3 in. 3 and 4. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. Both ends are mortised. is 14 ft.. from the bow and the large one. 8 in. 1 in. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. Fig. 1 in. 1 mast. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. for cockpit frame. 3 in. clear pine. 2 and braced with an iron band. 1 piece. 50 ft. and.. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. 1 piece for forms and bow pieces. long. wide 12-oz. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. by 2 in. for the stern piece. as illustrated in the engraving. wide. 1 in. and the other 12 in. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. 1/4 in. thick and 3/4 in. by 8 in. long. 8 yd. of 1-1/2-yd. by 15 ft. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. by 10 ft. 14 rib bands. square by 16 ft. 1 piece. from the stern. 1.

6. 9. long. . 1/4 in. wide. thick and 12 in. thick 1-1/2 in. gunwales and keelson. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. 3-1/2 ft. Figs. wide and 24 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. Fig. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. The deck is not so hard to do. apart. screws. Before making the deck. 5. a piece 1/4 in. 6 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. length of canvas is cut in the center. thick. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. This block. 7 and 8. thick. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. wood screws.Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. The 11-yd. corner braces. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. 1 in. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. is a cube having sides 6 in. doubled. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. These are put in 6 in. from the bow. 1 in. and fastened to them with bolts. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. wide. A piece of oak. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. A 6-in. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. long. also. They are 1 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. 6 and 7. Fig. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. A block of pine. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. in diameter through the block. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. long is well soaked in water. The trimming is wood. 4 in. is cut to fit under the top boards. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. thick and 1/2 in. Braces. wide and 14 in. wide and 3 ft. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. A seam should be made along the center piece. long.

is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. Wilmette. . thick by 2 in. long. All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. The keel. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. Ill. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. long. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. wide at one end and 12 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. Fig. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. 12. The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. is 6 in. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. in diameter and 10 ft. apart in the muslin. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. each 1 in. The sail is a triangle. --Contributed by O. Tronnes. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. A strip 1 in. 11. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. at the other. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. are used for the boom and gaff. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. E. 10 with a movable handle. The house will accommodate 20 families. The mast has two side and one front stay. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. wide.

wide and 2 ft. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. thick.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. 2. 2 in. 1. long. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. 1 yd. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. 4. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. wide. and the other 18 in. Bevel both sides of the pieces. thick. Tronnes. long and five 1/2-in. 5. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. E. square. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. wide and 30 in. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. thick. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. five 1/2-in. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. one 11-1/2 in. 3. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. 2-1/2 in. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. with the ends and the other side rounding. Take this and fold it over . and 3 ft. wide. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. about 5/16 in. flat-headed screws. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. Fig. flat on one side. 2-1/2 in. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. Wilmette. long. long. on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. --Contributed by O. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. Cut the maple. Ill. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward.into two 14-in. as shown in Fig. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. flat headed screws. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in.

once. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. 5 from 1/16-in. thick. 1. After the glue. wide and 2-3/4 in. E. D. is set. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. Make a double stitch all around the edge. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. Wind three layers of about No. When the glue is set. then centered. Glue a three cornered piece. 3 in. and take care that the pieces are all square. Figs. 1-1/4 in. Another piece. C. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. and the four outside edges. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. St. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces. pieces 2-5/8 in. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. A. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. Bliss. the mechanical parts can be put together. soaked with water and blown up. If carefully and neatly made. long. wide and 3 ft. C. forming an eye for a screw. the top and bottom. The sides are 3-1/4 in. long. long. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. long. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. wide and 4-1/2 in. 3-1/4 in. long. long. 2 and 3. wide . --Contributed by W. The front. and make a turn in each end of the wires. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. leaving a small opening at one corner. as well as the edges around the opening. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. wide and 6-3/4 in. The bag is then turned inside out. square. square. thick. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. wide and 6-1/2 in. of each end unwound for connections. Cut another piece of board. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. but can be governed by circumstances. long. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. F. About 1/2 in. 6-1/2 in. about 3/8 in. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. A. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. thick and 3 in. 3/8 in. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. B. Louis. this square box is well sandpapered. are rounded. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. wide and 5 in. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. Fig. long. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. Mo. wide and 2-1/2 in. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up.

All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. the same size as the first. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. G. in diameter. board. that has the end turned with a shoulder. 4 is not movable. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. The end of the polar axis B.S. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. C. L.A. W. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. Austwick Hall. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. from the spindle. showing a greater defection of the pointer. and as the part Fig. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. Yorkshire. The base is a board 5 in. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. Chapman. hole is fastened to the pointer. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. long. bored in the back. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. F. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. long. I. Like poles repel each other. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. so it will just clear the tin. Fig.R. 5. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. R. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. 1/4 in. The resistance is now adjusted to show . 4. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. These wires should be about 1 in. The stronger the current. --Contributed by George Heimroth. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle. the part carrying the pointer moves away. Fig. thick. 1/16 in. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. and fasten in place. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. from one end. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. 5-1/2 in.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. wide and 2-1/2 in. Richmond Hill. When the current flows through the coil. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. Another strip of tin. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. A pointer 12 in. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured.and 2-5/8 in. long. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. Place the tin. wide and 9 in. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. 4. and the farther apart they will be forced.

Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. The following formula will show how this may be found. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. shows mean siderial. thus: 9 hr. 10 min.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. say Venus at the date of observation. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. M. 30 min. at 9 hr. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. A. and vice . 1881. 10 min. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time.

and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. if one of these cannot be had. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon.m. New Haven. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. .The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Conn. Hall. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. owing to the low internal resistance. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection.f. or. and then verify its correctness by measurement. --Contributed by Robert W. Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery.

The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. and heap the glowing coals on top. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. Fig. When the follower is screwed down. put the fish among the ashes. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. 1-3/4 in. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . leaves or bark. fresh grass. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. 3/8 in. inside diameter and about 5 in. thick. Wet paper will answer. long. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. cover up with the same. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. especially for cooking fish. Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. arsenic to every 20 lb. as shown in the accompanying picture. The boring bar. of alum and 4 oz. Then.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. 1.

The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. fastened with a pin. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. and threaded on both ends. pipe. when they were turned in. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. thick. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . pipe. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. about 1/2 in.

Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. 4. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. 3. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. 5. long. Iowa. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. labor and time. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe. bent in the shape of a U. a jump spark would be much better. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. the float is too high. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off.valve stems. Fig. If the valve keeps dripping. A 1-in. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. however. 2. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. It . A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. and which gave such satisfactory results. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. 30 in. The rough frame. Clermont. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. wide. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. was then finished on an emery wheel. Fig. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. then it should be ground to a fit. but never one which required so little material. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. This plate also supports the rocker arms. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. thick and 3 in. square iron. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. as the one illustrated herewith. Fig.

Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. W. in the ground with 8 ft. in fact. long is the pivot. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. rope is not too heavy. with no trees or buildings in the way. so it must be strong enough. being held in position by spikes as shown. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. hole bored in the post. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. 3/4 in. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. A 3/4 -in. butting against short stakes. The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. strengthened by a piece 4 in. The crosspiece is 2 in. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. Use a heavy washer at the head. --Contributed by C. Nieman. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. and. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. from all over the neighborhood. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. The seats are regular swing boards. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. for the "motive power" to grasp. If it is to be used for adults. set 3 ft. strong clear material only should be employed. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. As there is no bracing. long. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. in diameter and 15 in. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. long. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders. completes the merry-go-round. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . A malleable iron bolt. from the center. extending above. The illustration largely explains itself. 12 ft. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. and a little junk. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. timber. square and 5 ft. This makes an easy adjustment." little and big. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece. no matter what your age or size may be. long. square and 2 ft. square. It looks like a toy.

2. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. and sent to earth. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. Both have large reels full of . If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel.2 emery. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. A reel is next made. light and strong. Having placed the backbone in position. The bow is now bent. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. These ends are placed about 14 in. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. if nothing better is at hand. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. To wind the string upon the reel. away. a wreck. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. 1. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. The backbone is flat. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. square. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No.the fingers. 1/4 by 3/32 in. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries. then it is securely fastened. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. as shown in Fig. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. 4. and 18 in.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. one for the backbone and one for the bow. long. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer.

Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. Newburyport. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Brooklyn. Bunker. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench.-Contributed by S. often several hundred yards of it. The handle end is held down with a staple. or glass-covered string. common packing thread. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. Moody. If the second kite is close enough. he pays out a large amount of string. N. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. Mass. First. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it.string. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. C. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. the balance. --Contributed' by Harry S. Y. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. the first tries to spear him by swift dives.

Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open. cutting the circular piece into quarters. then draw the string up tight. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. If the table is round. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. square (Fig.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. length of 2-in. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. must be attached to a 3-ft. Corinth. lengths (Fig. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. then a dust protector. --Contributed by Earl R. each the size of half the table top. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. such as mill men use. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. Vt. Hastings. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. make the pad as shown in the illustration.

not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. 16-1/4 in. Oakland. If leaves are wanted in extending the table. Use a smooth. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work. G to H. Calif.. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. . trace this or some other appropriate design on it. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. which spoils the leather effect. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. Make the other half circular disk in the same way.. from E to F. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away. and E to G. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture. Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. E. 17-1/2 in. from C to D. trace the design carefully on the leather.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. 2-1/4 in. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag.. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp.9-1/4 in. 6-1/4 in. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. Moisten the . The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. hard pencil.-Contributed by H. Wharton.

Trace the openings for the handles. and corresponding lines on the other side. get something with which to make a lining. I made this motor . Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. if not more than 1 in. with the rounded sides of the tools. also lines A-G. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag.leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. H-B. and E-G. apart. is taken off at a time. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. about 1/8 in. Cut it the same size as the bag. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. Now cut narrow thongs. place both together and with a leather punch. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. and lace through the holes. To complete the bag. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. wide. G-J.

The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. 1. B. 1. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones. of No. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. Calif. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. 2. iron. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. --Contributed by J. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. 2-1/4 in. Pasadena. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained. . long. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. D.M. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. in length. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. as shown in Fig. 24 gauge magnet wire. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. each being a half circle. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. Shannon. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft.

Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. from the bottom end. are the best kind to make. or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon. near the center. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. balloon should be about 8 ft. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. and the gores cut from these. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. high. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. 1. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. pasted in alternately. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. The gores for a 6-ft. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight.

--Contributed by R. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. A. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. Staunton. The steam. lap on the edges. E. 4. 5. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. leaving the solution on over night. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. The boat soon attains considerable speed. 2. using about 1/2-in. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. in diameter. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. leaving a long wake behind. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. after which the paint will adhere permanently. as shown in Fig. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler.widest point. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. As the boat is driven forward by this force. 3. somewhat larger in size. 1. Fig. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. In starting the balloon on its flight. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. If the gores have been put together right. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. saturating it thoroughly. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. coming through the small pipe A. These are to hold the wick ball. so it will hang as shown in Fig. After washing. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. B. In removing grease from wood. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. A Game Played on the Ice [216] . as shown in Fig. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores.

The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. wide by 6 in. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. high and 8 in. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. Second. The blocks are about 6 in. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. 1. apart on these lines. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. as is shown in Fig. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. There are three ways of doing this: First.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. if you have several copies of the photograph. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. long and each provided with a handle. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . In using either of the two methods described. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. Third. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely. long. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. in bowling form. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface.

N. Albany. Hellwig. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. being careful not to dent the metal. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. not pointed down at the road at an angle. thick. Y. Fig. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. Rinse the plate in cold water. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. 2. If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. --Contributed by John A.Fig. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint.

any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. Va. in diameter. which is 4 in. thick. 1 Fig. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. A. wide and 8 in. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. In Fig. through which passes the set screw S. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. and Fig. --Contributed by R. Corner irons. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . 6 in. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. wide and of any desired height. Richmond. 2 the front view. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. Break off the frame. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. 5 in. long for the base. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. CC. B. with a set screw. These corner irons are also screwed to. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. is fastened to a common camera tripod. are screwed to the circular piece.upon any particular object. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. A. Paine. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. With this device. S. A circular piece of wood. and not produce the right sound. and.

Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. Ill. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. This will make a very compact electric horn. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. pine boards. D. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. thus producing sound waves.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained. -1. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. Lake Preston. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. R. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. La Salle. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. This horn.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. as only the can is visible. . shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. Kidder. I made a wheel 26 in. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. in diameter of some 1-in. S.

