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The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

The Boy Mechanic Vol 1

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Publicado porTimmot

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Published by: Timmot on Jul 18, 2011
Direitos Autorais:Attribution Non-commercial


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  • A Model Steam Engine [1]
  • Magic Spirit Hand [2]
  • Homemade Life Preserver [4]
  • How to Make Boomerangs [4]
  • How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. WALSH
  • Secret Door Lock [6]
  • Magic-Box Escape [7]
  • A Flour Sifter [7]
  • A Funnel [7]
  • Boring Holes in Cork [8]
  • Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9]
  • A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9]
  • Homemade Snowshoes [9]
  • Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10]
  • Homemade Floor Polisher [10]
  • Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10]
  • Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11]
  • Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11]
  • Homemade Scroll Saw [11]
  • How to Make a Watch Fob [12]
  • Pockets for Spools of Thread [13]
  • Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13]
  • A Baking Pan [13]
  • A Broom Holder [13]
  • A Darkroom Lantern [14]
  • Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14]
  • A Clothes Rack [14]
  • Homemade Shower Bath [15]
  • How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15]
  • Pot-Cover Closet [16]
  • Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16]
  • Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16]
  • An Ironing-Board Stand [17]
  • A Desk Blotting Pad [17]
  • Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17]
  • Removing Tarnish [17]
  • Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18]
  • Piercing-Punch for Brass [19]
  • Kitchen Chopping Board [19]
  • Carrying Mattresses [19]
  • A Carpenter's Gauge [19]
  • A Flatiron Rest [19]
  • Use for Paper Bags [19]
  • Use Chalk on Files [19]
  • A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. WARNECKE
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [21]
  • Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21]
  • Homemade Work Basket [22]
  • A Window Display [22]
  • How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23]
  • An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23]
  • Concrete Kennel [23]
  • Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24]
  • Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24]
  • Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24]
  • New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25]
  • Filtering with a Small Funnel [25]
  • A Postcard Rack [25]
  • Substitute Shoe Horn [25]
  • Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26]
  • The Versatile Querl [28]
  • An Emergency Soldering Tool [28]
  • Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29]
  • A Cherry Seeder [29]
  • A Dovetail Joint [29]
  • Rustic Window Boxes [30]
  • Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30]
  • Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F. THOLL
  • Glass-Cleaning Solution [31]
  • Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32]
  • Polishing Cloths for Silver [32]
  • A Book-Holder [32]
  • Clamping a Cork [33]
  • Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33]
  • Emergency Tire Repair [33]
  • Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33]
  • Flower-Pot Stand [33]
  • A Line Harmonograph [34]
  • Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35]
  • Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36]
  • Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36]
  • Cutting Loaf Bread [36]
  • How to Make an Electric Toaster [37]
  • Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37]
  • Uncurling Photographs [38]
  • Soldering for the Amateur [38]
  • Washboard Holder [39]
  • A Mission Bracket Shelf [39]
  • How to Make a Finger Ring [39]
  • Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41]
  • Removing Plaster from Skin [41]
  • How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42]
  • How to Make a Cannon [42]
  • Controller for a Small Motor [42]
  • How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43]
  • How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A. BOETTE
  • Burning Inscriptions on Trees
  • How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46]
  • How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46]
  • Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47]
  • A Cheap Fire Alarm [47]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [49]
  • How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50]
  • Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50]
  • How to Make an Interrupter [51]
  • A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52]
  • Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53]
  • To Explode Powder with Electricity [53]
  • Simple Wireless System [54]
  • Stop Crawling Water Colors [54]
  • Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54]
  • Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55]
  • A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55]
  • How to Bind Magazines [56]
  • A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57]
  • Homemade Annunciator [57]
  • How to Make a Box Kite [58]
  • Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58]
  • Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59]
  • How to Make a Thermo Battery [59]
  • How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59]
  • Simple Electric Lock [60]
  • Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60]
  • A Handy Ice Chisel [61]
  • More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61]
  • Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61]
  • Homemade Pottery Kiln [62]
  • How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63]
  • Mechanical Trick With Cards [63]
  • How to Make a Rain Gauge [64]
  • How to Make an Aquarium [64]
  • Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65]
  • A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. PAUL S. WINTER
  • How to Make Silhouettes [68]
  • How to Make a Galvanoscope [68]
  • Lubricating Sheet Metal [69]
  • An Optical Top [69]
  • Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70]
  • A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70]
  • Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71]
  • How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71]
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [71]
  • How to Build a Grape Arbor [73]
  • How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73]
  • Writing with Electricity [74]
  • To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74]
  • A Musical Windmill [74]
  • Optical Illusions [74]
  • Barrel-Stave Hammock [75]
  • A Singing Telephone [75]
  • A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. W. DAVIS
  • How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76]
  • How to Make a Music Cabinet [77]
  • Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77]
  • One-Wire Telegraph Line [78]
  • How to Make a Water Rheostat [78]
  • Electric Door-Opener [78]
  • How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79]
  • Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79]
  • Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79]
  • A Battery Rheostat [80]
  • Automatic Time Switch [80]
  • How to Make a Fire Screen [82]
  • Trap for Small Animals [82]
  • Homemade Grenet Battery [83]
  • Door-Opener for Furnace [83]
  • How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84]
  • Beeswax for Wood Filler [85]
  • How to Make a Lathe [86]
  • To Use Old Battery Zincs [87]
  • Callers' Approach Alarm [87]
  • Easy Method of Electroplating [88]
  • An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89]
  • Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. H. CLAUDY
  • Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92]
  • How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92]
  • Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93]
  • A Simple Accelerometer [93]
  • An Egg-Shell Funnel [93]
  • Handy Electric Alarm [94]
  • To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94]
  • How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94]
  • Relay Made from Electric Bell [94]
  • Foundry Work at Home [95]
  • Battery Switch [99]
  • An Optical Illusion [99]
  • New Method of Lifting a Table [99]
  • How to Make a Paddle Boat [100]
  • Peculiar Properties of Ice [100]
  • Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101]
  • Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101]
  • Spit Turned by Water Power [102]
  • A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102]
  • Automatic Draft-Opener [102]
  • A Window Conservatory [103]
  • Miniature Electric Lighting [104]
  • How to Make a New Language [105]
  • How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105]
  • Reversing a Small Motor [105]
  • To Drive Away Dogs [106]
  • An Automatic Lock [106]
  • Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106]
  • Simple Current Reverser [107]
  • Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107]
  • How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107]
  • How to Make a Telescope [108]
  • How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110]
  • Another Electric Lock [110]
  • How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110]
  • Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111]
  • Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111]
  • A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111]
  • Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111]
  • Novel Mousetrap [112]
  • Polishing Nickel [112]
  • Homemade Arc Light [112]
  • Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112]
  • How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113]
  • Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114]
  • To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115]
  • Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115]
  • Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115]
  • A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116]
  • Effects of Radium [116]
  • Naval Speed Record [116]
  • How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117]
  • Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117]
  • How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Goddard Jorgensen
  • How to Clean a Clock [119]
  • How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120]
  • A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120]
  • Electric Lamp Experiments [120]
  • How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121]
  • To Preserve Putty [121]
  • How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121]
  • Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122]
  • How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122]
  • A Home-Made Punt [123]
  • Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123]
  • Heat and Expansion [124]
  • How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. Bell
  • Carbolic Acid Burns [126]
  • How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126]
  • How to Make Lantern Slides [127]
  • How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129]
  • Beeswax Substitute [129]
  • An Optical Illusion [130]
  • Home-Made Micrometer [130]
  • Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131]
  • Removing Ink Stains [131]
  • Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131]
  • How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131]
  • Home-Made Arc Lamp [132]
  • Irrigation [132]
  • How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133]
  • Tying a Knot for Footballs [133]
  • Stove polish [133]
  • How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133]
  • How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134]
  • Replace Dry Putty [136]
  • Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137]
  • A Telephone Experiment [137]
  • Wax Wood Screws [137]
  • How to Make an Induction Coil [138]
  • Home-Made Toaster [139]
  • Home-Made Shocking Machine [139]
  • Mahogany Wood Putty [139]
  • How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin
  • How to Make a Hygrometer [140]
  • Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140]
  • How to Make a Mission Library Table [141]
  • A Hanger for Trousers [143]
  • How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143]
  • Homemade Shoe Rack [146]
  • How to Waterproof Canvas [146]
  • Building a House in a Tree Top [146]
  • How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147]
  • Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149]
  • Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149]
  • Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149]
  • Lock Lubricant [151]
  • Rust Proofing Bolts [151]
  • Painting Yellow Pine [151]
  • Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152]
  • A Fish Bait [152]
  • Homemade Air Thermometer [152]
  • Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153]
  • Loosening Rusted Nuts [155]
  • How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156]
  • Home-Made Kite Reel [156]
  • How to Make Skating Shoes [158]
  • How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158]
  • How to Make an Atomizer [158]
  • How to Make a Miniature Stage [159]
  • A Floating Compass Needle [160]
  • Home-Made Dog Cart [160]
  • How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160]
  • Uses of Peat [161]
  • Home-Made Lantern [163]
  • Tin Can Lantern
  • How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165]
  • Old-Time Magic [167]
  • Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167]
  • How to Make a Simple Still [170]
  • Homemade Mariner's Compass [170]
  • Brighten White Paint [170]
  • How to Make a Glider [171]
  • Boys Representing the Centaur [173]
  • Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173]
  • Photographing the New Moon [174]
  • How to Make a Static Machine [177]
  • A Concrete Swimming Pool [178]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179]
  • Optical Illusions [183]
  • How to Make a Copper Bowl [185]
  • Cleaning Furniture [185]
  • Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185]
  • Gold Railroad Signals [189]
  • How to Make a Bell Tent [190]
  • Simple X-Ray Experiment [190]
  • How to Make a Candle Shade [191]
  • A Putty Grinder [191]
  • Home-Made Small Churn [192]
  • Home-Made Round Swing [192]
  • The Disappearing Coin [193]
  • How to Keep Film Negatives [194]
  • Home-Made Match Safe [194]
  • An Electric Post Card Projector [195]
  • A Handy Calendar [196]
  • The Fuming of Oak [196]
  • How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197]
  • The Rolling Marble [197]
  • A Gas Cannon [197]
  • Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198]
  • The Magic Knot [198]
  • A Good Mouse Trap [198]
  • Finishing Aluminum [198]
  • How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199]
  • A Home-Made Hand Vise [201]
  • Proper Design for a Bird House [201]
  • Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202]
  • How to Make Water Wings [202]
  • How to Make an Ammeter [203]
  • How to Make an Equatorial [204]
  • Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205]
  • How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206]
  • One Way to Cook Fish [206]
  • Hardening Copper [206]
  • Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206]
  • Homemade Gasoline Engine [206]
  • Dripping Carburetor [208]
  • A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209]
  • How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210]
  • Home-Made Vise [211]
  • Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212]
  • Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212]
  • How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213]
  • Removing Wire Insulation [213]
  • A Small Electric Motor [214]
  • Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214]
  • Improving Phonograph Sound [214]
  • How to Make Paper Balloons [215]
  • A Simple Steamboat Model [216]
  • To Remove Grease from Machinery [216]
  • Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217]
  • Aligning Automobile Headlights [217]
  • Telescope Stand and Holder [218]
  • How to Make an Electrical Horn [218]
  • Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219]
  • Home-Made Aquarium [219]
  • Protect Your Lathe [219]
  • Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220]
  • How to Make a Developing Box [220]
  • Staining Wood [221]
  • Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221]
  • How to Make a Camp Stool [222]
  • A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222]
  • Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223]
  • Drill Lubricant [223]
  • New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224]
  • Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224]
  • How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224]
  • How to Make a Portfolio [225]
  • Gear for Model Work [225]
  • A Home-Made Vise [226]
  • Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226]
  • A Workbench for the Amateur [226]
  • Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228]
  • How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228]
  • Waterproofing a Wall [229]
  • Polishing Flat Surfaces [229]
  • Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229]
  • Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229]
  • Drier for Footwear [229]
  • Repairing A Roller Shade [229]
  • A Shot Scoop [230]
  • Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230]
  • Tightening Cane in Furniture [230]
  • Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230]
  • Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231]
  • Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231]
  • Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231]
  • How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231]
  • Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232]
  • Holding a Loose Screw [233]
  • A Checker Board Puzzle [233]
  • A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233]
  • Old-Time Magic - Changing a Button into a Coin [234]
  • Buttonhole Trick [234]
  • How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234]
  • A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236]
  • Radiator Water [236]
  • Springboard for Swimmers [237]
  • Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237]
  • Brass Frame in Repoussé [237]
  • Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238]
  • Illusion for Window Attraction [239]
  • Cleaner for White Shoes [239]
  • Crossing Belt Laces [239]
  • How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240]
  • A Home-Made Duplicator [240]
  • Paper-Clip Bookmark [241]
  • Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242]
  • How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243]
  • Cheap Nails are Expensive [244]
  • Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245]
  • To Make an Electric Piano [247]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor - PART III [248]
  • Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250]
  • How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250]
  • Old-Time Magic - A Sack Trick [251]
  • Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251]
  • A Handy Drill Gauge [252]
  • Stove Polish [252]
  • A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252]
  • A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark
  • A Ground Glass Substitute [255]
  • A Miniature War Dance [255]
  • Saving an Engine [255]
  • OLD-TIME MAGIC [256]
  • Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256]
  • Water-Color Box [257]
  • Saving Ink Pens [257]
  • A Plant-Food Percolator [258]
  • Lathe Safety [258]
  • Folding Quilting-Frames [258]
  • A Drip Shield for the Arms [258]
  • How to Cane Chairs [259]
  • Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260]
  • How to Lay Out a Sundial [261]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263]
  • An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264]
  • How to Make Japanese Portieres [265]
  • Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266]
  • New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266]
  • Gauntlets on Gloves [266]
  • How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266]
  • An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267]
  • Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267]
  • Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267]
  • Home-Made Electric Clock [268]
  • Method of Joining Boards [268]
  • Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269]
  • Photographic Developing Tray [269]
  • Iron Putty [269]
  • Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270]
  • An Aid in Sketching [270]
  • How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270]
  • How to Repair Linoleum [273]
  • How to Make an Electric Stove [273]
  • Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275]
  • A Temporary Funnel [275]
  • An Electric Engine [276]
  • Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276]
  • Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277]
  • Location of a Gas Meter [277]
  • How to Make Rope Grills [277]
  • Cutting Tools [278]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279]
  • Home-Made Hand Vise [280]
  • Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281]
  • Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281]
  • Home-Made Candle Holder [281]
  • How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282]
  • Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283]
  • Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283]
  • Homemade Telegraph Key [283]
  • Protecting Sleeves [283]
  • Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284]
  • A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284]
  • Sad Iron Polisher [286]
  • Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287]
  • Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287]
  • Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287]
  • Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288]
  • Instantaneous Crystallization [288]
  • Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288]
  • How to Preserve Egg Shells [288]
  • Homemade Phonograph [289]
  • A Substitute for a Compass [289]
  • A Novel Rat Trap [290]
  • A Jelly-Making Stand [290]
  • How to Make an Egg-Beater [291]
  • Cart Without an Axle [291]
  • An Illuminated Target [291]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [291]
  • Feed Box for Chickens [292]
  • A Book Rest [292]
  • Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292]
  • Magnet for the Work Basket [292]
  • Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293]
  • Killing Mice and Rats [293]
  • Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293]
  • Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293]
  • A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294]
  • Imitating Ground Glass [294]
  • Draw before Cutting [294]
  • Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295]
  • Sizing a Threaded Hole [295]
  • Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295]
  • A Revolving Teeter Board [297]
  • Home-Made Pot Covers [297]
  • Electrostatic Illumination [299]
  • Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. W. Nieman
  • A Cork Extractor [300]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301]
  • Combined Ladle and Strainer [302]
  • Cleaning Gloves [302]
  • Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302]
  • Center of Gravity Experiment [302]
  • Lathe Accuracy [302]
  • An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303]
  • Spoon Rest for Kettles [304]
  • Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304]
  • Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305]
  • Emergency Magnifying Glass [305]
  • Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305]
  • To Clean Silver [305]
  • Sharpening Skates with a File [306
  • Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306]
  • Insulating Aluminum Wire [306]
  • How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310]
  • Measure [310]
  • Home-Made Water Motor [311]
  • Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312]
  • How to Mail Photographs [312]
  • A Mystifying Watch Trick [313]
  • Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314]
  • Testing Small Electric Lamps [314]
  • How to Make a Pin Ball [314]
  • Cleaning Woodwork [315]
  • Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315]
  • Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315]
  • Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315]
  • Substitute for Gummed Paper [315]
  • Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316]
  • Calls While You Are Out [316]
  • A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316]
  • Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317]
  • Support for Double Clotheslines [318]
  • Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318]
  • Venting a Funnel [318]
  • Lubricating Woodscrews [318]
  • To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319]
  • Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319]
  • Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319]
  • Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319]
  • Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320]
  • Removing Mold [320]
  • To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323]
  • A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324]
  • How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324]
  • How to Make a Sconce [325]
  • A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328]
  • A Quickly Made Lamp [329]
  • How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329]
  • Bronze Liquid [329]
  • A Wrestling Mat [330]
  • A Pocket Voltammeter [330]
  • The Diving Bottle [331]
  • How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332]
  • Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332]
  • How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333]
  • How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334]
  • How to Make a Water Bicycle [335]
  • Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337]
  • How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337]
  • Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338]
  • Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338]
  • How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339]
  • A Home-Made Vise [340]
  • Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340]
  • Runny Paint [340]
  • Camps and How to Build Them [341]
  • Brooder for Small Chicks [343]
  • Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343]
  • Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344]
  • Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344]
  • Cleaning Discolored Silver [344]
  • How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. A. ROBERTSON
  • Protecting Tinware [347]
  • Another Optical Illusion [348]
  • Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348]
  • Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348]
  • A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350]
  • How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350]
  • Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351]
  • Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352]
  • Toy Darts and Parachutes [352]
  • A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352]
  • Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352]
  • Homemade Telephone Receiver [353]
  • How to Clean Jewelry [353]
  • Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353]
  • How to Make a Coin Purse [354]
  • Window Anti-Frost Solution [354]
  • How to Make a Turbine Engine [355]
  • Painting A Car [357]
  • How To Build An Ice Boat [357]
  • Electric Rat Exterminator [358]
  • How to Make a Simple Fire Alarm [359]
  • To Build a Merry-Go-Round [359]
  • Arbor Wheels [359]
  • Novelty Clock for the Kitchen [360]
  • How to Make a Small Silver Plating Outfit [360]
  • Removing a Tight-Fitting Ring from a Finger [361]
  • A Photographic Jig-Saw Puzzle [361]
  • Rolling Uphill Illusion [361]
  • Annealing Chisel Steel [362]
  • How to Make a Post Card Holder [363]
  • Unused Paint [363]
  • Perfume-Making Outfit [363]
  • Home-Made Duplicator for Box Cameras [363]
  • Optical Illusions [364]
  • Use of Kerosene in Polishing Metals [364]
  • How to Make Lamps Burn Brightly [364]
  • A Practical Camera for Fifty Cents [365] By C. H. Claudy
  • Use for an Old Clock [367]
  • Renewing Dry Batteries [367]
  • Saving a Brush [367]
  • How to Make a Simple Burglar Alarm [368]
  • Right Handed Engine [368]
  • Home-Made Crutch [369]
  • Home-Made Necktie Holder [369]
  • How to Make a Trousers Hanger [369]
  • Easy Designs in Ornamental Iron Work [370]
  • How To Build An Imitation Street Car Line [374]
  • Clean Before Painting [375]
  • Varnish for Electric Terminals [375]
  • White Putty to Black [376]
  • Using Sandpaper [376]
  • An Interesting Electrical Experiment [377]
  • Novelty Chain Made from a Match [377]
  • Keeping Doors Closed [377]
  • Restoring Broken Negatives [377]
  • Coin and Tumbler Trick [378]
  • Another Way to Renew Dry Batteries [378]
  • Simply Made Wire Puzzle [378]
  • Pronunciation [378]
  • Repairing Box Cameras [379]
  • A Fishhook Box [379]
  • A Tin Drinking Cup for the Camp [379]
  • A Bookmark [379]
  • Kitchen Knife Sharpener [379]
  • Devices of Winter Sports-How to Make and Use Them [380]
  • "Jumping-Jack" Fisherman [380]
  • Merry-Go-Round Whirl on Ice [380]
  • The Running Sleigh [381]
  • The Winged Skater [381]
  • Coasters and Chair Sleighs [383]
  • Folding Chair Sleigh [384]
  • The Toboggan Sled [384]
  • The Norwegian Ski. [384]
  • Home-Made Settee [385]
  • Enameling a Bicycle Frame [385]
  • How to Make a Sewing Bag [386]
  • Home-Made Roller Skates [386]
  • Adjuster for Flexible Electric Wires [386]
  • Making Photographs on Watch Dials [386]
  • Home-Made Overhead Trolley Coaster [387]
  • How to Make an Electric Furnace Regulator [388]
  • Weatherproofing for Tents [389]
  • Sawing Sheet Metal [389]
  • A Monoplane Weather Vane [390]
  • How to Make a Minnow Trap [390]
  • A Remedy for Leaking Fountain Pens [390]
  • Kites of Many Kinds and How to Make Them [391]
  • How to Make Rubber Stamps [393]
  • To Light a Gaslight Without Matches [394]
  • How To Make a Trap For Rabbits, Rats and Mice [395]
  • Novel Electric Motor [395]
  • How to Print Photographs on Silk [396]
  • Removing Old Paint [396]
  • A Window Lock [397]
  • Homemade Magnifying Glass [397]
  • Trailer for a Bicycle [397]
  • Home-Made Telephone Transmitter [398]
  • Quickly Made Lawn Tent [398]
  • How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes [399]
  • To Renew Old Dry Batteries [401]
  • Blue Dye[401]
  • Acetylene lamp [401]
  • Another Electric Motor [401]
  • How to Make a Propelling Vehicle [402]
  • Ringing a Bell by Touching a Gas Jet [403]
  • Lead Kills Knots [403]
  • How to Make a Wood Turning Lathe Out of an Old Sewing Machine [403]
  • Reversing Small Battery Motor [405]
  • Cleaning Bronze Bearings [405]
  • How to File Soft Metals [406]
  • To Make a Magazine Binder [406]
  • Temporary Spline [406]
  • A Library Set in Pyro-Carving [407] By HELEN WESTINGHOUSE
  • Cleaning Brass [407]
  • A Phoneidoscope [407]
  • A Home-Made Yankee Bobsled [408]
  • How to Make a Small Microscope [408]
  • Freezing Pipes [409]
  • How to Carry Books [409]
  • How to Make a Hammock [410]
  • How to Obtain Cheap Dry Batteries [410]
  • How to Make a Water Telescope [410]
  • Substitute for a Drill Bit [411]
  • Drying Films [412]
  • Grooved Pulley Made from Sheet Tin [412]
  • An Electrical Walking Stick [413]
  • Convenient Shelf Arrangement [413]
  • A Shoe Scraper [413]
  • Fastening a Shade to a Roller [413]
  • Vegetable Slicer [413]
  • How to Make an Etched Copper Picture Frame [414]
  • How to Make an Easel [415]
  • How to Make a Wind Propeller [415]
  • Replacing Ball Bearings [415]
  • How to Construct an Annunciator [416]
  • How to Make a Steam Calliope [418]
  • Sharpening Scissors [419]
  • Counter Brush for a Shop [419]
  • A Curtain Roller [419]
  • Shade-Holder Bracket for a Gas Jet [419]
  • To Longer Preserve Cut Flowers [419]
  • Glass Blowing and Forming [420]
  • Cadmium and Solder [421]
  • Telegraph Codes [422]
  • How to Make a Cruising Catamaran [423]
  • Alligator Photo Mounts [424]
  • How to Attach a Sail to a Bicycle [425]
  • Removing Iodine Stains [425]
  • Drying Photograph Prints without Curling [425]
  • Piercing Glass Plates with a Spark Coil [426]
  • A Home-Made Still [426]
  • Old-Time Magic Balancing Forks on a Pin Head [427]
  • The Buttoned Cord [427]
  • Experiment with an Incandescent Lamp [427]
  • How to Make a Small Motor [428]
  • Aluminum Polish [428]
  • Homemade Blowpipe [428]
  • Substitute Sink or Bathtub Stopper [429]
  • Safety Tips on Chair Rockers [429]
  • How to Make a Toy Flier [429]
  • How to Make an Ironing-Board Stand [429]
  • A Home-Made Electric Plug [430]
  • How to Make an Electric Fire Alarm [430]
  • Home-Made Boy's Car [430]
  • Photographs in Relief Easily Made [431]
  • Wireless Tip [431]
  • How to Make a Wireless Telephone [432]
  • Eyelets for Belts [432]
  • How to Make a Life Buoy [432]
  • A Home-Made Microscope [433]
  • A Novel Electric Time Alarm [433]
  • How to Make a Phonograph Record Cabinet [433]
  • Experiments with a Mirror [434]
  • Miniature Electric Lamps [434]
  • How to Make a Magazine Clamp [435]
  • Pewter Finish for Brass [435]
  • Drowning a Dog's Bark with Water [435]
  • Cost of Water [435]
  • How to Make a Wondergraph [436] By F. E. TUCK
  • Experiment with a Vacuum [439]
  • The Making of Freak Photographs [440]
  • Hand Car Made of Pipe and Fittings [440]
  • How to Make a Rustic Seat [441]
  • Heated Steering Wheel [441]
  • Homemade Workbench [442] By C. E. McKINNEY, Jr
  • Forming Coils to Make Flexible Wire Connections [443]
  • Photographing the North Star [443]
  • How to Relight a Match [444]
  • Home-Made Hand Drill [444]
  • How to Make a Stationary Windmill [445]
  • Electric Anesthesia [445]
  • A Simple Battery Rheostat [445]
  • A Frame for Drying Films [446]
  • A Home-Made Novelty Clock [446]
  • Fourth-of-July Catapult [447]
  • How to Make a Miniature Volcano [448]
  • Wire Loop Connections for Battery Binding-Posts [449]
  • Melting Metal in the Flame of a Match [449]
  • Russian Squirrels [449]
  • Landscape Drawing Made Easy [449]
  • Irrigating with Tomato Cans [450]
  • Fountain for an Ordinary Pen [450]
  • Homemade Mousetrap [450]
  • Clear Wax Impressions from Seals [450]
  • A Window Stick [450]
  • How to Make a Canoe [451]
  • Thorns Used as Needles on a Phonograph [453]
  • Tool Hangers [453]
  • Child's Footrest on an Ordinary Chair [453]
  • Drying Photo Postal Cards [453]
  • Preserving Key Forms [454]
  • Renewing Typewriter Ribbons [454]
  • Drinking Trough for Chickens [454]
  • Ordinary Pen Used as a Fountain Pen [454]
  • How to Construct a Small Thermostat [455] By R. A. McCLURE
  • A Tailless Kite [458]
  • The Levitation - A Modern Stage Trick [459]

Project Gutenberg's The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1, by Popular Mechanics This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere

at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: The Boy Mechanic: Volume 1 700 Things For Boys To Do Author: Popular Mechanics Release Date: June 18, 2004 [EBook #12655] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE BOY MECHANIC: VOLUME 1 ***

Produced by Don Kostuch

The Boy Mechanic Vol. 1 700 Things for Boys to Do 800 Illustrations Showing How

Jack Mansfield + Ed Jan 28, 1938 August 1916 From Mother


Transcriber’s Notes: This text accurately reproduces the original book except for adherence to Project Gutenburg guidelines. Each project title is followed by its original page number to allow use of the alphabetical contents (index) at the end of the book. The book used very complex typesetting to conserve space. This transcription uses simple one-column linear layout. The text only version is of limited use because of the widespread occurrence of diagrams and illustrations. Use the pdf version for the complete text. Many projects are of contemporary interest—magic, kites and boomerangs for example. Try a “Querl” for starters. There are many projects of purely historical interest, such as chemical photography, phonographs, and devices for coal furnaces. Another class of projects illustrate the caviler attitude toward environment and health in 1913. These projects involve items such as gunpowder, acetylene, hydrogen, lead, mercury, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, cadmium, potassium sulfate, potassium cyanide, potassium ferrocyanide, copper sulfate, and hydrochloric acid. Several involve the construction of hazardous electrical devices. Please view these as snapshots of culture and attitude, not as suggestions for contemporary activity. Be careful and have fun or simply read and enjoy a trip into yesterday.

Poster's Note: The PDF format of this e-book was generated from the RTF by OpenOffice. Any future revisions needed to the PDF can be made the same way.

How to Make a Glider (See page 171)







A Model Steam Engine [1] The accompanying sketch illustrates a two-cylinder single-acting, poppet valve steam engine of home construction. The entire engine, excepting the flywheel, shaft, valve cams, pistons and bracing rods connecting the upper and lower plates of the frame proper, is of brass, the other parts named being of cast iron and bar steel. The cylinders, G, are of seamless brass tubing, 1-1/2 in. outside diameter; the pistons, H, are ordinary 1-1/2 in. pipe caps turned to a plug fit, and ground into the cylinders with oil and emery. This operation also finishes the inside of the cylinders. The upright rods binding the top and bottom plates are of steel rod about 1/8-in. in diameter, threaded into the top plate and passing through holes in the bottom plate with hexagonal brass nuts beneath. The valves, C, and their seats, B, bored with a countersink bit, are plainly shown. The valves were made by threading a copper washer, 3/8 in. in diameter, and screwing it on the end of the valve rod, then wiping on roughly a tapered mass of solder and grinding it into the seats B with emery and oil. The valve rods operate in guides, D, made of 1/4-in. brass tubing, which passes through the top plate and into the heavy brass bar containing the valve seats and steam passages at the top, into which they are plug-fitted and soldered. The location and arrangement of the valve seats and steam passages are shown in the sketch, the flat bar containing them being soldered to the top plate. The steam chest, A, over the valve mechanism is constructed of 1-in.

Engine Details square brass tubing, one side being sawed out and the open ends fitted with pieces of 1/16 in. sheet brass and soldered in. The steam inlet is a gasoline pipe connection such as used on automobiles. The valve-operating cams, F, are made of the metal ends of an old typewriter platen, one being finished to shape and then firmly fastened face to face to the other, and used

as a pattern in filing the other to shape. Attachment to the shaft, N, is by means of setscrews which pass through the sleeves. The main bearings, M, on the supports, O, and the crank-end bearings of the connecting rods, K, are split and held in position by machine screws with provision for taking them up when worn. The exhausting of spent steam is accomplished by means of slots, I, sawed into the fronts of the cylinders at about 1/8 in. above the lowest position of the piston's top at the end of the stroke, at which position of the piston the valve rod drops into the cutout portion of the cam and allows the valve to seat. . All the work on this engine, save turning the pistons, which was done in a machine shop for a small sum, and making the flywheel, this being taken from an old dismantled model, was accomplished with a hacksaw, bench drill, carborundum wheel, files, taps and dies. The base, Q, is made of a heavy piece of brass. The action is smooth and the speed high. Steam is supplied by a sheet brass boiler of about 3 pt. capacity, heated with a Bunsen burner. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Magic Spirit Hand [2] The magic hand made of wax is given to the audience for examination, also a board which is suspended by four pieces of common picture-frame wire. The hand is placed upon the board and answers, by rapping, any question asked by members of the audience. The hand and the board may be examined at any time and yet the rapping can be continued, though surrounded by the audience. The Magic Wand, London, gives the secret of this spirit hand as follows: The hand is prepared by concealing in the wrist a few soft iron plates, the wrist being afterwards bound with black velvet as shown in Fig. 1. The board is hollow, the top being made of thin veneer (Fig. 2). A small magnet, A, is connected to a small flat pocket lamp battery, B. The board is suspended by four lengths of picture-frame wire one of which, E, is

Wax Hand on Board and Electrical Connections connected to the battery and another, D, to the magnet. The other wires, F and G, are only holding wires. All the wires are fastened - to a small ornamental switch, H, which is fitted with a connecting plug at the top. The plug can be taken out or put in as desired. The top of the board must be made to open or slide off so that when the battery is exhausted a new one can be installed. Everything must be firmly fixed to the board and the hollow space filled in with wax, which will make the board sound solid when tapped. In presenting the trick, the performer gives the hand and board with wires and switch for examination, keeping the plug concealed in his right hand. When receiving the board back, the plug is secretly pushed into the switch, which is held in the right hand. The hand is then placed on the board over the magnet. When the performer wishes the hand to move he pushes the plug in, which turns on the current and causes the magnet to attract the iron in the wrist, and will, therefore, make the hand rap. The switch can be made similar to an ordinary push button so the rapping may be easily controlled without detection by the audience. Making Skis and Toboggans [3]

During the winter months everyone is thinking of skating, coasting or ski running and jumping. Those too timid to run down a hill standing upright on skis must take their pleasure in coasting or skating. The ordinary ski can be made into a coasting ski-toboggan by joining two pairs together with bars without injury to their use for running and jumping. The ordinary factory-made skis cost from $2.50 per pair up, but any boy can make an excellent pair far 50 cents. In making a pair of skis, select two strips of Norway pine free from knots, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 7 or 8 ft. long. Try to procure as fine and straight a grain as possible. The pieces are dressed thin at both ends leaving about 1 ft. in the center the full thickness of 1 in., and gradually thinning to a scant 1/2 in. at the ends. One end of each piece is tapered to a point beginning 12 in. from the end. A groove is cut on the under side, about 1/4 in. wide and 1/8 in. deep, and running almost the full length of the ski. This will make it track straight and tends to prevent side slipping. The shape of each piece for a ski, as it appears before bending, is shown in Fig. 1. The pointed end of each piece is placed in boiling water for at least 1 hour, after which the pieces are ready for bending. The bend is made on an ordinary stepladder. The pointed ends are stuck under the back of one step and the other end securely tied to the ladder, as shown in Fig. 2. They should remain tied to the ladder 48 hours in a moderate temperature, after which they will hold their shape permanently. The two straps, Fig. 3, are nailed an a little forward of the center of gravity so that when the foot is lifted, the front

Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 – Forming the Skis of the ski will be raised. Tack on a piece of sheepskin or deer hide where the foot rests, Fig. 4. The best finish for skis is boiled linseed oil. After two or three

Fig. 4 – The Toe Straps applications the under side will take a polish like glass from the contact with the snow. The ski-toboggan is made by placing two pairs of skis together side by side

Fig. 5 – Ski-Toboggan and fastening them with two bars across the top. The bars are held with V-shaped metal clips as shown in Fig. 5. --Contributed by Frank Scobie, Sleepy Eye, Minn. Homemade Life Preserver [4] Procure an inner tube of a bicycle tire, the closed-end kind, and fold it in four alternate sections, as shown in Fig. 1. Cut or tear a piece of cloth into strips about 1/2 in. wide, and knot them together. Fasten this long strip of cloth to the folded tube and weave it alternately in and out, having each

as shown in Fig. They are sewed to the case at one end and fastened at the other with clasps such as used on overall straps.Fig. 1. with two pieces nailed on the sides as shown. Any worker in wood can turn out a great number of boomerangs cheaply. 2 -. Ontario.Inner Tube and Cover run of the cloth about 4 in. The finished preserver is shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. wide and 2 ft. apart. distant. away. Working in snow and ice opens a wide field for an expression of taste and invention. How to Make Boomerangs [4] When the ice is too thin for skating and the snow is not right for skis. The plank is well steamed in a wash boiler or other large kettle and then bent to a nice curve. 2. To throw a boomerang. remove the side pieces and cut it into sections with a saw. After the piece is thoroughly dried out. but the construction of houses and forts out of this plastic material provides . 1. It is held in this curve until dry. grasp it and hold the same as a club. at the same time holding the valve stem down with the teeth. with the hollow side away from you. Toronto. A piece of plank 12 in. 1. Fig. The tube can be easily inflated by blowing into the valve. How to Make an Eskimo Snow House [5] By GEORGE E. Noble. and in a short time the thrower will be able to hit the mark over 100 ft. WALSH Playing in the snow can be raised to a fine art if boys and girls will build their creations with some attempt at architectural skill and not content themselves with mere rough work. A boomerang club will help to fill in between and also furnishes good exercise for the muscles of the arm. The pieces are then dressed round. as shown in Fig. 2. about the only thing to do is to stay in the house. A boomerang can be made Bending and Cutting the Wood of a piece of well seasoned hickory plank. Make a case of canvas that will snugly fit the folded tube when inflated. E. until it is bound as shown in Fig. long will make six boomerangs. Practice first at some object about 25 ft. The straps that hold the preserver to the body may be made of old suspender straps.

Place the four sided box on a flat board and ram snow in it. First. minus the top. or rather no bottom at all. The Eskimos build their snow houses in this way. dry snow will not pack easily. These are self-supporting from the time the first snow blocks are put down until the last course is laid. and while there is a keystone at the top of the dome. there will be no trouble in packing and working with it. Laying the Snow Bricks Three-Room Snow House Each layer of snow blocks must have a slight slant at the top toward the center so that the walls will constantly curve inward. 6 in. As most of the blocks are to be of the same size throughout. blocks .the greatest amount of pleasure to the normally healthy boy or girl. but it makes an excellent playhouse in winter. the block will drop out. forcing it down closely. Then by lifting the box up and tapping the box from above. made of 6-in. The snow house is of the beehive shape and the ground plan is that of a circle. Then the door and a window are cut through the wall. While one boy makes the blocks another can shave them off at the edges and two others can build the house. and the man inside stays there until he is completely walled in. This slant at the top is obtained better by slicing off the lower surfaces of each block before putting it in its course. it is not essential to the support of the walls. A wall. The snow blocks are not exactly square in shape. Then a row of snow blocks is laid on the ground and another course of similar blocks placed on top. The first course of the snow house should be thicker than the others. the snow blocks must be packed and pressed firmly into position out of moist snow that will pack. according to size of the house and thickness of the walls. A very light. and it may be necessary to use a little water. which makes the building simpler and easier. The Eskimos build their snow houses without the aid of any scaffolding or interior false work. and with a movable bottom. If the snow is of the right consistency. In this way blocks of uniform size are formed. thick. The circle is first laid out on the ground and a space cleared for it. however. but about 12 in. The snow house of the Eskimo is probably the unhealthiest of buildings made by any savage to live in. and represents at the same time a most ingenious employment of the arch system in building. one inside of the circle and the other outside. it will pay to make a mold for them by forming a box of old boards nailed together. high and 4 or 5 in. long. and the thickness of the walls gradually decreases toward the top. Larger or smaller blocks can be used. The top will then have a uniform inward slant.

3 -. The piece D is fastened on the bolt an inch or two from the surface of the door to permit placing a spiral spring of medium strength in between as shown in Fig. temporary structure must be erected to hold the walls up until the keystone is fitted in position. The latch is lifted with a stick of wood B. The parts of the lock on the inside of the door are shown in Fig. A nail is driven through the outer end of the piece D and the end cut off so that it will pass over the piece B when the dial is turned. and the construction of the house will proceed rapidly. the nail will catch on the piece B and open the latch. The Eskimo does not have to consider these points. It requires no scaffolding in building and it exerts no outward thrust. A nail. A fact not well understood and appreciated is that the Eskimo beehive snow house represents true arch building. There is no outward thrust. and pivoted about two-thirds of the way from the top as shown. Secret Door Lock [6] The sketch shows the construction of a lock I have on a door which is quite a mystery to those who do not know how it operates. The Eskimos build additions to their houses by adding various domeshaped structures to one side. but with the snow blocks it is a simple matter. These parts can be covered so that no one can see them. 2. Fig. keeps the stick B from falling over to the left. Fig. 2. the opposite end being fastened to the combination dial. 1. Fig. is 6 or 8 in. Union. The opposite end of the bolt may be screwed into the dial. The ordinary latch and catch A are attached to the door in the usual manner. C. When the dial is pulled out slightly and then turned toward the right. long and attached to a bolt that runs through the door. The piece of wood. 1. and the base must be buttressed against an outward thrust. or an old safe dial will do. In the ordinary keystone arch used by builders. a. A Convenient Hot-Dish Holder [7] . wide. which is about 1 ft. --Contributed by Geo. If a higher house is needed the walls should be thicker at the base and well up toward the middle. if its top is no more than 6 or 7 ft. which can be made of wood. A little experience will enable one to do this work well. D. 3. It also keeps them out.throughout will hold up a snow house perfectly. Goodbrod. The builder has no mortar for binding the blocks together. above the ground. Ore.The Lock Parts The latch A is connected to the stick B with a strong cord run through a staple to secure a right-angle pull between the pieces. and therefore he must make his joints smooth and even and force in loose snow to fill up the crevices. and the young architect can imitate them. long and 1 in. It is doubtful whether such an arch could be built of brick or stone without scaffolding. Such domeshaped structures are shown in one of the illustrations. Two kinds of dials are shown in Fig. and the top keystone is not necessary to hold the structure up.

Magic-Box Escape [7] The things required to make this trick are a heavy packing box with cover. the cover of the box Box with Hinges and Lock must be cut as much short as the thickness of the end board. says the Sphinx. one in front of the stove directly above the place where the holder should hang. The hinges must be the kind for attaching inside of the box. I fastened a small ring to the other end to keep the cord from slipping back by the pull of the weight.When taking hot dishes from the stove. I next ran a strong cord through the two eyes. For this purpose I screwed two screw eyes into the ceiling. S. it is very convenient to have holders handy for use. New York. and the box placed in a cabinet or behind a screen. Both hinges are treated in this manner and the cover pushed up. The hinges should have pins that will slip easily through the parts. I then fastened two pieces of string to the ring at the end of the cord and attached an iron holder to the end of each string. If ordinary butts are used. the box locked . --Contributed by R. and as soon as the cover is closed and locked. Syracuse. he pushes the pin or bolt of the hinge out far enough to engage the knob end with the buttonhook which is used to pull the pin from the hinge. as the weight always draws them back to place. allowing the performer to get out and unlock the padlocks with a duplicate key. The cord is just long enough to let the weight hang a few inches above the floor and pass through both screw eyes. The bolts are replaced in the hinges. and the other back of the stove and out of the way. one or two hasps for as many padlocks and a small buttonhook. Merrill. To one end of the cord I attached a weight made of a clean lump of coal. one pair of special hinges. The strings should be just long enough to keep the holders just over the stove where they are always Holders in a Convenient Place ready for use. Before entering the box the performer conceals the buttonhook on his person.

1 part nitric acid and 1 part sulphuric acid. Place the piece in a vise. How to Make Comer Pieces for a Blotter Pad [8] To protect the corners of blotting pads such as will be found on almost every writing desk. smooth surface. remove it and clean off the asphaltum with turpentine. Make allowance for flaps on two sides. It must be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using as a funnel. To make a design similar to the one shown. 1. and bend the flap sharply to a right angle. as shown. If the measuring has been done properly. Alberta Norrell. and the other half of the design will be traced on the second side. as shown in Fig. on drawing paper. the can top will round up the flour and press it through quickly. Ga. The four pieces should be worked at the same time. It remains to bend the flaps. 2. It should be noted that the corners of the design are to be clipped slightly. one for each corner. All . then fold along the center line and rub the back of the paper with a knife handle or some other hard. cut out four pieces of copper or brass of No. Then cut out the outline and file the edges smooth. Leave a small margin all around the edge and then place some decorative form therein. If they do not. which may later be turned back and folded under when the metal is worked. Augusta. When the sieve is shaken. 3. -Contributed by L. the flaps Manner of Forming the Plates ought to meet snugly at the corner. about 1-32 of an inch. Use a stick with a rag tied on the end for this purpose so as to keep the solution off the hands and clothes. make a design of a size proportionate to the size of the pad and make a rightangled triangle. allowing each coat time to dry. Next place a piece of metal of a thickness equal to that of the blotter pad at the bend and with the mallet bring the flap down parallel to the face of the corner piece. When the metal has been etched to the desired depth. Cover the back and all the face except the white background. Immerse in a solution of 3 parts water. proceed as follows: First. A Flour Sifter [7] When sifting flour in an ordinary sieve I hasten the process and avoid the disagreeable necessity of keeping my hands in the flour by taking the top from a small tin lard can and placing it on top of the flour with its sharp edges down. 22 gauge and with carbon paper trace the shape and decorative design on the metal. Also note the slight overrun at the top with the resulting V-shaped indentation. A Funnel [7] An automobile horn with the bulb and reed detached makes a good funnel. draw one-half of it. Fig. With the metal shears. Cover the metal over with two coats of black asphaltum varnish. as shown in Fig. it may be necessary to bend them back and either remove some metal with the shears or to work the metal over farther.and the performer steps out in view.

Two of the holes are cut large enough to hold a short section of a garden hose tightly. The current. The tube B is adjusted so that the end of the carbon E is pressing against the carbon F. such as are used for enameling bathtubs. of No. The binding post is fastened to a wood plug in the end of the tube. In boring through rubber corks. a metal file and emery paper being used for this purpose. The hose insulation A should hold the carbon F rigidly. --Contributed by R. R. This expansion lowers the end of the carbon E. as shown at AA. Denver. from the back end. The common cork. The feed can be adjusted by sliding the carbon F through its insulation. used for insulation. When the current is turned off. which is about 6 in. heats the strip of German-silver wire. To keep the metal from tarnishing. separating the points of the two carbons and thus providing a space between them for the formation of an arc. C. a little household ammonia applied to the bit enables one to make a much smoother hole and one that is nearly the same size at both openings. causing it to expand. and this operation insures a hole that will he the desired size and remain the size of the punch or bit used. Galbreath. 25 German-silver wire. A piece of porcelain tube. should be in the line. smooth it off with pumice stone and water. After this has dried. and in the positions shown in the sketch. The electric wires are connected to the carbon F and the binding post D. Colo. 25 gauge German-silver wire. A resistance. The inner end of the carbon E is supported by a piece of No. the German-silver wire contracts and draws the two carbon ends together ready for lighting again. is fitted tightly in the third hole. while the carbon E should rest loosely in its insulation. If a touch of color is desired. about 6 in. A resistance for the arc may be made by running the current through a water rheostat or through 15 ft. H. and cut three holes in its side about 2 in. it may be had by filling the etched parts with enamel tinted by the addition of oil colors. This wire runs through the Arc in a Large Can porcelain tube to the binding post D. can be punctured easily and a hole can be bored straighter. in diameter. A Traveler's Shaving Mug [9] Take an ordinary collapsible drinking cup and place a cake of shaving soap in the . Boring Holes in Cork [8] The following hints will be found useful when boring holes in cork. Self-Lighting Arc Searchlight [9] A practical and easily constructed self-lighting arc searchlight can be made in the following manner: Procure a large can. long. if rolled under the shoe sole.the edges should be left smooth. in passing through the lamp. B. cover it with banana-oil lacquer. The boring is made easier by boiling the cork.

Fish Signal for Fishing through Ice [10] Watching a fish line set in a hole cut in the ice on a cold day is very disagreeable. The straps are used to attach the snowshoe to the regular shoe. When buckling up the straps be sure to leave them loose enough for the foot to work freely. .bottom ring. The "tip ups" and the "jumping jacks" serve their purpose nicely. Kansas City. Homemade Snowshoes [9] Secure four light barrel staves and sandpaper the outside smooth. 1. 3. Mo. This will provide a shaving mug always ready for the traveler and one that will occupy very little space in the grip. Purchase two long book straps. Fig. but a more elaborate device is the electric signal. --Contributed by David Brown. with thin strips of wood. between them as shown in Fig. 2. Nail the old Made from Barrel Staves shoe soles to crosspieces placed one-third of the way from one end as shown. leaving a space of 4 in. and the usual method is to Bell and Battery in a Box have some kind of a device to signal the fisherman when a fish is hooked. A complete electric outfit can be installed in a box and carried as conveniently as tackle. Fasten the barrel staves in pairs. cut them in two in the middle and fasten the ends on the toe covering. as shown in Fig. Take two old shoes that are extra large and cut off the tops and heels so as to leave only the toe covering fastened to the sole.

The brass strips are shaped in such a way as to form a circuit when the ends are pulled together. to form a handle. in diameter. Make a handle of two stout strips of wood. 1. Fig. Morse. Doylestown. as in Stages in Tying a Bag Fig. and one weighing 25 lb. long. A stick was made to swing on a bolt in the center of the crosspiece to which was attached a weight at the lower end and two lines connecting the ends of the planes at the upper end. and also prevent any leakage of the contents. 3. Fig. just the right weight for a woman to use. Procure a wooden box such as cocoa tins or starch packages are shipped in and stretch several thicknesses of flannel or carpet over the bottom. N. Equilibrator for Model Aeroplanes [11] On one of my model aeroplanes I placed an equilibrator to keep it balanced. as . The folds are made over the string. Kane. 2. A. one weighing 15 lb. B are mounted on the bottom of the box. allowing the edges to extend well up the sides. The device was attached to a crosspiece fastened just below the propeller between the main frame uprights. The string is then tied. Homemade Floor Polisher [10] A floor polisher is something that one does not use but two or three times a year. C. and the polisher will weigh about 16 lb. Fig. The fish line is hung over a round stick placed across the hole and then tied to the inside strip of brass.. by joining their upper ends to a shorter crosspiece and nail it to the box. 36 in. The electric connection to the bell is plainly shown. Manufactured polishers come in two sizes. Pa. Syracuse. Place three paving bricks inside of the box. --Contributed by Katharine D. 1. Two strips of brass. the string can be placed in the paper in such a way that it will form a handle to carry the package. --Contributed by James M. 4. These are shown in Fig. A polisher can be made at home that will do the work just as well. and tack smoothly. Tying Paper Bag to Make a Carrying Handle [10] In tying the ordinary paper bag. Y.An ordinary electric bell. and a pocket battery. When the fish is hooked the line will pull the brass points into contact and close the electric circuit.. are mounted on the outside of the box. 1. The box is opened and set on the ice near the fishing hole. The polisher is used by rubbing with the grain of the wood. having a gong 2-1/2 in. The bag must be long enough for the end to fold over as shown in Fig. which is the right weight for family use. When the aeroplane tips.

Y. These can be easily repaired by inserting in the neck a piece of match. clamping the washers against the frame as tightly as possible. machine screws. long. in diameter. 3/32 or 1/4 in. two 1/8 -in. --Contributed by Louis J. four washers and four square nuts. if once used. Repairing Christmas-Tree Decorations [11] Small glass ornaments for Christmas tree decorations are very easily broken on the line shown in the sketch. The saw. A scroll saw is much more useful than a keyhole saw for sawing small and irregular holes. Homemade Scroll Saw [11] A scroll saw. Day. such as brackets. The rod should be 36 or 38 in. bookracks and shelves can be made with one.Warping the Aeroplane Wings shown in Fig. Frame Made of a Rod . the weight draws the lines to warp the plane so it will right itself automatically. Floral Park. 2. Place one washer on each screw and put the screws through the eyelets. and many fancy knick-knacks. becomes indispensable in any home carpenter chest. is fastened between the clamping nut and another nut as shown in Fig. then place other washers on and fasten in place by screwing one nut on each screw. AA. yet it is safe to say that not one in ten contains it. A simple yet serviceable scroll saw frame can be made from a piece of cold-rolled steel rod. 1. toothpick or splinter of wood and tying the hanging string to it. bent as shown in Fig. which can be purchased at a local hardware store. N. 2.

Silver is the most desirable but. Watch Fob For coloring silver.may be made of either brass. If it colors the metal red. green and browns are the most popular. A. Rub off the highlights. be covered the same as the back. The connection is to be of leather of a color to harmonize with that of the fixtures. using a swab and an old stiff brush. 1 part sulphuric acid. Drying will cause this to change to purple.If two wing nuts having the same number and size of threads are available. Put a teaspoonful of this into a tin with 2 qt. Scranton. as well as brass and copper. With carbon paper trace these on the metal. An Austrian Top [12] . Apply two coats. They are easier to turn when inserting a saw blade in a hole or when removing broken blades. of course. --Contributed by W. if copper or brass. allowing each time to dry. Next cut out the outlines with the metal shears. copper. In the design shown. Of the leathers. With a small metal saw cut out these parts and smooth up the edges. File these edges. Pierce the metal of the parts that are to be removed with a small hand drill to make a place for the leather or silk. The best way of handling the decorative design is to etch it and. The amount of time required to do the etching will depend upon the strength of the liquid. first cover the metal with black asphaltum varnish.. Make full size drawings of the outline and design of the fixtures. The body of the fob may be of leather of suitable color or of silk. treat it with color. of water. The buckle is to be purchased. it has the correct strength. cover the metal with a solution of the following: 1/2 pt. For etching. the unshaded parts should not be etched and should. Allow the metal to remain in this until the acid has eaten to a depth of 1/32 in. five cents worth of sulphureted potassium. after breaking up. Polish a piece of scrap metal and dip it in the solution. rounding them slightly so they will not cut the leather or silk. of water in which dissolve. the most expensive. then remove it and clean in a turpentine bath. Michigan. How to Make a Watch Fob [12] The fixtures for the watch fob shown --half size-. therefore. 1 part nitric acid. use them in place of the outside nuts. as well as the depth of etching desired. on the back and all the parts that are not to be touched with the acid. leaving them the natural color of the metal and apply a coat of banana-oil lacquer. Detroit. after which immerse the metal in a solution prepared as follows: 3 parts water. or silver. though almost any color may be obtained. rounding and smoothing with emery paper.

in diameter. When the shank is covered. wide and 3/4 in.All parts of the top are of wood and they are simple to make. take a piece of stout cord about 2 ft. The top can be cut from a broom handle or a round stick of hardwood. is formed on one end. A 1/16-in. A handle. 3/4 in. . Take hold of the handle with the left hand and the end of the cord with the right hand. hole in this end for the top. set the top in the 3/4 -in. hole. long. Michigan.F. 1-1/4 in. Bore a 3/4-in. of the other end to remain rectangular in shape. Tholl. hole and wind it on the small part of the top in the usual way. Parts of the Top To spin the top. give a good quick pull on the cord and the top will jump clear of the handle and spin vigorously. pass one end through the 1/16-in. The handle is a piece of pine. starting at the bottom and winding upward. allowing only 1-1/4 in. --Contributed by J. Ypsilanti. thick. 5-1/4 in. hole is bored in the edge to enter the large hole as shown. long.

--A. A Baking Pan [13] When making cookies. having no sides. to be detachable pocket for holding thread when sewing is shown herewith. Each pocket is made to take a certain size spool. The baking surface. Houghton. For black leathers. Alberta Norrell. Northville. The pan is made from a piece of sheet iron slightly larger than the baking space desired. The pan can be removed from the oven by placing a stick through the loop and lifting it out without placing the hands inside the hot oven. the housewife often wishes for something by which to lift the baked articles from the pan. the end of the thread run through the cloth front for obtaining the length for threading a This will keep the thread from becoming tangled and enable it always readily drawn out to the required length. Augusta. tarts or similar pastry. Mich. Ga. The baking tray or pan shown in the sketch not only protects the hands from burns but allows the baked articles easily to slip from its surface. . --Contributed by Miss L. permits the baked articles to be slid off at each side with a knife or fork. Each end of the metal is cut so that a part may be turned up and into a roll to make handles for the pan. some lampblack may be added and the mixture applied in the same way. dimensions may be varied to admit any number or size of spools. A. Pockets for Thread Cleaning Leather on Furniture [13] Beat up the whites of three eggs carefully and use a piece of flannel to rub it well into the leather which will become clean and lustrous.Pockets for Spools of Thread [13] A The being needle. This wire is fastened at each end and a loop made in the center. Baking Pan without Sides A wire or small rod is placed between the handles as shown.

A Darkroom Lantern [14] Procure an ordinary 2-qt. Line the inside of the jar with two thicknesses of good orange post office paper. obtain a second jar and line with light orange paper. and you have a safe light of excellent illuminating power. the same as shown in the illustration. It is made of heavy wire and fastened to the wall with two screw eyes. Mo. The best lamp for the purpose is an 8-candlepower showcase lamp. Stringing Wires [13] A. The small turn on the end of the straight part is to hold the hook out far enough from the wall to make it easy to place the broom in the hook. When you desire to work by white light. break out the porcelain lining in the cover and cut a hole through the metal. just large enough to fit over the socket of an incandescent electric globe. says Studio Light. then solder cover and socket together. glass fruit jar.A Broom Holder [13] Broom Holder A very simple and effective device for holding a broom when it is not in use is shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Irl Hicks. two turns will remove the jar. A string for drawing electric wires into bent fixtures can be easily inserted by rolling it into a small ball and blowing it through while holding one end. Darkroom Lantern If developing papers are being worked. the eyes forming bearings for the wire. Screw the lamp into the socket and screw the cover onto the jar. The weight of the broom keeps it in position. Centralia. screw into the cover fastened to the lamp and you have a safe and pleasant light .

When the rack is Folding Clothes Rack closed it will fit into a very small space and one or more wings can be used at a time as the occasion or space permits. . The other ends of the bars are fastened to the center post with round head screws. Preventing Vegetables from Burning in a Pot [14] Many housekeepers do not know that there is a simple way to prevent potatoes from burning and sticking to the bottom of the pot. They are fastened. 4 Braces. 1/4 by 1 by 65 in. This also makes the work of cleaning pots easier as no adhering parts of potatoes are left to be scoured out. and not tip over. 16 Horizontal bars. square by 12 in. A Clothes Rack [14] A clothes-drying rack that has many good features can be made as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Herman Fosel. and you have three lamps at a trifling cost. Attach the four braces for the feet with finishing nails after applying a good coat of glue. The water and empty space beneath the pan saves the potatoes.for loading and development. 1 by 1-1/4 by 24 in. 1-1/4 in. The horizontal bars are fastened to the vertical pieces with rivets using washers on both sides. The rack can be made of any hard wood and the material list is as follows: 1 Center post. The holes are bored a little large so as to make a slightly loose joint. 4 Vertical pieces. square by 62 in. An inverted pie pan placed in the bottom of the pot avoids scorching potatoes. it can be moved to any part of the darkroom. 1-1/4 in. so it can be folded up. Wis. Janesville. as shown in the cross-section sketch. By attaching sufficient cord to the lamp.

after filling the pail with water. C. How to Make Small Sprocket Wheels [15] As I needed several small sprocket wheels and had none on hand. the sprockets were ready for use and gave perfect satisfaction. Cincinnati. The wheels were again placed on the arbor and the studs turned to the required size. Several old hubs with the proper size bore were secured. and a loop made in the end. A knot should be tied in the rope at the right place.Homemade Shower Bath [15] A Shower Bath That Costs Less Than One Dollar to Make While in the country during vacation time. and a tub was used on the floor to catch the water. which is placed over a screw hook turned into the wall. I missed my daily bath and devised a shower bath that gave complete satisfaction. The front can be covered . --Contributed by Dr. These were put on an arbor and turned to the size of the bottom of the teeth. The addition of some hot water will make a splendid shower bath. Pot-Cover Closet [16] The sides of the cover closet are cut as shown in Fig. to keep it from running out of the pulley while the pail is lowered to be filled with water. Hole were drilled and tapped to correspond to the number of teeth required and old stud bolts turned into them. After rounding the ends of the studs. No dimensions are given as the space and the sizes of the covers are not always the same. O. H. -Contributed by Charles Stem. The back is covered with thin boards placed vertically. The back porch was enclosed with sheeting for the room. The whole. The water will run from 10 to 15 minutes. Phillipsburg. and the apparatus consisted of a galvanized-iron pail with a short nipple soldered in the center of the bottom and fitted with a valve and sprinkler. from scrap material. Rosenthal. New York. If the loop is tied at the proper place. was raised above one's head with a rope run over a pulley fastened to the roof of the porch. I made them quickly without other expense than the time required. the pail will be raised to the right height for the person taking the shower bath. 1 and shelves are nailed between them at a slight angle.

The results will be poor. small gate directly in the rear of the attached tin trough. 1 FIG. Wehr. FIG. The simple homemade device shown in the accompanying sketch greatly assists Bottle in Stand in this work. then dry the prints and lay aside these dark ones until there is an accumulation of a dozen or more. Saving Overexposed Developing Prints [16] In using developing papers. as the constant stirring and pouring of oil and liquids are required in the operation. Md. doing this to avoid too frequent use of the very poisonous bleaching solution. it will permit a continuous flow of liquid of the desired amount. 2 Closet for Holding Pot Covers Aid in Mixing Salad Dressing [16] Some cooks find it a very difficult matter to prepare salad dressing. sickly one. and wash until you are sure all hypo is removed. --Contributed by Gilbert A. you are. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. But there is no reason why you should lose either the paper or the time and trouble expended in making these prints. the mouth of which rests against a. I carry out this part of the work thoroughly. Do not try to save them by rushing them out of the developer into the short-stop or fixing bath. If the gate is raised slightly. Baltimore. entitled to a certain number of overexposed prints. In my own practice. you can turn these very dark prints into good ones. It consists of a stand to hold a bottle. by all rules of the game.with a curtain or a paneled door as shown. By using the following method. principally mayonnaise dressing. either for contact printing or enlargements. the color will be an undesirable. Develop them into strong prints. First: these overexposed prints must be fully developed. if you try to tone them afterward. thoroughly fix. and. The . The weight of the bottle and the contents against the gate serves as a check or stopper.

.. long to admit the angle support. A Desk Blotting Pad [17] Procure four sheets of blotting paper. three times.. wide and 4 in.. 2. preferably the colored kind.. 20 gr...... as it will appear clean much longer than the white." Cyanide of potassium . 5 by 15 in... Water . being made blue-black with a delicate and pleasing quality that will tempt you to purposely overexpose some of your prints in order to tone them by this method for certain effects. when it starts to bleach. as it provides a means of making quite a saving of paper that would otherwise be thrown away... When the desired reduction has taken place. to make it 5 by 5 in. They can be fastened with a small brass paper fastener put through the top of the holder...... The prints may be allowed to remain in this last solution until they are finished. Gray.. 16 oz... etc.. Fold each one from corner to corner as shown in Fig......... San Francisco... Iodide of potassium . this method of saving prints that are too dark becomes easy and certain.... in size. The process is particularly valuable to the worker in large sizes. in this solution. thus holding the board rigid and in such a position as to give free access for ironing dresses...bleacher is made up as follows and should be plainly marked "Poison.... A good final washing completes the process. An Ironing-Board Stand [17] An ordinary ironing board is cut square on the large end and a slot cut 1-1/2 in.. Paste the last fold together and the corner holders are complete. stop the action at once by immersing the print in a 10-per-cent solution of borax. transfer it to a tray of water. Place the dry print..... without previous wetting. but. Cal. The size of the pad depends on the size of the blotting paper....... Fold four pieces of ordinary wrapping paper.... Put one on each corner of the blotting paper.. This washing must be thorough and a sponge or a tuft of cotton used to clean the surface of the print. With a little practice. The prints are lightened and at the same time improved in tone.... L. 2 oz. --Contributed by T. It will bleach slowly and evenly. 1 and again as in Fig.. where it will continue to bleach... The support is placed against the table and the board Stand Attached to Table is pressed down against the outer notch which jams against the table.. The blotting paper can .

Wisconsin. Removing Tarnish [17] A pencil eraser will remove the tarnish from nickel plate. Wilson Aldred Toronto. How to Make a Brass Bookmark [18] Secure a piece of brass of No. --Contributed by J. It is very annoying to have the sleeves continually slip down and become wet or soiled. the head of which is 2 in. The simple device shown herewith can be made with bent wires or hooks and attached in such a way that it can be dropped out Wires Attached to a Lavatory of the way when not in use. Corners complete are shown in Fig. Make a design similar to that shown. Sleeve Holders for Lavatories [17] A very handy article is an attachment on wash basins or lavatories for holding the sleeves back while washing the hands. wide. Oshkosh. having a width of 2-1/4 in.Fig 3 Paper Corners for Blotter Pads be easily changed by removing the holders and fasteners. the shaft 1 in. wide below the . and the ink eraser will remove the rust from drawing instruments. 20 gauge. Canada. 3. and a length of 5 in. Monahan. --Contributed by L.J.

3.FIG. 1 Fig. using a small metal saw. After this has dried. 2 The Pattern and the Finished Bookmark head and the extreme length 4-1/2 in. Apply with a small brush. The teeth of the saw should be so placed that the sawing will be done on the downward stroke. freehand. then coloring. Clean the metal thoroughly with pumice stone and water or with alcohol before the design is applied. Fig. For coloring olive green. A piece of wood with a V-shaped notch which is fastened firmly to the bench forms the best place in which to do such sawing. being held perpendicular to the work. Allow the metal to remain in this solution until the exposed part has been eaten about 1/32 in. Trace the design on the metal. 1 part nitric acid. 2. After the sawing. thoroughly immerse the metal in a solution composed as follows: 3 parts water. Allow this to dry. then trace the other half in the usual way. 1. after folding along the center line. then put on a second coat. smooth the edges of the metal with a small file and emery paper. A very satisfactory treatment is obtained by etching. using turpentine. using carbon paper. The parts of the design in heavy color may be treated in several ways. use 2 parts water to 1 part permuriate of iron. smooth off any roughness Drilling and Sawing the Metal and form the edge so that it shall be nicely rounded. 1 part sulphuric acid. Do not put the hands in the solution. The metal must be held firmly. but use a swab on a stick. Cover all the metal that is not to be lowered with a thick coating of asphaltum. 4. which gives the outline of the design Fig. and the saw allowed time to make its cut. With files. cut out the outline as indicated by the drawing. The lines at A and B will need to be cut. then remove it and clean off the asphaltum. Make one-half of the design. Pierce a hole with a small drill. large enough to receive the saw and cut along the lines as in Fig. as shown in Fig. The metal clip may be bent outward to do this part of the work. deep. . With the metal shears.

driven in just far enough to allow a space for the end of an ordinary pointed kitchen knife to fit in it. New York. Morse. The needles should be close together and pushed through the pasteboard until the points show. or for serving an invalid's breakfast. The mahogany stain can be obtained ready prepared. Carl Cramer. Kitchen Chopping Board [19] Cooks can slice. hole through a block of pine or other soft wood 2 in. The knife can be raised and lowered with one hand. Cal. The hole is then filled with melted babbitt metal. A Carpenter's Gauge [19] The home workshop can be supplied with a carpenter's gauge without any expense' by the use of a large spool and Round Stick In a Spool a round stick of wood. Tack over one end of the hole a piece of pasteboard in which seven coarse sewing-machine needles have been inserted. . When this is cold. on a chopping board. as shown. This tool makes neat pierced work and in making brass shades. it does the work rapidly. chop or mince vegetables and various other food rapidly by placing the little device. Burnett. The stick should be dressed to fit the hole in the spool snugly and a small brad driven through one end so that the point will protrude about 1/16 in. First sandpaper the wood until it is smooth. A round embroidered doily in the bottom adds to the appearance of the tray. thick. Carrying Mattresses [19] Sew straps to the sides of mattresses and they can be handled much easier. as Knife Attached to the Board the material is passed under the blade with the other.Cheesebox-Cover Tea Tray [18] The cover from a cheesebox can be converted into a tea tray that is very dainty for the piazza. A better way and one that will make the adjusting easy is to file the point end of a screw eye flat and use it as a set screw through a hole in the side of the spool. which can be obtained for a small sum at an upholsterer's shop. The adjustment of the gauge is secured by driving the stick in the hole in the direction desired. Syracuse. Great pressure can be applied and the knife will not slip. the block is split and the pasteboard removed. then stain it a mahogany color. Ii is an ordinary staple. Richmond. The staple is driven in the edge of the chopping board. Conn. --Contributed by Katharine D. Piercing-Punch for Brass [19] Drill a 1/2-in. After the stain has dried. --Contributed by H. East Hartford. --Contributed by M. M. attach brass handles.