Purdy. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. square. Doylestown. --Contributed by James R. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. A. If there is a large collection of coins.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. the same thickness as the coins. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. 1. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Ghent. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. O. 1. The frame is made of a heavy card. thick and 12 in. Kane. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. If the collection consists of only a few coins. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. B. --Contributed by C. 2. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Fig. The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. Feet may be added to the base if desired.

for after the slides have been shown a few times. --Contributed by J. Neyer. Canada. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. though not absolutely necessary. Toronto. Smith.J. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. --Contributed by August T. The material required is a sheet of No. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. several large nails. melted and applied with a brush. Milwaukee. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. It will hold 4 oz. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. of developer. A rivet punch is desirable. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid.E. into which to place the screws . plus a 3/8-in. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. they become uninteresting.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. If desired. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. thick. a hammer or mallet. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. cut and grooved. border all around. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Noble. A lead pencil. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. --Contributed by R. and then glued together as indicated. pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. One Cloud. Cal. Wis. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film.

To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. draw one part. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. screws placed about 1 in. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. both outline and decoration. Remove the screws. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in. cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . using 1/2-in. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. There are several ways of working up the design. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. and file it to a chisel edge. Take the nail. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. never upon the metal directly. like the one shown. Fasten the metal to the board firmly. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface.

2. as shown in Fig. long. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. long. in the other. 1. using a 1/2in. Do not bend it over or flatten it. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture. up from the lower end. 3/4 in. of 11-in. . for the lower rails. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. Provide four lengths for the legs. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. square. two lengths. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. l-1/8 in. square and 11 in. being ball bearing. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Rivet the band to the holder. square and 181/2 in. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. About 1/2 yd. The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. each 1 in. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. and two lengths. The pedal. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. long. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness.wall. for the top. 3. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet.

--Contributed by W. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. --Contributed by John Shahan. having quite a length of threads. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. Quackenbush. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. Attalla. was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. New York City. F. Ala.

from the end. --Contributed by C. from one end. stitched on both edges for appearance. D.. Assemble as shown in the sketch. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. and 3/8 in. each 1-1/4 in. in depth. long. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . Purchase a 1/2-in. one about 1 in. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. Two pieces of felt. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. The desired emblem. wide and 8-1/4 in. making a lap of about 1 in. initial. the end of the other piece is folded over. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. long. Luther. and the other 2-3/4 in. using class.This novelty watch fob is made from felt. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. something that is carbonated. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. wide and 4-1/4 in. long. college or lodge colors. Ironwood. and two holes in the other. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. Mich.

as shown at B. about 2 in. Punch two holes A. as shown in the sketch. which can be procured from a plumber. A piece of lead. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. or a pasteboard box. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of . the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. from the center and opposite each other. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. in the cover and the bottom. or more in height. Ind. This method allows a wide range of designs. if desired by the operator. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. 1/4 in.Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. --Contributed by John H. 1. 2. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. Indianapolis. Schatz. and the cork will be driven out. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. in diameter and 2 in. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. Fig.

it winds up the rubber band. are turned up as in Fig.Rolling Can Toy lead. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. 4. When the can is rolled away from you. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. The pieces of tin between the holes A. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. A piece of thick glass. or marble will serve. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. Fig. non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. and the ends of the bands looped over them. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. on both top and bottom. 1. allowing the two ends to be free. as shown in Fig. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. . 3. putting in the design. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. Columbus. metal. 5. O.

Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. face up. or more thick on each side. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. 1 in. If it is desired to "line" the inside. deep in its face. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. A pencil may be used the first time over. long and bored a 1/2-in. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. and. from each end. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. I secured a board 3/4 in. After this has been done. Next place the leather on the glass. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. thick. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. New York City. wide and 20 in. thicker than the pinion. mark over the design. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. The edges should be about 1/8 in. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. 3 in.Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. hole through it.

2 crosspieces. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. Y. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 3 by 3 by 20 in. New York. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 1 top board. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. pieces for the vise slides. 1. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 2 side rails. M. 4 guides. countersinking the heads of the vise end. 2 by 2 by 18 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . 1 piece for clamp. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. in diameter. Rice. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked.in the board into the bench top. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. Brooklyn. 1 by 12 by 77 in. N. 1 piece. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. 1 top board. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Syracuse. 2. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1 piece for clamp. --Contributed by A. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 1 back board. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. and fit it in place for the side vise. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 2 end rails. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. Cut the 2-in. lag screws as shown. 3 by 3 by 36. Fig. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Make the lower frame first. Now fit up the two clamps. thick top board. 1 screw block. 2 by 12 by 77 in. 3 by 3 by 6 in. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in.

1 brace and set of bits. 1 set chisels. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 wood scraper. They can be purchased at a hardware store. as well as the pattern maker. 1 countersink. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. it can be easily found when wanted. 1 bench plane or jointer. Only the long run. 1 marking gauge. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. 1 cross cut saw. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work.. 1 pocket level. The bench is now complete. 24 in. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 compass saw. 1 claw hammer. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 rip saw. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 set gimlets. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. 24 in. 2 screwdrivers. 1 pair dividers. in diameter. 1 monkey wrench. 3 and 6 in. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used.. 1 pair pliers. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. The amateur workman. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. 1 2-ft.screws. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 nail set. rule. ..

it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. Pa. 2 and 00 sandpaper. 1. will sink into the handle as shown at D. 1. Doylestown. The calf skin. 2. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. the projecting point A. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin.1. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. Fig. Kane. Fig. 1 oilstone. being softer. will be easier to work. but will not make . ---Contributed by James M. Fig. try square. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. Fig.1 6-in. 3. becomes like A. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. No. after constant use.

Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. the same method of treatment is used. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. cover it completely with water enamel and. New York City. then prepare the leather. water or heat will not affect. secure a piece of modeling calf. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. when dry. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. -Contributed by Julia A. Having prepared the two sides. Two pieces will be required of this size. but a V-shaped nut pick. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. White. lay the design on the face.as rigid a case as the cow skin. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. and the length 6-5/8 in. After the outlines are traced. Turn the leather. First draw the design on paper. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. which steam. such as copper or brass. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. If calf skin is to be used. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. . will do just as well. The form can be made of a stick of wood. If cow hide is preferred. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface.

--Contributed by Chas. as shown in the sketch. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. C. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. and an adjustable friction-held loop. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. Maine. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. New York City. . Cal. Portland. --Contributed by Chester L. --Contributed by W. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Herrman. Richmond. A. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. Cobb. Jaquythe. from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth.

Middletown. Roberts. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. B. for instance. . was marked out as shown. This was very difficult. A thick piece of tin. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached. an inverted stewpan.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. Cambridge. Mass.. Conn. To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. Wright. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. --Contributed by Geo. --Contributed by Wm. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time.

take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Herbert. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. Chicago. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. but only an odor which soon vanished. There was no quicklime to be had. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. --Contributed by C. Indianapolis. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. Bone. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. and quite new. . taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass. --Contributed by Paul Keller. Ind. F. of boiling water. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. pulverized and applied. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. such as chair seats. L. When dry. Illinois. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. and the grease will disappear. well calcined and powdered. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. on a clear piece of glass. as shown. which has been tried out several times with success. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. but not running over. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. apply powdered calcined magnesia. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. face down. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. The next morning there was no trace of oil. A beautifully bound book.. so some bones were quickly calcined. used as part of furniture. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. If any traces of the grease are left. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. If the article is highly polished.

The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in. --Contributed by Geo. deep and 5 in. If properly adjusted. The pieces marked S are single. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. the pieces . thick. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. It is constructed of a good quality of pine.. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. A. set and thumbscrews. 6 in. 2 in. This coaster is simple and easy to make.. New York. says Scientific American. Tarrytown. high and are bolted to a block of wood. soft steel with the opening 6 in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. Howe. long. wide and 12 in.

Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. says Camera Craft. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. they will look remarkably uniform. Their size depends on the plate used. If the letters are all cut the same height. no doubt. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. to the underside of which is a block. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. albums and the like. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. E. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. The seat is a board. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. for sending to friends. A sharp knife. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed. even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin.

do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. So arranged. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. and. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. photographing them down to the desired size. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. mount them on short pieces of corks. The puzzle is to get . after. for example. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. In cutting out an 0. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. these letter pictures can be made with a black border." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. So made. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. pasting the prints on some thin card. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. using care to get it in the right position. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch.

G. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. squeezes along past the center of the tube. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. with the longest end outside. A hole 6 or 7 in. He smells the bait. says the American Thresherman. so they will lie horizontal.-Contributed by I. hung on pivots. long that will just fit are set in. Cape May Point. Old-Time Magic . Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand . snow or anything to hide it. of its top. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. Bayley. the tube righting itself at once for another catch.J. N.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in.Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.

Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. Pocatello. --Contributed by L. How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined.faced up. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. --Contributed by Charles Graham. saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. --Contributed by L. Y. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . Press the hands together. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. Szerlip. Idaho. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. then expose again. Brooklyn. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. N. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside. Rhode Island. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. Parker. Pawtucket. E. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. then spread the string.

and if carefully made. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. narrower. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. or green oil paint. 2 Fig. whether he requires a single sword only. 3 Fig. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade.Genuine antique swords and armor. wide and 2 in. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in.. 1. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. The pieces. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig. When the glue is thoroughly dry. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. dark red. 1 Fig. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. long. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in. they will look very much like the genuine article. near the point end. in building up his work from the illustrations. or a complete suit of armor. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. full size. or designs in this article are from authentic sources.. The blade should be about 27 in. 4 on the blade. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. says the English Mechanic. When the whole is quite dry. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. using a straightedge and a pencil. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. The handle is next made. thick. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. wipe the blade . in width. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. if any. end of the blade. Glue the other side of the blade. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them.

1. of course. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. as it is . the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. 1. the length of the blade 28 in. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece.. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. 2. thick and 5 in. and 3 in.. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. 3. should be about 9 in. 2.with light strokes up and down several times. The length of the handle. take two pieces of wood. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. In the finished piece. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine. about 1-1/2 in. the other is flat or halfround. Both edges of the blade are sharp. in diameter. allowing for a good hold with both hands. Fig. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. the other is flat or half-round. preferably of contrasting colors. not for use only in cases of tableaux. follow the directions as for Fig. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. This sword is about 68 in. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. long. In making this scimitar. 1. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. shows only two sides. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. the other two are identical. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. 1/8 in. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. in the widest part at the lower end. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. 1. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. 4. In making. 3. the illustration. square and of any length desired.

took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. and. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. in an attempt to remove it. --Contributed by John Blake. A piece of mild steel. as there was some at hand. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Mass. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. and if so. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. On each edge of the board. It is made of a plank. or an insecure fastening. The thinness of the plank. as can the pitch bed or block. long. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. as shown in the sketch. Y. N. each about 1 ft. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. square. piping and jackets by hard water. Syracuse. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. 2 in. Morse. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. at the lower end. about 3/8 in. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. Doctors probed for the button without success. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. --Contributed by Katharine D. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Both can be made easily. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. Franklin. A cold . being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. however. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward.

. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. To remedy this. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. 5 lb. turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. 5 lb. When the desired form has been obtained. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over.. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. 18 gauge. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. secure a piece of brass of about No. When this has been done. on the pitch. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. tallow. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. design down.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. Trim up the edges and file them . Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal. Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. using a small metal saw. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. a file to reduce the ends to shape. To put it in another way. plaster of Paris. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch.

Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do. one 18 in. or fraction of a horsepower. to keep it from floating. That is lifting 33. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33. in diameter (Fig. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. 2). 1 ft. in one minute or 550 lb. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. over the smaller vessel.000 ft. 1 ft. per minute. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. A. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. using powdered pumice with lye. 1) and the other 12 in. 3. per second. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. lb. in diameter (Fig. Fig. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. Fill the 3-in. and still revolve. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. This in turn divided by 33. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. in one second. lb. and hang a bird swing. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. make an unusual show window attraction. 30 ft. The smaller is placed within the larger. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel.000 lb.smooth. or 550 ft. but not to stop it.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. living together in what seems like one receptacle. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. space between the vessels with water. --Contributed by Harold H. . in the center. Cutter. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Clean the metal thoroughly. it may be well to know what horsepower means. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer. Before giving the description.

How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . F. Diameter 12 in.3 Fig. 1 Fig. --Contributed by J. Szerlip. or on a pedestal. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. The effect is surprising. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. Y. Diameter Fig. --Contributed. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. 2 Fig. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Campbell. by L. N. Brooklyn.18 in.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. Mass. Somerville.

Polish both of these pieces. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. to keep the metal from tarnishing. away from the edge. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. and cut out the shape with the shears. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. using any of the common metal polishes. after which it is ready for use. the same as removing writing from a slate. then by drawing a straightedge over it. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. and then.copper of No. which. as a rule. is. In riveting. keeping the center high. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. This compound is impervious to water. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. with other defects. with the pliers. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. which may be of wood or tin. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. unsatisfactory. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. often render it useless after a few months service. Do not be content merely to bend them over. Rivet the cup to the base. and the clay . 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine.