1/4 in. saucers or pans. two stopcocks with 1/8 in. H. and the other with a diameter of 2-3/4 in. Use for Paper Bags [19] When groceries are delivered. Tie the neck of the bag with a string and it will keep the contents fresh and clean. while the inside circle indicates the depth to which the slots are to be cut. Jaquythe. thick and 4 in. The upturned edges of the metal are Board or Wall Iron Rest bent to fit the sloping sides of the iron. Mark the point where a hole is to be drilled for the shaft. machine screws. thick. Florida. A Homemade Steam Turbine [20] By WILLIAM H. sufficient margin should be left for filing to the true line. some pieces of brass. Slots are cut in the disk with a hacksaw on the radial lines. and several 1/8-in. 1. not over 1/4 in. The holder and iron can be moved at the same time. Fig. about 3/16 in. holes. When cutting the disk out of the rough brass. A. 53 steel pens. The outside circle is the size of the finished brass wheel. save the paper bags and use them for staring bread and cakes. two enameled. as shown in Fig. Use Chalk on Files [19] If a little chalk is rubbed on a file before filing steel. indicating the depth of the slots. A small vise is convenient for holding the disk while cutting the slots. .A Flatiron Rest [19] The iron rest and wall hanger shown in the sketch is made of sheet iron. having a diameter on the inside part of about 4-1/2 in. WARNECKE Procure some brass. square. The pens are inserted in the slots and made quite secure by forcing ordinary pins on the inside of the pens and breaking them off at the rim. in width at the shank. it can be used as template for drilling the side plates C. brass. one shaft. --Contributed by W. The rim of the disk is divided into 53 equal parts and radial lines drawn from rim to line B. After the shaft hole and the holes A are drilled in the disk. Kissimmee. one having a diameter of 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by Mrs. Richmond. it will keep the chips from sticking in the cuts on the file and scratching the work. as shown at A. Lay out two circles on the 3/16-in. Atwell. also locate the drill holes. or tin. Cal. 4. L. The slots should be left in their rough state as they have a better hold on the pens which are used for the blades..

machine screws. bolted together with a thin piece of asbestos between them to make a tight joint. The casing for the disk is made of two enameled-iron saucers. as shown in Fig. can be procured. Fig. and pins inserted. If metal dishes. 7. Bend as shown in Fig. hole is drilled to run off the water. with 1/8-in. and cut out a strip 3-1/2 in. long and 5/16 in. thick. each about 1 in. Cut a strip of the same brass 2-3/4 in. into the hole. A 3/4-in. a thin pipe can be inserted 1/4 in. The bearings are made of 1/4-in. with the face of the disk. 1 and drill a hole for the knob in one end and a hole for a screw in the other. hole is cut near the edge of one of the saucers for the exhaust. Solder is run around the outside pin to keep the steam from escaping. brass and bolted to the casing. At the lowest point of the saucer or casing a 1/8-in. with a 3/8-in.. thick. 6. Holes are drilled through the pipe on both inside and outside of the casing. 3. wide. 2. 3. using two nuts on each screw. and solder a small nut on the under side of the metal over the hole. Mount both pieces on a base 4-1/4 by 2-3/4 by 1/4 in. Nozzles are made of two stopcocks having a 1/8-in. as in Fig. The nozzle or stopcock will give better results if the discharge end is filed parallel to the face of the disk when at an angle of 20 deg. Drill two holes in the feet for screws to fasten it to the base. and its circumference cut out with a scroll saw. supply pipe. These are connected to a 3/8-in. The pulley is made by sliding a piece of steel pipe on the engine shaft and fastening it with machine screws and nuts as shown in Fig. hole in the center. There should be a space of 1/16 in. If it is desired to carry the exhaust beyond the casing. it will be much easier to construct the casing than if enameled ware is used. machine screws and nuts. If the shaft is square. in diameter and 1/32 in. lead should be run into the segments. Two nuts should be placed on each screw. long by 3/4 in.When the pens are all fastened two pieces of metal are provided. The shaft hole may also be filed square. A wood plug will answer for a stopcock. 2. a square shaft used. 1. The pulley on this shaft is made of pieces of wood nailed together. Fig. between the nozzle and the blades to allow for sufficient play. All seams and surfaces around fittings can be soldered. Flanges are screwed to the pulley and fastened to the shaft as shown in Fig. Procure a small wood knob and fasten it in place with a small screw. as shown. The holes can be easily drilled and the parts fitted together closely. The side plates are then secured with some of the 1/8-in. shaped from thick material with a good coating of tin. and the ends filed round for the bearings. for filling pieces which are first placed around the shaft hole between the disk and side plates C. The nozzles should be set at an angle of 20 deg. Motion is transmitted from the engine to the large pulley by a thin but very good leather belt. and where Brass Key on a Wood Base . The nuts should be on the side opposite the inlet valves. 5. The bearings are made of oak blocks lined with heavy tin or sheet iron for the running surface. and one hole in the top part for a machine screw. The driven shaft should have a long bearing. Fig. hole. wide and bend as shown in Fig. Homemade Telegraph Key [21] A simple and easily constructed telegraph key may be made in the following manner: Procure a piece of sheet brass. about 1/32 in.

wide to receive the band at the lower end of the basket. --Contributed by S. put in a screw or brassheaded tack for a contact. With repeated scoring the wood will be almost cut through or in shape to finish the cut with a knife. The porous condition of the gravel drains the surplus water after a rain. A barrel is sunk in the ground in a shady place. from the top end and the basket 6-3/4 in. V. Smith. from the bottom end of the legs. Homemade Work Basket [22] Secure a cheese box about 12 in. A small portion of damp sand is sprinkled on the bottom of the barrel. Hamilton. screws. The four legs are each 3/4-in. allowing plenty of space about the outside to fill in with gravel. A quantity of small stones and sand is first put in wet. Keeping Food Cool in Camps [21] Camps and suburban homes located where ice is hard to get can be provided with a cooling arrangement herein described that will make a good substitute for the icebox. 8-1/2 in.the screw of the knob strikes the base when pressed down. Fasten the parts down with small brass wood-screws and solder the connections beneath the base. Now you will have the box in two pieces. find the circumference of the tray or basket and divide this into four equal parts. Notch the legs at the lower point about 1/8 in. arranging the lap seam on both to come midway between two of the marks. Binding posts from an old battery cell are used on the end of the base. When assembling. Ill. Be sure to have the cover. Fasten with 3/4-in brads. square and 30-1/2 in. Cooke. The tray is placed 1-1/4 in. three of which are in the basket. we will call the basket. to make the bottom. Canada. It will pay you to be careful in selecting this box. using four to each leg. Fasten with 3/4-in. With a string or tape measure. Score the wood deeply with a carpenter's gauge inside and out 3-1/2 in. deep over all. long. The end of the barrel is fitted with a light cover and a heavy door hinged to the box. --Contributed by F. from the top of the box. Stain the wood before putting in the . The lower part. and the smaller part will be known as the tray. The covers should be left open occasionally to prevent mold and to remove any bad air that may have collected from the contents. make these seams come between the two back legs. The screw on top of the arch is used to adjust the key for a long or short stroke. A box is placed in the hole over the top of the barrel and filled in with clay or earth well tamped. Insert the screws from the inside of the box into the legs. The kind of wood used in making these boxes cracks easily and leaves a rough surface which should be well sandpapered. or more in diameter. Remove the band from the cover and cut the boards to fit in the tray flush with the lower edge. La Salle. The tops should be beveled to keep them from splintering at the edges. high and 15 in. deep and 1-1/4 in.

One or more of the aeroplanes can be fastened in the blast of an electric fan and kept in flight the same as a kite. --Contributed by Frederick Hennighausen. Md. A figure of an airman can be pasted to each aeroplane. with the crudest of tools and a little practice. Sew them end to end and turn down one edge to a depth of 1 in. Cover them with the cretonne. Cut two sheets of cardboard to fit in the bottom of the tray and basket. chip out as good arrowheads as any painted savage that ever drew a bow. 2. Boston. edge and end views of a suitable fragment are shown in Fig. Hold the piece with one edge or end resting on a block of wood and strike the upper edge lightly with a hammer. If all the parts are well sandpapered. Packard. possess the requisite patience and the knack of making things. --also the lower edge when necessary. 1. The folded part in the center is pasted together.3 The Stone Chipped into Shape . -Contributed by Stanley H. Fasten them to the sides of the tray and basket with the smallest upholsterers' tacks. How to Make a Flint Arrowhead [23] If you live where flints abound. as shown in the sketch. you can. It may be both longer and wider than the finished arrow but it should not be any thicker. When making the display. have the background of such Paper Aeroplanes in Draft a color as to conceal the small threads holding the aeroplanes. Baltimore. Sew on to the covered cardboards. sewing on the back side. and gather it at that point. The side. Each aeroplane is fastened with a small thread from the point A as shown.2 Fig. and the wings bent out on the dotted lines.lining. The fan can be concealed to make the display more real. The product of your labor will be a very neat and useful piece of furniture. A Window Display [22] A novel and attractive aeroplane window display can be easily made in the following manner: Each aeroplane is cut from folded paper. the wood will take the stain nicely: Three yards of cretonne will make a very attractive lining. wide. Mass. Fig. Select a piece of straight-grained flint as near the desired shape as possible. Cut four strips for the sides from the width of the goods 5-1/2 in. a small boulder or anything that comes handy until the piece assumes the shape shown in Fig. wide and four strips 10 in.

--Contributed by H. Fig. An Opening Handle for a Stamp Pad [23] A stamp pad is a desk necessity and the cleanliness of one depends on keeping it closed when it is not in use. Concrete Kennel [23] The kennel shown in the illustration is large enough for the usual size of dog. --Contributed by B. saving all the solid part. Y. Finished Kennel This mission style would be in keeping with the now popular mission and semi-mission style home. Handle on Cover If necessary apply a little oil and spread the flanges of the cover slightly. 3. L. Cross Timbers. Gloversville. A tap on the front side of the pin will turn it over backward until the head rests on the desk thus bringing the cover up in the upright position. The opening and closing of a pad requires both hands and consequently the closing of a pad is often neglected in order to avoid soiling the fingers. These heads can be made so that they cannot be distinguished from the real Indian arrowheads. a slight tap on the back side of the cover will turn it down in place. with slight modifications.The characteristic notches shown in the completed arrow. Mo. When through using the pad. Saw off the top of a common wood clothespin just above the slot. N. healthful and more ornamental than the average kennel. are chipped out by striking the piece lightly at the required points with the edge of an old hatchet or a heavy flint held at right angles to the edge of the arrow. Orlando Taylor. This trouble can be avoided if the pad is fitted with a small handle as shown in the sketch. Crockett. It is cleanly. Take the ordinary pad and work the hinge until it opens freely. it could be made to conform with the ever beautiful colonial home. It is not difficult to . and. Fasten this to the cover near the back side in an upright position with a screw.

and scrape out the rough parts. or if desired. remove the contents. The dimensions and the manner of making the forms for the concrete. some of the mixture always remains on the spoon. Trim the print to a size a little larger than the opening in the shell. across the face. Texas. After stirring. If a file is used. are shown in the diagram. Bourne. Mass. -Contributed by C.Concrete Forms build and will keep in good shape for many years. Lane. It may be well to fill the shell with cotton. Lowell. it should be new and sharp. El Paso. S. Mount the shell on a small card with glue. Spoon Holder on a Kettle [24] In making marmalade and jellies the ingredients must be stirred from time to time as the cooking proceeds. --Contributed by Edith E. After this is done. The photograph print should be quite small--less than 1/2 in. Make an oval Photograph in the Shell opening by filing or grinding. Both of these methods are wasteful. and secure it in place with glue or paste. The accompanying illustration shows a device made of sheet copper to hold the spoon so that the drippings will return to the . Cooks often lay the spoon on a plate or stand it against the cooking utensil with the handle down. Nutshell Photograph Novelty [24] Split an English walnut in the center. take a small half round file and smooth the edges into shape and good form. a mount of different shape can be made of burnt woodwork. and the location for the bolts to hold the plate and rafters.

As the needle passed over the cracks the noise was hardly audible. --Contributed by Loren Ward. --Contributed by Marion P.cooking utensil. Greenleaf. These records have been played for a year and they sound almost as good as new. These were placed on a flat surface and a weight set on them. I used the following method to stick them together: I covered the back of one with shellac and laid the two back to back centering the holes with the crack in one running at right angles to the crack in the other. Spoon Holder Repairing Cracked Gramophone Records [24] Some time ago I received two gramophone records that were cracked in shipment but the parts were held together with the paper label. Wheeler. He captured several pounds in a few hours. The process works well and needs no watching. the filtering process goes on continuously with no overflow of the funnel. New Use for a Vacuum Cleaner [25] An amateur mechanic who had been much annoyed by the insects which were attracted to his electric lights found a solution in the pneumatic moth trap described in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. and a cork with a small hole in it inserted in the mouth. The copper is not hard to bend and it can be shaped so that the device can be used on any pot or kettle. air is let into the flask and a small quantity of new solution is let down into the funnel. Oregon. --Contributed by Edwin Marshall. Ill. F. Iowa. Those having houses . The insects came to the light. If a considerable quantity of a solution be placed in a large bottle or flask. He fixed a funnel to the end of the intake tube of a vacuum cleaner and hung it under a globe. I cleaned the surplus shellac out of the holes and played them. and the apparatus suspended in an inverted position over a small funnel so that the opening of the cork is just below the water level in the funnel. A Postcard Rack [25]. Turl. it is on one small piece and can be handled with ease. As these were single-faced disk records. circled over the funnel and disappeared. Canton. Des Moines. Oak Park. and instead of the filtrate being in a large filter paper. --Contributed by Geo. After several hours' drying. Filtering with a Small Funnel [25] In filtering a large amount of solution one usually desires some means other than a large funnel and something to make the watching of the process unnecessary. Ill. The illustration shows a rack for postcards. As soon as the solution in the funnel is below the cork.

plane and pocket knife. boards are preferable. The dark room shown in the accompanying sketch measures 3 ft. not even with the boards themselves. the bottom being 3/8 in. The dimensions are given in the detail sketch. yet the saving is so little that the 1-in. One of the narrow sides can be formed in the same way. 6 in.Finished Rack with mission-style furniture can make such a rack of the same material as the desk. will do as well. Only three pieces are required. Conn. Worcester. Rosenberg. it is necessary to make it perfectly light-tight. screwing or nailing the boards to the crosspieces. and the second one for the developing bench. and as they are simple in design. thick. Glenbrook. material. Building a Small Photographic Dark Room [26] In building a photographic dark room. Lay the floor next. by 2 ft. The single boards can then be fixed. The best thickness for the boards is 1 in. and by pulling up on the cloth so as to keep it taut around the heel the foot will slide into the shoe just as easily as if a shoe horn were used. The two ends are cut from 1/4-in. Substitute Shoe Horn [25] A good substitute for a shoe horn is a handkerchief or any piece cloth used in the following way: Allow part of the handkerchief or cloth to enter the shoe. anyone can cut them out with a Details of the Rack saw. --Contributed by Wm. one on each side of what will be the . place the toe of the foot in the shoe so as to hold down the cloth.. Dobbins. table or room furnishings and finish it in the same manner. fixing the crosspieces which hold the boards together in such positions that the bottom one will act as a bearer for the floor. --Contributed by Thomas E. Both sides can be put together in this way. but for cheapness 3/4 in. These boards are tongued and grooved and when put together effectually prevent the entrance of light. and then these three pieces can be fastened together by screwing the two wide sides on the narrow one. and both exactly alike. fixing the crosspieces on to correspond. and making the last board come even with the ends of the crosspieces. but it is necessary to cover the roof with felt or water-proof paper. Mass. The next important thing to be considered is to make it weather-tight. Form the two sides shown in Fig 1. the height to the eaves being 6 ft. the best material to use being matched boards. Keep the ends of the crosspieces back from the edges of the boards far enough to allow the end boards to fit in against them. 6 in. and as far as the sides are concerned the matched boards will do this also..

3 and 4. 9). the closing side as at B. A strip should be fixed along the back of the bench as shown in Figs. These are all in section and are self-explanatory. and to the sides of the room at the outsides and eaves. 6. below which is fixed the sink. as an additional safeguard against the entrance of light. The roof boards may next be put on.. nailing them to each other at the ridge. 5. Fig. thus leaving a rectangular opening for the door. In hinging the door. and in the middle an opening. so as to drop on the sink as in Fig. A shelf for bottles and another for plates. and to the outside board of the sides. of the top of the door for the same reason. 10). Light traps are necessary at the sides and top of the door. and should be zinc lined. three butt hinges should be used so as to keep the joint close. 6) and another as F in the same drawing. The developing bench is 18 in. so that it will fit inside the sink. can be fixed above the developing bench as at D and E (Fig. 6.doorway. and act as a trap for the light. This latter forms the bottom of the tray rack. 2 in section. The fittings of the room are as shown sectionally in Fig. and an arrangement of slats (Fig. is cut. as shown in Figs. which is fixed on as shown . etc. fix a narrow piece between the side boards. and shown to a larger scale in Fig. The bench at each side of the sink should be fluted (Fig.. That at the hinged side can be as shown at A. The door is made of the same kind of boards held together with crosspieces. At the top of the doorway. 7. It is shown in detail in Fig. and the top as at C in the same drawing. one of which is fastened so as to fit closely to the floor when the door is hinged. 9 by 11 in. brown wrapping paper. The zinc should not be cut but folded as shown in Fig. but before fixing these it is best to line the room with heavy. 8. The top crosspiece is also fastened within 1 in.. 11. hinged to it. One of the sides with the crosspieces in place will be as shown in Fig. all the crosspieces and bearers intersecting around the room. They should overhang at the sides and eaves about 2 in. wide. by screwing to the floor. so that the water will drain off into the sink. 6 and 9.

Details of the Dark Rook .

after lining with brown paper. and fixing in it a square of white glass with strips of wood on the inside and putty on the outside. is heated and tinned exactly as a regular . The handle should be at least 12 in. 14. and filed or dressed to a point on the other. though this is hardly advisable. Extra bearing pieces will be wanted for the shelves mentioned above. if desired. The finish of the roof at the gables is shown in Fig. 18. and one coat twice a year will keep it in good condition. it is better than anything on the market. The Versatile Querl [28] "Querl" is the German name for a kitchen utensil which may be used as an egg-beater. and trapping the light without stopping the passage of air. An Emergency Soldering Tool [28] Occasionally one finds a piece of soldering to do which is impossible to reach with even the smallest of the ordinary soldering irons or coppers. the star is placed in the dish containing the material to be beaten or mixed and the handle is rapidly rolled between the palms of the hands. 19. Ventilation is arranged for by boring a series of holes near the floor. but not the red glass and frame. The door may have a latch or lock with a knob. 13. 1. or red light as at K. as at I. 16. which makes it possible to have white light.in Fig. The white glass with runners in position is shown at L in the same drawing. Fig. preferably maple or ash. stock and shaped like a star as shown in Fig. The divisions of the tray rack are best fitted loosely in grooves formed by fixing strips to the shelves and under the bench and sink as in Fig. as shown in the sections. It is absolutely necessary that the room be well painted. Erie. and near the roof as at N in the same drawing. In use. and the same is true of the roll at the top of the roof in Fig. A ruby glass is framed as shown at G. A circular piece about 2 in. or the room may be made with a flat roof. 20. The window is formed by cutting an opening in the side opposite the door. 6. but should in addition have two buttons on the inside. 2. 17. the strip under the boards holding the felt in position when folded under. in length and fastened in the star as shown in Fig. four coats at first is not too many. For beating up an egg in a glass. and arranged to slide to and fro in the grooved runners H. Pennsylvania. Fig. are fastened in the corners inside. and a 3/8-in. A waste pipe should be attached to the sink and arranged to discharge through the floor. fixed so as to pull it shut tightly at top and bottom. A cistern with pipe and tap can be fastened in the top of the dark room. as in Fig. and a tank stand on it. Querl Made of Wood This utensil is made of hardwood. 16. in diameter is cut from 1/2-in. these being shown in Fig. 13. mixing flour and water. The house will be much strengthened if strips. screwing them each way into the boards. 15. Fig. potato-masher or a lemon-squeezer. as at M. --Contributed by W. or stirring cocoa or chocolate. Karl Hilbrich. as shown in Fig. A brick foundation should be laid so that no part of the room touches the ground. Fig. hole bored in the center for a handle. If a length of copper wire as large as the job will permit and sufficiently long to admit being bent at one end to form a rough handle.

the work will cause no trouble on account of inaccessibility. Base for Round-End Bottles [29] . Smith. -Contributed by E. G. The small end is used for smoothing small erasures and the other end for larger surfaces. Mitchell. The handle can be left the shape shown or tapered as desired. Ark. for a handle. when put together properly is a puzzle. A convenient desk accessory for this purpose can be made of a short Collar Button Ends In Wood Stick piece of hardwood and two bone collar buttons. the top being tapering toward the base of the tongue. The hairpin should be a very Hairpin In Stick small size. Bore a small hole D and E in each end of the wood handle C and fasten the button parts in the holes with glue or sealing wax. The bottom surface of the mortise is the same width at Shape of Tenon and Mortise both ends. Smoothing Paper after Erasing [29] When an ink line is erased the roughened surface of the paper should be smoothed or polished so as to prevent the succeeding lines of ink from spreading. Eureka Springs. as shown in the sketch. A Cherry Seeder [29] An ordinary hairpin is driven part way into a small round piece of wood.copper should be. --Contributed by L. Yonkers. about 3/8 in. Schweiger. L. To operate. The tenon or tongue of the joint is sloping on three surfaces and the mortise is cut sloping to match. New York. which. in diameter and 2 or 2-1/2 in. Mo. File off the head of one button at A and the base from another at B. Kansas City. long. --Contributed by Wm. D. A Dovetail Joint [29] The illustration shows an unusual dovetail joint. simply insert the wire loop into the cherry where the stem has been pulled off and lift out the seed.

3. as well as improve its appearance. The corks in use are shown in Fig. Having completed the bare box. which binds them together. Each cork is cut as in Fig. The box should be well nailed or screwed together and should then be painted all over to make it more durable. to allow the excess water to run out and thus prevent rotting of the plants and box. as is usually the case. 2) whose ends are twisted together and the last section of cork is cut through from the inner side to the center and thus fitted over the wire covering the twisted ends. One form of panel design is shown in Fig. and by using them the operation of splitting is avoided. Trimming having too rough a surface will be found unsuitable for this work as it is difficult to fasten and cannot be split as well as smooth trimming. as shown in Fig. 3. These supports should not be made of any hard material nor should they be good conductors of heat. and will furnish more opportunities for artistic and original design than many other articles of more complicated construction. but may be replaced with a panel or other design. holes should be drilled in the bottom. A French magazine suggests making the supports from the large corks of glass jars in which crystal chemicals are usually supplied from the dealers.Base Made-of Corks The many forms of round-bottomed glass bottles used in chemical laboratories require some special kind of support on which they can be safely placed from time to time when the chemist does not. to make it set level. 1 and placed on a wire ring (Fig. in order to thoroughly preserve it. The design shown in Fig. the rustic work should be varnished. especially for filling-in purposes. The manner of making them is clearly shown in the sketch. as such qualities would result in frequent breakage. need them. why not make an artistic one in which the color does not clash with the plants contained in it but rather harmonizes with them. The half-round hoops of barrels will be found very useful in trimming. as shown in Fig. 1. 1 is very simple and easy to construct. If the sill is inclined. it may be trimmed to suit the fancy of the maker. After the box is trimmed. the box will require a greater height in front. It should be cut the proper length before being split and should be fastened with brads. Such a window box can be made by anyone having usual mechanical ability. The box proper should be made a little shorter than the length of the window to allow for the extra space taken up in trimming and should be nearly equal in width to the sill. A number of 1/2-in. 2. for the moment. . Rustic Window Boxes [30] Instead of using an ordinary green-painted window box.

Two of the larger holes are used for the ends of the coiled rod and the other two for the heating-wire terminals. Each long projection represents a leg. The body is made of sheet or galvanized iron. The latter holes should be well insulated with porcelain or mica. Traps do no good. At the risk of being arrested for killing the squirrels I have used a small target rifle morning and night. but during my absence the devastation went on steadily. and observe results. Four small ears are turned down to hold the top in place. life in the summer time is a vexation. The top consists of a square piece of metal drilled as shown in Fig. can't use poison. being partly eaten into. cut out and drilled as shown in Fig. THOLL The construction of an electric stove is very simple.Artistic Flower Boxes Antidote for Squirrel Pest [30] To the owner of a garden in a town where squirrels are protected by law. 2. which is bent at right angles on the center line by placing the metal in the jaws of a vise and hammering the metal over flat. Last year they destroyed my entire corn crop. 3. and it can be made by any home mechanic having a vise and hand drill. share the same fate. First the squirrels dig up the sweet corn and two or three replantings are necessary. . cabbages. But I have solved the difficulty.. as shown in Fig. 1. to hold the coil on the bottom plate. If just the rim is gripped in the vise. the squirrels come in droves from far and near. The small projections are bent in to form a support for the bottom. too dangerous. Shake cayenne pepper over the various vegetables which are being ruin. drilled at right angles. 4. The bottom consists of a square piece of metal. etc. This illustrates how two pins are inserted in holes. it will give a rounding form to the lower part of the legs. When the corn is within two or three days of being suitable for cooking. One end of the coiled rod is shown in Fig. Holes are drilled near the edges for stove bolts to fasten it to the bottom projections. it's easy. The coiled rod is 3/16 in. When the corn is gone cucumbers. They eat all they can and carry away the rest. Homemade Electric Stove [31] By J. F.

Contributed by Loren Ward Des Moines. The solution can be used over and over again. The acid should be added to the water slowly and not the water to the acid. The following solution makes an excellent cleaner that will remove dirt and grease from crevices and sharp corners. so that no coil will be in contact with another coil. the coil does not heat sufficiently. 26 gauge heating wire will be about right. To 9 parts of water add 1 part of strong sulphuric acid. This wire can be purchased from electrical stores. The rod is wrapped with sheet asbestos. Automatic-Closing Kennel Door [32] When the neighborhood cats are retired for the night and there is nothing more to chase. . Iowa. If. as the parts are hard to reach with the fingers or a brush. -. and made up and kept in large bottles. strips. More bichromate of potash should be added as the precipitate is used in cleaning. by trial. cut in 1/2-in. tubing and fancy bottles are hard to clean by washing them in the ordinary way. my fox terrier seems to realize that his usefulness Diagram of Closing Door for the day is over and begs to be put in his kennel that he may not bark at the moon as some dogs are apt to do. Frequently in stormy weather this is a disagreeable duty and I found a way to obviate it by making a trapdoor device for his kennel as shown in the sketch whereby he may lock himself in when he crosses the threshold. The connection to an electric-lamp socket is made with ordinary flexible cord. to which is attached a screw plug for making connections. long. Glass-Cleaning Solution [31] Glass tumblers. cut some of it off and try again.Pattern for Parts of the Electric Stove in diameter and 27 in. Add as much bichromate of potash as the solution will dissolve. The chemicals can be purchased cheaply from a local drug store. Stovepipe wire will answer the purpose when regular heating wire cannot be obtained. of No. This necessitates my putting him out at a time when it may not be convenient. The length of the heating wire must be determined by a test. The wire is coiled around the asbestos-covered rod. About 9-1/2 ft.

is a good size--in this compound. to cause the door to swing shut. Dallas. of oleic acid with 1 gal. but with unsatisfactory results. Syracuse. In cleaning silver. Do not wash them. If a stove bolt is inserted lengthwise through the cork with a washer on each end and the nut screwed up tightly. hot-water pot. Fig 2. the cork may be made to last longer than the supply of mucilage and can be placed in a new bottle and used over and over again. --Contributed by Victor Labadie. which have the part shown by the dotted lines at A (Fig.The outer half A of the hinged trapdoor is made heavier than the inner half B by a cleat. Texas. A Book-Holder [32] Books having a flexible back are difficult to hold in an upright position when copying from them. The tripper stick E is set between cleats C and F to hold the door open. The door then swings shut in the direction of the arrow. it is best to wash it first in hot water and white soap and then use the polishing cloths. When the dog steps on the inner half of the trapdoor B. Y. forks. Kane. These cloths will speedily clean silver or plated ware and will not soil the hands. A makeshift combination of paperweights and other books is often used. spoons and other small pieces of silver will keep bright and free from tarnish if they are slipped into cases made from the gray outing flannel and treated with the compound. --Contributed by James M. cake basket and other large pieces of silverware will keep them bright and shining. allow the pages to be turned easily and conceal the smallest possible portion of each page. --Contributed by Katharine D. 1) removed. Polishing Cloths for Silver [32] Mix 2 lb. Soak pieces of gray outing flannel of the desired size--15 by 12 in. The length of the back board determines the slope for the book rest. it falls to stop G. being careful to keep them away from the fire or an open flame. Pa. D. the latch I engaging a slot in the door as it closes. . Morse. The holder can be cut out of a box corner and fitted with two screw eyes. Doylestown. and a strip. of gasoline. The latch I is made of an old-fashioned gate latch which is mortised in the bottom joist of the kennel. and the dog has locked himself in for the night. as shown in the sketch. C. Wring the surplus fluid out and hang them up to dry. Stir and mix thoroughly. Separate bags for such pieces as the teapot. The cloths can be used until they are worn to shreds. N. Box Corner Makes a Book Holder The book-holder shown in the sketch will hold such books securely. of whiting and 1/2 oz. Knives. coffee pot. When releasing the dog in the morning the door is set for the evening. Clamping a Cork [33] It is aggravating to continually break the cork of the stock mucilage bottle because of its sticking to the neck of the bottle after a supply has been poured out. releasing tripper stick E (which is heavier on the top end H) to cause it to fall clear of the path of the trapdoor.

Ill. Harrisburg. As you strike the table the bottle will jump and release the paper. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. The hooks which serve as legs are fastened to the under side of the board in the same manner as fastening the hook to a wall. which is. They will at once jerk the paper with the result that the bottle will turn over. . Flower-Pot Stand [33] A very useful stand for flower pots can be made of a piece of board supported by four clothes hooks. of course. If the developer is well rinsed out of the film. To remove the paper just strike the table top with your right fist while pulling the paper slowly with your left hand. by squeezing a sheet of wet bromide paper into contact with the wet film and giving an exposure several times longer than would be required under ordinary conditions. Making Proofs before the Negative Dries [33] . Pa. the exposure to artificial light necessary to make a print will have no injurious effect upon the negative. --Contributed by Theodore L. Emergency Tire Repair [33] A bone collar button makes a good substitute for a plug in repairing a puncture in a single-tube bicycle tire. The top may be of any size suitable for the flower pot. The manner of holding the broom is plainly shown in the sketch. Sprout. negatives. La. New Orleans. Waverly. --Contributed by Oliver S. using the paper dry. The loose wing has a large hole drilled in it to receive the handle of the broom. Broom Holder Made of a Hinge [33] The broom holder shown in the sketch is made of an ordinary hinge with one wing screwed to the wall. A correspondent of Camera Craft makes proofs from his developed.Withdrawing Paper from under an Inverted Bottle [33] Invert a bottle on a piece of paper near the edge of a table top and ask anyone to remove the paper without overturning the bottle. but unfixed. Fisher. later fixed and washed as usual.

then . graceful sweep of the long pendulum. The prime essential in a well working harmonograph is a properly constructed universal joint. Where such a joint is made with pivots for its bearings. a harmonograph is a good prescription. Holes are drilled in each end of these stirrups and filed out as shown at C. which retards the movement and causes the harmonograph to undergo a continuous change of axis. The rounded shoulder on E is to prevent the cross from becoming displaced by a jar or accident. In this uncertainty lies the charm. The general appearance of such a joint is shown in the first illustration. the joint should be made similar to those used on scales. one pair of pivots are very liable to have more friction than the other. is exceedingly erratic when it comes to obeying any preconceived calculations of its operator.A Line Harmonograph [34] As an apparatus capable of exciting interest. A careless impetus given to the pendulum may result in a very beautiful harmonogram. metal. 1. The ends of the cross are inserted through the holes C of the stirrups. If time hangs heavily or a person is slightly nervous or uneasy. The harmonograph. No two hamonograms are exactly alike. The two holes shown in the center of the stirrup A are drilled to fasten the apparatus to the ceiling. the gyrations of which are faithfully recorded in the resulting harmonogram. The cross of the joint D has the ends shaped as shown at E. while its pendulum swings in accordance with well known natural laws. probably nothing so easily constructed surpasses the harmonograph. Fig. Your attention will be completely absorbed in the ever changing. but you may try innumerable times to duplicate this chance record without success. To obviate this difficulty. Stirrups A and B are made of 7/8 by 1/4-in. Two corresponding holes are drilled in B to fasten the long pendulum F to the joint.

Cutting Circular Holes in Thin Sheet Metal [35] In arts and crafts work. This makes a universal joint almost free from friction and. Rosemont. the tube may be drawn to a sharp point. Arizona. R. large enough to receive the spur of the expansive bit. they will not harmonize and a perfect harmonogram is not obtained. The length of the short pendulum H. 1-3/4 by 2 in.. is fastened to the lower end of the pendulum as a support for the cards on which harmonograms are made. in diameter. A few turns of the brace will cut out the circle and leave a smooth edge. one-fifth. for the swinging times of pendulums are inversely proportionate to their lengths. 1. A good stylus to contain the ink is easily made from a glass tube 1/4 in. K. which can be regulated. J. This can be determined by placing two of the knife edges on the jaws of a vise and then laying two rules across the other two edges. occasion often arises to cut a perfectly circular hole in sheet copper or brass. 4 or 5 swings to one swing of the long pendulum.. Punch a hole. Ingham. provides a means of support for the stylus. makes respectively 3. Holes up to 3 in. by drawing the two portions apart and twisting at the same time. with a length depending on the height of the ceiling. 1. should bear a certain and exactly fixed relation to the length of the main pendulum. is about right for a 10-ft. The cross must be so made that the knife edges will be in the same plane. A small weight. G. exactly one-third. in the center of the circle to be cut. Gaffney. A small table or platform. with a nail set or punch. such as a shoe buttoner. as long as the other. The stylus arm should have pin-point bearings. placed on the arm near the stylus will cause enough friction to make the pendulum "die" faster and thus remedy the trouble. Heat the tube in an alcohol or Bunsen flame and then. that is. An opening of any desired size is made in the point by rubbing it on a whetstone.slipped back so the knife edges engage in the V-shaped holes of the stirrups. for instance. Key Card for Writing Unreadable Post Cards [35] . as shown in the lower part of Fig. Fasten the sheet metal to a block of wood with handscrews or a vise. Owing to the fact that the style of universal joint described has so little friction. prevents the pendulum from twisting on its own axis. A pedestal. and unless the shorter pendulum is. A length of 7 ft. The rules should just touch the jaws of the vise and the two knife edges of the cross. what is most important. Chicago.-a box filled with small weights will do--is attached to the pendulum just above the table. the stylus point must be very Lines Made with the Harmonograph fine. in diameter can be cut quickly and accurately with an ordinary expansive bit. The pendulum F should be made of ash or oak. A weight. one-fourth. or the lines will overlap and blur. as shown in Fig. To saw and file it out takes time and skill. to prevent any side motion. of about 30 or 40 lb. --Contributed by James T. ceiling. etc. Another weight of about 10 lb. --Contributed by Wm. is attached as shown at H.

and 4 as in Fig. which cannot be read to make any sense except by use of a key card. Fig. N. dividing them into quarters. Cut out one rectangle of each number with a sharp knife. 4. quick-working wood vise that has proved very satisfactory. 6. and the excess taken up on the other end by an eccentric lever. These parts are numbered from one to six in each quarter beginning at the outside corners and following in the same order in each quarter.J. 3. 5. Morey. Fig. Toning Blue on Bromide and Platinum [36] After some experimenting to secure a blue tone on bromide prints. The Key Card The key card is used by placing it over a postal with the figure 1 at the top and writing in the spaces from left to right as usual. The result will be a jumble of words as shown in Fig. 2 at the bottom and 3 and 4 on the other side. and proceed as before. depends on the size and shape of the wedge-shaped block. 2. These quarters are subsequently divided into any convenient number of rectangular parts-six in this case. Cape May City. The wedge is worked by a string passing through the top of the bench and should be weighted on the other end to facilitate the automatic downward movement. Homemade Carpenter's Vise [36] The sketch shows an easily made. distributing them over the whole card. Chicago.H. --Contributed by J.A key card for use in correspondence on postals that makes the matter unreadable unless the recipient has a duplicate key card is made as follows: Rule two cards the size of postal. -Contributed by W. The usual screw is replaced by an open bar held on one end by a wedgeshaped block. one for the sender and one for the receiver.J. Cruger. Then put a prominent figure 1 at the top of one side. 1. The capacity of the vise. The numbering and the cutouts are shown in Fig. then put 2 at the top. The two key cards are made alike. of course. a correspondent of . then 3 as in Fig.