2. Grand Rapids. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes.can be pressed back and leveled. Northville. It is made of a glass tube. --Contributed by John T. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. . A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark. Scotland. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Mich. the device will work for an indefinite time. -Contributed by Thos. as shown in Fig. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. Houghton. The siphon is made of glass tubes. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. in diameter and 5 in. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Dunlop. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. Shettleston. --Contributed by A. It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. Mich. 1. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. DeLoof. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. A. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. 3/4 in. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. long.

allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle. 1.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. London. in width and 2 in. This sword is 4 ft. will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. long.FIG. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. put up as ornaments. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in. stilettos and battle-axes. The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles. As the handle is to .1 FIG. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.

long. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. Three large. the same as used on the end of the handle. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. This weapon is also about 1 ft. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint. The crossbar and blade are steel. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. one about 1/2 in. 7. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. sharp edges on both sides. 4. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. 20 spike. firmly glued on. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. These must be cut from pieces of wood. long with a dark handle of wood. with wire or string' bound handle. In Fig.represent copper. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. wood with a keyhole saw. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. This sword is about 4 ft. The ball is made as described in Fig. with both edges sharp. The sword shown in Fig. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. the upper part iron or steel. in length. glue and put it in place. 9. The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. paint it a dark brown or black. The lower half of the handle is of wood. In Fig. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. A German stiletto. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. This weapon is about 1 ft. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. 5. small rope and round-headed nails. 8. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. Both handle and axe are of steel. Cut two strips of tinfoil. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. which is about 2-1/2 ft. When the glue is thoroughly dry. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. the axe is of steel. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. When the whole is quite dry. 11 were used. very broad. in width. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. This stiletto has a wood handle. In Fig. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. sometimes called cuirass breakers. with both edges of the blade sharp. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. 6. in length. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. The handle is of wood. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. This axe is made similar to the one . Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. When dry. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. then glued on the blade as shown. studded with brass or steel nails. A German poniard is shown in Fig. narrower. 3 is shown a claymore. string.

2. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. When wrapped all the way around. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. . such as braided fishline. Old-Time Magic . W. Davis. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. high. Chicago. This will make a very good flexible belt.described in Fig. together as shown in Fig. will pull where other belts slip. so the contents cannot be seen. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. the ends are tied and cut off. 10. --Contributed by E.

Oakland. 2. or using small wedges of wood. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Macdonald. held in the right hand. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. apparently. To make the flowers grow in an instant. 1 and put together as in Fig. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. in a few seconds' time. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. with the circle centrally located.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. The dotted lines in Fig.J. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. Calif. --Contributed by A. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. an acid. S. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. four glass tumblers. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. N. Before the performance. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. filled with water. There will be no change in color. some of the liquid. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. These wires are put in the jar. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. Bridgeton. As zinc is much lighter than iron. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. about one-third the way down from the top. causing the flowers to grow.

the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. practical and costs nothing. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. Cal. 4 for width and No. not only because of the fact just mentioned. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. Jaquythe.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. When many slides are to be masked. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. 2 for height. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. and kept ready for use at any time. This outlines the desired opening. says a correspondent of Photo Era. If the size wanted is No. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. which are numbered for convenience in working. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. --Contributed by W. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. Richmond. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. and equally worthy of individual treatment. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. unless some special device is used. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape. A.

all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. using the carbon paper. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. and the extreme length 7 in. and do not inhale the fumes.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . The decoration. is about right for the No. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. possibly. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. about half and half. may be changed. the paper is folded along the center line. When etched to the desired depth. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. The one shown is merely suggestive. Draw a design. paint the design. This done. too. 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. Secure a sheet of No. 16 gauge. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. not the water into the acid. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. but they can be easily revived. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. a little less acid than water. or. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. or a pair of old tongs. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. which is dangerous. With a stick. the margin and the entire back of the metal. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours.

as at H. . in diameter and 1/4 in. it will touch post F. repeat as many times as is necessary. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. so that when it is pressed down. 2. about 8 in. thick. Nail a board. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. with the wires underneath. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. C and D. The connections are simple: I. as shown in Fig. 24 parts water. 0 indicates the batteries. wide. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. It may be either nailed or screwed down. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 5. wide and of the same length as the table. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. attached to a post at each end. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. the bell will ring. J is another wire attached in the same way. Fig. 3. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. about 2-1/2 in. long. Paint the table any color desired. Fig. 2. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. When the button S is pressed. A. Then get two posts. 4. Fig. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. as in Fig. 3/8 in. Cut out a piece of tin. through it. about 1 in. 1.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. about 3 ft. 5. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. to the table. as shown in the illustration. 2. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. and bore two holes. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. high. Fig. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. Fig. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. and about 2-1/2 ft. long and 1 ft. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. or more wide.

The entire weapon. such as . The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. These rings can be carved out.Imitation Arms and Armor .. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 2.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. the wood peg inserted in one of them. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. but they are somewhat difficult to make. the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. The imitation articles are made of wood. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. 1. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. long. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. A wood peg about 2 in. thick. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. This weapon is about 22 in. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. long serves as the dowel. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The circle is marked out with a compass. After the glue is dry. says the English Mechanic. handle and all. is to appear as steel. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike.

as described in Fig. covered with red velvet. used at the end of the fifteenth century. as before mentioned. 3. All of these axes are about the same length. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. is shown in Fig. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. also. the base having a brad to stick into the ball. or the amateur cannot use it well. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. The entire handle should be made of one piece. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. etc. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. flowers. long. 6. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. as shown. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The spikes are cut out of wood. Its length is about 3 ft. The lower half of the handle is wood. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. This weapon is about 22 in. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. studded with large brass or steel nails. the hammer and spike.ornamental scrolls. with a sharp carving tool. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. 5. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. The handle is of steel imitation. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. 2. The handle is of wood. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. leaves. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. If such a tool is not at hand. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. 8. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. . can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. The upper half of the handle is steel. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The axe is shown in steel.

6. a three-base hit. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. as in Fig. Fig. 5. the knife resting on its back. and so on for nine innings. The knife falling on its side (Fig. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. . 2. then the other plays. Each person plays until three outs have been made. calls for a home run. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. 3. 4). and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown. as shown in Fig.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. 1. Chicago. 7) calls for one out. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall.

which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. Old-Time Magic . When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. of water for an hour or two. The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig. one of them burning . hypo to 1 pt. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. as shown in Fig. Mass. as shown in Fig. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. It may be found that the negative is not colored. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. of the rope and holds it. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. 1. with the rope laced in the cloth. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. If it is spotted at all. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. 3. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. This he does. while the committee is tying him up. F.-Contributed by J. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. Campbell.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. Somerville. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. 2.

with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. Thome.brightly. the lamp having been removed and the back opened.Contributed by Andrew G. of turpentine. thick. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. of plumbago. the other without a light. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. Louisville. Drill Gauge screw. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. Ky. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. He then walks over to the other candle. invisible to them (the audience). Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. Brown. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. New York City. --Contributed by L. showing that there is nothing between them. thus causing it to light. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. and. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. . Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush.. bolt. 4 oz. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions. The magician walks over to the burning candle. shades the light for a few seconds. Evans. 3/4 in. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper. Ky. --Contributed by C. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. B. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Lebanon. of sugar. with which he is going to light the other candle. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire. 4 oz. of water and 1 oz. etc. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way.

To make the porous cell. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. long. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. Y. add the acid to the water with constant stirring.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. into a tube of several thicknesses. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . but can be made up into any required voltage in series. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. Its current strength is about one volt. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. for the material. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. steady current. H. Do not add water to the acid. 5 in. about 5 in. thick. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. Denniston. but is not so good. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. N. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. In making up the solution. or blotting paper. which will give a strong. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. diameter. --Contributed by C. Pulteney.

To insure this. One hole was bored as well as possible. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. After much experimentation with bearings. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other.station. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. but somewhat lighter. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. steel. The . As to thickness. one drawing them together. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. while the other end is attached by two screws. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. carrying the hour circle at one end.) may be obtained. steel. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. long with a bearing at each end. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. Finally. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. a positive adjustment was provided. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. the other holding them apart. steel. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in.

To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. once carefully made. The pole is 1 deg. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. To locate a known star on the map. To find a star in the heavens. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. are tightened. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. subtract 24. When properly set it will describe a great circle... The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. and if it is not again directed to the same point. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal." Only a rough setting is necessary. The pointer is directed to Alpha. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. It is. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. in each direction from two points 180 deg. turn the pointer to the star. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. Cassiopiae. Instead. The aperture should be 1/4 in. All set screws. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. Each shaft. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. If the result is more than 24 hours. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. Declination is read directly. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. save the one in the pipe. excepting those on the declination axis. 45 min." When this is done. Set the declination circle to its reading. need not be changed. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. Point it approximately to the north star. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. All these adjustments. and 15 min. apart. is provided with this adjustment. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes.

a great effect will be produced. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras..glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. which is the one examined. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. Ohio. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. New Orleans. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. Strosnider. as shown in the sketch. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. La. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. In reality the first ball. is the real cannon ball. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. benzole. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. is folded several times. the others . Plain City. -Contributed by Ray E. long. The ball is found to be the genuine article. then add 1 2-3 dr. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. If this will be too transparent. of ether. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. 3 or 4 in. cannon balls. The dance will begin. taking care not to add too much. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. add a little more benzole.

Fig. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. taps. 1). Campbell. small brooches. Somerville. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration. --Contributed by J.. etc. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. Return the card to the pack. 2. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Mass. A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Wis. In boxes having a sliding cover. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. Cal. without taking up any great amount of space. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. F.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. Milwaukee. San Francisco. as shown in the illustration.

prints. I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. from the bottom of the box. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. This box has done good service. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. slides and extra brushes. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. as shown in the illustration. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. Hartford. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. . Connecticut. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. round pieces 2-1/4 in. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. thus giving ample store room for colors. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. Beller.

Darke. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. Mass. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. -Contributed by C. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. 2). the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. FIG. Fill the upper tub. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. O. or placed against a wall. costing 5 cents. Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. tacking the gauze well at the corners. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. with well packed horse manure. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig. 1).A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. West Lynn. holes in the bottom of one. and especially are the end pieces objectionable. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. When the ends are turned under. about threefourths full. will answer the purpose.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. .

Chicago. cutting the cane between the holes. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. when they are raised from the pan. A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. If plugs are found in any of the holes. they should be knocked out. If the following directions are carried out. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. Eifel. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it. and each bundle contains . --Contributed by L. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. M. if this is not available. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. oil or other fluid. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out.

Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. 1. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. then across and down. as it must be removed again. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. as shown in Fig. and. put about 3 or 4 in. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. a square pointed wedge. No plugs . In addition to the cane. it should be held by a plug. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. after having been pulled tight. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. held there by inserting another plug. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole.

as shown in Fig. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through.2 in.2+.075 in. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. is the base (5 in. Their difference is . 5 in. D. is the horizontal dial. 3. 4. can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. Fig. 41 °-30'. but the most common. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. During the weaving. and for 1° it would be . called the gnomon. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts.= 4. as shown in Fig.5 in. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented.075 in. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. 41°-30'. Start at one corner and weave diagonally. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. --Contributed by M. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. lat. or the style. When cool.42 in. -Contributed by E. 1. 5. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. the next smallest. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. There are several different designs of sundials. This will make three layers.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. 1 lat. using the same holes as for the first layer. Fig. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. the height of which is taken from table No. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . W. as the height of the line BC for lat. Detroit. we have 4. and for lat. 40°. From table No.3 in. After completing the second layer. stretch the third one. The style or gnomon. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction.15+. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. as for example. in this case) times the . 1. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. the height of the line BC. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. as it always equals the latitude of the place. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. All added to the lesser or 40°. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. and the one we shall describe in this article. If you have a table of natural functions. it is 4. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. for 2°. trim off the surplus rosin. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. It consists of a flat circular table. R. 42° is 4. If handled with a little care. Even with this lubrication. 1. No weaving has been done up to this time. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. 3. it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. Patrick.15 in. Michigan.