Put the asbestos paper on these and with the assistance of a helper begin winding on the heater coil. and the inside surfaces of the two uprights should be covered with a 1/8in. long. citrate of iron and ammonia. 30 gr. The screws that hold the uprights in position should have the heads countersunk on the under side of the base. It can be worked into shape and will hold wood screws. If constructed of the former. Wash the prints thoroughly and hang them up with clips to dry. acetic acid and 4 oz. After securing the tint desired. drill 15 holes. says Popular Electricity. thus excluding the air and keeping the bread fresh as long as there is any left to slice. The framework comprising the base and the two uprights may be made either of hardwood or asbestos board. Wind the successive turns of . The wires at the top and bottom for holding the resistance wire are covered with asbestos paper and the holes for these wires are 3/4 in. --Contributed by L. To assemble. into the inside face of each upright to support the No. 6 gauge wires shown. secure one upright in position using 1-1/2 in. Cut through the center. rinse them in clean water for a few minutes. The wires that form the cage about the heater coil and are used for a support for the toast are 15 pieces of No.the Photographic Times produced a very pleasing bluish green tint by immersing the prints in a solution composed of 30 gr. The detail drawing gives all dimensions necessary to shape the wood or asbestos board. Asbestos board is to be preferred. 22 gauge German-silver wire. or thin asbestos board may be substituted for this lining. of 18-per-cent No. sheet of well made asbestos paper. respectively. and then place them in a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. wood-screws. the portion of the base under the coil. 1/4 in. remove the prints. Ga. of water. then cut slices from the center toward the ends. 1/2 oz. of the uprights. of ferricyanide of potash. Alberta Norrell. deep. How to Make an Electric Toaster [37] The electric toaster shown in the sketch is not hard to make. from the top and bottom. and this material in almost any degree of hardness may be purchased. 6 gauge iron wire each 8 in. After preparing the base and uprights. Toaster Complete Use 80 ft. Place the other upright where it belongs without fastening it and put the stretcher wires for holding the resistance wire in place. Augusta. The binding-posts should now be set in position and their protecting covering Detail of Toaster containing the reinforced cord left until the other parts are finished. Cutting Loaf Bread [36] When cutting a loaf of bread do not slice it from the outer crusted end. The two cut surfaces can be placed together.

wire so they will not touch each other and fasten at each end with a turn or two of No. Ampere. then fasten the upright in place. 16 gauge copper wire. which. --Contributed by Frederick E. 14 gauge. This toaster will take four amperes on 110-volt circuit. A very easily made cabinet for this purpose is shown in the accompanying illustration. as the spaces shown between the drawers give ample room to grasp them with the fingers. Y. Ward. by giving them the same treatment as was once used on films. Labels of some kind are needed. The case may be made of 1/2-in. Empty Cigar Boxes Used for Drawers Uncurling Photographs [38] Photograph prints can be kept from curling when dry. These may be procured from electrical supply houses. as they are usually thrown away when empty. which is held in place by double-headed tacks containing an insulation at the head. may be readily obtained from any cigar dealer. white pine or white wood of a suitable size to hold the required number of drawers which slide on strips of the same material. but these are not necessary. The drawers are made of empty cigar boxes of uniform size. and one of the neatest things for this purpose is the embossed aluminum label. rivets. instead of leaving them scattered all about the bench. such as is stamped by the well known penny-in-the-slot machines to be found in many railroad stations and amusement places. Cabinet for the Amateur's Workshop [37] One of the most convenient adjuncts to an amateur's workbench is a cabinet of some sort in which to keep nails. etc. cut and dressed 1/2 in. When this is complete have the helper hold the stretcher wires while you tip the unfastened upright out and insert the wires of the cage.. Immerse for 5 minutes in a bath made by adding . if one is not a smoker. Small knobs may be added if desired. screws. The wire from the binding-posts to the coil may be what is known underwriters' wire or asbestos-covered wire No. Connect the reinforced cord and terminals to the binding screws and fasten the cover in place. square. N.

Certain metals are easier to join with solder than others and some cannot be soldered at all." Place the parts to be soldered in their correct position and apply the hot copper to the solder. Wis. a small file and a piece of sal ammoniac. gold and silver or any combination of these metals can be easily soldered. E and F. I have one made of mahogany finished in natural color. The parts to be soldered must be thoroughly cleaned by sandpapering or the use of steel wool until the metal shows up bright. Jaquythe. A. This process is best accomplished in an open earthenware dish. especially if a large tub is used. or has become corroded. Soldering for the Amateur [38] Successful soldering will present no serious difficulties to anyone who will follow a few simple directions. it must be ground or filed to a point. --Contributed by W. A little practice will soon teach the requisite amount of solder and the smoothness required for a good job. The amount of material required is very small and can be made from scrap. then to the joint to be soldered. It is necessary to possess a soldering copper. --C. In joining large pieces it is best to "stick" them together in several places to hold the work before trying to get all around them. as too hot an iron will burn off the tinning. If the soldering copper is an old one. as shown in the sketch. The dimensions given in the detail drawings are sufficient for anyone to make this bracket.14 oz. C. following around with the copper and applying solder as is necessary. particularly so when the iron has once been used. a piece of solder. brass. and labeled "Poison. In soldering galvanized iron. After the copper is tinned you may place it in the fire again. Ark. A Mission Bracket Shelf [39] The shelf consists of six pieces of wood A. After the acid has ceased to boil and becomes cool it may be poured into a wide-mouthed bottle which has a good top or stopper. of water. The material can be of any wood. being careful about the heat. . Larson. This process is known as tinning the iron and is very necessary to successful work. melt a little solder on the sal ammoniac. The parts are put together with dowel pins. --Contributed by A. sandpaper or steel wool. the pure muriatic acid should be used. and rub the point of the copper on it. The washboard can be kept in place with small metal hooks. while iron and aluminum are common metals that cannot be soldered. zinc. Two of these are fastened to the back of Clip on the Washboard the washboard in the right place to keep it at the proper slant. turning the copper over to thoroughly tin the point on each face. Heat it until hot (not red hot). Richmond. or in a bent piece of tin to form a swab. or purchased from a mill surfaced and sanded. Kenosha. and one made of poplar finished black. G. tinner's acid.. lead. D. B. Then apply the acid only to the parts to be soldered with a small stiff brush or a small piece of cloth fastened to a stick. of glycerine to 16 oz. Copper. California. tin. S. This is considerable annoyance. Washboard Holder [39] When using a washboard it will continually slip down in the tub. galvanized iron. Eureka Springs. Tinner's acid is made by putting as much zinc in commercial muriatic acid as will dissolve.

The disk will come out pan shaped. thick and 1-1/4 in. in diameter. I bind my magazines at home evenings. Hold the punch as nearly central as possible when starting to drive the metal through the hole. Brass rings can be plated when finished. a ring may be made from any metal. Place the band. wide. such as copper. on a stick so that the edges can be filed and rounded to shape. slightly rounded on the end so that it will not cut through the metal disk. The bound volumes make an attractive library and will always be valuable works of reference along mechanical lines. Countersink the top of the hole so that the full diameter of the countersink will be 1-1/4 in. The metal used should be about 1/16 in. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. round iron. in diameter. or a hole drilled the desired size in a piece of iron plate will do as well. Six issues make a well proportioned book. 2. D. is made of a piece of 5/8 in. Fig. The punch A. nut. B. and it is only necessary to remove the bottom of the pan to have a band which will leave a hole 5/8 in. The covers of the magazines are removed. 7/8 in. and drill out the threads. Fig. This will leave a clear hole. Y. N. Troy. -Contributed by H. 1. the wire binders pulled out with a pair of . brass and silver. by the following method: All the tools necessary are a die and punch which are simple to make and will form a ring that will fit the average finger. with good results. Apart from this. Anneal it properly by heating and plunging in water. The dimensions shown in Fig. 1 can be changed to suit the size of the finger to be fitted. This completes the die.Details of the Wall Bracket How to Make a Finger Ring [39] While the wearing of copper rings for rheumatism may be a foolish notion. Take a 3/4-in. Finish with fine emery cloth and polish. How to Bind Magazines [40] A great many readers of Popular Mechanics Magazine save their copies and have them bound in book form and some keep them without binding. W. C. yet there is a certain galvanic action Tools for Forming the Ring set up by the contact of the acid in the system of the afflicted person with the metal of the ring. which gives two bound volumes each year. if such metals are in plate or sheet form. however. Lay it on the die so that it will fit nicely in the countersink and drive it through the hole by striking the punch with a hammer. Hankin.

through the notch on the left side of the string No. 1 in Fig. 2 before the work can be continued on the book. is nailed across the top. on all edges except the back. 2. passing it around the string and tying in the same manner as for No. Be sure that all sections are in their right places and that the flyleaves are provided in the front and back. larger on all edges than both covers and space on the back. 1 to 2 then to 3 and so on until all strings are tied. Five cuts. Start with the front of the book. making either one or two double sections for each side as desired. The sections are then prepared for sewing. Take hold of the needle with the right hand and pass it to the left around the string No. The fibers of these ends are separated and combed out so that they can be glued to the covers to serve as a hinge. threaded double. The paper is cut double the same as the leaves comprising the sections. The covering can be of cloth. and place them against the strings in the frame. of the ends extending on each side. are made with a saw across the back of the sections. Procure heavy cardboard for the covers and cut two pieces 1/2 in. A piece of soft fiber string is stretched from each nail to the crosspiece C and tied. and measure the distance between the back edges of the covers across the back of the book.4. and each section is placed as they were in the magazine upon each preceding one until all six numbers have been prepared. leather or paper according to the taste and resources of the maker. They are then placed between two pieces of board and all clamped in a vise. then back through the notch on the right side. 2. The frame is easily made of four pieces of wood. allowing about 2 in. allowing a margin of 1/4 in. Small nails are driven part way into the base C to correspond to the saw cuts in the sections. the needle being passed through the notch on the right side of the string No. Ordinary liquid glue is the best adhesive to use. and then to string No. 1. Coarse white thread. The bottom piece A should be a little larger than the book. passing around on the right side and back on the left and so on. Each section is fastened to the five strings in the same manner. . The two upright pieces B are nailed to the outside edge. Place the left hand on the inside of the leaves where they are folded and start a blunt needle. If started with the January or the July issue. longer and just the same width as the magazine pages. a pocket knife to separate them if they stick. leaving the needle on the outside in position for the next section. 1. as shown in Fig. A frame for sewing will have to be made as shown in Fig. is used for the sewing material. after which it will be found that the remainder is in sections. the pages will be numbered consecutively through the entire pages of the six issues. 1/8 in. size 16 or larger. Fasten the thread by tying or making a knot in the end and passing the needle through it. 5. After the sewing is completed cut the strings. which is fastened the same as the first. and a third piece. the thread being carried across from each tie from No. The string No. After drawing the thread tightly. They are evened up on the edges by jarring on a flat surface. pass the needle through the notch on the left side of the string No. each section containing four double leaves or sixteen pages. which should be notched the same as the saw cuts in the book sections. A piece of cheesecloth is cut to the size of the back and glued to it.pliers and the advertising pages removed from both sides. using . The covering should be cut out 1 in. Take the sections of the flyleaves on top. Keep the thread drawn up tightly all the time. C. 1. 5 is treated in the same manner only that the needle is run through on the left side of the string a second time. Place the cardboard covers on the book. Heavy plain paper is used for the flyleaves. deep. These sections are each removed in turn from the others.

Place the cardboard covers on the back of the covering the proper distance apart as measured for the back. Metal Coverings for Leather Hinges [41] A method of making a leather hinge work as well as an ordinary steel butt is to cover the wings with sheet metal. then glue the first flyleaf to the inside of the cover on both front and back and place the whole under a weight until dry. Encanto. on which to hook the blade. fold over the outside edges of the covering and glue it down all around. Tinplate. Removing Plaster from Skin [41] A hot-water bottle held against a porous plaster will assist in quickly removing it from the skin. Place the cover on the book in the right position. Nebr. glue the hinges fast to the inside of the covers. How to Make a Cheap Bracket Saw [42] For the frame use 3/8-in. --Contributed by Clyde E. Divine. iron Metal Parts Screwed on Leather Hinge hoops. after gluing The Bound Book a strip of paper to the covering between the covers to strengthen the back. For the blade an old talking-machine . at opposite sides to each other. Cut a notch out of the covering so it will fold in. Spread thin coat of glue on the surface of each and lay them on by the marks made. Cal. and. round iron. bending it as shown in the diagram and filing a knob on each end. --Contributed by Tom Hutchinson. and mark around each one. The metal can be fastened with nails or screws over the parts of the leather attached to the wood. College View. zinc or thin brass cut in neat designs will make a leather hinge appear as well as a metal hinge.

A. Then on the board put . at the same end. Screw the plug and pipe up tightly and then drill a 1/16-in. nail another brush (E) so that it projects at both sides and is bent down to the level of the end brush. as shown. --Contributed by Carson Birkhead. with a steel sleeve. Controller for a Small Motor [42] An easy way of making a controlling and reversing device for small motors is as follows: Cut a piece of wood (A) about 6 in. as it is sometimes called. Heat the spring enough to take some of the temper out of it. in order to drill the holes in the ends. E. and a long thread plug. bore. Ohio. thick.. with 10 teeth to the inch. Be sure to get hydraulic pipe. and 1/4 in. by 4-1/2 in. or double extra heavy. C. by means of a U-bolt or large staple. and 1/4 in.Hacksaw Frame and Blade spring or a clock spring will do nicely. On the upper side. fuse hole at D. long. by 1 in. Summitville. B. and another piece (B) 6 in. hydraulic pipe. Hays. Drive a nail through this near the center for a pivot (C). How to Make a Cannon [42] A cannon like the one in the cut may be made from a piece of 1-in. as common gas pipe is entirely too light for this purpose. Make the blade 12 in. thick. and file in the teeth.. -Contributed by Willard J. Seven or eight inches is about the right length for a 1-in. Moorhead. To the under side of one end nail a copper brush (D) to extend out about an inch. F. A and B show how the blade fits on the frame. If desired the cannon may be mounted on a block of wood. Miss. Don't have the pipe too long or the cannon will not make as much Toy Cannon noise.

18 gauge wire for the wiring. Connect these tacks on the under side of the board with coils of German-silver wire. of rubber-covered wire. Then nail two strips of copper (G) in such position that the side brush will remain on the one as long as the end brush remains on the tacks on that side. the jars need not be very large. --Contributed by Chas. Jars are set in a row in some convenient place out of . about 5 ft. raising the board a little from the bottom to allow room for the coil. 4 jars. so that the end brush will come in contact with each one. and some No. some sheet copper or brass for plates. but if you intend to use the electric light current of 110 voltage it will be necessary to use large jars or wooden boxes made watertight. high around this apparatus. Fix these by soldering or bending over the ends of the tacks. A lid may be added if desired. Connect up as shown. which will hold about 6 or 7 gal. Put sides about 1-1/2 in. Each jar to be filled with 20 parts water to 1 part sulphuric acid. Boyd. If you are going to use a current of low tension. Philadelphia. How to Make a Simple Water Rheostat [43] Wiring Plan for Water Rheostat The materials necessary are: One 5-point wood-base switch. of wire to each coil. The size of the jars depends on the voltage. leaving a small space at the middle and placing five tacks on either side. as from batteries. H. using about 8 in.Reverse for Motor a semi-circle of brass-headed tacks as shown at F.

two pieces 30 in. 4) of 3/4-in. 7 in. Use no screws on the running surface. A variation of 1/16 in. cold-rolled steel flattened at the ends for screw holes. B and C. long. Fasten them on the under side of the baseboard at right angles to its length and 16 in.. Bevel it toward all sides and keep the edges sharp. An iron washer. by 1 in. wide. oak boards. B. 2. with the cushion about 15 in. The sled completed should be 15 ft. 27 B. by 6 in. 1 and so on for No. On the upper side of the cross bars at their ends on each side screw a piece of oak 1 in. The accompanying instructions for building a sled are designed to produce these results. The mechanism of the front steering gear is shown at Fig. A 3/4-in. 1. C. by 1-1/4 in. Flatten the steering rod at one end and sink it into the wood. & S. long. The speed for each point can be determined by lowering top disks in jars. 2. 1 and make contact with wire above jars. The illustration shows how to shape it. on No. wide on all the front edges and pieces 3 in. The connection between point No. then apply a coat of thin enamel. square on the cross bars to rest the feet against. one way or another would cause a great deal of trouble. 11 in. 3 in. BOETTE The first object of the builder of a sled should be to have a "winner" both in speed and appearance. 2 is lower down than in No.the way. Hold it in place by means of an iron plate drilled to receive the rod and screwed to block X. sheet brass 1 in. How to Build a Toboggan Sled [44] By A.. 5 on switch. 15-1/2 in. See Fig. two for each jar. 2 in. The stock required for them is oak. however. wide by 3/4 in. In proportioning them the points A. Fig. bevel block K to give a rocker motion. For the back of the sled use the upper part of a child's high chair. thick. will be left without cross bars for fitting on the auto front. First sandpaper all the wood. refer to the sketch and you will see that jar No. as they are not substantial enough. Three coats of enamel and one of thin varnish will make a fine-looking sled. The screw eyes indicated must be placed in a straight line and the holes for them carefully centered. To wire the apparatus. Z. as sharp edges are best suited for the brass trimmings which are to be added. by 2 in. Construct the auto front (Fig. as they "snatch" the ice.. C. by 1-1/4 in. 3 and No. B. The arm of the switch is connected to one terminal of battery. 34 in. 1 on switch. This wire is also connected to one terminal on the motor and to remaining point on switch. Use no nails. . 3. wide and 3/4 in. steel rod makes a good steering rod. square by 14 ft. long. above the ground. Equip block X with screw eyes. wide and 2 in. long by 22 in. are important. 1 is connected to point No.. direct to wire across jars. Fit up the baseboard with ten oak foot-rests 22 in. The top disk in jar No. For the steel runners use 3/8 in. is used to reduce friction... 4. Put arm of switch on point No. two pieces 14 in. by 5 in. beginning at the rear. making them clear those in the front runner. For the front runners these measurements are: A. and the other terminal connected direct to remaining terminal of motor. For the rear runner put a block with screw eyes on the baseboard and run a bolt through. At the front 24 or 26 in. long. The construction of the runners is shown by Figs. gives full current and full speed. Next cut out eight copper or brass disks. 4 in.. The current then will flow through the motor. and so on until all is complete and we have one remaining point on switch. 2 and 3. 16-1/2 in. 2. or source of current. These are to keep the cushion from falling out. On the door of the auto front put the . and bolt through. two pieces 34 in. On the upper side of the baseboard at its edge on each side screw an oak strip 3 in. No. The disks that are placed in the lower part of the jars are connected with a rubber covered wire extending a little above the top of the jar. Above the jars place a wire to suspend the other or top disks in the solution. They should be put together with large screws about 3 in. 30 in. and four pieces 14 in. For the baseboard select a pine board 15 ft. Their size also depends on the voltage. thick. apart. and plane it on all edges. and for the rear runners: A. thick and the length of the sled from the back to the auto front. by 5 in. by 2 in. Cover up the outside of the spindles with a piece of galvanized iron. taking out the spindles and resetting them in the rear end of the baseboard. Let stand for three days and apply another coat. For the brass trimmings use No. 1 and lower one of the top disks in jar No. When the auto front is in place enamel the sled either a dark maroon or a creamy white.

bring the cord through to the underside of the cushion. brass plated. If the expense is greater than one can afford. With a lead pencil make an outline of the inscription to be burnt on the . or with these for $25. sew up one end and make in Construction a "Winner" Toboggan Sled the form of an oblong bag. The door of the auto front should be hinged and provided with a lock so that skates. to the wheel. such as used on automobiles. A silk pennant with a monogram adds to the appearance. and the pleasure derived from it well repays the builder. This sled can be made without lamps and horn at a cost of about $15. so pivoted that moving the handle will cause the end to scrape the ice. Fasten a horn. overshoes. The best way is to get some strong. may be stowed within. such as burlap. a brake may be added to the sled. If desired. lunch. sewing it to the burlap on the under side. Then put a leather covering over the burlap. and fasten the button by slipping a nail through the knot. Then get some upholstery buttons. and it is well to have a light of some kind at the back to avoid the danger of rear-end collisions. Make the cushion for the back in the same way. This can be a wrought-iron lever 1-1/2 in. On top of the cushion supports run a brass tube to serve the double purpose of holding the cushion down and affording something to hold on to. Make the cushion of leather and stuff it with hair. to improve the appearance. by 30 in. fasten a cord through the loop. by 1/2 in. cutting it out of sheet brass.monogram of the owner or owners of the sled. a number of boys may share in the ownership. which is somewhat moist. parcels. Stuff this as tightly as possible with hair. Burning Inscriptions on Trees Scrape off the bark just enough to come to the first light under coating. bicycle lamps may be fastened to the front end. cheap material. For the steering-wheel procure an old freight-car "brake" wheel. long. If desired. etc.

The tree will be burnt along the pencil marks. and if the glass is not held in one spot too long. Ill. the rays of a large magnifying glass not quite to a fine focus on the same.tree and bring. . the inscription will be burnt in as evenly as if it had been written. --Contributed by Stewart H. Leland. Lexington.

The first tooth may now be cut. A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel. outside diameter and 1/16 in. With no other tools than a hacksaw. thick. and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle. Draw a circle on paper. 1. care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. the cut will be central on the line. The straight-edge. A small clearance space. Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. from F to G. by drawing diameters. the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread. say 1 in. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle. CD. This guide should have a beveled edge. may also be cut with a hacksaw and file. will be over the line FG. though more difficult. Fig. Fig. fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide. 4). made from 1/16-in. How to Make Four Pictures on One Plate [46] Secure two extra slides for the plate holders and cut one corner out on one . The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side. with twenty-four teeth. E. 2. FC. Making Model Wheels and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill. so that the center of the blade. when flat against it. and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. mild steel or iron. some files. either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction. a compass. and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness. sheet metal. First take the case of a small gearwheel.How to Make Small Gearwheels Without a Lathe [46] To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required. which. Fig. The Model Engineer. London. 3. should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades. must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass. the same diameter as the wheel. The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise. but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. says if this is done and the saw-guide well made.

Interesting Electrical Experiment [47] The materials necessary for performing this experiment are: Telephone receiver. B. Run a line from the inside of the house to the inside of some other building and fasten it to one terminal of the receiver. Electric Blue-Light Experiment [47] Take a jump-spark coil and connect it up with a battery and start the vibrator. Focus the camera in the usual manner. some wire and some carbons. Then take one outlet wire. 1. but get the picture desired to fill only one of the parts on the ground glass.Four Photos on One Plate of them. electric lamp. place the prepared slide with the corner cut. To the other terminal fasten another piece of wire and ground it on the water faucet in the house. and press all fingers of the other hand on globe at point A. The slide may be turned over for the upper left hand corner and then changed for slide shown in Fig. This will divide the ground glass into four equal parts. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. blue light will come from the wires in the lamp to the surface of the globe where the fingers touch. each in the center. or several pieces bound tightly together. substitute one of the slides prepared and expose in the usual way. With a lead pencil draw on the ground glass one line vertical and one horizontal. If there is no faucet in the house. ground it with a large piece of zinc. No shock will be perceptible. and the other outlet wire. and connect to one side of a 2-cp. R. or ones taken from old dry batteries will do. 2. as shown in Fig. hold in one hand. . Place the plate-holder in position and draw the regular slide. B. The ground here should consist either of a large piece of carbon. A bright. either the pencils for arc lamps. 1. transmitter. 2 for the upper and lower right-hand corners. If a small picture is to be made in the lower left-hand corner of the plate. Make a hole in the other. Fasten the other end to one terminal of the transmitter and from the other terminal of the same run a wire into the ground.

by which means they are fastened to the wooden block A. Continue the process of alternate layers of plaster and wire until 500 ft. Wrenn. One like a loaf of bread. Several battery cells. which closes the circuit and rings the bell in the house. How to Make a Small Electric Furnace [48] Take a block of wood and shape into a core. If a fire occurs in the hay-mow the blaze will generally shoot toward the gable soon after it starts. Then set the whole core away to dry. Emsworth. They have screw ends. J. of course. by 1 in. under the gable. Ashland. G is a leather strap fastened to the weight B and the spring F connected to the latter by a small sink bolt. one at the receiver can hear what is said. the string may be stretched back and forth under the roof several times or drawn through any place that is in danger of fire. and will then burn the string C. Wrap a layer of asbestos around it and cover this with a thin layer of plaster-of-paris. When the plaster is nearly dry wind a coil of No. and one wire from the bell and one from the battery are strung to the barn and connected to the binding posts D D. B is an iron weight attached to the string C. for the voice vibrating the diaphragm causes an inductive current to flow and the other receiver copies these vibrations. For a base use a pine board 10 in. and again wind the wire around it. then over a hook or pulley and across the barn. by 12 in. as indicated by E E. But in this experiment. A Cheap Fire Alarm [47] An electrical device for the barn that will give an alarm in case of fire is shown in the accompanying diagram. as shown. Pa. a transmitter which induces no current is used. It is a well known fact that two telephone receivers connected up in this way will transmit words between two persons. They also hold the brass piece E and the strip of spring brass F in place against the wooden block. --Contributed by Geo. Slattery. The battery cells and bell are connected in the usual manner. If desired. are also needed. Connect the holes in pairs by ordinary house fuse . A is a wooden block. taking care that the wire does not touch itself anywhere. Put another course of plaster-of-paris on this. which allows the weight B to fall and pull the brass spring against the iron piece E.A Unique Battery If a person speak into the transmitter. which is fastened under the loft at a gable end of the barn. and is fastened to the opposite end of the barn. Electric Fire Alarm At the house an electric bell is placed wherever convenient. D D are binding posts for electric wires. and about that size. 36 wire around it. and this string passes up through the barn to the roof. Ohio. at each end for terminals. leaving about 10 in. or more of the latter has been used. Bore four holes at one end for binding-posts. serves admirably. Dry batteries are most convenient. even though there are no batteries in the circuit. B. Do the carbon and the zinc and the moist earth form a battery? --Contributed by Wm.

Connect these three to switch. Fig. D. Newark. Ohio. Turn on switch. the terminal of the coil. Jr.wire. Fig. in series with bindingpost. The coil will commence to become warm. and for the benefit of those who wish to construct such an instrument the following description is given: The operative principle Complete Ammeter and Details of this instrument is the same as that of a galvanometer. The only adjustment necessary is that of leveling. soon drying out the plaster-of-paris. run a No. connecting lamp receptacles. --Contributed by Eugene Tuttles. by bending a piece of sheet brass to the shape indicated and tapping for the screws CC. as shown. B B. for the . These should have hollow ends. while C is open. How to Make an Ammeter [49] Every amateur mechanic who performs electrical experiments will find use for an ammeter. From the other set of binding-posts. B B. 2. 1. First make a support. lights in the receptacles and connect the fuses with a 110-volt lighting circuit. C. To obtain more heat Electric Furnace open one lamp. Place another switch at I and another binding-post at F. as shown. 12 or No. This is accomplished by making the needle revolve in a vertical instead of a horizontal plane. E. Connect the ends of the wire to binding-posts E and F. until the hand points to zero on the scale. 14 wire. in parallel. Place 16-cp.. except that its working position is not confined to the magnetic meridian. The oven is now ready to be connected. Withdraw the wooden core from the coils of wire and secure the latter by bands of tin to the board. and switch. C. and to obtain still more open the other and close switch C. F. D. and the lamps. The apparatus is now ready for operation. which is accomplished by turning the thumbscrew shown at A. At one side secure two receptacles. and one single post switch.

The ends of the wire are fastened to the binding posts B and C. To make a voltmeter out of this instrument. 14. 3. 10 turns to each layer. but if for a 4way. etc. C. although brass is better. Be sure to have valve B turned so as to drill at right angles to the opening through it. Solder to the short end a piece of brass. A wooden box. If the pointer is correctly balanced it should take the position shown in Fig. is made of wire. the size depending on the number of amperes to be measured. 5. until the scale is full. After drilling. Fig. Dussault. How to Make a Three-Way Cock for Small Model-Work [50] In making models of machines it is often necessary to contrive some method for a 3. as the eddy currents set up in a conductor surrounding a magnet tend to stop oscillation of the magnet. D. Montreal. a variable resistance.or 4-way valve or cock. To calibrate the instrument connect as shown in Fig. This may be made of wood. Throw in enough resistance to make the standard instrument read 1 ohm [sic: ampere] and then put a mark on the paper scale of the instrument to be calibrated. It is 1 in. To make one. The core. Mine is wound with two layers of No. where A is the homemade ammeter. 5. aluminum being preferable for this purpose. is then made and provided with a glass front. Make the wire 4-1/2 in. long. and through this hole drive a piece of knitting-needle about 1/2 in. wide and 1/8 in. 1/2 in. it should be filed a little at one end until it assumes the position indicated. The pointer or hand.purpose of receiving the pivoted axle which supports the hand. deep. thick. Next make a brass frame as shown in Fig. remove the valve. to prevent it turning on the axle. consisting of three or more cells connected in multiple. E. 36 magnet wire instead of No. from the lower end.. The ends of this small axle should be ground pointed and should turn easily in the cavities. 4 in. secure a pet cock and drill and tap hole through. 2. a battery. B. drill a hole as shown at H. 3 amperes. 4 amperes. wide and 1-3/4 in. as shown in the cut. is made of iron. 4. but if it is not exactly right a little filing will bring it near enough so that it may be corrected by the adjusting-screw. which is then fastened in the box in such a position that the hand or pointer will lie close to the paper scale. as the sensitiveness of the instrument depends on the ease with which this axle turns. At a point a little above the center. (The core is magnetized when a current flows through the instrument. and the whole thing is again placed in position in the support. Easy Experiments with Electric-Light Circuit [50] An electric-light circuit will be found much less expensive than batteries for . or long enough to reach between the two screws shown in Fig. and is about right for ordinary experimental purposes. take off the burr with a piece of emery paper and replace ready for work. After everything is assembled put a drop of solder on the loop at D. wind with plenty of No. long. long and make a loop. 1/4 in. If for 3-way. Fig. a standard ammeter. A piece of paper is pasted on a piece of wood. high.) The brass frame is wound with magnet wire. Fig. This is slipped on the pivot. of such weight that it will exactly balance the weight of the hand. --Contributed by J. drill through the entire case and valve. and D.E. or if it is desired to make an instrument for measuring both volts and amperes. D. 1. 7. 6. The box is 5-1/2 in. 14 wire. although copper or steel will do. drill in only to the opening already through. 1. inside measurements. Continue in this way with 2 amperes. use both windings and connect to two pairs of binding posts. After assembling the core as shown in Fig. Fig.

in diameter. F. turn the current on strong and bring the points of the carbons together. and the other connects with the water rheostat. A. Although it is a costly instrument to purchase. it can be made with practically no expense and the construction is very simple.performing electrical experiments. provided with a rubber stopper. in thickness . When the metal rod is lowered the current increases. C is filled nearly to the top with salt water. Arc-Light Motor and Water Rheostat A tin can. and as it is withdrawn the current grows weaker. One wire runs to the switch. The light is removed and a plug with wire connections is put in its place. The sketch shows how a small arc light and motor may be connected to the light socket. In this way the desired amount of current can be obtained. either one may be operated by turning switch B to the corresponding point. By connecting the motor. From a sheet of lead 1/16 in. To start the light. How to Make an Interrupter [51] The Wenult interrupter is an instrument much used on large coils and is far more efficient than the usual Details of Interrupter form of vibrators. then separate slightly by twisting the upper carbon and at the same time drawing it through the hole. The arc light is easily made by fastening two electric light carbons in a wooden frame like that shown. First procure a wide-mouthed bottle about 4 in. B. is passed through a piece of wood fastened at the top of the can. and the arc light. which is used for reducing the current. E. It can also be used with success on small coils as well as large. and a metal rod. This stopper should be pierced. as shown. D. making two holes about 1/4 in. high.

Fig. as shown in B. and fasten a small bindingpost on one end and stick the other into the tube. where he is placed in an upright open . The interrupter as it is when complete is shown at D. B. leaving the small strip at the top projecting through the neck of the bottle. Having fixed the lead plate in position. should be inserted in vibrator to prevent it from working. Having finished the interrupter. Y. Common tea lead folded several times will serve the purpose. To insert the lead plate. N. 1. as shown in C. A Miniature "Pepper's Ghost" Illusion [52] Probably many readers have seen a "Pepper's Ghost" illusion at some amusement place. Fig. In the hole nearest the lead plate insert a small glass funnel. Fig. 1. next get a piece of glass tube having a bore of about 1/32 of an inch in diameter. One of the audience is invited onto the stage. connect it with the electric-light circuit as shown in Fig. Jones.The Completed Instrument cut a piece shaped like A. As there shown. A small binding-post is fastened at the end of the strip. Add sulphuric acid until the water level rises about 1/16 in. If the interrupter does not work at first. long. 2. there will be a loud crackling noise from the interrupter. A piece of wood. Insert this tube in the hole in the stopper farthest from the lead plate. Carthage. 2. Turn on the current and press the button. This wire should fit the hole in the tube so it can be easily moved. Bend this strip to one side and fit in the stopper. add more sulphuric acid through the funnel and press the wire down a little more into the liquid. the audience is generally seated in a dark room at the end of which there is a stage with black hangings. When in the bottle this lead should be of such a size that it will only reach half way around. --Contributed by Harold L. Get a piece of wire that will fit the tube and about 6 in. If all adjustments are correct. Adjust the wire in the small glass tube so that it projects about 1/8 in. roll it up so it will pass through the neck of the bottle. A. Fill the bottle with water to about the line as shown in D. then smooth it out with a small stick until it fits against the side. A piece of an old thermometer tube will serve this purpose. Fig. 1. a violet flame will appear at the end of the wire and a hot spark will pass between the secondary terminals.

and it should be free from scratches and imperfections. L and M. light-colored garments. Since the stage should be some distance from the audience. giving a limp. The perfectly black surface behind the glass now acts like the silver backing for a mirror. figures and lights. The method of causing the skeleton to dance is shown in the front view. from which the gong has been removed. and his clothes and flesh gradually fade away till nothing but his skeleton remains. The glass should be the clearest possible. and the object upon which the light is now turned--in this case the skeleton--is reflected in the glass. until it is dark there. which can be run by three dry cells. The figure is hung from the neck by a blackened stiff wire attached to the hammer wire of an electric bell. but the proper tilt can be found readily by experiment. has been so designed that if the stage is placed on a mantle or other high shelf. The skeleton then fades away and the man is restored again. within the limits of an ordinary room. Hence the coffin and its occupant are seen through the glass very plainly. could expect from a skeleton. A white shroud is thrown over his body. inclined at an angle so as to reflect objects located behind the scenes. The lights. A simple explanation is given in the Model Engineer. by 7-1/2 in. should be colored a dull black. This can well be done by painting with a solution of lampblack in turpentine. loosejointed effect. and can be bought at Japanese stores. but so clear as to be invisible to the audience and the man in the coffin. If everything is not black. They need to give a fairly strong light. the illusion will be spoiled. It should preferably be one with arms suspended by small spiral springs. which requires no special skill except that of carpentry. dressed in brilliant. All . and wave his arms up and down.coffin. inside dimensions. the image of A will appear upright to an observer sitting in a chair some distance away. If it is desired to place the box lower down. which should have a conical tin reflector to increase its brilliancy and prevent its being reflected in the glass. The box containing the stage should be 14 in. The model. especially the joints and background near A. A. When the bell works he will kick against the rear wall. Between the audience and the coffin is a sheet of transparent glass.. The box need not be made of particularly good wood. appearing to the audience as if really occupying the stage. the angle of the glass and the inclination of the doll. especially L. as the entire interior. with the exception of the glass. which immediately begins to dance a horrible rattling jig. should be miniature electric lamps. Its edges should nowhere be visible. to aid the illusion. The figure A should be a doll about 4 in. The lights in front of the glass (behind the scenes) are now raised very gradually as those behind the glass are turned down. high. The electric connections are so simple that they are not shown in the drawings. The skeleton is made of papier maché. and must be thoroughly cleansed. other angles for the image and glass may be found necessary. At the beginning the stage is lighted only from behind the glass. is constructed as shown in the drawings. by 7 in. thus giving as realistic a dance as anyone.