57 1. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks.41 38° 3.33 42° 4. 2.07 4. Its thickness.11 3. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.06 2.10 6.57 3. Draw the line AD. base.30 1. or more. and perpendicular to the base or style.79 4.56 .16 1.29 4-30 7-30 3.40 1.46 .49 3.50 26° 2.23 6.18 28° 2. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.81 4.82 2. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in.42 45 .20 60° 8. 2 for given latitudes. and for this size dial (10 in. To layout the hour circle.30 2. according to the size of the dial.96 32° 3.55 30° 2.44 44° 4.55 5. gives the 6 o'clock points. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight.89 50° 5.26 4.99 2. draw two parallel lines AB and CD.87 4.49 30 .42 1. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. Chords in inches for a 10 in. 2.93 2.37 54° 6.83 27° 2.14 5. Fig. with a radius of 5 in.00 40° 4.64 4 8 3.82 3. long.32 6.46 3.66 1.93 6. which will represent the base in length and thickness.76 1. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.63 56° 7.85 1. 1. if of metal. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2. circle Sundial. or if of stone.77 2. and intersecting the semicircles. an inch or two. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No.37 5. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. Table NO.97 5 7 4.19 1.38 .02 1. . The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.68 5-30 6-30 5.12 52° 6. using the points A and C as centers. Draw two semi-circles.88 36° 3.91 58° 8.55 46° 5.16 40 . Height of stile in inches for a 5in.tangent of the degree of latitude.85 35 .94 1. For latitudes not given.55 4.87 1.82 5.66 latitude.40 34° 3.27 2.59 2.66 48° 5. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .42 .39 .33 .03 3.28 .

06 2. each article can be labelled with the name. Sun time to local mean time.71 2. 3.63 1. after allowing for the declination.means that the dial is faster than the sun.19 2. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. and the . 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the . if west. The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.68 3.49 5.34 5.53 1.46 5. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. This correction can be added to the values in table No. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds. As they are the genuine reproductions.98 4.. says the English Mechanic. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. --Contributed by J. Sept. 900 Chicago.from Sundial lime.87 6.77 3. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. Each weapon is cut from wood.93 6.52 Table No. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No.54 60 .12 5. June 15. London. 2 and Dec.60 4. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. An ordinary compass.82 3.21 2. The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.14 1.72 5. will enable one to set the dial.50 . The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.46 4.24 5.89 3.37 2. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.08 1.10 4.49 3. Sioux City.79 6. E. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. and for the difference between standard and local time. Iowa. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3.30 2. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality.50 55 . April 16. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. 3. it will be faster. The + means that the clock is faster. 25. adding to each piece interest and value. Mitchell.01 1. then the watch is slower.57 1.add those marked + subtract those Marked .

This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. the length of which is about 5 ft. 3. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. Partisan.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle. 1. The spear head is of steel about 15 in. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. . and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel.. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. When putting on the tinfoil. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. long from the point where it is attached to the handle.

The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig.which is square. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails. long. long with a round staff or handle. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. long with a round wooden handle. It is about 6 ft. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. is shown in Fig. about 4 in. 8. 7. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. The spear is steel.. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. sharp on the outer edges. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. . The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. the holes being about 1/4 in. press it well into the carved depressions. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. long. used about the seventeenth century. The edges are sharp. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The extreme length is 9 ft. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. which are a part of the axe. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. This weapon is about 6 ft. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. in diameter. 5. A gisarm or glaive. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. 6 ft. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe.

as shown in Fig. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. Loudonville. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. or in holes punched in a leather strap. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. H. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. 4. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. Cut all the cords the same length. They can be made of various materials. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. are put in place. the most durable being bamboo. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. In Figs. are less durable and will quickly show wear. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. Workman. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. The twisted cross cords should .-Contributed by R. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. This is important to secure neatness. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. used for spacing and binding the whole together. Ohio. apart. a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. B. Substances such as straw. 5. the cross cords. 2 and 3. 1. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom.

of the bottom. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. below the top to within 1/4 in.be of such material. wide. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. 3 in. Lockport. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. -Contributed by Geo. for a length extending from a point 2 in. La. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. bamboo or rolled paper. To remedy this. The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. This was turned over the top of the other can. as shown at B. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. shaped as shown at C. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. New Orleans. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. The first design shown is for using bamboo. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. A slit was cut in the bottom. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. Harrer. New York. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. M. Four V-shaped notches were cut. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. in which was placed a piece of glass. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail.

Sanford. do not throw away the gloves. N. wide. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. Pasadena. Y. and two along the side for attaching the staff. H. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. is shown in the accompanying sketch. the brass is loosened from the block.tape from sticking to the carpet. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. Shay. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. Maywood. about 1/16 in. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. Schaffner. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. --Contributed by Joseph H. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. This should be done gradually. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. Cal. Ill. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. This plank. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. --Contributed by W. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. --Contributed by Chas. giving the appearance of hammered brass. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Newburgh. turned over but not fastened. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . After this is finished. It would be well to polish the brass at first.

the pendulum swings . A. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration. K. Ill. bent as shown. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. Marshall. in diameter. Oak Park. Unlike most clocks.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Cal. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Richmond. -Contributed by W. --E. Jaquythe. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water.

These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum.. . in diameter and 1-7/16 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. high. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. Now place the board to be joined. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. bar. on the board B. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. such as this one. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. says the Scientific American. are secured in the base bar. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. high. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. Two uprights. 3/4 in. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. wide that is perfectly flat.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Chicago. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets. 5/16 in. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. A. about 12 in. thick. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. 7-1/2 in. bearing on the latter. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. high and 1/4 in. only have the opposite side up. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. and the other two 2-5/8 in. wide. by 1-5/16 in. away. Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. Metzech. the center one being 2-3/4 in. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. Fasten another board. C. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. In using this method. to the first one with screws or glue. B. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. 6 in. high. is an electromagnet. The construction is very simple. --Contributed by V. about 6 in. Secure a board. long and at each side of this. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. in diameter.

Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. as shown at A. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. by driving a pin through the wood. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. or more. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. wide and 1 in. Pa. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. long. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. square inside. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. from one end. The trigger. --Contributed by Elmer A. Phoenixville. 4. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. Vanderslice. attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 3. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. The assembled parts are shown in Fig.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. plates should be made 8 in. Fig. whose dimensions are given in Fig. 1. 1. wide and 5 in. is fastened in the hole A. 1. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. 2. . square. Fig. A rectangular hole 3/16 in.

Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in. and the mitered corners well glued and nailed. Simonis.A. one-half the length of the side pieces. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. 5 parts of black filler. by weight. as shown in the illustration. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. rubbing varnish and turpentine. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. 2 parts of whiting. 3 parts of stiff keg lead. if only two bands are put in the . square. Ohio. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. -Contributed by J. Fostoria. which allows 1/4 in.

is set at an angle of 45 deg.lower strings. Shaw. -Contributed by Abner B. Dartmouth. keeps the strong light out when sketching. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. G. If a plain glass is used. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. II. No. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. Mass. Michigan. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. 8 in. A mirror. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. place tracing paper on its surface. Grand Rapids. 1. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. wide and about 1 ft. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. A double convex lens. London. is necessary. which may be either of ground or plain glass. A piece of metal. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. says the English Mechanic. DeLoof. preferably copper. as shown in Fig. and the picture can be drawn as described. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. deep. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. In use. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. In constructing helmets. --Contributed by Thos. in the opposite end of the box. It must be kept moist and well . and it may be made as a model or full sized. long. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass.

The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. shown in Fig. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. as shown in Fig. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. joined closely together. brown. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. and left over night to soak. as in bas-relief. on which to place the clay. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. 1. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. This being done. and the deft use of the fingers. 2. 3. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. and over the crest on top. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. The clay. 1. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. Scraps of thin. or some thin glue. with a keyhole saw. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape.kneaded. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. All being ready. After the clay model is finished. the clay model oiled. and continue until the clay is completely covered. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. a few clay-modeling tools. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. will be necessary. take.

When the helmet is off the model. as shown: in the design. and the ear guards in two pieces.as possible. The whole helmet. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. 1. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. owing to the clay being oiled. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. or. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. which should be no difficult matter. a few lines running down. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. the piecing could not be detected. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. a crest on top. will make it look neat. 5. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. Indiana. peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. Indianapolis. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. This contrivance should be made of wood. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. and so on. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. the skullcap. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. one for each side. Before taking it off the model. with the exception of the vizor. 7. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. In Fig. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. When dry. should be modeled and made in one piece. 9. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. In Fig. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. --Contributed by Paul Keller. When perfectly dry. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. as seen in the other part of the sketch. The center of the ear guards are perforated. and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. then another coating of glue. The band is decorated with brass studs. They are all covered with tinfoil. square in shape. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet.

3 in. 2. 4. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. long. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. Fig. 12 in. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. and two large 3in. long. 4. AA. if this cannot be obtained. as shown in Fig. 1. which can be bought from a local druggist. until it is within 1 in. A round collar of galvanized iron. AA. 1 in. 3. long. Fig. if the measurements are correct. one small switch. Fig. 4. about 1 lb. the fuse block. 1. 1. Fig. one oblong piece of wood. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . the holes leading to the switch. thick. The two holes. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. Fig. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. as shown in Fig. of mineral wool. The holes B and C are about 3 in. Fig. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. If a neat appearance is desired. one glass tube. 4. Fig. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. when they are placed in opposite positions. Fig. 4. about 80 ft. of fire clay. AA. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. is then packed down inside the collar. 2. as shown in Fig. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it.same size. also the switch B and the fuse block C. FF. of the top. 22 gauge resistance wire. German-silver wire is better. 1. Fig. should extend about 1/4 in. in diameter and 9 in. Fig. one fuse block. 4. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. The mineral wool. wide and 15 in. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. The reverse side of the base. with slits cut for the wires. 1. to receive screws for holding it to the base. screws. for connections. 4. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. thick sheet asbestos. GG. 1. is shown in Fig. 4 lb. This will allow the plate. and. about 1/4 in. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. The plate. as it stands a higher temperature. two ordinary binding posts. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. high. Punch holes in one of the pie plates. If asbestos is used. 2. Fig. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. are allowed to project about 1 in. each 4-1/2 in. Fig. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. This will make an open space between the plates. JJ. Fig. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. and C. of No. or. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. E and F. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. above the collar.

apart. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. Jaquythe. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. so that the circuit will not become broken. Fig. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. causing a short circuit. Cnonyn. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by R. A file can be used to remove any rough places. If it is not thoroughly dry. H. If this is the case. Fig. and pressed into it. will slip and come in contact with each other. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. deep. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. Catherines. This point marks the proper length to cut it. As these connections cannot be soldered. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. While the clay is damp. 4. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. II. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. --Contributed by W. Cover over about 1 in. A. 2. as the turns of the wires. when heated. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. above the rim. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . it is not necessary to know the method of molding. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. it leaves a gate for the metal. steam will form when the current is applied. When the tile is in place. then. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. Can. KK. It should not be left heated in this condition. when cool. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. This completes the stove. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. St. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. using care not to get it too wet. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. allowing a space between each turn. Richmond. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. It should not be set on end. more wire should be added. Cut a 1/2-in. Cal. When this is done. Next. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. The clay. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full.

the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. Ky. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. constructed of 3/4-in. the pie will be damaged. but 12 by 24 in. Then clip a little off the . says the Photographic Times. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. the air can enter from both top and bottom. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. as shown. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. and the frame set near a window. square material in any size. Louisville. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. and the prints will dry rapidly." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. is large enough. The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Thorne. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. --Contributed by Andrew G. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle.

Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. 1.Paper Funnel point. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. The connections are made as shown in Fig. Fig. 1. 4 in. 1. As the shaft revolves. 3. Iowa. The driving arm D. 2. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. causing a break in the current. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. thick and 3 in. An offset is bent in the center. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. Fig. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. high. W. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. open out. Herron. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. long. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. thick. in diameter and about 4 in. for the crank. high. The contact F is made of a strip of copper. long. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. at GG. as shown. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. each 1 in. which gives the shaft a half turn. each 1/2 in. A 1/8-in. wide and 7 in. The connecting rod E. Two supports. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. -Contributed by S. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. 1/2 in. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. allowing each end to project for connections. 1 and 3. which are fastened to the base. 14 in. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. 1/2 in. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. 1. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. wide and 3 in. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. Le Mars. long. Fig. The upright B. thick and 3 in. in diameter. The board can be raised to place . wide. thereby saving time and washing. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. high. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. long. slip on two cardboard washers. 22 gauge magnet wire. Figs. 2-1/2 in. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble.

and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. Mass. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. Place the pot. Stecher. . on a board. making a framework suitable for a roost. --Contributed by William F. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. 3 in. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft. in height. In designing the roost. Dorchester. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. One or more pots may be used. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. bottom side up. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive. as shown in the sketch.

Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. windows. F. paraffin and paint or varnish. and give it time to dry. if it is other than straight lines. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. adopt the method described. shelves. The materials required are rope or. as shown in Fig. when combined. ordinary glue. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. preferably. grills and gratings for doors. without any corresponding benefit. F. etc. 1. odd corners. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. 1. The design must be considered first and when one is selected.. Fig. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments.. that it is heated. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. in diameter. Wind the . it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. The bottom part of the sketch. shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. will produce the pattern desired. If the meter is warmed 10 deg.