Experiment with Colored Electric Lamps [53] To many the following experiment may be much more easily performed than explained: Place the hand or other object in the light coming from two incandescent lamps. When the button is pressed or the circuit closed in some other way the discharge occurs. Fry. fat spark. and a press button in circuit with the bell and its cell. Cal. a double-pointed rheostat could be used. square block. These were connected to terminals of an induction coil. The entire screen will then appear to be a vivid green for about one second. as shown in the sketch. W. so that as one light dims the other increases in brilliancy. To Explode Powder with Electricity [53] A 1-in. If a gradual transformation is desired. The distance between the nail points--which must be bright and clean--should be just enough to give a good. --Contributed by Geo. Two finishing nails were driven in. hole was bored in the center of a 2-in. After everything was ready the powder was poured in the hole and a board weighted with rocks placed over the block. after which it assumes its normal color. one red and Two-Colored Hand one white. A similar experiment consists in first turning on the red light for about a minute and then turning it off at the same time that the white one is turned on.that is necessary is a two-point switch. Portions of the shadow will then appear to be a bright green. by which either L or M can be placed in circuit with the battery. and allow the shadow to fall on a white screen such as a table-cloth. Simple Wireless System [54] The illustrations will make plain a simple and inexpensive apparatus for . San Jose. With a clear glass and a dark room this model has proved to be fully as bewildering as its prototype. placed about a foot apart. by the insertion and removal of resistance coils.

1 is seen the sending apparatus. One of these plates is connected to metal top. If a lighted match . F. connected with an ordinary telephone receiver. the other wire being soldered to the metal top of the jar. consisting of a 40-cell battery connected with two copper plates 36 by 36 by 1/8 in. which is filled with water and inverted over a pan of water. Stop Crawling Water Colors [54] To prevent water colors from crawling. The plates E can be made of tin or galvanized iron. to make it airtight. If the receiver is removed when half full of gas. by small pieces of wood. and should be separated about 1/8 in. A (see sketch). The jar is partly filled with a very dilute solution of sulphuric acid. the remaining space will be filled with air. and the wire from the other passes through the tube B. hydrogen gas is generated. Hydrogen Generator The gas bubbling up displaces the water and fills the bottle. 2 are seen duplicates of these insulated plates. This wire connects to one side of a battery of two cells.Simple Wireless System wireless telegraphy by which I have had no difficulty in sending messages across 1-1/2 miles of water surface. Small Electrical Hydrogen Generator [54] A small hydrogen generator may be made from a fruit jar. into the receiver G. The plates are separated 6 in. -Contributed by Dudley H. as shown. B and C. In Fig. which is filled with melted rosin or wax. This is a wide-mouth bottle. When the current of electricity passes between the plates E. add a few drops of ammonia or lime water. which rises and passes through the rubber hose D. and I believe that in a short time I shall be able to perfect this system so as to send wireless messages over long distances. which will mix with the gas and form an explosive mixture. about 1 part of acid to 20 of water. 1. by a piece of hard rubber at each end. with two tubes. In Fig. It is so simple that the cuts scarcely need explanation. With this receiver I can hear distinctly the electric signals made by closing and opening the Morse key in Fig. New York. soldered in the top. Cohen. or a solution of sal soda.

The steel core should be wound with about 250 ft. as the presence of a little air in the generator will make an explosive mixture which would probably break the jar. P. in such a manner that a spark will be produced inside the bottle. One end of the copper tube is bent around so it will point directly into the reamed-out hole in the end of the brass tube. A Homemade Telephone Receiver [55] A telephone receiver that will do good work may be built very cheaply as follows: For the case use an ordinary 1/2-lb. A piece of 1/8-in. B. which is plugged up at both ends. long. The distance between the nipple. should be only 5/16 of an inch. 1-5/16 in. the explosion will blowout the cork or possibly break the bottle. copper pipe. A 1/64-in. 2 shows the end view. by means of the clips. Gasoline Burner for Model Work [55] When making a small model traction engine or a locomotive the question arises. from the bottom. and the ends of the tube. London. in diameter and 6 in. says the Model Engineer. in diameter are drilled in the brass tube. Fig.is then held near the mouth of the bottle a sharp report will be heard. This coil should have a diameter Gasoline Burner of only 1 in. and the apparatus connected with an induction coil. C C. The bicycle valve is used to give the tank an air pressure which forces the gasoline to the burner. One row is drilled to come directly on top. Fig. A. which should be magnetized previous to assembling. For the magnet use a piece of round hardened steel about 3/8 in. Three rows of holes 1/16 in. The other end of the copper tube is connected to the supply tank. It is then fitted to a sheet steel base. a piece of an old round file may be used for the magnet core. in diameter and 1-1/4 in. the ends of which should be soldered to a piece of . 1/2 in. "What shall the fuel be?" If you have decided to use gasoline. Caution should be used to avoid being struck by pieces of flying glass if this experiment is tried. 36 insulated wire. as is shown in the illustration. long with caps screwed on both ends and fitted with a filling plug and a bicycle valve makes a good gasoline supply tank. A. The burner is made from a piece of brass tube. copper pipe. then a suitable burner is necessary. or by direct contact with another magnet. either by passing a current of electricity around it. baking-powder box with a piece of heavy wire soldered on the inside. is made by drilling a 1/8in. 1. hole is then drilled through the remaining part of the nipple. is then coiled around the brass tube. hole halfway through a piece of brass and tapping to screw on the end of the 1/8-in. If desired. N. and under no condition should a lighted match or spark be brought near the end of the rubber hose D. long. in diameter and 2-1/2 in. and the other two at about 45 degrees from the vertical. of No. which forms the vaporizing coil. A. If the bottle is fitted with a cork containing two wires nearly touching. one end being drilled and reamed out to 5/16 in. N. A nipple. A. A piece of brass tubing about 3 in.

Clamp the whole in a vise or clamp with two strips of wood even with the back edges of the magazines. boards and all. 1/4 in. leaving the folded edge uncut. Turn the book over and do the same with the other two boards. With a sharp saw cut a slit in the magazines and wood strips about 1/2 in. Rub paste over one side of another piece of board and put it on top of the first board and strips. Fig. pressing down firmly so that the strips are held securely between the two boards. smoothly. While the wax is still in a plastic condition the magnet should be located centrally and adjusted so that the end will be 1/16 in. How to Bind Magazines [56] An easy way to bind Popular Mechanics in volumes of six months each is to arrange the magazines in order and tie them securely both ways with a strong cord. smoothing and creasing as shown at A. After the paste has dried a few minutes take a piece of strong cloth. After the wax has hardened the disk is slipped in and fastened tightly by a ring of solder when the instrument is ready for use. 2). Lay one piece of the board on the book and under the cloth strips.lamp cord. Cut four pieces of cardboard. trim both ends and the front edge. narrower than the magazines after they have been trimmed. cut to the size of the pages. or less below the level of the top of the copper ring. at the front and back for fly leaves. It is well to put two or three sheets of tough white paper. longer and 1/4 in. The back edges should have a good coat of paste and a strip of paper . A disk of thin sheet-iron. with a fine saw. Rub paste over one of the board backs and lay one end of the cloth on it. 1. Lay these over the back edge of the pack and tie securely through the slits with a string thread--wrapping and tying several times (C. taking care not to bend the iron. fold and cut it 1 in. duck or linen. but if the paper knife cannot be used. The magnet should then be placed in the bottom of the can in an upright position and enough of a melted mixture of beeswax and resin poured in to hold it in position. If you have access to a printer's paper knife. larger all around than the book. such as is used by photographers for tintypes (Ferrotype). deep and slanting as shown at A and B. should be cut to the diameter of the can. Take two strips of stout cloth. clamp the whole between two boards and saw off the edges. long and as wide as the distance between the bottoms of the sawed slits. 3. Turn the book over and paste the other side. Fig. passed through a hole in the bottom of the can and knotted inside to prevent pulling out. Use ordinary flour paste and paste the strips to the cardboard and then rub paste all over the top of the strips and the board. about 8 or 10 in. Fig. this makes a much nicer book.

from which the gas may be taken through a rubber tube. Toronto. Ont. Parker. D. It is dangerous to attempt to strike a match to light a jet or the end of the cock while air is escaping and just as the first gas is being made. is perforated with a number of holes. or rather the top now. in diameter and 30 in. The backs must not be opened until the fly leaves are thoroughly dry. --Contributed by Joseph N. Bedford City. without a head. This will cause some air to be enclosed. On top and over can D is soldered a large tin can screw. H. Va. of tank A is cut a hole. A Homemade Acetylene-Gas Generator [57] A simple acetylene-gas generator used by myself for several years when out on camping trips was made of a galvanized iron tank. the joint will be gas tight. A. C. which expands and stops the lowering of tank A. so that inverted it will just slip easily into the tank B. Turn the book over and paste a fly leaf to the other back after the edges of the cloth have been folded down.Process of Homemade Binding the width of the thickness of the pack pasted on before pasting the cloth to the second board back. --Contributed by James E. 18 in. Noble. In the bottom. A gas cock. pasting them down (Fig. as shown in the sketch. This can C is filled about half full of broken pieces of carbide and then placed in the little can D. is soldered onto tank A. deep. is fitted in it and soldered. and a little can. which can be released by leaving the cock open until tank A settles down to the point where the water will begin to run in the perforations of the little tank. E. Trim and tuck in the ends of the strip at the back edge. Cut off the corners and fold over the edges of the cloth. B. The water then comes in contact with the carbide and forms gas. . Wait until the tank is well raised up before doing this. which will just slip inside the little can. 4). Rub paste on one side of a fly leaf and press the back down on it. as shown. Fill tank B with water and set tank A into it. Another tank. Another can. is turned on it. A rubber washer is fitted on this so that when the screw top. When fixed this way your magazines make one of the most valuable volumes you can possibly add to your library of mechanical books. but its diameter is a little smaller. Then the cock must be closed and tubing attached. is made the same depth as B.

The diagonal struts. so that they will be slightly bowed when put in position. the bell will ring and the pointer will point at 1. when finished. and sewed double to give extra strength. H is a square knot. Annuciator and Wiring Diagram while the closing of the push-button B will ring the bell and move the pointer to 2. which moves to either right or left. and the edges should be carefully hemmed. The ends of the bands should be lapped over at least 1/2 in. of the magnet is removed the moving armature will work better. which may be either spruce. by 1/2 in. should be cut a little too long. but if made as described the kite may be readily taken apart and rolled up for convenience in carrying. The bridle knots. long..Homemade Annunciator [57] When one electric bell is operated from two push-buttons it is impossible to tell which of the two push-buttons is being operated unless an annunciator or similar device is used. a simple method of constructing one of the modern type is given in detail as follows: The sticks should be made of straight grained wood. as shown at C. The small guards. Beverly. are nailed or glued to the longitudinal sticks to prevent the struts slipping out of position. shows how the connections are to be made. B. although lonsdale cambric or lightweight percaline will answer nearly as well. which may be easily loosened and shifted to a different position on the bridle. and the four diagonal struts. depending on which half of the magnet is magnetized. B. Fig. tacks. Probably the best cloth for this purpose is nainsook. The wiring diagram. thus adjusting the . in order to have the four sides of each band exactly equal. as this will prevent the magnetism from acting on both ends of the armature. If the back armature. Two cloth bands should be made to the exact dimensions given in the sketch and fastened to the four longitudinal sticks with 1 oz. D. square by 42 in. fastened in the bottom. to prevent splitting. should be 3/8 in. A. basswood or white pine. with an electric-bell magnet. Of course the ends of the struts could be fastened to the longitudinal strips if desired. If the pushbutton A is closed. Fig. J. C. should be 1/4 in. 2. D. They should be tied together at the points of intersection and the ends should be wound with coarse harness maker's thread. How to Make a Box Kite [58] As some of the readers of Amateur Mechanics may desire to build a box kite. making the width. 1. The longitudinal corner spines. either with a soft lead-pencil or crayon. and about 26 in. are shown in detail at H and J. N. long. E. S. B. It is well to mark the positions of the sticks on the cloth bands. The armature. Bott. -Contributed by H. A very simple annunciator for indicating two numbers can be made from a small box. exactly 12 in. is pivoted in the center by means of a small piece of wire and has an indicator or hand. A A. thus holding the cloth out taut and flat.

as shown. loosen the square knot and shift nearer to G. and if a strong wind is blowing. If the kite is used in a light wind. Harbert. thus shortening G and lengthening F. E. however. D.lengths of F and G. --Contributed by A. Care must be taken to allow no dust to settle in the holders. A bowline knot should be tied at J. Stoddard. to prevent slipping. Kan. Chicago. but fasten a string securely to the stick at K. How to Make a Thermo Battery [59] A thermo battery. the batteries do not run down for a long time. Closing either key will operate both sounders. for producing electricity direct from heat. shift toward F. and. the extra switches and wiring found in many circuits are done away with. Detail of Box Kite Lubricating a Camera Shutter [58] An experienced photographer uses blacklead [graphite] for grooves about a camera or holder. thereby lengthening G and making F shorter. that refuse to slide easily. In a very strong wind do not use the bridle. Simple Open-Circuit Telegraph Line [59] By using the circuit shown in the sketch for short-distance telegraph lines. A small quantity is rubbed well into the grooves and on the edges of shutters. can be made of a wooden . as the resistance of Simple Telegraph Line the sounders is very high. Clay Center. --Contributed by Edw. with gratifying results.

a small quantity of powder is placed in the counterbore. A and B. by means of machine screws or. and the current may then be detected by means. The other binding post is connected with the wood screw. a switch and a small induction coil Electrical Attachment for Discharging Toy Cannon capable of giving a 1/8-in. 16 single-covered wire. C. How to Discharge a Toy Cannon by Electricity [59] A device for discharging a toy cannon by electricity can be easily made by using three or four dry batteries. The connections should all be soldered to give good results.frame. driven in the vertical piece and connected in series with heavy copper wires. The heat may be supplied by an alcohol lamp or other device. F. When the cannon is loaded. as the voltage is Thermo Battery very low and the resistance of an unsoldered joint would stop the current. nearly touches E and is connected to one binding post of the induction coil. of a simple galvanometer consisting of a square spool of No. 14 or No. A. Fasten a piece of wood. C. in position. A. A. --Contributed by A. to the cannon. with a pocket compass. B. E. placed on top. spark. and as there is no danger of any spark remaining after . and also holds the pieces of wood. The wood screw.. which conducts the current into the cannon. Chicago. C. Then. the wood may be made in the shape of a ring and slipped on over the muzzle. if there are no trunnions on the cannon. the needle will swing around it at right angles to the coils of wire. D. The fuse hole of the cannon is counterbored as shown and a small hole is drilled at one side to receive a small piece of copper wire. with a number of nails. Applying ice or cold water to the nail heads will reverse the current. when the nail heads are heated and the circuit completed. Turn the spool in a north and south direction. A cannon may be fired from a distance in this way. E. or parallel with the compass needle. and the spark between C and E ignites this and discharges the cannon.

Before putting the reverse block on the motor. press the button. it will not fall because of its greater weight but stays in the position shown. requiring a strong magnet. thick with strips of brass or copper (BB) attached as shown. Big Rapids. Ohio. Simple Electric Lock [60] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. Bend the strips BB (Fig. Arm L rests on an L-shaped hook. but no weights or strings. A and S. The momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. L. remove all the connections between the lower binding posts and the brush holders and connect both ends of the field coil to the lower posts. is sufficient to move the long arm down from L' to the position at L. 2 shows the construction of the reverse block: A is a strip of walnut 5/8 in. with the long arm at L'. D is a thin strip of walnut or other dense. Direct-Connected Reverse for Small Motors [60] A simple reverse for small motors can be attached directly to the motor as shown in Fig.the current is shut off. Lock Operated by a Magnet The weight of the long arm. is sufficient to move the long arm up to the position of L'. when in position at A'. --Contributed by Henry Peck. The purpose of this is to leave the short arm. Holes (CC) are drilled for the wire connections and they must be flush with the surface of the block. to receive the screw in the center. turn the block so the strips change connections and the motor will do the rest. The lever swings on one arm of the staple and the other arm is so placed that when the lever is in an upright position. Put the screw in tight enough to make the block turn a little hard. it is safer than the ordinary cannon which is fired by means of a fuse. --Contributed by Benjamin Kubelsky. Keil. press the button and the momentum acquired from the magnet by the short arms. Marion. square and 3/8 in. Fig. Mich. B. which greatly simplifies the device over many others of the kind. Fig. To reverse. 1. 2) to the proper position to make a wiping contact with the nuts holding the strip of wood D. where there is a staple. A and S. To lock the door. In Fig. hard wood fitted to the binding posts of the brush holders. A hole for a 1/2 in. is just a trifle greater than the combined weights of the short arms. screw is bored in the block. now at A' and S'. Connect as shown in the illustration. 1. To unlock the door. in this position the door is locked. A. Chicago. H. The fulcrum of the lever is at C. --Contributed by Joseph B. 1. within the reach of the magnet. .

couplings fastened to each end by pouring melted lead in the space between the pipes and the couplings. screw the two pieces together and you have your chisel complete. and if desired the handles may . and screw on Combination Ax and Ice Chisel an old snow-shovel handle. When ready for use. and if the device is to be used on a polished table. A and B are front and side views of a lamp-screen. makes an excellent reflector for drawing at night. but cutting the first holes preparatory to setting the lines is not always an easy task. Mass. The lamp shade is particularly useful for shading the eyes when reading or writing and. When the holes are finished and your lines set. J. The sketch shows two more that may be added to the list. The standard and base.Direct-Connected Reverse A Handy Ice Chisel [61] Fishing through the ice is great sport. and then tap it for a 3/8-in. A short ax-handle may be included in the outfit. if enameled white on the concave side. a piece of felt should be glued to the bottom. long. More Uses for Pipe Fittings [61] It would seem that the number of useful articles that can be made from pipes and fittings is unlimited. West Somerville. pipe with 1-2-in. or for microscopic work. consisting of an ordinary pipe flange bushed down to receive the upright nipple. The dumbbells are made of short pieces of 3/4-in. hole. Thread the other end of the pipe. --Contributed by C. and your ax is ready to cut the wood to keep your fire going. Rand. and may be made at very slight expense. unscrew the pipe from the head of the ax. gas-pipe. A good way to hold the fan in the nipple is to use a small wedge. are enameled a jet black. about 18 in. The appearance is greatly improved by enameling black. put in the handle. and C is a dumbbell. The ice chisel here described will be found very handy. In the top of an old ax-head drill a 9/16-in.

across. Mass. Warren. long and 8 in. 1. Make a cylindrical core of wood.. Any old pail which is thick enough will do. North Easton. --Contributed by C. In the bottom of this cut a 2-in. 8 in. which shall project at least 2 in. E.be covered with leather. Lamp Shade and Dumbbell Sealing-Wax Bent While Cold [61] If a piece of sealing-wax is supported in a horizontal position by one end. This peculiar property is also found in ice. across. and which is good for any work requiring less than 1400° C. B. with a cover. Make a Homemade Pottery Kiln . round hole and close it with a cork or wood plug. it will gradually bend to the shape indicated by the dotted lines B. inside the pail. Fig. as shown at A in the sketch. M. Bending Cold Sealing-Wax Homemade Pottery Kiln [62] A small kiln for baking clay figures may be built at a cost of $1. while a new one will cost about 80 cents. Fig. The following shows the general plan of such a kiln which has stood the test of 200 firings. A. high by 1 ft. Get an iron pail about 1 ft. To attempt bending it with the hands would result in breaking it unless a steady pressure were applied for a long time. D. 1.

and the dimensions should allow at least 1 in.. If the cover of the pail has no rim. 2 in. should be just in the hole in the bottom of the kiln. it will be found that it has all shrunk away from the iron about 3/8 in. W. strip of sheet iron. Now pack the bottom of the pail thoroughly with a 2-in. 25%. Such a burner will be cheaply made and will furnish a kiln temperature of 1400 degrees. in which the pottery to be glazed is protected from any smoke or dust. the firing should be gradual. It is placed inside the kiln. and varnish. such . and get a down draft by inverting it over the kiln at whatever height proves most suitable. Whatever burner is used. The handle of the pail will be convenient for moving it about. Cover with paper and shellac as before. let this dry thoroughly. hotel china. 2. in diameter. and your kiln is ready for business. it may be fastened to the asbestos and clay lining by punching a few holes. By experiment you will find that a higher temperature is obtained by placing a 1-in. if there is to be any glazing done. A plumber's torch of medium size will cost more in the beginning. The temperature required for baking earthenware is 1250°-1310°. of fine wire. long over the lid hole as a chimney. After finishing the core. full length of iron core. about 1 in. as dictated by fancy and expense. How to Make a Small Medical Induction Coil [63] The coil to be described is 3-1/2 in.. make two wood ends. projecting from each end (Fig. and 3/4 in. in diameter. pipe. L. While these are drying you may be making a muffle. cutting the hole a little smaller. passing wire nails through and clinching them. long. using a little at a time and packing it very tight. Fit all the parts together snugly. shellac two layers of thick paper over it between the ends. or make one yourself. say 1/4 in. Line the pail. and with especial caution the first time. If you can get a cone which can be screwed into an inch pipe. 1-1/4 by 1-1/4 in. In like manner make the cover of the kiln. of space between the core and the sides of the pail all around is to be filled with clay. It would be still more effective to get another iron pail. These temperatures can not be obtained in the above kiln by means of the ordinary Bunsen burner. By the time the clay of the kiln is well dried. kneading thoroughly in water to a good molding consistency. C.-G. as is shown in the sketch. wider than the kiln. The walls of the muffle should be about 1/2 in. file the opening of the cone to 1/16 in. hard porcelain. pipe 2-ft. above the cone opening and should be covered with gauze to prevent flame from snapping back.mixture of clay. After removing all the paper. 1330°. 3) with false top and bottom. with heavy paper and cover the core with same. 15%. take out the plugs in the top and bottom. and 3/8 in. Set aside for a few days until well dried. diameter. At the edge or rim of the cover encircle a 2-in. allowing several inches of free wire to come through a hole in the end. if you have the materials. bottom and sides-with moist ground asbestos. The flame end of this burner tube should be about 4-1/2 in. layer of the clay mixture. to hold the clay mixture. C. Bore holes in the center of each so the core will fit in snugly and leave about 1/4 in. of space all around for the passage of heat between it and the walls of the kiln. and it can be set on three bricks or some more elaborate support. thick. and cut it 3-1/2 in. but will be cheaper in operation. thick. and jacket the whole with a 2-1/2-in. Wind about 1/8 in. sand. E. 1). This is a clay cylinder (Fig. Fig. 60%. 1390°-1410°. pack this space-top. If will be necessary either to buy the largest size Bunsen. bottom and sides. When lighted.. and graphite. carefully centering it. and on it set the paper wrapped core. This done. Procure a bundle of small iron wire. which is the hottest part. the point of the blue flame. but it will burn a great deal of gas. bind neatly with coarse thread and file the ends smooth (Fig. 1). The 2 in. Wind two layers of bell magnet wire over this. C. setting on any convenient blocks which will place it midway.

Take the red cards. Soak the whole in melted paraffin and let cool. The funnel. Washington. and discharges into the tube. as in Fig. we obtain the result in hundredths of an inch. The depth of the water in C is thus ten times the actual rainfall. A. taking care to have the first card red. every alternate card being the same color. B. and by holding one thumb on the upper left-hand corner Card Trick all the cards will appear red to the audience. bind tightly with black silk. C. so that by measuring it with a stick marked off in tenths of an inch. as in Fig. R. about 1/16 in. D. and so on. Mechanical Trick With Cards [63] The following mechanical card trick is easy to prepare and simple to perform: First. overlaps and rests on the body. diameter. Chicago. Of course. --Contributed by Ralph Gingrich. place thumb in the center at top of pack and they will appear mixed. this can be accomplished by bending a stout piece of copper wire as shown. --Contributed by J. A good size to make the rain gauge is as follows: A. length of . 1. Bend the pack so as to give some spring to the cards. 2. square them up. and divide it into two piles. square them up and place in a vise. procure a new deck. Next restore all the cards to one pack. all cards facing the same way. The connections and the base for setting up are shown in the figures. 8 in. the next black. red and black. with a plane. with thumb on upper right-hand corner all cards appear black.. You can display either color called for. Then take the black cards. 2). a regulator must be had for the vibrator. around the coil. T. on the upper left hand corner and lower right hand corner. leaving long terminals. . 2. C. How to Make a Rain Gauge [64] An accurate rain gauge may be easily constructed from galvanized iron. and plane off about 1/16 in. which can be taken from an old electric bell (Fig. The vibrator is made of a piece of thin tin to which is soldered the head of an iron screw and on the other side a small piece of platinum. as shown in the sketch herewith.Medical Induction Coil as used on telephone generators. plane off the upper right hand corner and lower left hand corner. C. one containing the red cards and the other the black ones. the area of which is one-tenth that of the top of the funnel.53 in. Then.

A. to form a dovetail joint as shown. N. as the difficulties increase with the size. so that when they are assembled. To find the fall of snow. is made as follows: Take 1 gill of plaster of paris. so that no inaccuracy will occur from wind currents. and 1/3 of a gill of finely powdered rosin. How to Make an Aquarium [64] In making an aquarium. Mix well and add boiled linseed oil and turpentine until as thick as putty. but the sides and ends should be made slightly shorter to allow the cement. so it is filled up with plaster of paris. Long Branch. D. B.J. The bottom glass should be a good fit. pour a known quantity Rain Gauge of warm water on the snow contained in the funnel and deduct the quantity poured in from the total amount in the tube. E. B. Mark the ends of each piece with a figure or letter. the first thing to decide on is the size. The beveling may be done by roughing out with a hacksaw and finishing with a file. E. A good size is 12 by 12 by 20 in. Fig. should be beveled 45° at the ends and drilled for 3/16 in. Drill all the horizontal pieces. After the frame has been assembled take it to glazier and have a bottom made of skylight glass. It is well not to attempt building a very large one. Let . of the frame. A. will be found between the glass and the horizontal pieces. First buy one length of 3/4 by 1/8-in. angle iron for the frame. 1 gill of litharge. All the horizontal pieces. The cement. --Contributed by Thurston Hendrickson.C. thus making all the holes coincide. stove bolts. and this is inexpensive to build. the same ends will come together again. and sides and ends of double-thick window glass. C. 1. about 20 in. The upright pieces. first and then mark the holes on the upright pieces. It should be placed in an exposed location. stove bolts. through the holes already drilled. and then the frame is ready to assemble. F. B. After all the pieces are cut and beveled they should be drilled at the ends for the 3/16-in. should be countersunk as shown in the detail. This can be obtained at any steel shop and should cost about 20 cents. 1 gill of fine white sand.. If this were allowed to remain the pressure of the water would spring the glass and cause a leak at E. When the glass is put in the frame a space.

if desired. A. D. It is well to have an excess of plants and a number of snails. and an inverted jar can be supported in the position shown at B. on the door by means of a metal plate. Homemade Pneumatic Lock [65] Mount an old bicycle hand-pump. In a well balanced aquarium the water requires renewal only two or three times a year. a few Chinese lilies or other plants may be placed on the centerpiece. If the mouth of the jar is below the surface of the water it will stay filled and allow the fish to swim up inside as shown. B. a centerpiece (A. as the snails will devour all the decaying vegetable matter which would otherwise poison the water and kill the fish. and. Aquarium Finished If desired. Fasten the lever.Detail of Aquarium Frame the cement dry three or four days before putting any water in the aquarium. and make a hinge connection with the pump by means of a piece of sheet . having a swinging connection at C. Fig. In choosing stock for the aquarium it should be remembered that a sufficient quantity of vegetable life is required to furnish oxygen for the fish. 2) can be made of colored stones held together by cement. Some washed pebbles or gravel should be placed on the bottom. to the door knob.

1 is the motor with one side removed. approximately 1 ft. B. 3 shows one of the paddles. several lengths of scantling 3 in. 26 in. 2 is an end view. C. long. according to the slant given C. nail two short strips on each side of the outlet. Y. with a water pressure of 70 lb. Fig. the operator may push the door at the same time that he blows. 6 in. Fig. thick (preferably of hard wood) are required. 4 shows the method of shaping the paddles. Fig. hoping it may solve the same question for them. thus doing away with the spring. or if the door is within reach of the mouthpiece. and Fig. Fig. Fig. and another. PAUL S. To make the frame. 1 . when the operator blows in the mouthpiece. another. wide . In the latter case the power may be increased by using a smaller pulley.. They are shown in Fig. E. from the outside top of the frame. F. I referred this question to my husband. 1. soldered to the end of the cylinder. wide by 1 in. All this apparatus is on the inside of the door and is connected by a small rubber tube. AA. to keep the frame from spreading. long. most houses are equipped with a washing machine. which is 15 in. another.Pneumatic Door-Opener brass. --Contributed by Orton E. with the result that he built a motor which proved so very satisfactory that I prevailed upon him to give the readers of Amateur Mechanics a description of it. Lay these on the sides of the frame with their center lines along the line FF. A Homemade Water Motor [66] By MRS. and the question that arises in the mind of the householder is how to furnish the power to run it economically. showing the paddle-wheel in position. N. White. long. 2 at GG. WINTER In these days of modern improvements. will open the door about 1/2 in. Fig. The power developed is correspondingly increased or decreased as the pressure exceeds or falls below this. Two short boards 1 in. Few burglars would ever think to blow in the keyhole. A motor of this type will develop about 1/2 hp. Do not fasten these boards now. 2 ft. to a secret mouthpiece placed at some convenient location. but mark their position on the frame. to form the main supports of the frame. A small piece of spring brass. One way of making the air connection with the outside is to bend the tube F around and stick it through the keyhole. Buffalo. After nailing these together as shown in the illustration. for the top. 1. which is only used to keep the door from relocking. Cut two pieces 30 in. long. to form the slanting part. as at E. Cut two of them 4 ft. D. screwed to the door frame.

Next secure a 5/8-in. galvanized pipe 3-1/2 in.Detail of Homemade Waterwheel by 1 in. tapering from 3/16 in. These are the paddles. fasten it by means of wedges or blocks of wood until the shaft is exactly in the center of the inch holes in the side pieces. hole through its center. and a 1/4 -in. Two of these are to be inside and two outside of the frames (one to bear against each side of each crosspiece). take down the crosspieces. Shape them by placing one end over a section of 1-in. Fig. thick (HH. then drill a 3/16-in. 3 and bend the tapered end in along the lines JJ. and fasten these to the shaft by means of set screws to prevent it from moving lengthwise. This can be done roughly with hammer and chisel and then smoothed up on an emery wheel. This is done by cutting a groove in the shaft and a corresponding groove in the wheel and fitting in a piece of metal in order to secure the wheel from turning independently of the shaft. thick. holes. after which cut 24 radial slots 3/4 in. hole from the top of the crosspieces through the babbitt for an oil-hole. 2) and another 1 in. Fig. Cut the zinc to the same shape as the frame and let it extend down to the crosspieces EE. remove the cardboard. and hammer bowl shaped with the peen of a hammer. in diameter. after which drill a 5/8 in. 24 in. pipe. by 1-1/2 in. Make this hole conical. as shown in Fig. Now block the wheel. hole to form the bearings. the shaft projecting through the holes just mentioned. Then cut them into the shape shown in Fig. Fig. to a full 1/2 in. from one end by means of a key. and drill a 1/8-in. Fasten these to the crosspieces by means of tacks to hold them securely. This is best done by using a square taper reamer.along the edges under the zinc to form . (I. deep on its circumference by means of a hacksaw. Procure two collars or round pieces of brass (KK. Cut the wheel from sheet iron 1/16 in. 2) with a 5/8-in. 4. iron 3 by 4 in. iron. and secure it to the wheel by means of four rivets. 1. On each side of the wheel at the center fasten a rectangular piece of 1/4-in. Secure sufficient sheet zinc to cover the sides of the frame.burlap will do -. with the wheel and shaft in place. 2) form a substantial base. long and filling it with babbitt metal. hole from the tops to the 1-in. Then place the nozzle in the position shown in Fig. long to the wheel about 8 in. When it has cooled. and drill a 1-in. that is. hole through their sides centrally. Tack one side on. after which place them in the slots of the wheel and bend the sides over to clamp the wheel. Cut 24 pieces of 1/32-in. holes through the wheel and sides of the paddles and rivet paddles in place. Fasten them in their proper position. Drill 1/8-in. 1-1/2 by 2-1/2 in. hole through them. (It is well to tack strips of heavy cloth -. hole through the exact center of the wheel. Cut four disks of cardboard to slip over the shaft and large enough to cover the inch holes. Pour melted babbitt metal into the 1/4-in. which allows the stream of water to strike the buckets full in the center when they reach the position farthest to the right. steel shaft 12 in. GG. Make the nozzle by taking a piece of 1/2-in. Take the side pieces.

It is obvious that. as this makes long exposure necessary. on the lens. The best plate to use is a very slow one. the shaft should turn easily and smoothly. or what is called a process plate. Then put the wheel in a central position in the frame. and when looking straight before him his face will be in clear profile to the camera. Draw the shades of all other windows in the room. sewing machine. in diameter to the longest arm of the shaft. Darken the rest of the window. But remember that a black and white negative is wanted with as little detail in the features as possible. getting a sharp outline of the profile on the screen. remove any white curtains there may be. Drill a hole through the zinc. using the hole in the crosspiece as a guide. it is a question whether it would be more economical in the end. and the subject may move. any window will do. and leave them for an hour or so. Fasten a pulley 4 or 6 in. If the bearings are now oiled. At the end of this time they are perfectly clean. and belt the motor direct to the washing-machine. Correct exposure depends. but as it would have cost several times as much.a water-tight joint. This motor has been in use in our house for two years in all of the above ways. it would be more durable. Place the two collars mentioned before on the shaft. as shown in the sketch at B. Connect the nozzle to a water faucet by means of a piece of hose.) Fasten the crosspiece over the zinc in its proper position. and as near to it as possible. had the wheel and paddles been made of brass. The motor will soon pay for itself in the saving of laundry bills. How to Make Silhouettes [68] Photography in all branches is truly a most absorbing occupation. and I have noticed that they wear twice as long as when I sent them to the laundry. Focus the camera carefully. ice-cream freezer. and has never once failed to give perfect satisfaction. says the Photographic Times. but now I put them in the machine. We used to spend $1 a month to have just my husband's overalls done at the laundry. shutting out all light from above and the sides. If sheet-iron is used. of course. dynamo or any other machinery requiring not more than 1/2 hp. Raise the window shade half way. or if used only at times when the sun is not on it. and fasten so as to bear against the crosspieces. place the outlet over a drain. Making a Silhouette with the Camera To use a camera in making silhouettes select a window facing north if possible. a coat of heavy paint would prevent rust and therefore prolong the life of the motor. and everyone of us is delighted when something new is suggested for such experiments. and in the center of the lower pane of glass paste by the four corners a sheet of tissue paper that is perfectly smooth and quite thick. tack the other side piece of zinc in place and put the other crosspiece in place. Do not stop down the lens. . light and the plate. Place a chair so that after being seated the head of the subject will come before the center of the tissue paper. Each of us who has a camera is constantly experimenting. start the motor. in order to prevent the wheel and shaft from moving sidewise. drill press.