Fig. six designs are shown. cut and glue them together. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . 2. M. N. -Contributed by Geo. Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. Y. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. Harrer. Lockport.

Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made.. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. which was used in front of a horse's head. 1. etc. chips of iron rust. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. when it will be observed that any organic matter. but no farther. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig.. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords.. Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers. says the English Mechanic. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. and the sides do not cover the jaws. London. etc. This piece of horse armor. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. As the . will be retained by the cotton. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular.

A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. 2. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. In Fig. which can be made in any size. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. and the clay model oiled. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. This will make the model light and easy to move around.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. and therefore it is not described. The armor is now removed from the model. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. 6 and 7. then another coat of glue. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. but for . after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. This triangularshaped support. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. All being ready. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. 2. This can be made in one piece. An arrangement is shown in Fig. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. the rougher the better. but the back is not necessary. 8. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. 4. This being done. the same as in Fig. except the thumb and fingers. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. with the exception of the thumb shield. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. as shown in the sketch. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. and will require less clay. as the surface will hold the clay. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. which is separate. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model.

will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. but 3-1/2 in. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. 1/2 in. running down the plate. the foils will not move. N. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. two in each jaw. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle. fastened to the rod. La Rue. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. wide and 1/2 in. Redondo Beach. long. cut into the shape shown in Fig. Y. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. are better shown in Fig. each about 1/4 in. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. are glued to it. the two pieces of foil will draw together. in depth. Fasten a polished brass ball to. two for the jaws and one a wedge. A piece of board. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. --Contributed by Ralph L. When locating the place for the screw eyes. --Contributed by John G. If it does not hold a charge. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. . The vise consists of three pieces of wood. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. The two pieces of foil. Goshen. 9. 2. will be about right. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. the top of the rod. Buxton. and the instrument is ready for use. Calif. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge.

the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. hole bored through it. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. is made of a 1/4-in. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. about 15 in. A. --Contributed by Mrs. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. Texas. enameled or otherwise decorated. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. At a point 6 in. The can may be bronzed. long. from the smaller end. When a fish is hooked. pine board. as indicated in the . as this will cut under the water without splashing. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. silvered. Corsicana. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. M. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. Bryan. 2-1/2 in. as shown in the illustration. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole.

Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. Any kind of wood will do. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. When it has dried over night. put a coat or two of wax and polish . then with a nail. using a piece of carbon paper. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. Having completed the drawing. A good size is 5 in. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. 22 is plenty heavy enough. 3/8 or 1/4 in. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. such as basswood or pine was used. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. and trace upon it the design and outline. as shown." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. take a piece of thin wood. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use.Match Holder accompanying sketch. Basswood or butternut. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. will do as well as the more expensive woods. thick. or even pine. If soft wood. using powdered pumice and lye. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. long over all. wide by 6 in. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. Next prepare the metal holder. Polish the metal. punch the holes.

tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. long. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. each 1 in. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. Cal.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. If one has some insight in carving. long. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. 1/2 in. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. is used for the base of this instrument. can be made on the same standards. It is useful for photographers. Jaquythe. A. If carving is contemplated. the whole being finished in linseed oil. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers. wide and 5 in. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. . At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. of pure olive oil. are used for the cores of the magnets. Richmond. Two wire nails. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. Instead of the usual two short ropes. --Contributed by W. thick. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. 2 in.

as shown in Fig.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. H. the paper covering put on. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. London. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. then covered with red. About 1 in. 3. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. 25 gauge. A rubber band. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. --Contributed by W. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. cut in the shape of the letter T. except that for the legs. similar to that used in electric bells. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. . Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. Lynas. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. says the English Mechanic. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. at A. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. when the key is pushed down. A piece of tin. 1. cloth or baize to represent the legs. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. as shown by the dotted lines. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. about No. leaving about 1/4 in. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. All of the parts for the armor have been described. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. in the shape shown in the sketch. breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. acts as a spring to keep the key open. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg.

not too tight. holes. 1 and drill a 1/4in. apart. apart. 1 in. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. drill six 1/4-in. hole in the center. Fig. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. Silver paper will do very well. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. Cut them to a length or 40 in. but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. says Camera Craft. Take the piece shown in Fig. flat headed carriage bolt. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. These can be purchased at a stationery store. at each end. brass paper fasteners will be found useful.. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. for the sake of lightness. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. completes the equipment. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes. So set up. one to another . Instead of using brass headed nails. In one end of the piece. can be made in a few minutes' time. Secure two strips of wood. A 1/4-in. and eight small holes. about 1 in. By moving the position of the bolt from.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. make the same series of eight small holes and. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts. 2. A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. in the other end. 3 in. long. The two pieces are bolted together. or ordinary plaster laths will do.

A round fob is made in a similar way. 4. 1. of the ends remain unwoven. In this sketch. Start with one end. in Fig. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. C over D and B. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. doubled and run through the web of A. long. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. 2. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A.of the larger holes in the strip. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. for instance. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other. Then take B and lay it over A. 2. lay Cover B and the one under D. taking the same start as for the square fob. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. and the one beneath C. 2. and lay it over the one to the right. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. A is the first string and B is the second. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. D over A and C. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. Then draw all four ends up snugly. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. then B over C and the end stuck under A. Fig. as in portraiture and the like. the one marked A. allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. but instead of reversing .

is left out at the center before starting on one side. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. 5. as at A in Fig. the design of which is shown herewith. especially if silk strings are used. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat. Ohio. --Contributed by John P. The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. Other designs can be made in the same manner. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . The round fob is shown in Fig. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. as in making the square fob. Rupp. 1-1/2 in. A loop.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. over the one to its right. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. always lap one string. long. as B. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Monroeville. 3. is to be made of leather.

Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. A. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. -Contributed by A. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. filling them with wax. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. pressing it against the wood. beeswax or paraffin. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Houghton. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. Northville. .Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. such as a nut pick. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. Any smooth piece of steel. it can be easily renewed. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. Mich. When the supply of wax is exhausted. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. using the reverse side. door facing or door panel. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do.

place it face down in the dish. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. Ill. Petersburg. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. apart and driven in only part way. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Fold together on lines C. but any kind that will not stick may be used. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. says Photographic Times. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. if blueprints are used. The tacks should be about 1 in. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. Y. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. and about 12 in. New York. remaining above the surface of the board. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. --Contributed by O. thick. it is best to leave a plain white margin. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Thompson. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. N. Enough plaster should. D. and after wetting. J. . leaving about 1/4 in. long. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. Select the print you wish to mount. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. those on matte paper will work best.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. although tin ones can be used with good success. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. E and F.

violets. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble. as shown at the left in the sketch. as shown in the right of the sketch.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. without mixing the solutions. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle.. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. bell flowers. filling the same about onehalf full. roses. etc. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. will be rendered perfectly white. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. Lower into the test tube a wire. How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. One of the . Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes. at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda.

in diameter and 1 in. 2. Millstown. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. 1. and at the larger end. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. as shown. Shabino. which should be of thin ferrotype tin.most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. Fig. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. shading. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. long and made of wood. 3. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. South Dakota. The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. A rod that will fit the brass tube. turned a little tapering. not too tightly. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. When soldering these parts together. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. about 1/8s in. The tin horn can be easily made. to keep the core from coming off in turning. thick. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. made of heavy tin. should be soldered to the box. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. but which will not wobble loose. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by L. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. L. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. 1-7/8 in. long. The first point should be ground blunt.. is about 2-1/2 in. The sound box. The diaphragm. or delicate tints of the egg.

and weighted it with a heavy stone. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. Jr. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. Gold. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Ill. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. mice in the bottom. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. Colo. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. Victor. put a board on top. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. and. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. Chicago. E.Contributed by E. says the Iowa Homestead. wondering what it was. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four.

N. Can.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. Ottawa. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. Buffalo. . Pereira. --Contributed by Lyndwode. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. Y.

How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. as it can be made quickly in any size. The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. and at one end of the stick fasten. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through. --Contributed by W. Richmond. Cal. De Loof. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. Mich. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. This cart has no axle. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. Jaquythe. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration. by means of a flatheaded tack. A. Put a small nail 2 in. as shown. through which several holes have been punched. Grand Rapids. Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. --Contributed by Thos. longer than the length of the can. cut round. above the end of the dasher. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. a piece of tin.

--Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 1-1/2 in. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. screwed it on the inside of a store box. deep and 3 in. --Contributed by James M. Kane. long. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. 2. wide and 3 ft. Doylestown. cut in the center of the rounding edge. I reversed a door gong. Pa. The wires are set in the 1/8-in. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. board. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. 2. The candles. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood. of course. The baseboard and top are separable. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. thick. 2. wide and as long as the box. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. A wedge-shaped piece of . and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye. 2 in. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. 1. New Orleans. were below the level of the bullseye. as shown. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. apart. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. 1/4 in. wide. 1 ft. Fig. Notches 1/8 in. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. wide and 1/8 in.1. La.

Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. A. 3. 1. when placed as in Fig. Mass. wide rubber bands or felt. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. the shelf could not be put on the window. as shown in Fig. can be picked up without any trouble. by cutting away the ends. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. etc. stone or wood. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. After completing the handle. Ia. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. it can be removed without marring the casing. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. Needles. When not in use. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. to prevent its scratching the desk top. scissors. the reason being that if both were solid. Wood. This device is very convenient for invalids. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. For the handle. After the glue has dried. dressing one surface of each piece. West Union. wide into each side of the casing.. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. --Contributed by G. Worcester. will. The block can also be used as a paperweight. take two pieces of hard wood. the blade is put back into the groove . A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding.Book Back Holders metal. Cover the block with rubber. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in.

Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. A notch is cut in one side. Hutchins. Each one is made of a hardwood block. Cleveland. square and 4 in. Malden. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. as shown in Fig. is shown in the accompanying sketch. 2. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches.and sharpened to a cutting edge. thus carrying the car up the incline. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. A. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Pa. S. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. Erie. Jacobs. as shown in Fig. 1 in. 1. If desired. long. Ohio. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. -Contributed by W. Mass. --Contributed by H. . Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them.

a board on which to work it.. Prepare a design for the front. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. Cape May Point. 6 by 9-1/2 in. will be needed. If one such as is shown is to be used. The letters can be put on afterward. N. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. One sheet of metal. . and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming.J. This will insure having all parts alike. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy. and an awl and hammer.

Remove the metal. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. turpentine. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. placed on a table. 3/4 part. 2 parts white vitriol. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. varnish. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick." In all appearance. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. If any polishing is required. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. as shown. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. On the back. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. a violin. . only the marginal line is to be pierced. or. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. flat brush. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. So impressive are the results. and add sugar of lead as a dryer. if desired. mandolin or guitar. The stick may be placed by the side of. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. behind or through the center of a table leg. in the waste metal. paste the paper design right on the metal. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. to right angles. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. which is desirable. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed.Fasten the metal to the board. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. that can be worked in your own parlor. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick. applied by means of a brush. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. but weird and distant. The music will not sound natural. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. says Master Painter. One coat will do. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. 1/4 part. 1 part.

One thing is always at hand and that is wood. round-head machine screws. apart. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. long. thick by 1/2 in. Two pairs of feet. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. With proper tools this is easy. without them. The longest piece. says Work. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. is bent square so as to form two uprights. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. long and spread about 8 in. and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. each 28 in. and is easy to construct. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. wide. after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. across the top. long and measuring 26 in. 3.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. each 6 in. are shaped as shown in Fig. 2. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. which should be about 5-1/2 ft. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. . it might be difficult. London. square bar iron.

and the base border. 5. is held by the brads. 7. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. of which a cross section is shown in Fig.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. The brads are then removed. 6. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. D. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. Place the corner piece of glass. 4. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. using rosin as a flux. B. or. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. Fig. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. the latter being tapped to . C. special flux purchased for this purpose. The design is formed in the lead. lead. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. While the piece of lead D. cut a long piece of lead. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. better still. in the grooves of the borders. Fig. 5. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. After the joints are soldered. as shown in Fig. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. on it as shown. After the glass is cut. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. A. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. The glass. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig.

long. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. and two wood blocks. Bore a 5/8-in.the base of the clip. --Contributed by W. rocker bolt. rounded at the top as shown. plates. and round the corners of one end for a ring. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. in diameter and about 9 in. bolt. This ring can be made of 1-in. N. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. as shown in Fig. Fasten the plates to the block B. bolt. Make three washers 3-in. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in.. Camden. plank about 12 ft. square and of the length given in the drawing. Secure a post. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. then flatten its end on the under side. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. Dreier. long. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. 8. The center pin is 3/4-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. Jr. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. Two styles of hand holds are shown. This . J. holes through their centers. not less than 4 in. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. in diameter and 1/4 in. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. one on each side and central with the hole. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. thick and drill 3/4-in. then drill a 3/4-in. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. long. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. wood screws in each washer. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. Bore a 3/4-in. H. A and B.

1/2 in. The four 7-in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. long. long. To substitute small. square by 5 ft. 4 in. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. 1 by 7 in. La. because it will not stand the weather. long. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. Draw a line on the four 7-in. 4 pieces. long. 3 in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. 9 in. long. maple. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. 2 by 4 in. the money outlay will be almost nothing. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. can make a first class gymnasium. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. horse and rings. 50 ft. by 6-1/2 ft. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. 7 in. 4 in. If trees are convenient. New Orleans. by 2 ft. chestnut or ash. 4 pieces. screws. in diameter and 7 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. straight-grained hickory. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. 16 screws. bit. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. apart for a distance of 3 ft. shanks. 1. and some one can swing an axe. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. long. long and 1 piece. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. hickory. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. 3/4 by 3 in. square by 9-1/2 ft. of 1/4-in. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were . 2-1/2 in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood.will make an excellent cover for a pot. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. boards along the side of each from end to end. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 1-1/4in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. bolts and rope. by 3 ft. 4 filler pieces. from one edge. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.

The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. at each end. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. boards coincide. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. piece of wood.. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. apart. so the 1/2-in. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. 8 in. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. Bore a 9/16-in. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. each 3 ft. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result.. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. from the end. 2. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats.bored. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. apart. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. deep and remove all loose dirt.

a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. If the tumbler is rotated. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. in an endless belt. When the interest of the crowd. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. not much to look at in daytime. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. not even the tumbler. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. the effect is very striking. And all he used was a black thread." which skimmed along the distant horizon. W. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. and materially heightened the illusion. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud. . which at once gave the suggestion of distance. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. but most deceptive at dusk. disappearing only to reappear again. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom. and then passes in a curve across the base.. it follows the edge for about 1 in. He stretched the thread between two buildings. it is taken to the edge of the foot. was at its height. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. about 100 ft. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. just visible against the dark evening sky. apart. passing through a screweye at either end. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. and ascends the stem. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. which at once gathered. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference.

long. long. 2 by 4 in. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. 4 knee braces. To make the apparatus. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. long. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. wide and 1 in. and turned in a spiral D. by 2 ft. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. 2 by 3 in. 2 side braces. long and 1 doz. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. deep. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2 cross braces. 8 bolts. long. by 10 ft. long.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. A wire about No. 2 by 4 in. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. so the point will be on top. long. square and 6 ft. from either side of the center. square and 51/2 ft. 6 in. long. 2 in. Fig. 8 in. beginning at a point 9 in. 4 in. 2 by 4 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. The cork will come out easily. large spikes. preferably cedar. by 3 ft. 1. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. by 7 ft. 4 bolts. 7 in. La. 4 in. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 2 base pieces. 8 in. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. 4 wood screws. long. Bevel the ends of . 8 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. New Orleans.

and countersinking the heads. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. screws. and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. Jaquythe. After the trenches are dug. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. If using mill-cut lumber. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. A. Richmond. Cal. . They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. which face each other. These will allow the ladle to be turned. but even unpainted they are very durable. equipped with a strainer.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. of 7 ft. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. A large sized ladle. save the bars. ( To be Continued. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. as shown in the diagram. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer.the knee braces.. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. additional long. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. so the bolts in both will not meet. jellies. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves. leave it undressed. except the bars. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. --Contributed by W. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. leaving the strainer always in position. etc. using four of the 7-in bolts. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. The wood so treated will last for years. Two endpieces must be made. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather.

milling machine. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. it is necessary to place a stick. partly a barrier for jumps. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. . or various cutting compounds of oil. drill press or planer. Oil. which seems impossible. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. A. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. In order to accomplish this experiment. thus holding the pail as shown. of sufficient 1ength. If a little turpentine is added to the oil.

The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. These are well nailed in place. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . to fasten the knee braces at the top. Hand holds must be provided next.. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. long. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. 4 in. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. The round part of this log must be planed. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. To construct. ten 1/2-in. projections and splinters. in the ground. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. bolts. but 5 ft. in diameter--the larger the better. 1 in. long. is a good length. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. 2 by 4 in. 3 in. square by 5-1/2 ft. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. piece of 2 by 4-in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. long. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. square by 5 ft. long.. 4 knee braces. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. from each end. 2 by 4 in. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. two 1/2-in. 7 in. 4 in. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in. The material required is as follows: Two posts. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. bolt. 4 in. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. by 3 ft. Procure from a saw mill. by 3 ft. beginning 1-1/2 in. long. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom. by 3 ft. wood yard or from the woods. long. 2 by 4 in. and free from knots. 1 cross brace. bolts. long. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. 2 bases. bolts. long. stud cut rounding on one edge. apart. 4-1/2 in. 2 adjusting pieces. apart in a central position on the horse. These are placed 18 in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in.

Also. it is caused by some obstruction. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. etc. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. Cal. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. A. then bending to the shape desired. snow. Jaquythe. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. such as a dent. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder.--Contributed by W. water. says the Sporting Goods Dealer.horse top. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. over and around. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. pipe and fittings. it is caused by an overloaded shell. Richmond. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. but nevertheless. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. no one is responsible but himself. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle.

at E and F. 2. 1. Noble. with a pair of flat-nose pliers.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. These. Mass. thick. . Vener. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. Boston. in width and 1/32 in. Ontario. are all the tools necessary. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. --Contributed by James E. when straightened out. France. which. --Contributed by Arthur E. W. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. Joerin. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. is much better than a wood sled. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. then run a string over each part. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. will give the length. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Toronto. --Contributed by J. Paris. when complete. The end elevation.

The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. It is best to use soft water. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. 3. nor that which is partly oxidized. are nailed. and the latter will take on a bright luster. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 4. AA and BB. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. The method shown in Figs.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. .

Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. 4. 3. or unequal widths as in Fig. . A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. as shown in Fig. The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. The materials used are: backbone. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. Broad lines can be made. 8 and 9. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze. Percy Ashley in Rudder. class ice-yacht. or various rulings may be made. as shown in Fig. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. 2. 1). 2. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

out from the collar. but if it is made much longer. 1-Details of Lathe sort. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in.Fig. It can be made longer or shorter. pipe. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. A good and substantial homemade lathe. long. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The point should extend about 11/2 in. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. a larger size of pipe should be used. bent and drilled as shown. pins to keep them from turning. Both the lower . The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. The headstock is made of two tees. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. about 30 in. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. a tee and a forging. 1. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch.

The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. UpDeGraff. Boissevain. --Contributed by W. 2. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. Held. Musgrove. 2. Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Fruitvale. else taper turning will result. as shown in Fig. 2. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. or a key can be used as well. M. . It is about 1 in. Man. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. 3/4 or 1 in. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. --Contributed by W. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. thick as desired. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. a straight line should be scratched Fig. To do this. Laporte. and will answer for a great variety of work. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. Cal. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. --Contributed by M. Indiana. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. 1. W. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. but also their insulating properties. as shown in Fig. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. a corresponding line made on this.

Smith. Ft. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. --Contributed by E. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. In use. as shown. Ark. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates. J. The handle is of pine about 18 in. To obviate this. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . long. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. Cline. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle.Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution.

This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. if this method is followed: First. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. La. This prevents the drill from wobbling. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. centering is just one operation too many. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. take . Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. --Contributed by Walter W. New Orleans. which should be backed out of contact. Colo. the drill does not need the tool. face off the end of the piece. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. and when once in true up to its size. Denver. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. White. After being entered. on starting the lathe.

The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. says the Sphinx. The handkerchief rod. vanishing wand. and can be varied to suit the performer. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. a bout 1/2 in.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. as shown in D. In doing this. and this given to someone to hold. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish. After the wand is removed. is put into the paper tube A. after being shown empty. by applying caustic soda or . It can be used in a great number of tricks. shown at C. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. a long piece of glass tubing. shorter t h a n the wand. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. all the better. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. the cap is placed over the paper tube. unknown to the spectators. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. The glass tube B. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief.

Glue the neck to the box. and glue it to the neck at F. 1/4 in. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. across the front and back to strengthen them. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. The brace at D is 1 in. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. 2 Sides. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. 3/16. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters. by 14 by 17 in. With care and patience. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in.potash around the edges of the letters. 1 End. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. as shown by K. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. 1. can be made by the home mechanic. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. preferably hard maple. and if care is taken in selecting the material. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. cut to any shape desired. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. As the cement softens. Cut a piece of hard wood. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. 1 Neck. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. 1 Bottom. square and 1-7/8 in. End. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. thick. The sides. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage. long. Glue strips of soft wood. All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. with the back side rounding. This dimension and those for the frets .

should be made accurately. and beveled .Pa. A board 1 in. in diameter. The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. Frary. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. 3/16 in. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. thick and about 1 ft. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. --Contributed by Chas. -Contributed by J. Norwalk. long is used for a keel. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Carbondale. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Six holes. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. or backbone. toward each end. When it is completed you will have a canoe. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. H. but it is not. E. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. Stoddard. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat. O.

and so. In drying. Green wood is preferable. the loose strips of ash (b. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. b. but before doing this. Fig. buy some split cane or rattan. slender switches of osier willow. 3. and are not fastened. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. with long stout screws. 1. by means of a string or wire. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. C. 2). while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 13 in. .) in notches. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. probably. as they are apt to do. b. Fig. as before described. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. Fig. or similar material. a. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. Osiers probably make the best ribs. long are required. wide by 26 in. as shown in Fig. twigs 5 or 6 ft. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. two twigs may be used to make one rib. 3/8 in. and. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. These are better. 1 and 2. thick. Fig.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. Fig. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in. some tight strips of ash. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. such as hazel or birch. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. b. two strips of wood (b. and notched at the end to receive them (B. in thickness and should be cut. The ribs. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. 4). after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. 3). 4. apart. which are easily made of long. but twigs of some other trees. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. or other place. as shown in Fig. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. 2. such as is used for making chairbottoms. 2). procure at a carriage factory. Any tough. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. The cross-boards (B. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. B.. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. when made of green elm. Shape these as shown by A. Fig. 3. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. long. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. Fig. are next put in. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. C. will answer nearly as well. 3). the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame. thick. Fig. in such cases. For the gunwales (a. Fig.

it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. apply a second coat of the same varnish. Fig. and held in place by means of small clamps. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. and very tough. It should be drawn tight along the edges. but with less turpentine.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. but neither stiff nor very thick. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. of very strong wrapping-paper. It should be smooth on the surface. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. B. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. and as soon as that has soaked in. If not. preferably iron. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. however. 5). wide. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. after wetting it. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. When the paper is dry. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. Then take some of the split rattan and. and light oars. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. If the paper be 1 yd. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. Being made in long rolls. The paper is then trimmed. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. tacking it to the bottom-board. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. When thoroughly dry. and steady in the water. if it has been properly constructed of good material. You may put in .

Drive the lower nail first. fore and aft. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. We procured a box and made a frame. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. 5. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. and if driven as shown in the cut. A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. 5). For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. 2.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. 1. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. they will support very heavy weights. Fig. 1 and the end in . The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. Fig. Fig. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. to fit it easily. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. and make a movable seat (A. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders.

Fig. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. This is an easy . This way has its drawbacks. Pa. 4. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. this makes the tube airtight. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. 3. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. being softer where the flame has been applied. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. Pittsburg. A good way to handle this work. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. and the glass. 5. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. and the result is. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. Close the other end with the same operation.

screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. second. Sixth. After the bulb is formed. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. three. metal shears. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . extra metal all around. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. fifth. thin screw. To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. Give the metal a circular motion. -Contributed by A. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. The candle holders may have two. above the metal. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. third. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. four. also trace the decorative design. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. or six arms. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. 23 gauge. rivet punch. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. with a piece of carbon paper. very rapid progress can be made. then reverse.way to make a thermometer tube. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating. Seventh. Oswald. above the work and striking it with the hammer. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. fourth. flat and round-nosed pliers. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. file.