On completing . is a trifle lighter than the water it displaces and will therefore normally remain in the top of the tube. 18 and connect ends to binding posts as shown in Fig. a glass tube. 2. Some filing may be necessary to get the weight just right. but it should be remembered that the buoyancy of the core can be adjusted after the parts are assembled. The core is made by pushing a small nail through a piece of cork. any shape in stopping off print may be made as shown at C in the sketch. The base may be made of wood or any other insulating material and should have four short legs on the bottom. hard rubber. D. The lower cork is then slowly withdrawn. full of water. It should be made so that it will rise slowly when placed under water. and a base. This causes compression in the water so that some is forced into the upper cork. With a piece of black paper. or can be taken from an old magnet. The glass tube may be a test tube. a core. The current required is very small. The ideal silhouette print is a perfectly black profile on a white ground. If one has neither a test tube nor developer tube. the core is drawn down out of sight. 2. The core C. How to Make a Galvanoscope [68] A galvanoscope for detecting small currents of electricity can be made from a coil of wire. reducing its displacement and causing it to sink. by pressing the cork in the bottom of the test tube. but as soon as a current of electricity passes through the coil. Printing is best done on contrasty development paper with developer not too strong. and without fog. Connect the binding posts to a single cell of battery--any kind will do. without detail in the face.In developing get all possible density in the high lights. or an empty developer tube. as the core is so nearly balanced that the least attraction will cause it to sink. until the core slowly rises. The washers at the ends of the coil can be made of fiber. C. by twisting. an empty pill bottle may be used. as shown in Fig. or wood. with binding posts as shown. Galvanoscope The instrument will then be adjusted ready for use. A. Make the coil of single-covered wire about No. as a slight current will answer. B. which is made of iron and cork.

the core will obey his command to rise or fall. 1. If the button be concealed where the operator can reach it. and make a pinhole in the center. Cut the pin in half and push it through from the under side until the head of the pin touches the cardboard. water and 3 oz. 1 pt. is executed by using a tapered deck of cards as shown in Fig. 1 lb. and one not easy to explain. Lubricating Sheet Metal [69] To lubricate sheet metal mix 1 qt. This is a mysterious looking instrument. Spin slowly in a strong light and some of the lines will appear colored. and paste on a piece of stiff cardboard. fastened in a vise and planed along the edge in such a manner that all the pack will be tapered about 1/16 in. according to his control of the current. Apply with a brush before the metal enters the dies. is Benham's color top. and are changed by reversing the rotation. An Optical Top [69] One of the latest optical delusions. Cut out the black and white disk shown in the figure. white lead. The colors appear different to different people. the core being moved without visible connection to any other part.Interior View the circuit the core will descend. This taper is exaggerated in the illustration which shows . whale oil. A cheap deck of cards is evened up square. or put in a switch or push button on one of the battery wires. Trim the edges of the cardboard to match the shape of the disk. finest graphite. An Optical Top Card Trick with a Tapered Deck [70] Another simple trick to perform but one not easily detected.

and asks an observer to withdraw a card.B. which is then replaced in any part of the pack. players having the same score are frequently called upon to cut for low to determine which shall be the winner. A Constant-Pressure Hydrogen Generator [70] By fitting three bottles. the pressure depending on the difference between the levels of the acid in bottle A and bottle B. a ring-stand should be used to prevent its being broken.L. In prize games. -Contributed by D. Chicago. thus keeping the pressure nearly constant. This is accomplished by simply turning the deck end for end while the observer is looking at his card. nearly every time. with rubber stoppers and connecting with glass tubes as shown in the sketch. as the feat then seems more marvelous and the observers are not allowed to see how it is done. deuce. When the acid rising from C comes in contact with the zinc. especially if the deck is a new one. but the cards must be grasped lightly and the experiment should be performed with a new deck to obtain successful results.. The gas continues to generate until the pressure is sufficient to force the acid back down the tube into bottle C. bottle B is partly filled with zinc nodules formed by slowly pouring melted zinc into water. In making hydrogen. or if it is to be a permanent apparatus it may be mounted on a substantial wooden base. Hydrochloric acid is then poured in the small funnel. produces the card selected in one hand and the rest of the pack in the other. This apparatus may also be used for preparing acetylene gas or almost any gas which . which makes it possible to perform the following trick: The performer spreads the cards out. but a fairer way is to cut for high as a person familiar with the trick shown in Fig. before cutting. thus causing the increased ink surface of the high cards to adhere to the adjacent ones. A little practice will soon enable one to cut low nearly every time. thus bringing the wide end of the selected card at the narrow end of the pack when it is replaced. 2 can cut the cards at the ace. It is evident that any card reversed in this way can be easily separated from the other cards in the pack. A. thus partly filling bottles A and C. B. As fast as the gas is used the acid rises in the tube and generates more. As this device is easily upset. when the action ceases. hydrogen or other gases produced in a similar manner may be generated under constant pressure. hydrogen gas is generated and fills bottle B. After thoroughly shuffling the cards the performer then holds the deck in both hands behind his back and pronouncing a few magic words. fan-like. This is done by simply pressing on the top of the deck as shown. The hands are placed behind the pack for a double purpose. or three spot.Cards from a Tapered Deck one card that has been turned end for end. C.

The opening caused by the saw will allow the free vibration of the metal. Restoring Tone to a Cracked Bell [71] Many a bell with a deadened tone due to a cracked rim. Cut an arc of a circle in them on a radius of 2 ft. long. that will fit loosely in the tube A. 3). --Contributed by C. Fig. Huron. How to Make a Paper Phonograph Horn [71] Secure a piece of tubing about 1-3/4 in. Fig.requires a mixture of a solid and liquid in its preparation. (Fig. making it threeply thick and gluing the layers together. 2 is also an enlarged sketch. Dak. Make the saw cut along the line of the crack. 12 in. 10 in. using care to keep them at equal distances apart and in a circle whose diameter is about 2 ft. 4. S. J. Detroit. Detail of Phonograph Horn . Bently. S. as shown in Fig. Make ten pieces about 1 ft.. in length and 3 in. W. connecting the bottom by cross pieces. --Contributed by F. wide from the thin boards of a biscuit or cracker box. . Form a cone of heavy paper. to which nail the 10 pieces as shown in Fig.. Attach this cone on the tube A where the thread has been wrapped with glue. long that will fit the connection to the reproducer. Jr. can be given its original clear ringing sound by sawing out the crack with a common hacksaw. at the larger end with the smaller end to fit the diameter of the tube A. 2. and wrap a quantity of heavy thread around one end as shown in the enlarged sketch A. Make a 10-sided stick. in diameter. long and 3 in. 1. 9 in.

in which to cut slits that will form pieces to overlap the next section and to attach with glue. is tied to the center of B and connects with an indicating hand or pointer supported by the bracket D. The Protection of a Spring Lock [72] After shutting the front door and hearing the spring lock snap into its socket. Denver. with a nail at each end to hold the silk thread B. 5) that will cover each space between the 10 pieces. It will be noticed that the thread B is not perfectly straight. but bends toward D. But the cold fact is that there is scarcely any locking device which affords less protection than the ordinary spring lock. C. Cut out paper sections (Fig. The axle on which the pointer revolves consists of a piece of round wood. The next course is put on in strips overlapping as shown at B. How to Make a Hygrometer [71] A homemade hygrometer. trim to suit and glue a piece of paper over the edge. The silk thread C is fastened to the wooden axle and is wrapped one or two turns around it. Take a narrow piece of tin 3 or 4 in. A. Fasten the sections all around in like manner. Fortunately. shading it to suit and striping it with gold bronze. on one side and the top. 4 and temporarily fastened in position. An instrument of this kind is very interesting and costs nothing to make. making it three-ply thick. most people go off with a childlike faith in the safety of their goods and chattels. It is the simplest thing in the world for a sneak thief to slip a thin knife between the door-casing and the strip. about the size of a leadpencil. A piece of tin. is shown in the accompanying sketch and consists of a board.The cone is placed over the stick as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. for determining the degree of moisture in the atmosphere. A second piece of silk thread. put on two coats of white and one of blue paint. --Contributed by Reader. so that when The Hygrometer the thread is pulled the pointer will move on the scale. so as to make it impossible to reach the bolt without tearing off the . Finish by putting on sections in the same way as the first course. such as occurs when the atmosphere is dry. Remove the form. will cause an increased movement of C. and tack it firmly in the angle between the casing and strip. bend it at right angles throughout its length. is cut V-shaped at each end and bent up at the ends to form bearings for the pins. E. push back the bolt. For this reason a very small shrinkage of B. which will be further increased in the movement of the pointer. and walk in. 6. long. When the glue is thoroughly hardened. it is equally easy to block that trick. with a pin driven in each end. allowing 1 in. Fig.

strip. are made 2 by 4 in. By this arrangement one. enough to protect the bolt from being meddled with. Two wood-base switches.. Motor Reverse and Controller How to Build a Grape Arbor [73] A grape arbor made of white pine. Minn. are cut off a little past the center and fastened to the base with a piece of wood between them. are 7 ft. --Contributed by J. changes the direction of the armature in the motor from one way to the other. is connected to different equal points on a coil of wire. B. The feet. The reverse switch. R. Paul. The reverse lever when moved from right to left. as shown. while the lower switch. B.. Connect wires A to the armature and wires F to the field of the motor. put together as shown in the sketch. and rest on a brick placed under each end. 4 ft. A. S S. long. W. Jr. is made from two brass or copper strips fastened at the top to the base with screws and joined together by a piece of hard rubber or wood with a small handle attached. Grape-Arbor Trellis How to Make a Toy Steam Engine [73] A toy engine can be easily made from old implements which can be found in nearly . The upper switch. will last for several years. posts. or left to right. Another way is to drive nails through the strip at intervals of half an inch. The 2 by 4-in. long. S. is connected each point to a battery. two or three and so on up until all the battery cells are used and different points of resistance secured on the coil of wire. A Controller and Reverse for a Battery Motor [72] Secure a cigar or starch box and use to make the base. S. Fremont Hilscher. West St.

We used a wheel from an old high chair for our engine. which will be described later. In Fig. 1. and a cylindrical . The valve motion is shown in Figs. the size of the hole in the bearing B. FF. If the bore in the wheel is too large for the shaft. The hose E connects to the boiler. thick. thus allowing the steam in the cylinder to escape. The clips FF are soldered to the cylinder and nailed to the base. The steam chest D. Toy Steam Engine Assembled The cylinder A. The shaft is made of heavy steel wire. Valve Motion and Construction of Piston to support bearing B. 2 the steam is entering the cylinder. and valve crank S. 3 the valve B has closed the steam inlet and opened the exhaust. and the bearing B is fastened by staples. and has two wood blocks. H and K. E. either an old sewing-machine wheel. cut in half. Fig. it may be bushed with a piece of hard wood. 2 and 3. is part of the piston tube of the same pump. and in Fig. and the crank bearing C. Fig. The flywheel Q can be any small-sized iron wheel. the other parts being used for the bearing B. which is made of tin. with two washers. or anything available. The base is made of wood. 3/8 in. pulley wheel. is an old bicycle pump. 2. The piston is made of a stove bolt.every house.

To Photograph a Man in a Bottle [74] Neither a huge bottle nor a dwarfed man is necessary for this process. as it is merely a trick of photography. and the desired result is obtained. Let the exposure be just long enough to show the figure distinctly. of Cuba. is cut out of tin. or galvanized iron.piece of hard wood. J. 3. W. The boiler. Cal. to receive the connecting rod H. --Contributed by Geo. This crank should be at right angles to the main crank. Fig. This is wound with soft string. Schuh and A. and a very amusing trick. powder can. Eustice. C. or a syrup can with a tube soldered to it. can be an old oil can. Fry. photograph the person to be enclosed in the bottle against a dark plain background and mark the exact position on the ground glass. 4. The valve crank S. The valve B is made of an old bicycle spoke. Fig. Let this exposure be about twice the length of the first. The heat from a small gas stove will furnish steam fast enough to run the engine at high speed. 1. and is connected to the engine by a piece of rubber tubing. A slot is cut in the end of the bolt E. the space between the two halves being filled with string and oiled. G. Wis. using the positive wire as a pen. as shown in Fig. First. Electrolytic Writing The result will be brown lines on a white background. This engine was built by W. and is moved Engine in Operation by a small crank on the shaft. Connect the sheet metal with the negative or zinc side of a battery and then. . and saturated with thick oil. write your name or other inscription on the wet paper. G. with the nut cut in half and filed down as shown. San Jose. Then place an empty bottle against a dark background and focus so as to have the outlines of the bottle enclose those of the man. Writing with Electricity [74] Soak a piece of white paper in a solution of potassium iodide and water for about a minute and then lay it on a piece of sheet metal. at that.

Fig. Cut half circles out of each stave. in such a way that any given point on the page will describe a circle of about 1/2 in. 1 by covering up Figs.A Musical Windmill [74] Make two wheels out of tin. Fig. considering the nature of the material employed in making it. to cross in the center. and pass ropes around . and place a bell on the four ends. but wheel A must be larger than wheel B. 1 will be seen to rotate. the buttons will strike the bells and make them ring constantly. C. and Fig. When turning. A curious effect can be produced with Fig. as shown. as shown at AA. 3 appears to revolve sometimes in the same direction and at other times in the opposite direction. The blades on the wheels should be bent opposite on one wheel from the others so as to make the wheels turn in different directions. 2 appears to revolve in the opposite direction. 2 and 3 with a piece of plain paper and laying a coin or other small object on the paper. Optical Illusions [74] By giving the page a revolving or rinsing motion the three circular figures printed on the next page appear to rotate. B. Fig. first Move These Figures Rapidly with a Rinsing Motion in one direction and then in the opposite direction. B. must be separated from the other with a round piece of wood or an old spool. diameter. and if one cares to go to little trouble a thorough sandpapering will make a great improvement. If the vision is then concentrated on the coin or other object while same is being revolved. 1 then appears to rotate in the same direction as the revolution. On wheel A fasten two pieces of wood. Good smooth staves should be selected for this purpose. Tie four buttons with split rings to the smaller wheel. They may be of any size. Barrel-Stave Hammock [75] A hammock made of barrel staves is more comfortable than one would think. The smaller wheel. The best effect will be produced by laying the book down flat on the desk or table and revolving.

but the fact that the same principle can be used to make a microscope.Cheap and Comfortable the ends as shown at B. --Contributed by H. say 1/2 or 3/4 in. which accounts for the sound. produces a higher magnifying power). From a piece of thin . When finished the weight will then be supported by four ropes at each end. W. A Microscope Without a Lens [76] By E. long. DAVIS Nearly everyone has heard of the pin-hole camera. A (a short spool. Louis. This in turn will act on the transmitter. A Singing Telephone [75] Those who have not already tried the experiment may be interested to know that a telephone may be made to sing by holding the receiver about 1/16 in. When the receiver is placed in the position shown it acts like an ordinary buzzer. A hammock of this kind may be left out in the rain without injury. such as clothes lines.M. and enlarge the bore a little at one end. but not on all. having a magnifying power of 8 diameters (64 times) will perhaps be new to some readers. which allows the use of small sized ropes. The experiment will To Make a Telephone Sing work well on most telephones. St.G. Then blacken the inside with india ink and allow to dry.. procure a wooden spool. as shown in the illustration. and the function of the transmitter will then be that of an interrupter. thus setting up sympathetic vibrations between the two. The slightest movement of the transmitter diaphragm will cause an increased movement of the receiver diaphragm. To make this lensless microscope. from the transmitter. Mo.

E. The lever. is made of iron. The object would then be magnified 8 diameters. make a small hole with the point of a fine needle. A. otherwise the image will be blurred. Fig. 1.) But an object 3/4-in. and should not be too strong or the magnet will be unable to move the armature. e. the object should be of a transparent nature. It is necessary to have a strong light to get good results and.Detail of Lensless Microscope transparent celluloid or mica. cut out a small disk. To use this microscope. (The area would appear 64 times as large. 3. it follows that the diameter of an object 3/4 in. D. darting across the field in every direction. On the other end glue a piece of thin black cardboard. held at arm's length. The spring. How to Make a Telegraph Key and Sounder [76] The sounder. from the eye would appear 8 times the normal size. C. i. The principle on which this instrument works is illustrated in Fig. C. is fastened at each end by pins. and so on. fastened to a wooden base. which costs little or nothing to make. D. B. Viewed through this microscope. which are pieces of hard wood. is made from a wire nail and is soldered to A. place a small object on the transparent disk. from the eye appears so blurred that none of the details are discernible. The mother of vinegar examined in the same way is seen to be swarming with a mass of wriggling little worms. bent as shown. reveals hundreds of little infusoria. The pivot. and look through the hole D. if the distance is reduced to one-half. 2. The apparent diameter of an object is inversely proportional to its distance from the eye. It is very important that the hole D should be very small.. and at the center. a fly's wing appears as large as a person's hand. As the nearest distance at which the average person can see an object clearly is about 6 in. by means of brads. B. which may be moistened to make the object adhere. the diameter will appear twice as large. These and hundreds of other interesting objects may be observed in this little instrument. and may possibly cause the observer to abstain from all salads forever after. or 64 times. is made from an old electric-bell magnet. and it is for this reason that the pin-hole is employed. can be made of brass and the armature. It should be filed to a point at each end so as to move freely in the bearings.. the diameter will appear three times as large. and has the general appearance shown in Fig. . An innocent-looking drop of water. as in all microscopes of any power. in which hay has been soaking for several days. and fasten to the end having the enlarged bore. if the distance is reduced to one-third. H.

KEY-A. 2. thick. The binding posts. DD. wide. wide. Both are alike and can be cut from the same pattern. AA. is a wire nail driven deep enough in the base to leave about 1/8 in. C. . connects with the pivot at F and can be either made from sheet brass. is cut from a board about 36 in. Cut the top. Each side. wood. The binding posts are like those of the sounder. soft iron. FF. is also made of wood and has two wooden bearings. 16 in. coils wound with No. by wires run in grooves cut in the wood. The lever of the key is made of brass and has a hardwood knob. As the front legs curve out a little the main body of the boards AA should be 15 in. B. fastened near the end. may be taken from old dry batteries and are connected to the two wires from the magnet by wires run in grooves cut in the base. between the armature and the magnet. The door. which are made to receive a pivot. C. F. 16 in. The back. binding posts: H spring The stop. D. brass: E. Fig. K. can be made panel as shown.SOUNDER-A. in length and 16 in. brass or iron soldered to nail. wide. or a single piece. or taken from a small one-point switch. D. wood: F. B. All material used is to be made from boards that will dress to 3/4 in. long and 14-1/2 in. nail soldered on A. wide and about 20 in. wide. HH. binding posts How to Make a Music Cabinet [77] A neat music cabinet can be made as shown in the accompanying sketch. 26 wire: E. D. K. similar to the one used in the sounder. The base of the key. should be about 22 in. Fig. wood: C. long by 16 in. brass. 1. A. wide and set in between sides AA. E. connection of D to nail. brass: B. long. The bottom must be the same length as the top and 13-1/2 in. and are connected to the contacts. A switch.

In operation. 13-1/2 in. material. Push a piece of wire through one cork and place in the bottom of the tube. long.. Garfield. the only materials necessary being a glass tube. 2 and made from 1/4-in. with 3/4-in. When the electrical waves strike the needle. One-Wire Telegraph Line [78] The accompanying wiring diagram shows a telegraph system that requires no switches and may be operated with open-circuit batteries on a one-wire . E. AA. The point of the needle should barely touch the filings and by slightly agitating the tube the iron filings will separate from the silver and cling to the magnetized needle. cut in them. as shown in the sketch. from a strip of wood 1/2 by 3/4 in. This will give seven spaces for music and as the shelves are removable two places can be made into one. --Contributed by Carl Formhals.How to Make a Music Cabinet Shelving may be put in as shown in Fig. two corks: a magnetized needle and a quantity of iron and silver filings. with a groove 1/4 by 1/4 in. Make 12 cleats. Fasten 6 cleats evenly spaced on the inside of each of the sides. Pour in the filings and insert the top cork with the needle pushed through Detail of Coherer from above. brads. as shown. the device must stand on end and should be connected in the circuit as shown in the sketch. the conductivity of the filings is established and a click is heard in the receiver. Ill. Easily Made Wireless Coherer [77] A good wireless coherer may be made with very little expense.

If there are metal numbers on the outside of the door they may be used . and thus decreases the resistance. it can be used to regulate the speed of a motor. will give a greater speed. is connected by a flexible wire cord to the knob B. in order to increase the surface. J. F. An apparatus of this kind is suitable for regulating the current from an induction coil. and. C. Y. the magnet. The brass tube may be an old bicycle hand pump. made from the armature and magnet of an old electric bell. --Contributed by R. which releases the trigger and allows the spring to open the lock. down into the water increases the surface in contact. pulls down the armature. Ridgewood. Brown. B. Any telegraph set in which the key makes double contact can be connected up in this way. When the circuit is completed by means of a secret contact device outside the door. Pushing the wire. When the pipe is used. N. when used with a motor. A (see sketch). How to Make a Water Rheostat [78] A water rheostat may be made by fitting a brass tube with a cork. Fairport. and by using a piece of pipe instead of the tube. N. a piece of brass or copper rod should be substituted for the wire. A. which is pivoted at D and is released by a magnetic trigger. A. --Contributed by John Koehler. A fairly stiff spring. through which a piece of wire is passed. when the coil is not provided with a regulator. E. filled with water.Diagram of One-Wire Line line with ground connections at each end. The cord is also fastened to a lever. Diagram of One-Wire Line Water Rheostat Electric Door-Opener [78] A very convenient and efficient device for unlocking any door fitted with a spring lock is shown in the accompanying sketches. Adding salt to the water will decrease the resistance.

By means of a pocket knife or other metal article the operator can let himself in at any time by connecting the tacks numbered 1 and 7. the builder of this device may choose a combination of his own and may thus prevent anybody else from entering the door. Of course. N. Borden. Alarm Clock Chicken Feeder [79] An automatic poultry feeder. When the alarm goes off the trigger drops and allows the door to open. --Contributed by Perry A. or else the fork may be thrown off with dangerous force. if desired. may be made by using an alarm clock as shown in the sketch. a small contact-board may be constructed by driving about 12 brass headed tacks into a thin piece of wood and making connections at the back as shown in the wiring diagram.for the secret contact. Hold the fork firmly with one hand while turning the roller with the other. A small wire trigger rests on the winding key and supports the swinging bottom of the food hopper by means of a piece of string which connects the two. After the device has been in operation for some time the hens will run to the feeder . B. Apparatus Placed on Inside of Door but if there are no numbers on the door. Wiring Diagram How to Tighten a Curtain-Roller Spring [79] A common table fork can be used to hold the little projection on the end of a curtain roller for tightening the spring. thus discharging the contents of the hopper. Gachville. the others being connected with the electric-bell circuit as indicated. Do not let go of the fork until the little catches are set in position to prevent the spring from turning. In this particular diagram the tacks numbered 1 and 7 are used for unlocking the door. while a person not knowing the combination would be liable to sound the alarm. which will discharge the necessary amount of corn or other feed at any desired time. even those who read this description. for the purpose of giving an alarm should anybody try to experiment with the secret contacts.

With about 9 ft. --Contributed by H. is cut with a knob soldered on at the end. apart. J. Dobson. -Contributed by Edmund Kuhn. long and trim down the edges so as to make them 11-3/8 in. wide. A. E. A Battery Rheostat [80] In a board 7 in. Connect switch to post B. wide.. The three shelves are cut 25-in. Compton. A neat scroll design is cut from a board 25 in. wide. A series of grooves are cut 1/4 in. Mangold. records and 5-5/8 in. Jr. for 10in. Washington. Two binding-posts are placed in board at A and B. Two drawers are fitted in this space. C. apart on one side of the top and bottom shelves. East Orange. for 6-in. From a piece of brass a switch. Cut the end pieces each 36-in. D. from the bottom. 1. wide bore holes about 1/4 in. records. Cabinet Holding 32 Records 1/4 in. The distance between the bottom of the top board and the top of the first shelf should be 3 in. 2. of fine iron wire attach one end to the bottom of post A and run through first hole and over in first notch to back of board and then through second hole and over second notch and so on until E is reached. --Contributed by Dr. . Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired Homemade Disk-Record Cabinet [79] Select some boards that have a nice grain and about 1 in. long and full 12-in. Cal. H. and on both sides of the middle shelf. deep and 3/4 in. wide.whenever the bell rings. and cut notches in top end to correspond with the holes. in a semicircle 2 in. The top board is made 28-in. long and the edges trimmed so they will be 11-3/8 in. where the other end of wire is fastened. C. N. as shown in Fig. The shelves should be spaced 9-5/8 in. as shown in Fig. wide. thick and 12-in. long and 5 in. long to fill up and finish the space below the bottom shelf. Nails for stops are placed at DD.

depending on whether the cord is passed over pulley C or pulley D. B. closed. Will Open or Close Circuit as Desired How to Make a Rotary Pump [81] . An alarm clock is firmly fastened to a wooden bracket and provided with a small wood or metal drum. which in operation is bent. thus causing the switch to snap open quickly and prevent forming an arc. Pulley D is fastened to a piece of spring steel. as shown by the dotted lines. The other end of the cord is tied to the switch handle so that when the alarm goes off the switch is either opened or C. but if it is passed over D the circuit will be opened. as shown in Fig. A. Roanoke.Battery Rheostat Automatic Time Switch [80] This device may be used to either open or close the circuit at any desired time. to which is fastened a cord. 1. the circuit will be closed when the alarm goes off. When the cord is passed over pulley C. Va. E. --Contributed by Douglas Royer.

4 and 5 show all the parts needed. Put the rubber tube. In the sides (Fig. Through the center of a block of wood 4 in.Details of Rotary Pump A simple rotary pump is constructed on the principle of creating a vacuum in a rubber tube and so causing water to rise to fill the vacuum. Fig. E. if necessary drive a brad through to keep it from slipping. thick. pass it around the track and out through the other hole. leaving the first circle in the form of a ridge or track 3/8 in. against which the rubber tubing. to turn on pins of stout wire. 4 shows the wheel-holder. Now put all these parts together. These wheels should be 3/4 in. or so arranged that the distance between the edge of the wheels and the track (K. excepting the crank and tubing. 1. Figs. Figs. square and 7/8 in. as shown in the illustration. which should be about 1/2 in. 1 in. 3. 1) is equal to the thickness of the tubing when pressed flat. CC. it too loose. holes (HH. In these grooves place wheels. Do not fasten the sides too . one in each end. but a larger one could be built in proportion. The crankpin should fit tightly. On each side of this block cut a larger circle 3-1/4 in. Cut the last circles only 1/4 in. Bore two 1/4 in. 3). 1 in. deep and 1/2 in. through one of these holes. in diameter. 2 and 3) saw a circular opening 2-7/8 in. is compressed by wheels. E. When placed in the holder their centers must be exactly 2 in. 5) bore a hole in the center of the crankpin to run in loosely. B. in diameter. this is necessary in order to place in position the piece holding the wheels. Make it of hard wood 3-1/8 in. they will let the air through. The dimensions and description given are for a minimum pump. so that it will run freely between the sides (Fig. Notice the break (S) in the track. If the wheels fit too tightly. apart. wide. Bore a hole through the middle of the wheel-holder and insert the crankpin. D. wide. having the same center as the first circle (Fig. long. they will bind. Fig. in diameter. 1) from the outside of the block to the edge of the inner circle. Fig. 5) when they are placed. deep. wide and a little less than 7/8 in. Cut two grooves. in diameter. thick (A.

Before the first wheel releases the tube at the top. the pump will give a steady stream. fill the tube with water and place the lower end of the tube in a reservoir of water. AA. from the top and after making rivetholes rivet them to the cross bars. tubing. In the two cross bars 1 in. from each end. from each end. Mark the legs 2-3/4 in. Two feet of 1/4-in. The animal does not fear to enter the box. Make a nozzle of the end of a clay pipe stem for the other end of the tube. is all the expense necessary. The first wheel presses the air out of the tube. 2. In this case a handle must be attached to the rim of the wheel to serve as a crank. of material. The screen which is shown in Fig. and 3-1/2 in. The three legs marked BBB. In shaping the feet of these three pieces give them a slight tendency to lean toward the fire or inside of screen. mark again. For ease in handling the pump. costing 10 cents. and mark for a hole. beyond each of these two. How to Make a Fire Screen [82] FIG. the other wheel has reached the bottom. though a small iron wheel is better. For the crank a bent piece of stout wire or a nail will serve. and will keep skirts and children safe can be made at little expense out of some strap iron. The top and bottom pieces marked AA.securely until you have tried the device and are sure it will run smoothly. To use the pump. a platform should be added. 1. The drive wheel from a broken-down eggbeater will do nicely. Hubbard. B. Fig. 15 in. stands 20 in. 1. this time pressing along the water that was brought up by the first wheel. Fig. If the motion of the wheels is regular. says a correspondent in the Blacksmith and Wheelwright. 1. --Contributed by Dan H. A in Fig. are 3/4 by 1/4 in. 1. long.2 Made of Strap Iron A screen which will not interfere with the radiation of the heat from the fire. from each end. as it gives steadiness to the motion. Then turn the crank from left to right. are of the same size iron and each leg will take 34 in. Trap for Small Animals [82] This is a box trap with glass sides and back. Idana. 1. AA. 2. because he can . Clean it up and give it a coat of black Japan or dead black. Take the center of the bar. Kan. as shown in Fig. Fig. high from the base to the top crosspiece and is made of 3/4 by 1/4-in. from that mark the next hole. from the bottom and 2 in. on each side mark again and 3-1/2 in. iron. Fig. long and punch holes to fit and rivet onto the remaining holes in cross bars. the panes of glass being held in place by brads placed on both sides. creating a vacuum which is immediately filled with water. and 1/2 by 1/4-in. and are 30 in. bent at an angle to fit the fireplace 7 in. 17-1/2 in. Cut six pieces. mark for hole and 3 in.

Proceed as follows: In 32 oz. 4 oz. To cause a flow of electricity. of the top. it will cover the entire surface of the zinc. of water dissolve 4 oz. Then pour the solution into the battery jar. sal-ammoniac battery and remove the zinc rod. and the solution (Fig. or. Place the carbon in the jar. If the solution touches the zinc. lower the zinc until it almost touches the bottom of the jar and connect an electric bell or other electrical apparatus by means of wires to the two binding posts. When through using the battery. The battery is now complete. This prevents the zinc wasting away when no current is being used. To determine whether or not the zinc is touched by the solution. This is a piece of copper tube about 1-1/2 in. Amalgamation is not necessary for the zinc one buys. at the same time allowing a few drops of mercury to fall on a spot attacked by the acid. giving it a bright. This is one of the easiest traps to build and is usually successful. but if one casts his own zinc. acid 1 part). The battery is now ready for use. dropping. C. The mercury will adhere. potassium bichromate. stirring constantly. it is necessary to amalgamate it or coat it with mercury. one on each end on opposite sides (Fig. some of it should be poured out. sulphuric acid. conical zinc required is known as a fuller's zinc and can be bought at any electrical supply dealer's. silvery appearance. The upper screw is to connect the battery wire. there is too much liquid in the jar. This may be done as follows: Dip a piece of rag in a diluted solution of sulphuric acid (water 16 parts. it may be cast in a sand mold from scrap zinc or the worn-out zinc rods from sal-ammoniac batteries. Thread the wire holding the zinc through the porcelain insulator of the carbon cylinder and also through the wire connector. Homemade Grenet Battery [83] Procure an ordinary carbon-zinc. add slowly. It is useful for running induction coils. long having two thumb screws. If the battery has been used before. and touches the bait the lid is released and. 14 copper wire. 2). 1) must be prepared. If it is wet. The truncated.see through it: when he enters. . it is better to soak the carbon cylinder for a few hours to remove any remaining crystals of sal-ammoniac from its pores. shuts him in. rub the zinc well. It should be cast on the end of a piece of No. take out the carbon and lower the zinc. Pull the zinc up as far as it will go and tighten the lower thumb screw so that it holds the wire secure. When the bichromate has all dissolved. the lower one to raise and lower the zinc. raise the zinc and tighten the lower thumb screw. Philadelphia. --Contributed by H. Next procure what is known as a wire connector. and if the rubbing is continued so as to spread the mercury. or small electric motors. until it is within 3 in. Do not add the acid too quickly or the heat generated may break the vessel containing the solution. however. This battery when first set up gives a current of about two volts. Meyer.

pressing the pedal closes the door. and upon the size depends the distance signals can be transmitted. The price of the coil depends upon its size. in order to throw the door open after lifting it from the catch. Madison. The pulley in the ceiling must be placed a little in front of the door. This apparatus may be purchased from any electrical-supply house. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. the battery circuit. If.1 Details of Homemade Battery Door-Opener for Furnace [83] The accompanying diagram shows an arrangement to open the coal door of a furnace. e.Fig. i. however. the jump-spark coil . When approaching the furnace with a shovelful of coal it is usually necessary to rest the shovel on the top of the ash door.. Wis. Furnace Door Opener How to Make an Efficient Wireless Telegraph [84] By GEORGE W. which opens the door. RICHARDSON A simple but very efficient wireless telegraph may be constructed at slight cost from the following description: The sending apparatus consists of nothing but an induction coil with a telegraph key inserted in the primary circuit. A large gate hinge is used to hold the pedal to the floor. After putting in the coal. With my device it is only necessary to press the foot pedal. while the coal door is being opened. one wishes to construct his own coil he can make and use. with slight changes.

in a straight line from top to bottom. This receiver was difficult of adjustment and slow in transmission. apart. coil made on the same plan will transmit 20 miles or even more under favorable conditions. consisting of a glass tube about 1/8-in. uncovering just enough to allow a good contact for the sliding piece. and attach two small pieces of wire with a brass ball on each. as shown in Fig.described elsewhere in this book. along the convolutions of the tuning coil until you can hear the signals. will transmit nicely up to a distance of one mile. Make a solution of 1 part sulphuric acid to 4 parts of water. The signals are heard in a telephone receiver. This constitutes all there is to the sending apparatus. Of these two terminal wires one is grounded to earth. For a mile or less the points should be about 1/16 in. Change the coil described. W W. Remove the carbon filament in the lamp and bend the two small platinum wires so they will point at each other as in Fig. This coil. Screw the lamp into an ordinary wall socket which will serve as a base as in Fig. 7). while the other wire is sent aloft and is called the aerial line. This can be done by giving the glass tip or point a quick blow with a file or other thin edged piece of metal. made of No. 5. After winding. An instrument much less complicated and inexpensive and which will work well can be made thus: Take a 5-cp. and closer for longer distances. carefully scrape the insulation from one side of the coil. It will be necessary to adjust the platinum points. in which were two silver pistons separated by nickel and silver filings. . which is made of light copper wire.7. 14 insulated copper wire wound on an iron core. The tuning coil is simply a variable choking coil. The tuning is done by sliding the contact piece. the full length of the coil. 6. 6. in a partial vacuum. as follows: Insert an ordinary telegraph key in the battery circuit. In the earlier receiving instruments a coherer was used. to suit the distance the message is to be worked. diameter. while a 12-in. coil. by inserting them in the binding-posts of the coil as shown at B B". being a 1-in. which is shown connected in shunt across the binding posts of the lamp holder with one or two cells of dry battery in circuit. and fill the lamp about twothirds full (Fig. This will make an excellent receiver. incandescent lamp and break off the tip at the dotted line. 7. 7. Fig. as shown in Fig. Now for the receiving apparatus. W W. Then with a blow-torch heat the broken edges until red hot and turn the edges in as seen in Fig.

is run from binding-post B through the choking or tuning coil. to the direction of the current. The above-mentioned instruments have no patents on them. may be easily made at very little expense. 1). No. For an illustration. A. Run a wire from the other binding post. 90°. are analogous to the flow of induction. B the bed and C the tailstock. to the direction of the force that caused the circles. but simply illustrates the above to show that. 1 to 4. . and anyone is at liberty to build and use them. Figs. to the ground and be sure to make a good ground connection. above the ground. wireless is very simple when it is once understood. Beeswax for Wood Filler [85] When filling nail holes in yellow pine use beeswax instead of putty. as it matches the color well. being at right angles. and hence the aerial line. an ordinary automobile spark coil can be used in place of the more elaborate coil. The fundamental principles are that induction travels at right angles. transmits signals horizontally over the earth's surface. where A is the headstock. but it could be run by foot power if desired.6 stranded. To the end of the aerial wire fasten a bunch of endless loops made of about No. if a person standing on a bridge should drop a pebble into the water below. after all. in the air. For simple experimental work on distances of 100 ft. at any point to any metal which is grounded. which will be described later. To work a 20-mile distance the line should be 100 or 150 ft. but this may be made in the same manner as the small one. I run my lathe by power. A lathe of this kind is shown in the cut (Fig. These circles. 90°. suitable for turning wood or small metal articles. and for best results should extend up 50 ft. A good way is to erect a wooden pole on a house or barn and carry the aerial wire to the top and out to the end of a gaff or arm. A large cone pulley would then be required.The aerial line. The writer does not claim to be the originator. only. being vertical. 14 magnet wire (bare or insulated). using an electric motor and countershaft. The aerial wire should not come nearer than 1 ft. after contact he would note circles radiating out over the surface of the water. How to Make a Lathe [86] A small speed-lathe. attaching both ends to the leading or aerial wire.