The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. Having pierced the bracket. drip cup. How To Make a Hectograph [326] .Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration. Small copper rivets are used. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. and holder. Metal polish of any kind will do. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing. It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done.

being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. hammer. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. Twenty cents was all I spent. alcohol 2 parts. F. when it will be ready for use. J. the stick at the bottom of the sail. A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. thus it was utilized. all the rest I found. of glycerine to about 200 deg. glycerine 4 parts. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. The gaff. on a water bath. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. and add the gelatine. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. I steer with the front wheel. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. Soak 1 oz. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. Heat 6-1/2 oz. and brace and bit were the tools used. if it has not absorbed too much ink. The boom. and other things as they were needed. A saw. sugar 1 part. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. Shiloh. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. and in a week . using a steel pen. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. and it will be ready for future use. smooth it down and then remove as before. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. N. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. is a broomstick. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. winding the ends where they came together with wire. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. they were like an ice boat with a sail. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. and water 24 parts. Fifty. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Mother let me have a sheet. except they had wheels instead of runners. deep. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. The wind was the cheapest power to be found.

a projecting lens . A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up.Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. well seasoned pine. and 14 in. about 2 ft. but if such a box is not found. The board is centered both ways. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. focus enlarging a 3-in.. describe a 9-in. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. are . battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. H. DD. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. A and B. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. at a point 1 in. If a small saw is used. the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. 1/2 to 3/4 in. Fig. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in. and a projecting lens 2 in. or a lens of 12-in. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. A table. This ring is made up from two rings. provided the material is of metal. The slide support. and the work carefully done. slide to about 6 ft. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. as desired. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. thick. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. E. long. 3. or glue. high. G. and the lens slide. and. at a distance of 24 ft. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. wide. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. wire brads. 8 in. wide and 15 in. 1.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. above the center. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light.

St. A sheet . should the glass happen to upset. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations. P. JJ. but not long enough.-Contributed by G. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. Small strips of tin. Paul. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. light burning oil. placed on the water. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. apply two coats of shellac varnish. The arrangement is quite safe as. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. of safe. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. the water at once extinguishes the flame. the strips II serving as guides. To reach the water. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. and when the right position is found for each. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E.constructed to slip easily on the table. B. Minn. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. E. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in.

by 12 ft. 3. --Contributed by J. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid. Fig. Fig. I ordered a canvas bag. Schenectady. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 9 in. Y. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer.. to cover the mattresses. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. Crawford. 4.H. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 3. then the corners on one end are doubled over. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. from a tent company. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. If one of these clips is not at hand. as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 2. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. 3 in. form a piece of wire in the same shape. N. 1. 12 ft. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded.

D. 2. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. apart. 1/2 in. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case. to the coil of small wire for volts. Denver. Colo. Teasdale. insulating them from the case with cardboard. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. 1. 3 to swing freely on the tack. in the center coil. --Contributed by Edward M. to keep it from unwinding. A rubber band. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. Attach a piece of steel rod. and insert two binding-posts. thick. Warren. open on the edges. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Pa. An arc is cut in the paper. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. 2. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. --Contributed by Walter W. wide. A Film Washing Trough [331] . Fig. long.each edge. To calibrate the instrument. drill two 3/16 in. as shown in Fig. holes in the edge. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. C. White. through which the indicator works. 3/4 in. long and 3/16 in. Do not use too strong a rubber. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. first mark the binding-post A. V. Fold two strips of light cardboard. 1/2 in. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. Fig. 2. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. for amperes and the other post. 3/4 in. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. so as to form two oblong boxes. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. 1.

A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. M. --Contributed by M. Dayton. Place this can on one end of the trough.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. O. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. Wood Burning [331] . Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. with the large hole up. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. as shown. Hunting. Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. Cut a 1/4-in. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in.

mouth downward.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . then into this bottle place. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water.

How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. Upper Troy.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. --Contributed by Fred W. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. Whitehouse. 2. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . Place the small bottle in as before. thick. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. many puzzling effects may be obtained. 3/4 in. Auburn. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. as shown in the sketch. N. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle.Y. or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. Ala. but not very thick. wide and 4 in. provided the bottle is wide. If the cork is adjusted properly. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. 1. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. If the small bottle used is opaque. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle. This will make a very pretty ornament. long. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom. --Contributed by John Shahan.

The bearing blocks were 3 in. 1. 1 in. 1. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. Fig. If a transmitter is used. which was 6 in. K. Fig. held the shaft from revolving in the hub. G. such as blades and pulleys. Both bearings were made in this manner. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. sugar pine on account of its softness. Its smaller parts. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. pulley F. The 21/2-in. --Contributed by D. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. The wire L was put . which was nailed to the face plate.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. thick and 3 in. high without the upper half. thick. 1. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. Milter. Fig. were constructed of 1-in. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. The shaft C. which extended to the ground. wide. was keyed to shaft C. in diameter and 1 in. On a 1000-ft. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. as shown in Fig. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. B. long. iron rod. Fig. A staple. or ordinary telephone transmitters. I. by the method shown in Fig. which gave considerable power for its size. 4. was 1/4in. 2. 3. W. Fig. to the shaft. 1. line. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. even in a light breeze. pulley. 1. 2 ft. thick. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig.

Fig. across the thin edge of a board. long and bend it as . long and 3 in. 3 in. was tacked. with all parts in place. H. 1. There a 1/4-in. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. with brass headed furniture tacks. G. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. was 2 ft. The power was put to various uses. strips. top down also. apart in the tower. Fig. This completes the receiver or sounder. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. 5. square to the board P at the top of the tower. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. To lessen the friction here. Two washers were placed on shaft C. To make the key. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. long and 1/2 in. when the windmill needed oiling. for instance. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. as. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. wide and 1 in. hole was bored for it. 25 ft. hole for the shaft G was in the center. Fig. washers were placed under pulley F. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. 1. and was cut the shape shown. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. Fig. long. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. 2. Fig. so that the 1/4-in. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. 0. Fig. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. This fan was made of 1/4-in. in the center of the board P. The other lid. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. providing one has a few old materials on hand. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. 6. 1. Fig. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. long. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. This board was 12 in. a 1/2-in. If you have no bell. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. long and bend it as shown at A. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. 1. through the latter. R. 6. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. pine 18 by 12 in. 1) 4 in. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. The smaller one. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. in diameter. The bed plate D. cut out another piece of tin (X.

Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . Going back to Fig. causing a buzzing sound. By adjusting the coils. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. although it can be made with but two. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. fitted with paddles as at M. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. McConnell. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. The rear barrels are. When tired of this instrument. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels. Now. leaving the other wire as it is. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. like many another device boys make. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. as shown at Water.shown. using cleats to hold the board frame. and. 2. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. -Contributed by John R. as indicated. Before tacking it to the board. after the manner of bicycle wheels. Thus a center drive is made. at the front. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. 1.

as shown in Fig. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. There is no danger. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. If the journals thus made are well oiled. 1. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. copper piping and brass tubing for base. there will not be much friction. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . feet on the pedals. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. can be built. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. 3. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. The speed is slow at first. To propel it. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. or even a little houseboat. which will give any amount of pleasure. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. thin sheet brass for the cylinder.

Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. or it may be put to other uses if desired. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Turn a small circle of wood. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. A. 1. then the glass disc and then the other ring. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. 1. If magnifying glass cannot be had. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. If it is desired to make the light very complete. and so creating a false circuit.of pleasure for a little work. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Fig. Shape small blocks of boxwood. 2. 2. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. Place one brass ring in cylinder. Fig. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. 1. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. Fig. B. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. D. 2. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. C. Then melt out the rosin or lead. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . Fig. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose.

copper tubing. contact post. D. To throw on light throw levers to the left. F. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. C. To get the cylinder into its carriage. bracket.india rubber tubing. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. dry batteries. electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . Throw lever off from the right to center. set alarm key as shown in diagram.. G. and pulled tight. C. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. long. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. after setting alarm. 4 in. while lying in bed. The parts indicated are as follows: A. Chatland. wire from batteries to switch. In placing clock on shelf. switch. 5-1/4 by 10 in. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. Brinkerhoff. --Contributed by Geo. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. To operate this. such as is used for cycle valves. brass rod. after two turns have been made on the key. key of alarm clock. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. by having the switch on the baseboard. some glue will secure them. near the bed. E. X. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. brass strip. wide and 1/16 in. --Contributed by C. or 1/4in. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. Swissvale. bell. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. shelf. Pa. Utah. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. B. wire from bell to switch. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. which stops bell ringing. 3/8 in. T. When alarm goes off. thick. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . if too small. Ogden. H. 4-1/2 in. wire from light to switch. long. S. J. I.

from one end. place stick and all in a pail of sand. 1. about 6 in. Minn. in diameter. about 3-1/2 in. long. in diameter. making it as true and smooth as possible. letting it extend 3/4 in. gives the heater a more finished appearance. Having finished this. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. as at B. being careful not to get the sand in it. Fig. Fig. A flannel bag. 4 in. will do the heating. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. as at A. A small lamp of about 5 cp. 1/4 in.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Pull out the nail and stick. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. which can be made of an old can. a bed warmer. as at A. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. Chapman. wide. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. Make the spindle as in Fig. 2. S. All that is required is a tin covering. This is to form the fuse hole. 1. Fig. as in Fig. as . and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. for instance. Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. 2. --Contributed by Chas. Make a shoulder. Lanesboro. 3. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. beyond the end of the spindle. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting.

long. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. deep. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. 1. The bow is made from straight-grained oak. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. will be sufficient to make the trigger. wide and 3/8 in. long. thick. The material must be 1-1/2 in. thick. Joerin. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. --Contributed by Arthur E. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. good straight-grained pine will do. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . 11/2 in. this is to keep the edges from splitting.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. 6 in. thick. 3/8 in. but if this wood cannot be procured. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. 1 in. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. A piece of oak. 5/8 in. A piece of tin. or hickory. ash. long. spring and arrows. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. wide and 3 ft. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens. wide and 6 ft. The illustration shows how this is done.

A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. Fig. To throw the arrow. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. --Contributed by O. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. E. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. Fig. Such a temporary safe light may be . A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. 4. as shown in Fig. place the arrow in the groove. in diameter. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. which is 1/4 in. better still. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. 7. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. wide at each end. The stick for the bow. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. To shoot the crossbow. it lifts the spring up.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. having the latter swing quite freely. When the trigger is pulled. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. A spring. 6. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. Wilmette. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. from the opposite end. from the end of the stock. 3. Ill. 9. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. Trownes. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. The trigger. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. and one for the trigger 12 in. 2. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. The bow is not fastened in the stock. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. 8. as shown in Fig. thick. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. or through the necessity of. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in.

Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. This lamp is safe. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. from the ground. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. make the frame of the wigwam. it is the easiest camp to make. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. says Photo Era. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. making lighting and trimming convenient.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. is used as a door. The cut should be about 5 ft. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. C. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. respectively. and replace as shown at B. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. apart. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. the bark lean-to is a . Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. or only as a camp on a short excursion. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better. Remove one end. since the flame of the candle is above A. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. and nail it in position as shown at A. from the ground. By chopping the trunk almost through. only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. The hinged cover E. Remove the bottom of the box. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. Moreover.

A piece of elm or hickory.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. long and 1-1/2 in. a 2-in. Tongs are very useful in camp. deep and covered with blankets. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. long and 2 or 3 ft. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. For a permanent camp. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. . spruce. then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. long. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. wide. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. and when the camp is pitched. Where bark is used. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. and split the tops with an ax. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. 6 ft. thick. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. are a convenient size for camp construction. nails are necessary to hold it in place. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. In the early summer. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. makes a good pair of tongs. wide and 6 ft. will dry flat. For a foot in the middle of the stick. Sheets of bark. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. 3 ft. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. selecting a site for a camp. and cedar. piled 2 or 3 ft. make the best kind of a camp bed. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut.

. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top. Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. and affording accommodation for several persons. hinges. or even a rough lock for the camp larder.Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard.

The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured. 1. connected by means of a very small lead pipe. and provide a cover or door. Pa. deep and 4 in. wide. B. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. A. but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. --Contributed by James M. I drove a small cork. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. Doylestown. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. to another . Kane. B. about 4 in. changing the water both morning and night.. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Fig. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. the interior can. be kept at 90 or 100 deg.

care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. E. a liquid. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. The current is thus compelled. 4 and 5). With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. fused into one side. for instance. such as ether. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. 3. Fig. This makes . shows how the connections to the supply current are made. until.glass tube. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. 2. for instance. if necessary. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. 2. which project inside and outside of the tube. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. limit. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. to pass through an increasing resistance. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. The diagram. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. C. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5.