Separate the two halves of the bearing slightly by placing a piece of cardboard on each side. 4. on the under side of the bed. 6. so as to allow the babbitt to run into the lower half of the bearing. After pouring. it will split along the line of the notched cardboard where the section of the metal is smallest. and Fig. 6 Headstock Details D. hardwood being preferable for this purpose. drilling just deep enough to have the point of the drill appear at the lower side. tapered wooden pin. 5) are passed through holes in the wood and screwed into nuts C. A. Fig. and it is well to have the shaft hot. The edges which touch the shaft should be notched like the teeth of a saw. is fastened to the bed by means of carriage bolts. This cavity acts as an oil cup and prevents the bearing from running dry. the holes afterward being filled with melted lead. deep. making half of the square in each half of the bearing. B. and drill a hole in the top of the bearing as shown in Fig. thick. The bearing is then ready to be poured. one of which is shown in Fig. just touching the shaft. To make these bearings. If the bearing has been properly made. cut a square hole in the wood as shown. which are let into holes FIG. Place pieces of wood against the ends of the bearing as shown at A and B. The headstock. Then drill a hole in the top as shown at A. The notches for this purpose may be about 1/8 in. 4. Fig.Assembled Lathe Bed and Bearing Details The bed of the machine is made of wood as shown in Figs. so that the babbitt will not be chilled when it strikes the shaft. 2 shows an end view of the assembled bed. 2 and 3. which pass through a piece of wood. too. 5. and runs in babbitt bearings. but not hot enough to burn it. Fig. If the shaft is thoroughly chalked or smoked the babbitt will not stick to it. remove the shaft and split the bearing with a round. pitch and 1/8 in. The bolts B (Fig. This type of bearing will be found very satisfactory and may be used to advantage on . 5. Heat the babbitt well. steel tubing about 1/8 in. The shaft is made of 3/4-in. Fig. 3 shows how the ends are cut out to receive the side pieces.

--Contributed by Louis Lauderbach. lock nut. thus allowing the tail stock to be shifted when necessary. After the bearings are completed the cone pulley can be placed on the shaft.J. they may be turned up after assembling. of the walk . which would otherwise occur from the action of the sal ammoniac or other chemical. If not perfectly true. Be sure and have a good connection at the zinc binding post and cover that with melted paraffin. but they are inexpensive and much handier than homemade tool rest. and a 1/2-in. Oak Park.7 Details of Tailstock pipe.other machines. so I had to buy one. B. N. The mechanism of the center holder is obtained by using a 1/2in. 6 and fasten these together with nails and glue. A. the alarm is easy to fix up. Ill. Showing Zinc Suspended Callers' Approach Alarm [87] This alarm rings so that callers approaching the door may be seen before they ring the bell and one can exercise his pleasure about admitting them. If one has a wooden walk. 7) is fastened to the bed in the same manner as the headstock. embedded in the wood. The wire may be held at the top by twisting it around a piece of wood or by driving a peg through the hole in the porcelain insulator. To make this pulley cut three circular pieces of wood to the dimensions given in Fig. Newark. --Contributed by Donald Reeves. This prevents corrosion. FIG. by rigging up a temporary toolrest in front of the headstock. The tail stock (Fig. I found that a wooden tool-rest was not satisfactory. To Use Old Battery Zincs [87] When the lower half of a battery zinc becomes eaten away the remaining part can be used again by suspending it from a wire as shown in the cut. except that thumb nuts are used on the carriage bolts. Take up about 5 ft.

save when a weight is on the trap. Then make the solution .and nail it together so as to make a trapdoor that will work easily. about one-fourth as much in bulk as used in the decolorizing process. Minneapolis. Easy Method of Electroplating [88] Before proceeding to electroplate with copper. before dipping them in the potash solution. of water. Nail a strip of tin along the under side of the trap near the spring and fasten another strip on the baseboard. Then add more ammonia and stir until the green crystals are re-dissolved giving an intense blue solution. S. 2). and the alarm is complete. (A. dip the articles to be plated in a boiling potash solution made by dissolving 4 oz. clean the articles thoroughly. by which they are to be suspended in the plating bath. to remove all traces of grease. Do not touch the work with the hands again. Jackson. For plating with copper prepare the following solution: 4 oz. silver or other metal. putting the batteries and bell anywhere desired. so that they will not touch. water. Minn. then hold them by the wires under running water for ten minutes to completely remove every trace of the potash. Connect up an electric bell. and using rubber-covered Alarm Rings When Caller Approaches wire outside the house. to roughen the surface slightly. Fig. leaving a clear solution. Then polish the articles and rub them over with a cloth and fine pumice powder. copper sulphate dissolved in 12 oz. the bell will ring and those in the house can see who it is before the door bell rings. as the least spot of grease or dirt will prevent Electroplating Apparatus the deposit from adhering. hang the articles on the wires. Place a small spring under one end to hold it up about 1/4 in. To avoid touching it. When a person approaching the house steps on the trap. American ash in 1-1/2 pt. add potassium cyanide again. --Contributed by R. add strong ammonia solution until no more green crystals are precipitated. Finally. Add slowly a strong solution of potassium cyanide until the blue color disappears.

3) of thin wood with a 1/8-in. 1. I. if one does not possess a buffing machine. nickel and such metals. On brass. saw a piece of wood. square. with water. To provide the keyhole. will serve for the key. when the point of the key touches the tin. light strokes. with water. long. 18 wire. The deposit of silver will be dull and must be polished. Fig. With an electric pressure of 3. The wooden block C. bolt or a large nail sharpened to a point. In rigging it to a sliding door. Make a somewhat larger block (E. be sure to connect the positive (or red) terminal to the piece of silver hanging in the bath. shaking. and the larger part (F. 3) strikes the bent wire L. Screw the two blocks together. pewter. it is only necessary to double all given quantities. with an electric pressure of 2 to 4 volts. and bore a hole to fit the key in the center. This is best done by filling the bottle with water. Take quick. The wooden catch. A solution for silver plating may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 3/4 oz. allowing precipitate to settle and then pouring off the water. of clothesline rope and some No. and slowly add a strong solution of potassium cyanide until no more white precipitate is thrown down. lead. and the negative (or black) terminal to the article to be plated. such metals as iron. Repeat six times. and 4 volts for very small ones. Fig. will give a good white coat of silver in twenty minutes to half-an-hour. from the lower end. If accumulators are used. Before silver plating. Drill a hole through the center of this block for the rope to pass through. --Model Engineer. 1). long. Fig. the carbon terminal takes the place of the positive terminal of the accumulator. being careful to bring the holes opposite each other.5 to 4 volts. must be coated with copper in the alkaline copper bath described. thick Electric Lock for Sliding Door and 8 in. A (Fig. with the pivot 2 in. The best method is to use a revolving scratch brush. the materials required are: Three flat pulleys. this will give an even deposit of copper on the article being plated. German silver. as shown in Fig. which . 1 not only unlocks. make a key and keyhole. A 1/4 in. Can be made of a 2-in. 1 in. copper. and then treated as copper. 3) directly over the hole. 10 in. thick by 3 in. of water. which is advised. Then. the buzzer knocks catch A (Fig. This solution. a circuit is completed. 1). a hand scratch brush is good. silver can be plated direct. The sketch shows how to suspend the articles in the plating-bath. slowly add to it a solution of potassium cyanide until all the precipitate is dissolved. Then add an excess of potassium cyanide--about as much as was used in dissolving the precipitate--and make the solution up to 1 qt. 3. If more solution is required. When all this is set up. On one side of this block tack a piece of tin (K. use 2 volts for large articles. hole in its center. Polish the articles finally with ordinary plate powder. An Ingenious Electric Lock for a Sliding Door [89] The apparatus shown in Fig. also. B should be of the same wood. piece of broomstick. zinc. but opens the door. about 25 ft. which is held by catch B. Having finished washing the precipitate. Fig. and fasten it to the rope with a little tire tape. Then pour the liquid off and wash the precipitate carefully. by simply pressing the key in the keyhole. as at F. an old electric bell or buzzer. of commercial silver nitrate in 8 oz. must be about 1 in. Where Bunsen cells are used.up to 2 qt.

2. one-third of the length from the remaining end. although a little more trouble.. The candles must be close together and arranged on little brackets around the whole front of the "cave" (see small cut). surrounding a perfectly black space. Objects appear and disappear. The box is painted black first so that the cloth used need not be very heavy. Thus. Klipstein. with a switch as in Fig. If you can have a plumber make you a square frame of gas-piping. B. 1. and plenty of candles. The weight D then falls and jerks up the hook-lock M. H. floor. the door can only be opened by the person who has the key. the illumination in front must be arranged. with tiny holes all along it for the gas to escape and be lit. is the cut through which the rope runs. and the heavier weight N immediately opens it. The illusions he shows you are too many to retail at length. He removes the bowl from the black box. . and a slit. and after a few words of introduction proceeds to show the wonders of his magic cave. he tosses it into the cave. a few simple tools. and at G the wires run outside to the keyhole. In front of you.rises at the opposite end and allows catch B to fly forward and release the piece of broomstick C. the requisites are a large soap box. top. Fig. but it never reaches the floor--it disappears in midair. On either side of the box. but if the cloth be sufficiently thick. Fig. shows catch B. H. --Contributed by E. some black paint. such as forks. The box must be altered first. where immediately appears a small white china bowl. H. enlarged. The magician stands in front of this. One end is removed. or cave. It is based on the performance of the famous Hermann. to throw the light toward the audience. in his shirt sleeves. should be cut a hole. Next. 2. for the circuit cannot be closed with an ordinary nail or wire. 116 Prospect St. heighten the illusion. no painting inside is required. and should have little pieces of bright tin behind them. and connect this by means of a rubber tube to the gas in the house. Next. Closing the door winds up the apparatus again. half way from open end to closed end. is an elastic that snaps the catch back into place. between the parlor and the room back of it. which unlocks the door. the box should be painted black both inside and out. so much the better. The whole inside is to be cloth-lined. Heavy metal objects. Holding his empty hand over this bowl. 0. some black cloth. and black art reigns supreme. Parlor Magic for Winter Evenings [90] By C. 1. The interior must be a dead black. cut in one side. This arrangement is very convenient when one is carrying something in one hand and can only use the other. East Orange. is an upright square of brightly burning lights. This lining must be done neatly-no folds must show and no heads of tacks. but a plentiful supply of short candles will do just as well. and finally lined inside with black cloth. Receiving the bowl again. and prevent them seeing very far into the black box. and relies on a principle of optics for its success. 3. One thing changes to another and back again. which have been shown to the audience and which can have no strings attached to them. spoons and jackknives. just large enough to comfortably admit a hand and arm. To prepare such a magic cave. The whole function of these candles is to dazzle the eyes of the spectators. with the lights turned low. CLAUDY You are seated in a parlor at night. New Jersey. some oranges and apples drop from his empty hand into the bowl. This slit should be as long as the width of the box and about five inches wide. Fig. Fig. Now all this "magic" is very simple and requires no more skill to prepare or execute than any clever boy or girl of fourteen may possess. Showing you plainly that both hands are empty. fly about in the box at the will of the operator. sides and end. and hands its contents round to the audience. he points with one finger to the box.

Any article thrown into the cave and caught by the black hand and concealed by a black cloth seems to disappear. The Magic Cave It is important that the assistants remain invisible throughout. This enables an absolutely instantaneous change as one uncovers the object at the moment the second assistant covers and removes the other. the room where the cave is should be dark. into the eyes of him who looks. was identical with this. had a big stage. but does not see the black arm and bag against the black background. of course. The illusion. The audience room should have only low lights. A picture of anyone present may be made to change into a grinning skeleton by suddenly screening it with a dropped curtain. and if you can drape portieres between two rooms around the box (which. There is no end to the effects which can be had from this simple apparatus. as presented by Hermann. while another curtain is swiftly removed from over a pasteboard skeleton. his confederate behind inserts his hand. while here the power behind the throne is but a black-veiled hand and arm. which is snatched swiftly away at the proper moment by the assistant. only he. But illusions suggest themselves. and pours them from the bag into a dish. when the exhibitor puts his hand in the cave. Any object not too large can be made to "levitate" by the same means. one on each side of the box. the much fainter light reflected from the black surface will not affect the observer's eye. attached to sticks greater in length than the width of the box. and the skeleton can change to a white cat. in which are oranges and apples. and people clothed in black to creep about and do his bidding. a screen must be used. The whole secret of the trick lies in the fact that if light be turned away from anything black. or by the black veiled hand holding on to it from behind. the audience sees the oranges and apples appear. But any boy ingenious enough to follow these simple instructions will not need to be told that the whole success of the exhibition depends upon the absolute failure of the audience to understand that there is more than one concerned in bringing about the curious effects which are seen. which can be made to dance either by strings. is on a table) so much the better. and several black drop curtains. if. Consequently.Finally. It can be made even more complicated by having two assistants. you must have an assistant. covered with a black glove and holding a small bag of black cloth. and this is the reason why it was advised that two holes be cut. which are let down through the slit in the top. of course. The dish appears by having been placed in position behind a black curtain. The exhibitor should be . who must be provided with either black gloves or black bags to go over his hands and arms. and if portieres are impossible. and if the operators are sufficiently well drilled the result is truly remarkable to the uninitiated.

a good "patter” --as the magicians call it -. by 4 in. which is fastened through the center piece to the wooden base. never give an exhibition with the "cave" until you have watched the illusions from the front yourself. at L. is shown in the diagram. Fig. respectively. and c1 – electricity. so arranged that. respectively. suitable for use by students of electrical and engineering courses in performing experiments. if you turn the handle to the left so that e1 and e2 touch b2 and b3. The switch is easy to make and of very neat appearance. and a is a circular piece of wood about 1/4 in.. held down on it by two terminals. About the center piece H moves a disk. b3. b1. if you turn handle K to the right. 1. c1. 2). or binding posts. and c4 + electricity. terminal c3 will show . as shown in Fig. 1. while their other ends slide in two half-circular brass plates f1. so that the strips e1 and e2 touch b1 and b2. On the disk G are two brass strips. or b2. so that you can determine whether everything connected with the draping is right. b2. d. c4. or whether some stray bit of light reveals what you wish to conceal. Then. and a common screw. Reversing-Switch for Electrical Experiments [92] A homemade reversing-switch. and c2 to the zinc. b2. A. b3. Finally. c3. so that the latter can produce the proper effects at the proper cue from the former. The action of the switch is shown in Fig. terminal c3 will show +. Post c1 is connected to d by means of an insulated wire. c2. Connect terminal c1 to the carbon of a battery. 2.is often of more value than a whole host of mechanical effects and helpers. vice versa. How to Receive Wireless Telegraph Messages with a Telephone [92] Any telephone having carbon in the transmitter (all ordinary telephones have carbon transmitters) can be used to receive wireless messages by simply making a few changes . held down on disk F by two other terminals. e1 and e2. their one end just slips under the strips b1. It is essential that the exhibitor and his confederate be well drilled. FIG. 2. making contact with them as shown at y. held down by another disk F (Fig. respectively.a boy who can talk. when handle K is turned to one side. making them carry the same kind of current (+ in the sketch). A represents a pine board 4 in. f2. square. by means of two wood screws.2 Suitable for Students' Use Referring to Fig. with three brass strips. making contact with them.

Connect the transmitter and receiver in series with three dry cells and run one wire from the transmitter to the antenna. E. By putting in an extra switch three of the sending batteries may be switched in when receiving. you have the current of one battery. B is a onepoint switch. Newark. Connect the other transmitter wire to a water or gas pipe in order to ground it. and C and C1 are binding posts. 4. Tuttle. from four batteries. from five batteries. Jr. 2 you receive the current from two batteries. when on No. and then hold the receiver to your ear. 3. I have the jars of water where the batteries are and the current coming in at a and b. Any wireless telegraph message within a radius of one mile will cause the transmitter to act as a coherer. thus making the message audible in the receiver. 5.in the connections and providing a suitable antenna. thus obviating the necessity of an extra set of batteries. 1. which will send or receive messages for a radius of one mile. jump spark coil. Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph Connecting Up Batteries to Give Any Voltage [93] Referring to the illustration: A is a five-point switch (may be homemade) . The accompanying wiring diagram shows how to make the connections.. Ohio. --Contributed by Eugene F. a complete wireless telegraph station may be made. when A is on No. When switch B is closed and A is on No. when on No. I have been using the same method for my water rheostat (homemade). -Contributed by A. By using an ordinary telephone transmitter and receiver and a 1/2-in. and when on No. from three batteries. More batteries may be connected to each point of switch B. Joerin. .

Wis. so one can see the time. If the thread is tied at the 17-in. Handy Electric Alarm [94] An electric alarm which one may turn off from the bed without arising combined with a light which may be turned on and off from a lying position. mark. Thus. P. per second. it shows that the train is gaining 2 miles an hour each second. then each half inch will represent the mile per hour increase for each second. is the device of H. New Orleans. Trotter in a paper read before the Junior Institution of Engineers of Great Britain.. it the thread moved 2-1/4 in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. traveled by the thread. then the train would be increasing its speed at the rate of 41/2 ft. A. A. Redmond. and placed on the windowsill of the car. indicates an increase of or decrease of velocity to the extent of 1 ft. When you do not have a graduate at hand. mark. per second for each second. Place the shell in an oven to brown the surface slightly and it will be less brittle and last much longer. in a direction opposite to the movement of the train. and supporting the small weight. Handy Electric Alarm . La. rule. E. as shown in the sketch. over the bent portion of the rule. B. and pouring with a graduate glass requires a steady hand. A funnel cannot be used in a small opening. will indicate the acceleration and retardation as follows: Every 1/2 in. An Egg-Shell Funnel [93] Bottles having small necks are hard to fill without spilling the liquid.A Simple Accelerometer [93] A simple accelerometer for indicating the increase in speed of a train was described by Mr. The alarm clock rests on a shelf. A. of Burlington. with a piece of thread tied to the 22-in. a half egg-shell with a small hole pricked in the end will serve better than a funnel. The device thus arranged. The device consists of an ordinary 2-ft. which may be a button or other small object. Thus if the thread moves 1 in.

soldered to the alarm winder. which illuminates the face of the clock. Then if a mishap comes. then drove a spike in a damp place under the porch.which has a piece of metal. I first secured a magneto out of an old telephone. This was repeated several times during the afternoon with other dogs. you will fall with one leg and arm encircling the bridge. B. the bell will continue to ring until the switch is opened. attached a wire to the spike and ran the wire to one of the poles of the magneto. At the same instant I gave the magneto a quick turn. fastened in such a position that the metal rod C. wrapping the wire around the can several times. but may be closed at F any time desired. for a wetting is the inevitable result. I next ran a wire from the other pole of the magneto to the can. Then I sat down on the porch to wait. Then I set the garbage-can on some blocks of wood. How to Cross a Stream on a Log [94] When crossing a water course on a fence rail or small log. When the alarm goes off. but finally executed a plan that rid the yard of them in one afternoon. will complete the circuit and ring the bell. being careful not to have it touch the ground at any point. . Instead. fix the eye on the opposite shore and walk steadily forward. C. which sent the dog away a very surprised animal. Lane. and with the same result. thus turning on the small incandescent light G. Crafton. To Keep Dogs and Cats Away from the Garbage-Can [94] Last summer I was annoyed a great deal by dogs upsetting our garbage can on the lawn. S. The two-point switch D is closed normally at E. Pa. putting his forepaws on the top of the can to upset it. It was not long before a big greyhound came along. --Contributed by Gordon T. --C. do not face up or down the stream and walk sideways.

ornaments of various kinds. Simply twist it around as at A and bend the circuit-breaking contact back as shown. BE. which in turn support the mold while it is being made. 1 . thick and should be constructed in the form of a trough. be purchased at the nearest foundry for a small sum. as the sand is sure to get on the floor. and many other interesting and useful articles. bearings. The bench will also make the operation of molding much easier and will prove to be a great convenience. engines. and the variety and usefulness of the articles produced will make the equipment a good investment. but if no yellow sand can be obtained the black kind will do. Foundry Work at Home [95] The Equipment [95] Many amateur mechanics who require small metal castings in their work would like to make their own castings. About one or two cubic feet of fine molding-sand will be required. C. cannons. which may. L.Relay Made from Electric Bell [94] It is not necessary to remove the adjusting-screw when changing an electric bell into a relay. when it is being prepared. This can easily be done at home without going to any great expense. With the easily made devices about to be described. small machinery parts. The object of using the cleats and removable cross-boards instead of a stationary shelf is to give access to the sand. Yellow sand will be found a little better for the amateur's work than the black sand generally used in most foundries. New York City. It may be necessary to remove the head of the screw. whence it is soon tracked into the house. Macey. and duplicates of all these. should be nailed to the front and back to support the cross-boards. 1. as shown. binding posts. It is possible to make molds without a bench. --Contributed by A. models and miniature objects. If there is no foundry Fig.Convenient Arrangement of Bench and Tools . The bench should be made of lumber about 1 in. A. but it is a mistake to try to do this. to prevent shortcircuiting with the armature. battery zincs. the young mechanic can make his own telegraph keys and sounders. as shown in Fig. AA. The first thing to make is a molding bench. Two cleats.

which would otherwise slide out of the flask when the two halves of the mold are separated. makes a very good sieve. If desired the sieve may be homemade. F. is nailed to each end of the cope. by 8 in. CC. which can be made of a knitted stocking. is about the right mesh. say 12 in. is shown more clearly in Fig. If the box is not very strong." or lower part. D. 2 . and this." or upper half. The flask. A cast-iron glue-pot makes a very good crucible for melting the metal. Take a small lump of soft coal and reduce to powder by pounding. The wooden strips BB are used to hold the sand. giving preference to the finest sand and that which clings together in a cake when compressed between the hands. A slight shake of the bag Fig. II . This completes the equipment with the exception of one or two simple devices which will now be described. and a sieve. will be found useful in the molding operations and may be hung on the wall or other convenient place when not in use. nailed to replace the bottom of a box. Ordinary wire netting such as is used in screen doors. by 6 in. as it is too coarse and will not make a good mold. is made of wood. as shown. CC.How to Make a Mold [96] . is filled with coal dust. high. Screen out all the coarse pieces and put the remainder in the bag. DD.Homemade Flask over the mold will then cause a cloud of coal-dust to fall on it. The rammer. J. After the flask is done make two boards as shown at K. 1. which is used for a parting medium in making the molds. G. and saw it in half longitudinally. the corners should be braced with triangular wooden strips. which can be either aluminum. a little larger than the outside of the flask. 2. as shown. The dowels. It is made of wood and is in two halves. An old teaspoon. For mixing and preparing the sand a small shovel. are then nailed on the drag so that they just touch C when the flask is closed. try using sand from other sources. Fig. but this operation will be described more fully later on. A A. which should be nailed in. and the "drag. and the lower pieces. will be required. A good way to make the flask is to take a box. The cloth bag. In foundries each molder generally uses two rammers. Fig. A couple of cleats nailed to each board will make it easier to pick up the mold when it is on the floor. Common lake or river sand is not suitable for the purpose. A wedge-shaped piece. white metal. zinc or any other metal having a low melting-point. but for the small work which will be described one will be sufficient.near at hand. the "cope. H. thus preventing the two layers of sand from sticking. previous to sawing. E. 1. The two halves of the flask will then occupy exactly the same relative position whenever they are put together. and is wedge-shaped at one end and flat at the other. are a very important part of the flask as upon them depends the matching of the two halves of the mold.

scrape off the surplus sand with a straight-edged stick. or "cope. A good way to tell when the sand is moist enough is to squeeze it in the hand. and thus judge for himself. A quantity of sand sufficient to completely cover the pattern is then sifted into the drag. The operation of making a mold is as follows: The lower half of the flask. If the sand falls out of the flask when lifting the cope. In order to prevent the two layers of sand sticking together." and the pattern to be molded are both placed on the cover board as shown at A. turn the drag other side up. as shown at E. where they can watch the molders at work. as shown at D. or if it opens up or spreads after it is poured. as shown at C. and if water is added. as shown. It is then rammed again as before. or the hot metal coming in contact with it when the mold is poured will cause such rapid evaporation that the mold will "boil" and make a poor casting. If it forms into a cake and shows all the finger-marks." in position.Having finished making the flask and other equipment. of loose sand over the surface for a good bearing. in order to remove the lumps. When molding with sand for the first time it will be necessary to screen it all before using it. The sand is then ready for molding. pound evenly all over the surface with the blunt end of the rammer. either because of insufficient ramming around the edges or because the sand is too dry. but if it crumbles or fails to cake it is too dry. The first attempt usually results in the sand dropping out of the cope when it is being lifted from the drag. which is then filled level with the top with unscreened sand. as described. and scatter about 1/16 in. but by observing the results the beginner can tell when a mold is too hard or too soft. and by grasping with both hands. the surface of the sand at . 3-Making a Mold it becomes heaped up as shown at B. Place another cover board on top. and if the surface of the sand next to the pattern is cracked it shows that the mold has been rammed too hard. the sand should be thoroughly shoveled until the moisture is evenly distributed. it shows that the mold has been rammed too little. It would be well for those who have never had any experience in this line to visit a small brass foundry. After ramming. and then more sand is added until Fig. It is impossible to describe just how hard a mold should be rammed. This is rammed down slightly with the rammer. or "drag. In finishing the ramming. A little practice in this operation will soon enable the molder to determine the correct amount of moisture. everything will be ready for the operation of molding. it has a sufficient amount of moisture. It will be found that the edges of the mold can stand a little more ramming than the middle. as it is much easier to learn by observation. but they must not expect to make a good mold at the first trial. An ordinary watering-pot will be found useful in moistening the sand. Remove the upper cover board and place the upper half of the flask. but care should be taken not to get it too wet.

made out of steel rod. the mold sputters and emits large volumes of steam. as shown in the sketch. which is screwed into a tapped hole in the pattern. striking it in all directions and thus loosening the sand slightly from the pattern. and should not be poured directly into the center of the opening. from the surface of the mold to the pattern. . which should be done soon after the metal is entirely melted. These vent holes may be made by pushing a wire about the size of a knitting-needle down through the sand until it touches the pattern. in order to allow the escape of air and steam when the mold is being poured. thus holding the crucible securely. it shows that the sand is too wet. Fig. When a metal pattern is used a thread rod is used. and the castings in such cases will probably be imperfect and full of holes. as shown at F. Now comes the critical part of the molding operation--that of lifting the cope from the drag." or pouring-hole. deep. to give the air a chance to escape. which consists of a piece of thin brass or steel tubing about 3/4 in. III. Before drawing it is well to tap the drawing-rod lightly with another and larger rod. thus making a dirty casting. Some molders tap the pattern gently when withdrawing. This is done by shaking the coal-dust bag over the flask. as shown at H.Melting and Pouring [98] Having prepared one or more molds. 4 -Pouring the Metal If. Place a brick or other flat.E should be covered with coal-dust. heavy object on top of the mold above the pattern. the next operation is that of melting and pouring. place the cope back on the drag. After the ramming is done a number of vent holes are made. by driving a sharp pointed steel rod into the pattern and lifting it from the sand. after being poured. to prevent the pressure of the melted metal separating the two halves of the mold. This is done with a spoon. An ordinary cast-iron glue-pot makes a good crucible and can be easily handled by a pair of tongs. in diameter. After drawing the pattern. as shown at J. wide and about 1/4 in. A second piece of steel rod bent in the form of a hook at the end is very useful for supporting the weight of the crucible and prevents spilling the molten metal should the tongs slip off the crucible. which carries the molten metal from the sprue to the opening left by the pattern. In order to hold the tongs together a small link can be slipped on over the handle. by means of the sprue-cutter shown at the right. The pattern is then drawn from the mold. The metal should be poured into the mold in a small stream. a channel being cut about 3/4 in. in order to prevent overheating. as shown at H. The cope is then filled with sand and rammed in exactly the same manner as in the case of the drag. The next operation is that of cutting the gate. but with a little practice and patience the molder can lift the cope every time without breaking it. The hook is also useful for removing the crucible from the fire. It is here that the amateur often becomes discouraged. The "sprue. as shown at G. in order to loosen any sand which has a tendency to stick. as the sand is liable to fall out of the cope and spoil the mold. and then pour. as the metal will then strike the bottom hard enough to loosen the sand. is next cut. after which the dust on the pattern may be removed by blowing.

the permanent brightness and silver-like appearance of the castings is very desirable. The gate can be removed with either a cold chisel or a hacksaw. If a good furnace is available. In my own case I used four batteries. A good "white metal" may be made by mixing 75% tin. Referring to the figure. and adding a little antimony if the metal shrinks too much in cooling. babbitt. In the various positions of these two switches the current from each individual cell. Although the effect in the illustration . Battery Switch [99] In cases where batteries are used in series and it is desirable to change the strength and direction of the current frequently. The object of adding antimony to an alloy is to prevent shrinkage when cooling. the following device will be found most convenient. used only for zinc. An Optical Illusion [99] The engraving shows a perfectly straight boxwood rule laid over a number of turned brass rings of various sizes. Minneapolis. and. but any reasonable number may be used. A very economical alloy is made by melting up all the old type-metal. but unless the pattern is a very large one about five minutes will be ample time for it to set. One of the easiest metals to melt and one which makes very attractive castings is pure tin.A mold made in the manner previously described may be poured with any desired metal. --Contributed by Harold S. and the casting is then ready for finishing. Tin melts at a temperature slightly above the melting point of solder. may be used in either direction. In casting zincs for batteries a separate crucible. 15% lead. battery zincs. and then by moving the switch B toward the right the current can be turned on in the opposite direction to the desired strength. The casting is then dumped out of the mold and the sand brushed off. is very desirable. The time required for a casting to solidify varies with the size and shape of the casting. Morton. as the presence of a very small amount of lead or other impurity will cause the batteries to polarize. it will be seen that by moving the switch A toward the left the current can be reduced from four batteries to none. although this metal melts at a higher temperature than any of the metals previously mentioned. but a metal which is easily melted will give the least trouble. white metal and other scrap available. aluminum can be melted without any difficulty. 5% zinc and 5% antimony. A very good way to make the binding posts is to remove the binding posts from worn-out dry batteries and place them in the molds in such a way that the melted zinc will flow around them. although somewhat expensive. or from any adjacent pair of cells.