3. to allow for finishing. cannot be used so often. is composed of wrought sheet iron. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. Before removing the field from the lathe. making it 1/16 in. 1. two holes. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. which will make it uniform in size. drill the four rivet holes. when several pieces are placed together. The bearing studs are now made. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. A. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. which may be of any thickness so that. thicker. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. but merely discolored. or even 1/16 in. brass. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. by turning the lathe with the hand. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. 3-3/8 in. After cleaning them with the solution. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. therefore. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. in diameter. clamp the template. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. 3-3/8 in. or pattern. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. When the frame is finished so far. and for the outside of the frame. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. Then the field can be finished to these marks. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. as shown in the left-hand sketch. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. tap. hole is . between centers. bent at right angles as shown. thick. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. on a lathe. in diameter.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. These holes are for the bearing studs. assemble and rivet them solidly. Alpena. After the template is marked out. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. brass or iron. screws. 2. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. as shown in Fig. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. 4-1/2 in. If the thickness is sufficient. Michigan. thick. larger than the dimensions given. Fig. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. set at 1/8 in. mark off a space. A 5/8in. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. Fig. they will make a frame 3/4 in. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled.

is turned up from machine steel. solder them to the supports.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. Fig. into which a piece of 5/8-in. or otherwise finished. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed. brass rod is inserted. file them out to make the proper adjustment. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. and drilled to receive the armature shaft. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. and build up the solder well. When the bearings are located. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. The shaft of the armature. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. soldered into place. 4.

as shown in Fig. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. When annealed. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. and held with a setscrew. 9. Procure 12 strips of mica. deep and 7/16 in. thick and 1/4 in. wide. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. brass rod. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. inside diameter. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. being formed for the ends. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 1/8 in. 5. thick. sheet fiber. as shown in Fig. 3/4 in.. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. 3. After they . in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. thick are cut like the pattern. as shown in Fig. thick. by 1-1/2 in. After the pieces are cut out. and then they are soaked in warm water. 6. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. 7. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. as shown in Fig. Rivet them together. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. 6. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. hole and tap it for a pin. The sides are also faced off and finished. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. as shown m Fig. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing. wide. thick. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. 8. 3. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. holes through them for rivets. washers. then drill a 1/8-in. 1-1/8 in. Make the core 3/4 in.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. 3/4 in. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. When this is accomplished. to allow for finishing to size. as shown in Fig. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. Find the centers of each segment at one end. Armature-Ring Core. threaded. The pins are made of brass. or segments.

The two ends are joined at B. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. shown at A. they are glued to the core insulation. In starting to wind. 8 in. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. 6 in. Run one end of the field wire.have dried. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. and bring the end of the wire out at B. yet it shows a series of . wide and 1 in. but a resistance must be placed in series with it. When the glue is set. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. 1. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. sheet fiber. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. of No. After one coil. All connections should be securely soldered. of the end to protrude. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. until the 12 slots are filled. thick. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. The source of current is connected to the terminals. shown at B. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. 1. The winding is started at A. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. the two ends of the wire. Fig. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. 5. which will take 50 ft. by bending the end around one of the projections. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. long. after the motor is on the stand. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. sheet fiber. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. Connect a wire from the other brush stud. To connect the wires. about 100 ft. or side. Fig. The field is wound with No. and wind on four layers. are soldered together. being required. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. of the wire. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. This winding is for a series motor.

If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. Nine wires run from the timer. one from each of the eight contacts. and one. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. A 1/2-in. as in the case of a spiral. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. still more simply. or. which serves as the ground wire. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. is fastened to the metallic body.

Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. 6 in. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. thus giving 16 different directions. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. circle. Without this attachment. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. of the dial. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. board. long. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill.The Wind Vane. It should be . The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. 45 deg. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. Covering these is a thin.

secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. though a special knife. and securely nail on the top of the box. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. called a chip carving knife. 14 by 18 in." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. is most satisfactory. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. Place the leather on some level. To make it. -Contributed by James L. will be enough for the two sides. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. or. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. N. long to give the best results. Y. Blackmer. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. Fill the box with any handy ballast. also a piece of new carpet. . high. Before tacking the fourth side. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. will be sufficient. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side.about 6 ft. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. will answer the purpose just as well. thus making a universal joint. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. Buffalo. according to who is going to use it. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. To work these outlines. Cut 3-in. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. if not too high. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. however. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. making it heavy or light. and about 6 in. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies.

being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. An ordinary sewing-machine .Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. Paste the silk plush to the inner side. A good leather paste will be required.

It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. can be thrown away when no longer needed. of common salt and 10 lb. a needle and some feathers. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. Y. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. rather than the smooth side. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. If a fire breaks out. square and tying a piece of . of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. or a hip that has been wrenched. Syracuse.will do if a good stout needle is used. Morse. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. --Contributed by Katharine D. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. and tie them together securely at the bottom. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. away from it. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. B. of water. N. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. and fasten the feathers inside of it. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. temporary lameness.

Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in.. A. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. deep. --Contributed by J. wide and 1/16 in. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast.J. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. long. The strings should be about 15 in. made up of four layers of No. The diaphragm C. E. and the receiver is ready for use. F. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. Y. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. is cut on the wood. . thus helping the rats to enter. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail. as shown. N. One end is removed entirely. B. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. A small wooden or fiber end. the corners being wired. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. Hellwig. Albany. laying poisoned meat and meal. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. Paterson. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. setting traps. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. and a coil of wire. board all around the bottom on the inside. 1/8 in. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. commonly called tintype tin. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. long. The body of the receiver. Wis. The coil is 1 in. N. letting it go at arm's length. This not only keeps the rats out. high.string to each corner. G. wound on the head end. Gordon Dempsey. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume. --Contributed by John A. and tacked it to the boards. cut to the length of the spool. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown. which is the essential part of the instrument. etc. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. but not sharp. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. Ashland. The end is filed to an edge. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. There is a 1-in.

bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. Take a pair of round-nose pliers.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. wide. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. a piece of small wire. gold. better still. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. Take a piece of string or. A single line will be sufficient. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. begin with the smallest scrolls. and bend each strip in shape. The vase is to have three supports. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. To clean small articles. to . This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll.

Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. 3-1/2 in. from the lines EF on the piece. About 1 in. using a duller point of the tool.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. 4-1/4 in. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. through which to slip the fly AGH. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. thus raising it. from C to D. . sharp pencil. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water.which the supports are fastened with rivets. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Fold the leather on the line EF. as shown in the sketch. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. Trace also the line around the purse. Press or model down the leather all around the design. from E to F. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. and does not require coloring. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard. After taking off the pattern. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily.. 3-1/4 in. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. 6-3/8 in. wide when stitching up the purse. Work down the outside line of the design. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather..

deep. and cut out a wheel. Fit this to the two . and. place it on one of the square pieces of wood. thick. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. all the way around. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. Now take another piece of wood. with the largest side down. Cut off six pieces 12 in. being cast in wooden molds. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. with the open side down. by 12 ft. 3. When it is finished. and the projections B. Then nail the wheel down firmly. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. b. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. with pins or small nails. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. 1 was cut. and a model for speed and power. around the wheel. 1/2 in. and which will be very interesting. long. leaving the lug a. square. It can be made without the use of a lathe. 1. and tack the other piece slightly. as shown in Fig. then place the square piece out of which Fig. with a compass saw. It is neat and efficient. and cut it out as shown in Fig. First. 2. then nail it. following the dotted lines. deep. as well as useful. the "open" side. Make the lug 1/4 in. This also should be slightly beveled. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make.

and bore six 1/4-in. Take the mold apart. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. place it between two of the 12-in. as shown by the black dots in Fig. deep. square pieces of wood.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. Now put mold No. 1. then bolt it together. and clean all the shavings out of it. bolts. as shown by the . Now take another of the 12-in. holes through it. and cut it out as shown in Fig. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. and boring a 3/8-in. slightly beveled. in the center of it. hole 1/4 in.pieces just finished. square pieces of wood. hole bored through its center. and lay it away to dry. hole entirely through at the same place. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part. one of which should have a 3/8-in. 4. After it is finished.

and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. drill in it. and drill them in the same manner. Now take mold No. Now cut out one of the 12-in. and lay it away to dry. until it is full. and two 1/4-in. and connect to the boiler. and drill it entirely through. from the one end. screw down. holes. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and 3/8-in. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. long. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft.2. and pouring metal in to fill it up. holes at d. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. where the casting did not fill out. fasten a 3/8-in. instead of the right-handed piece. and the other in the base. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Commencing 1-1/2 in. see that the bolts are all tight. in diameter must now be obtained. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. 6. This is the same as Fig. Fig. A piece of mild steel 5 in. 4. and bore three 1/4-in.1. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. true it up with a square. as shown in illustration. and the exhaust hole in projection b. wide and 16 in. long.1. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. B. b. one in the projections. 6. take an ordinary brace. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. over the defective part.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. lay it on a level place. 5. d. put the top of the brace through this hole. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. place the entire machine in a vise.2. Using the Brace . and pour babbitt metal into it. and run in babbitt metal again. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press. the other right-handed. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. Then bolt the castings together. This is for a shaft. one in the lug. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. so that it will turn easily. only the one is left-handed. After it is fitted in. This will cast a paddle-wheel. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. Let it stand for half an hour. 1.black dots in Fig. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. Put this together in mold No. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. place it under the drill. Pour metal into mold No. This is mold No.

Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Plan of Ice Boat . If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it.. turn the wheel to the shape desired. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. and the pleasure many times repays the effort.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. and the other 8 ft. long. while it is running at full speed. piece and at right angles to it. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. with a boss and a set screw. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. one 6 ft. and. Then take a knife or a chisel. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. will do good service. At each end of the 6ft. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. and if instructions have been carefully followed. and with three small screw holes around the edge.

in diameter in the center. piece and at right angles to it. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. Make your runners as long as possible. The tiller. in diameter at the base. boards to make the platform. long and 2-1/2 in. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. so much the better will be your boat. leaving 1 ft. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. This apparatus was placed on the floor of the warehouse where it was plainly visible from a window in the shop where we worked and a wire was run from the pan and . Electric Rat Exterminator [358] Some time ago we were troubled by numerous large rats around the shop. long. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. Figure 2 shows the rudder post.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. 2 by 3 in. tapering to 1-1/2 in. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. should be of hardwood. bolt the 8-ft. Over the middle of the 6-ft. and in order to carry out his plan he picked up an old zinc floor plate that had been used under a stove and mounted a wooden disk 6 in. projecting as in Fig. at the end. and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. 3. The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. 8 a reef point knot. Fig. at the top. 1. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. Fig. plank nail 8-in. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc plate and the tin pan. long. in front of the rudder block. plank. 1. and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you. as the runners were fastened. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. This fits in the square hole. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. where they often did considerable damage. at the butt and 1 in. The spar should be 9 ft. distant. which may come in handy in heavy winds. in diameter. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. Run the seam on a machine. in the top before the skate is put on. and about 8 in. put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners. On this disk he placed a small tin pan about 6 in. One of the boys thought he would try a plan of electrical extermination. To the under side of the 8-ft.

but one that will afford any amount of amusement. that an electrical connection would be made through the body of the rat. The . S S. Comstock. Pa. for after a week the rats all departed and the boys all regretted that their fun was at an end. and place it behind a stove. connect the device in circuit with an electric bell. block of wood nailed to A. small piece of wood. two pieces of sheet brass about 1/4 in. so that they come in contact at C. to block B. and the alarm bell will ring. binding-posts fastening the springs S S.another from the zinc plate through the intervening yard and into the shop. in the air and let out a terrific squeak. Its parts are as follows: A. --Contributed by J. To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359] This is a very simple device. It is quite evident that when a rat put its two fore feet on the edge of the pan in order to eat the mush which it contained. P. R. wide. A good sized induction coil was through connected with these wires and about six dry batteries were used to run the induction coil whenever a push button was manipulated. and when we pushed the button up in the shop the rat would be thrown 2 or 3 ft. When these parts have been put together in the manner described. Simple Fire Alarm When the stove becomes too hot the wax will melt at the ends. P. Adams. B. Electric Rat Trap How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359] A fire alarm which is both inexpensive and simple in construction is shown in the illustration. The arrangement proved quite too effective. --Contributed by John D. allowing the springs to contact at C. Phoenix. Mechanicsburg. Ariz. W is a piece of wax crayon just long enough to break the contact at C when inserted as shown in the illustration. bent into a hook at each end.

and drill a hole in the center so the shaft for the hands will easily pass through and extend out far enough to replace the two hands. and the pole works in the wheel as an axle. A passenger rides in each seat and the motorman takes his station at the middle. Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360] An inexpensive and easy way to make an unique ornament of a clock The Clock with Holder for kitchen use is to take an old alarm clock or a new one if preferred. The seat arms may be any length desired. high. An old wheel is mounted at the top of the pole. 1.center post rests in an auger hole bored in an old stump or in a post set in the ground. dial and works out of the shell and cut some pieces out of the metal so that when the pieces left are turned back it will have the appearance as in Fig. The center pole should be 10 ft. says the American Boy. in diameter. Gild th