Make one of these pieces for each arm. but sighting along the rule from one end will show that it is perfectly straight. 2. so that the cranks in revolving will not strike the operator's knees. Put a sharp needle point. Then replace the table. How to Make a Paddle Boat [100] A rowboat has several disadvantages. which will be sufficient to hold it. and the oarsman is obliged to travel. but that they really are can be proved by sighting in the same manner as before. The bearings. as shown at A. To make it take a sheet-iron band. by means of a pivoted stick in the bottom of the boat. but preferably of iron pipe filled with . The portions on one side of the rule do not appear to be a continuation of those on the other. backward. to prevent them from rubbing the hands. connected by cords to the rudder. split-wood handles may be placed on the cranks. --Contributed by Draughtsman. shaft made. may be made of hardwood.An Optical Illusion is less pronounced than it was in reality. He can easily steer the boat with his feet. At the blacksmith shop have a 5/8-in. If desired. the operator can see where he is going and enjoy the exercise much better than with oars. 3/4 in. In lifting the table first show the hands unprepared to the audience and also a tight table. through the sheet-iron so that it extends 3/4 in. rest the hands upon it and at the same time press the needle points in the arm pieces into the wood of the table. Chicago. New Method of Lifting a Table [99] To perform this feat effectively the little device illustrated will be required. it will be noticed that the rule appears to be bent. By replacing the oars with paddles. removing the cover to show that the surface of the table is not prepared in any way. B. which should be designed to suit the dimensions of the boat. outward. taking care that sufficient clearance is allowed. as shown in the illustration. B. Then walk down among the audience. wide and attach a strap to fasten on the forearm between the wrist and elbow. It will be necessary to furnish a sketch giving all the dimensions of the shaft. Fig. The brass rings also appear distorted. The operation of the oars is both tiresome and uninteresting. says a correspondent of the Sphinx. A.

but also how it solidifies when the pressure is removed. much lower temperatures are required to make it a solid. 2 and 3. 1. A. should be made of wood. spoiling its appearance. In the same way. Another peculiar property of ice is its tendency to flow. when it will again return to its original state. for the block wi11 still be left in one piece after the wire has passed through. A block of ice. This experiment not only illustrates how ice melts under pressure. as shown in Fig. The pieces of pipe may be then fastened to the boat by means of small pipe straps. and when the pressure is removed the liquid portions solidify and unite all the particles in one mass. or the paint will come off. 3. C.melted babbitt. such as may be obtained at any plumber's at a very small cost. and a weight. 1. If babbitt is used. because a greater amount of pressure is then required to make the snow liquid. or under pressure. Detail of Paddle Boat Peculiar Properties of Ice [100] Of all the boys who make snowballs probably few know what occurs during the process. drilled to fit the shaft and mortised out to hold the paddles. is Experiment with a Block of Ice supported at each end by boxes BB. E. either thoroughly smoke or chalk the shaft or wrap paper around it to prevent the babbitt sticking. becomes liquid in places when compressed by the hands. being simply finely divided ice. it should be exposed to the weather two or three months before painting. The hubs. W. In extremely cold weather it is almost impossible to make a snowball. and will remain liquid until the pressure is removed. D. but when in motion. Snow. ice which is somewhat below the freezing point can be made liquid by applying pressure. The wire will continue to cut its way through the ice until it passes all the way through the piece. as shown in Fig. The covers. is hung on a wire loop which passes around the ice as shown. It may seem strange that ice . Under ordinary conditions water turns to ice when the temperature falls to 32°. If galvanized iron is used. The pressure of the wire will then melt the ice and allow the wire to sink down through the ice as shown in Fig. This process of melting and freezing under different pressures and a constant temperature is well illustrated by the experiment shown in Figs. Fig. 1. 2. may be constructed of thin wood or galvanized iron and should be braced by triangular boards.

by 5 in. but by placing it between books. and when two branches come together the bodies of ice unite the same as water would under the same conditions. no matter how slow the motion may be.should flow like water. the large body of ice has to bend in moving. This property of ice is hard to illustrate with the substance itself. Crafton. as shown on page 65. but is not strong enough to ring both connected in series. This trouble may be done away with by departing from the old singlecontact vibrator and using one with self-cleaning contacts as shown. brass. square. in. but may be clearly shown by sealing-wax. The rate of flow is often very slow. by 1/4. --Contributed by Gordon T. sometimes only one or two feet a day. To the other end of the strip of iron is soldered a piece of brass 1/64 in.. bent into shape and provided with platinum tipped . the same as the coils of a telegraph sounder. The whole is connected up and mounted on a baseboard as per sketch. Lane. but the glaciers of Switzerland and other countries are literally rivers of ice. by 1/2 in. by 2 in. The snow which accumulates on the mountains in vast quantities is turned to ice as a result of the enormous pressure caused by its own weight. The current is flowing through both bells all the time. and flows through the natural channels it has made in the rock until it reaches the valley below. it will gradually change from the original shape A. Pressing either push button. B. P. whenever there is any connection made at all. Any attempt to bend a piece of cold sealing-wax with the hands results in breaking it. Wiring Diagram Circuit Breaker for Induction Coils [101] Amateurs building induction coils are generally bothered by the vibrator contacts blackening. which resembles ice in this respect. and assume the shape shown at B. makes a short circuit of that bell and rings the one at the other end of the line. Pa. An old bell magnet is rewound full of No. or supporting it in some similar way. using a closed circuit or gravity battery. as per sketch. 26 double cotton-covered wire and is mounted Interrupter for Induction Coil upon one end of a piece of thin sheet iron 1 in. but. thus giving a high resistance contact. on each end of which has been soldered a patch of platinum foil 1/4 in. Return-Call Bell With One Wire [101] To use only one wire for a return call bell connect up as shown in the diagram. the contact posts being of 1/4 in. In flowing through these channels it frequently passes around bends.

Indianapolis. I. alarm clock. draft. D. as shown. B. about the size used for automobiles. horizontal lever. vertical lever. Automatic Draft-Opener [102] A simple apparatus that will open the draft of the furnace at any hour desired is illustrated. Wilkinsburg. The For a Summer Camp illustration shows how the spit to which the meat is fastened is constantly turned by means of a slowly moving water wheel. K . J. pulleys. cord. Spit Turned by Water Power [102] Many of the Bulgarian peasants do their cooking in the open air over bonfires. but when receiving it should be closed in order that the electric waves from the antenna may pass through the coherer. --Contributed by A. Ward. draft chain. The success depends upon a slow current. and C. the induction coil. wooden supports. E. F. The transmitter consists of an induction coil. C. In the wiring diagram. --Contributed by Coulson Glick. the battery. The small single-point switch is left open as shown when sending a message. The parts are: A. The advantage of this style of an interrupter is that at each stroke there is a wiping effect at the heavy current contact which automatically cleans off any carbon deposit.thumb screws. The coherer in this case is simply two electric-light carbons sharpened to a wedge at one end with a needle Wiring Diagram for Wireless Telegraph connecting the two.000 ft. Some of our readers may wish to try the scheme when camping out. H. for a fast-turning wheel will burn the meat. A Short-Distance Wireless Telegraph [102] The accompanying diagrams show a wireless-telegraph system that I have used successfully for signaling a distance of 3. G. a key or push-button for completing the circuit. and five dry batteries. Pa. as shown. and answer by opening the switch and operating the key. The illustration shows a laborsaving machine in use which enables the cook to go away and leave meat roasting for an hour at a time. furnace. A is the circuit breaker. B. An ordinary telephone receiver is connected in series with the coherer. weight. G. To receive messages hold the receiver to the ear and close the switch.

the automatic Draft Regulator device being used to open it early in the morning. as well as the bottom. The spool on the alarm clock is fastened to the alarm key by sawing a slit across the top of the spool and gluing it on. 2 are dressed to the right angle. How to Make an Electroscope [103] . When the alarm goes off a cord is wound up on the spool and pulls the horizontal lever up. is constructed with two small pieces like the rafters. Kalamazoo. 2) is made of about 2 by 2-in. -Contributed by Gordon Davis. The frame (Fig. which releases the vertical lever and allows the weight to pull the draft open. This frame should be made with the three openings of such a size that a four-paned sash. which will provide a fine place for the plants. on which is nailed the sheathing boards and then the shingles on top and the finishing boards on the bottom. Artistic Window Boxes The top. where house plants are kept in the home. A Window Conservatory [103] During the winter months. Mich. then it will be easy to put on the finishing corner boards that hold the sash. such as used for a storm window.shows where and how the draft is regulated during the day. material framed together as shown in Fig. 3. it is always a question how to arrange them so they can get the necessary light without occupying too much room. will fit nicely in them. The sketch shows how a neat window conservatory may be made at small cost that can be fastened on the house just covering a window. If the four vertical pieces that are shown in Fig.

so as to increase the current.. as if drawn upon for its total output. is something that will interest the average American boy. Thus. can be connected up in series. in any system of lamps. It will run as large a lamp a 3-1/2 volts. i. there is now upon the market a battery consisting of 3 small dry cells connected in series. put up in a neat case with 2 binding posts. S. The 1/2-cp. However.. for some time very satisfactorily. Grant. e. It must be remembered. It requires about three medium dry cells to operate it. multiples of series of three. This is more economical than dry cells. Balance the arrow on the needle Simple Electroscope as shown in the sketch. since a battery is the most popular source of power. 1 each complete with base. which sells for 25 cents. which shows the special battery with 3 dry cells in the case. 1. in diameter. Push the needle into the cork. These circular bulbs range from 1/4 to 2 in. and cut the paper in the shape of a small arrow. Halifax. a cork and a needle. A certain number of these. and a suitable source of power. If a piece of paper is then heated over a lamp or stove and rubbed with a piece of cloth or a small broom. In this case it is also advisable to connect several batteries in parallel also. By keeping in mind the ampere output of the battery and rating of the lamp. N. bulbs are usually 2-1/2 volts and take 1/4 ampere of current. this must be done with very great caution. as indicated by Fig. where they are glad to have them taken away. However. as it gives about 4 volts and 3 amperes. in this connection. the arrow will turn when the paper is brought near it. it is economical to provide twice as many batteries as necessary. after a rest. --Contributed by Wm. Miniature Electric Lighting [104] Producing electric light by means of small bulbs that give from one-half to six candle power.An electroscope for detecting electrified bodies may be made out of a piece of note paper. Thus the individual cells are in multiple series. and will give the . and cost 27 cents FIG.. as the lights will be burnt out if the voltage is too high. 1 cp. Canada. They are commonly known as miniature battery bulbs. and the instrument will then be complete. More than one lamp can be run by connecting the bulbs in parallel. W. and the 2 binding posts for connection with the bulbs. one can regulate the batteries as required. that any battery which is drawn upon for half of its output will last approximately three times as long. by connecting them in series. This also supplies a means of still maintaining the candle power when the batteries are partially exhausted. but maintain the voltage constant. Persons living in the city will find an economical means of lighting lamps by securing exhausted batteries from any garage.

Simply connect the miniature circuit to an Edison plug. to secure light by this method. by the proper combination of these. and the latter of these two has in its favor the small initial cost. as in Fig. and is wound for any voltage up to ten. although the first cost is greater. and then lead No. 11 series. where the water pressure is the greatest.. --Contributed by Lindsay Eldridge. while connecting batteries in parallel increases the amperage. Fig. and slightly cuts down the current or amperage. Thus. It is advisable to install the outfit in the basement.proper voltage. each. and for Christmas trees. if the voltage and amperage of any cell be known. In conclusion. And it might be said that dry cells are the best for this purpose. These lamps are by no means playthings or experiments. especially those of low internal resistance. generates the power for the lights. Of all these sources of power the two last are the most economical. and the sum of their voltages equals the voltage of the circuit used. The winding should correspond to the voltage of the lamps which you desire to run. and the whole set of 11 will take one ampere of current. we can secure the required voltage and amperage to light any miniature lamp. If wound for 10 volts. double insulated wire wherever needed. 1-cp. lamps. and diffused light in a room. 3. lamp. The dynamo can also be used as a motor. it would give 1-1/4 amperes and run four 6-cp. for battery power: Connecting batteries in series increases the voltage. A small dynamo driven by a water motor attached to a faucet. Chicago. and insert in the nearest lamp socket. . which is the same as that of one battery. but holds the voltage the same as that of one cell. we simply turn on the water. Thus. The cost of the smallest outfit of the kind is about $3 for the water motor and $4 for the dynamo.2 For those having a good water supply there is a more economical means of maintenance. for display of show cases. FIG. If the lighting circuit gives 110 volts he can connect eleven 10-volt lamps in series. but are as serviceable and practical as the larger lamps. making. and the water consumption is not so great as might be imagined. 2 shows the scheme. lamps. and will produce from 18 to 25 cp. and cost about the same as a 32-cp. This arrangement of small lights is used to produce a widely distributed. This dynamo has an output of 12 watts. So. it will be seen that any candle power lamp can be operated by putting the proper number of lights in each series. and running the series in parallel. For the party who has electric light in his house there is still an easier solution for the problem of power. according to the water pressure obtainable. 18 B & S. Any number of different candle power lamps can be used providing each lamp takes the same amount of current. These will give 3 cp. or 22 lights. one could run parallel series of two 3-volt. or 1-1/4 cents per hour. However. if wound for 6 volts.

BB. This reverses every sound on the record and changes it to such an extent that very few words can be recognized.How to Make a New Language [105] Anyone possessing a phonograph can try a very interesting and amusing experiment without going to any expense. brushes of motor. Reverse for a Small Motor Referring to the illustration. which can be made of narrow braid or a number of strands of yarn. The number of shelves can be varied and to suit the size of the dishes. --Contributed by Leonard E. a bait of meat. To Drive Away Dogs [106] The dogs in my neighborhood used to come around picking up scraps. It is hung on the wall the same as a picture from the molding. To reverse the motor. and the sides. and connect the other pole of the battery to the other field coil. and C. Cal. center points of switch. CC. thus reversing the machine. Plymouth. --Contributed by F. AA. Connect one bar of the switch to one end of the field coil and the other bar to one pole of the battery. outside points of switch. the letters indicate as follows: FF. After I connected up my induction coil. A indicates the ground. . as shown in the sketch. Then connect one of the outside posts of the switch to one brush of the motor and one middle post to the other brush. Reversing a Small Motor [105] All that is necessary for reversing the motor is a pole-changing switch. or from one pattern. Emig. DD. Remove the belt and replace with a longer one. Santa Clara. A. Connect the two middle posts of the switch with each other and the two outside posts with each other. Cup hooks are placed on top and bottom shelves. simply change the switch. Ind. we were not bothered with them. field of motor. B. The new belt should be long enough to allow crossing it. Parker. How to Make a Cup-and-Saucer Rack [105] The rack is made of any suitable kind of wood. B. bars of pole-changing switch. switch. or a tempting bone. The shelves are made in various widths to fit the sides at the places where they are wanted. are cut just alike.

The button can be hidden. To unlock the door. When the circuit is broken a weight. -Contributed by Claude B. a piece of string. Minn. one cell being sufficient. The magnet then draws the armature out of the screw eye and the door is unlocked. San Jose. thus locking the door. The experiment works best . Experiment with Two-Foot Rule and Hammer [106] An example of unstable equilibrium is shown in the accompanying sketch. the door will not Automatic Electric Lock for Doors lock. If it is not. An Automatic Lock [106] The illustration shows an automatic lock operated by electricity. as it is the key to the lock. a hammer. A. and a table or bench. 903 Vine St. tends to push the other end of the armature into the screw eye or hook C. merely push the button E. Melchior. attached to the end of the armature B. Hutchinson.Shocking-Machine --Contributed by Geo. W. Cal. Fry. which is in the door. The weight must be in proportion to the strength of the magnet. All that is needed is a 2-foot rule. or would remain locked. The dotted line at D shows the position of the armature when the circuit is complete and the door unlocked..

in the ceiling and has a window weight. 18 Gorham St.. the current flows with the small arrows. The other end of stick E is placed under the key G of the alarm clock. attached at the other end. forming a loop. A. Simple Current Reverser [107] On a block of hardwood draw a square (Fig. Alarm Clock to Pull up Furnace Draft [107] A stout cord. Wis. 3. --Contributed by Edward Whitney. C. A small stick is put through a loop in the cord at about the level of the table top on which the alarm clock F stands. Crawford Curry. When the block is placed on with the big arrow A pointing in the direction indicated in Fig. Then connect up with the Details of Reverser motor and battery as in Fig. When the alarm rings in the early morning. -. the key turns. where it will remain suspended as shown. 2. Porto Rico. Madison. Culebra. Brockville. --Contributed by Geo. 4). Tie the ends of the string together. is attached to the draft B of the furnace. On another block of wood fasten two wires. Ontario.Contributed by F. 1) and drill a hole in each corner of the square. Schmidt. Then place the apparatus on the edge of the table. and pass this around the hammer handle and rule. which pulls the draft open. as shown in Fig. Fill these holes with mercury and connect them to four binding posts (Fig. I. Canada. . 1). run through a pulley. 3. W. P. D. so that their ends can be placed in the holes in the first block.An Experiment in Equilibrium with a hammer having a light handle and a very heavy head. releasing the weight. To reverse turn through an angle of 90 degrees (Fig. the stick falls away.

J. or from a bed of flowers. square and 1 in. R. The cut shows the arrangement. For an outdoor summer party the music can be made to come from a bush. --Contributed by Wm. D. and the other to the battery. which fasten to the horn. The apparatus is not difficult to construct. a farmer boy not many years ago discovered a comet which had escaped the watchful eyes of many astronomers. get two pieces of plate glass. made with his own hands. and then to the receiver. The more batteries used the louder will be the sound produced by the horn. Jr. including the mouthpiece. These parts may be purchased from any electricalsupply house. First. or tree.Automatic Time Draft-Opener How to Transmit Phonograph Music to a Distance [107] An interesting experiment. and break the corners off to make them round. grinding the rough edges on a grindstone. Also a watch case The Long-Distance Phonograph receiver. thence to a switch. Farley. and one calculated to mystify anyone not in the secret. running one direct to the receiver. thick. S. How to Make a Telescope [108] With a telescope like the one here described. Camden. Use a barrel to work on. and fasten it to the reproducer of the phonograph. N.. and . but avoid using too much battery or the receiver is apt to heat. 6 in. is to transmit the music or speech from a phonograph to another part of the house or even a greater distance. Connect two wires to the transmitter. Procure a long-distance telephone transmitter. J.

and is ready for polishing. and the under glass or tool convex. twice the focal length away. and paint the squares separately with jeweler's rouge. or it will not polish evenly. If the glass is not ground enough to bring the rays to a point within 5 ft. Work the speculum over the tool the same as when grinding.Homemade Telescope fasten one glass on the top of it in the center by driving three small nails at the sides to hold it in place. Then take a little of the coarsest powder. while walking around the barrel. Have ready six large dishes. Use a binger to spread it on with. The upper glass or speculum always becomes concave. also rotate the glass. flour emery and mix in 12 qt. work as before (using short straight strokes 11/2 or 2 in. set the speculum against the wall. wide around the convex glass or tool. 30 minutes and 90 minutes. Work with straight strokes 5 or 6 in. after working 5 hours hold the speculum in the sunshine and throw the rays of the sun onto a paper. In a dark room. it should be tested with the knife-edge test. and spread on the glass. where the rays come to a point gives the focal length. Fasten. with 1/4-in. When done the glass should be semitransparent. the coarse grinding must be continued. immediately turn the water into a clean dish and let settle 30 seconds. then take the glass with the handle and move it back and forth across the lower glass. Trim the paper from the edge with a sharp knife. 2. and label. unless a longer focal length is wanted. of water. so the light . Fig. Use wet grain emery for coarse grinding. with a small needle hole opposite the blaze. then take 2 lb. which is necessary to make it grind evenly. being careful not to turn off the coarser emery which has settled. wet till soft like paint. L. and a large lamp. 2. then turn it into another dish and let settle 2 minutes. then 8 minutes. wetting it to the consistency of cream. Take a pinch and spread it evenly on the glass which is on the barrel. A. Then warm and press again with the speculum. a round 4-in. When the two last grades are used shorten the strokes to less than 2 in. Mold the pitch while hot into squares of 1 in. or less. being careful to have all the squares touch the speculum.. with pitch. turn the emery from the 5 jars into 5 separate bottles. by the side of the lamp.. When polishing the speculum. as in Fig. Place a large sheet of pasteboard. block of wood in the center on one side of the other glass to serve as a handle. using straight strokes 2 in. Fig. spaces. next use the finer grades until the pits left by each coarser grade are ground out. paste a strip of paper 1-1/3 in.) until the holes in the glass left by the grain emery are ground out. melt 1 lb. of pitch and turn on to it and press with the wet speculum. in length. When the glass is polished enough to reflect some light. 1. When dry.

The knife should not be more than 6 in. as it works better when old: Now take solution A and set aside in a small bottle one-tenth of it.. then ammonia until bath is clear. from the lamp. as in K. Caustic stick potash (pure by alcohol) ….. the silver film may be polished with a piece of chamois skin... Then add solution B. 2. must be procured. if the speculum is ground and polished evenly it will darken evenly over the surface as the knife shuts off the light from the needle hole. then raise the speculum and rinse with distilled water. if a hill in the center. so the rays from the needle hole will be thrown to the left side of the lamp (facing the speculum). When dry. the speculum is ready to be silvered.……………………………. longer strokes. The polishing and testing done. in the bath and leave until the silver rises. shorter strokes should be used in polishing. Fig.. Then add 1 oz. a dark brown precipitate will form and subside.. cement a strip of board 8 in.……………………………….100 gr. Solution B: Distilled water ……………………………. 3 shows the position of the glasses in the tube. The small flat mirror may be silvered the same way. 2.Detail of Telescope Construction from the blaze will shine onto the glass. the speculum will show some dark rings. Solution D: Sugar loaf . Fig. When the focus is found. If not.. Now move the knife across the rays from left to right.……………. pour into a bottle and carefully put away in a safe place for future use.. with distilled water. 39 gr. also how the rays R from a star . that was set aside. Place the speculum S. with the knife mounted in a block of wood and edgeways to the lamp. The recipe for silvering the speculum is: Solution A: Distilled water ……………………………. Silver nitrate ……………………………. Fig. Alcohol (Pure) …………….. Nitric acid . 840 gr. touched with rouge. Now add enough of the solution A. and clean the face of the speculum with nitric acid. the polishing being accomplished by means of a light spiral stroke. Two glass or earthenware dishes. Solution C: Aqua Ammonia. to bring the bath to a warm saffron color without destroying its transparency. Place the speculum. fill the dish with distilled water. face down. Mix solution D and make up to 25 fluid oz. large enough to hold the speculum and 2 in. 100 gr. If the glass seems to have a deep hollow in the center. 4 oz. or hills. With pitch. 25 gr. and pour the rest into the empty dish. 4 oz. and lay the speculum face down in one of the dishes. deep. long to the back of the speculum. and look at the speculum with the eye on the right side of the blade. stop adding ammonia solution as soon as the bath clears.. of solution D and stir until bath grows dark. add the ammonia solution drop by drop. until the water will stick to it in an unbroken film.

and proceed as for any picture. Another Electric Lock [110] The details of the construction of an electrically operated lock are shown in the illustration. Then make a ring to fit over the lens mount and connect it with the prisms in such a way as to exclude all light from the camera except that which passes through the face of the prisms. Mellish. The flatter they are the less they will distort. cover with paper and cloth. The inner surface of this hood must be Arrangement of Prisms dull black. which proves to be easy of execution. My telescope is 64 in. with an outlay of only a few dollars. as follows: Secure from an optician or leaded-glass establishment. stop down well after focusing. If the ring which slips over the lens mount is lined with black velvet. but an instrument such as I desired would cost $200--more than I could afford. then paint to make a non-conductor of heat or cold. I first began studying the heavens through a spyglass. A writer in Camera Craft gives the secret. Make the tube I of sheet iron. How to Make "Freak" Photographs [110] The "freak" pictures of well-known people which were used by some daily newspapers recently made everybody wonder how the distorted photographs were made. using strawboard and black paper. slightly wider than the lens mount. The distortion is accomplished by the use of prisms. two glass prisms. Then I made the one described. is a satisfactory angle.John E. but I used all my spare time in one winter in making it. telescope can be made at home.. Thus an excellent 6-in. . long and cost me just $15. Secure them as shown by the sectional sketch. with which I discovered a new comet not before observed by astronomers.are thrown to the eyepiece E in the side of the tube. it will exclude all light and hold firmly to the mount. The paper which comes around plates answers nicely. deg. About 20. When the door is closed and the bolt A pushed into position. Place over lens. Make the mounting of good seasoned lumber.

or powdered alum. 2. with a shelf to hold the camera and a table with an upright drawing-board attached. How to Mix Plaster of Paris [110] For the mixing of plaster of Paris for any purpose. . The back is taken out of the camera and fitted close against the back of the shelf. The negative used to make the enlarged print is placed in the shelf at A. The paper is exposed. To unlock. developed and fixed by the directions that are enclosed in the package of bromide papers. the shutter is set and a bromide paper is placed on the board. Boody. but will not preserve its hardening. instead of the contrary. If you wish the plaster to set extra hard. just sprinkle it in until you have a creamy mass without lumps. -Contributed by A. D. In this way the plaster may be handled a long time without getting hard. when the bolt may be drawn and the door opened. as shown in Fig. A room from which all light may be excluded and a window through which the light can enter without obstruction from trees or nearby buildings. says the Master Painter. complete the arrangement. add the plaster gradually to the water. as the process is exceedingly simple to make large pictures from small negatives with the same hand camera. A. It is not necessary to have a large camera to do this.Simple Electric Lock it automatically locks. The addition of a little vinegar or glue water will retard the setting of the plaster. 1. Do not stir it. through the lens of the camera and on the board. Equal parts of plaster and water is approximately the correct proportion. and reflect through the negative. Ill. The window must be darkened all around the shelf. push the button D. After placing the negative and focusing the lens for a clear image on the board. Zimmerman. which act will cause the electromagnet to raise the latch C. Fig. which must be provided with a hole the same size and shape as the opening in the back of the camera. Enlarging with a Hand Camera [111] Everyone who owns a hand camera has some pictures he would like enlarged. unobstructed light strike the mirror. then add a little sulphate of potash. B. The rays of the clear. Marshmallow powder also retards the setting.

throw . and it will be found that the card will not be blown away. Can Experiment with Spool and Card the reader devise a practical application of this contrivance? Simple Switch for Reversing a Current [111] Take two strips of copper or brass and fasten them together by means of gutta-percha (Fig. 1). Then blow through the spool. 2. 3. thereby producing a partial vacuum between the spool and the card. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the air radiates from the center at a velocity which is nearly constant. as in Fig. but will remain suspended without any visible support. use a string.Making Large Pictures with a Small Camera Positioning A Hanging Lamp [111] Don't pull a lamp hung by flexible cord to one side with a wire and then fasten to a gas pipe. I have seen a wire become red hot in this manner. as shown in the sketch. Fig. If the lamp hung by a cord must be pulled over. 2. Fasten on the switch lever. also provide them with a handle. as at A and B. so that it can rotate about these points. Connect the wires as shown in Fig. A Curious Compressed Air Phenomenon [111] Push a pin through an ordinary business card and place the card against one end of a spool with the pin inside the bore. To reverse. Saw out a rectangular block about one and one-half times as long as the brass strips and fasten to it at each end two forked pieces of copper or brass.

wash in running water. C C. rinse in alcohol. Take out. When connected with 10 or 12 dry batteries this lamp gives a fairly good light. . Then A Baitless Trap bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar. In the sketch. Bait may be placed in the jar if desired. Neb. binding posts. although this is not necessary. as shown in the sketch. 16 wire and connecting it in series with two electric-light carbons. Levy. Tex. Go McVicker.Simple Current-Reversing Switch the lever from one end of the block to the other. L. --Contributed by R. -Contributed by Morris L. Homemade Arc Light [112] By rewinding an electric-bell magnet with No. Push one end of the tire into the hole. A is the electricbell magnet. the armature. --Contributed by Geo. carbons. D. San Antonio. Thomas. a small arc will be formed between the carbon points when the current is applied. North Bend. and E E. carbon sockets. and rub dry with linen cloth. B. Polishing Nickel [112] A brilliant polish may be given to tarnished nickel by immersing in alcohol and 2 per cent of sulphuric acid from 5 to 15 seconds. Tex. Novel Mousetrap [112] A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap. San Marcos. making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in.

today it is the plaything of school-boys and thousands of grown-up boys as well. long or more. a peculiar phosphorescent glow will fill the whole interior of the lamp. It comprises a core consisting of a cylindrical bundle of soft-iron wires cut to proper length. it will be found that the lines of force emanating from the energized core penetrate the new coil-winding almost as though it were but a part of the surrounding air itself. an induction coil may be briefly described as a step-up transformer of small capacity. Bell. 14 or No. wound evenly about this core. --Contributed by Joseph B.Arc Light Lighting an Incandescent Lamp with an Induction Coil [112] An incandescent lamp of low candlepower may be illuminated by connecting to an induction coil in the manner shown in the sketch. By means of two or more layers of No. 36 magnet wire. 16 magnet wire. Should we now slip over this electromagnet a paper tube upon which has been wound with regularity a great and continuous length of No. and particularly is it popular because of its use in experimental wireless telegraphy. the bundle becomes magnetized when the wire terminals are connected to a source of electricity. Ten years ago wireless telegraphy was a dream of scientists. If the apparatus is then placed in the dark and the current turned on. and the first thing to do is to decide which of the parts the amateur mechanic can make and . One wire is connected to the metal cap of the lamp and the other wire is fastened to the glass tip. All or any of the parts of an induction coil may be purchased ready-made. The induction coil used for this purpose should give a spark about 1/2 in. and when the battery current is broken rapidly a second electrical current is said to be induced into the second coil or secondary. Geissler Tube How to Make a Jump-Spark Coil [113] The induction coil is probably the most popular piece of apparatus in the electrical laboratory. Brooklyn. Divested of nearly all technical phrases.

or 8 in. The ready-made secondary is in solid cylindrical form. then the strip of tin-foil.which would be better to buy ready-made. No. The straighter the wire the more iron will enter into the construction of the core. 4. making two layers. as the operation of winding a mile or more of fine wire is very difficult and tedious. Core and primary are then immersed in boiling paraffine wax to which a small quantity of resin and beeswax has been added. 2 may be purchased at a small cost. When cut and laid in one continuous length. as shown in Fig. diameter. with room also for a small condenser. and need not be set into a case until the primary is completed. If the builder has had no experience in coilwinding it would probably pay to purchase the secondary coil ready-wound. Should the secondary have been purchased without a case. This makes a condenser which may be folded. A 7/8-in. 24 iron wire cut 7 in. After the core wires are bundled. long and 5 in. but if it is not convenient to do this work. The primary is made of fine annealed No. in length. This core is to be used to attract magnetically the iron head of a vibrating interrupter. beginning at one end and bending about 6 in. 16 cotton-covered magnet wire is wound from one end to the other evenly and then returned. and is fastened to the box in such a way that the vibrator hammer plays in front of the core and also that soldered connections may be made inside the box with the screws used in affixing the vibrator parts to the box. about 6 in. so as to form a continuous electrical circuit. each piece of tin-foil must overlap the adjoining piece a half inch. In ordering the secondary it is always necessary to specify the length of spark desired. The condenser is made of four strips of thin paper. long and 2-5/8 in. wide. the entire core may be purchased readymade. the core is wrapped with one or two layers of manila paper. a box like that shown in Fig. The following method of completing a 1-in. If the amateur has difficulty in procuring this wire. and bundled to a diameter of 7/8 in. The same methods and circuits apply to small and larger coils. a wooden box of mahogany or oak is made. hole is bored in the center of one end. through which the primary core projects 1/8 in. Beginning half an inch from one end. The secondary will stand considerable handling without fear of injury. and finally the fourth strip of paper. This interrupter is shaped as in Fig. at a time. which is an important factor of the coil. The wires may be straightened by rolling two or three at a time between two pieces of hard wood. in diameter. or same thickness of heavily shellacked muslin. 1. and a sufficient quantity of tinfoil. Over this primary is now wrapped one layer of okonite tape. large enough to contain the secondary and with an inch to spare all around. and the terminals tied down to the core with twine. which is desirable. as the maker prefers. one piece of the paper is laid down. coil illustrates the general details of the work. The condenser is next wrapped . This completed primary will now allow of slipping into the hole in the secondary. 2 yd. In shaping the condenser. and the results are often unsatisfactory. with a hole Jump-Spark Coil through the winding 1-1/4 in. then two strips of paper and another layer of foil. This same wax may be used later in sealing the completed coil into a box.

Referring to the sketch accompanying this article. whole length. and the apparatus may be put up where one likes. the letters indicate as follows: A. which allows wiring at the back. after which it is pressed under considerable weight until firm and hard. Fig. If anyone is ill and you do not want the bell to ring. shows how the connections are made. which is insulated from the first. spring to throw lever E down in V-shaped piece to make connection. E. so that when it is square across the clock it will drop down. one from bell. A. Fasten a piece of copper about 1 in. in which a separate magnet is used to interrupt the circuit. One of the sheets of tin-foil is to form one pole of the condenser. The switch and levers are fastened with small screw bolts. V-shaped copper strip. battery . G. C. by 12 in. This method of connecting is suitable for all coils up to 1-1/2 in. but these will become better known to the amateur as he proceeds in his work and becomes more experienced in coil operation. long and 12 in.. F.) The wiring diagram. wide. bell. go. To Build a Small Brass Furnace [115] Bend a piece of stout sheet iron 23 in. forms the other pole or terminal. the whole being mounted on a board 18 in. (This condenser material is purchasable in long strips. letting lever E drop into the V-shaped piece D and make connection. then wind the alarm just enough so that the key stands straight up and down. flange turned on one side. lever to hold out E when device is used as a door bell. Pull lever G down out of the way and close the lever on the switch. and boiled in pure paraffine wax for one hour. D. Saw two spools in half and fasten the halves to the four corners of the board at the back. and the other sheet.securely with bands of paper or tape. Combined Door Bell and Electric Alarm [114] This device consists of a battery and bell connection to an alarm clock which also acts as a door bell. B. The alarm key will turn and drop down. such as the mercury dash-pot and rotary-commutator types. spark. switch. The wiring for this device may all be on the back of the board. B. to the door. 4 in. round so that the inside . Besides the magnetic vibrators there are several other types. Place the clock on the shelf and the key under the flange of lever E. shelf for clock. 3. long to key. and put G up so that D and E do not come in contact. lines H. See that the ring in the alarm key of the clock works easily. I. ready for assembling. open switch C. copper lever with 1-in. but for larger coil better results will be obtained by using an independent type of interrupter. and one from battery. For the door-bell connection close lever on switch C.

The circuit should also have a high resistance. of blue stone. induction coils and all other open-circuit apparatus. and the battery is ready for use. If desired for use immediately.diameter is 7 in. instead of close to it. from the bottom. You might go away and forget it and a fire might be started from the heat. Make a hole about the size of a shilling in the side. and then rivet the seam.. The usual trouble is not with the battery itself. bottom and sides with fire-clay to a depth of 1/2 in. or enough to cover the copper element 1 in. Use charcoal to burn and an ordinary bellows for blowing. do not shortcircuit. It is therefore undesirable for electric bells. Pour in water sufficient to cover the zinc 1/2 in. but with the circuit. Why Gravity Batteries Fail to Work [115] Many amateur electricians and some professionals have had considerable trouble with gravity batteries. They Setting Up a Gravity Battery follow directions carefully and then fail to get good results. That is what they are for. Avoid Paper Lamp Shades [115] Don't wrap paper around a lamp for a shade. The best blast is obtained by holding the nozzle of the bellows about an inch from the hole. This is for blowing. To set up a gravity battery: Use about 3-1/2 lb. London. . 2 in. Line the furnace. says the Model Engineer. Fit in a round piece of sheet iron for the bottom. A gravity battery is suitable only for a circuit which is normally closed. Use a glass or metal shade. of zinc sulphate. This makes it impractical for running fan motors. but add 5 or 6 oz. Short-circuit for three hours. as the motor would have to be wound with fine wire and it would then require a large number of batteries to give a sufficiently high voltage.

grip the stick firmly in one hand. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. imparting to them a violet tinge. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. thus producing two different vibrations. Try it and see. oxygen to ozone. 1. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. thus making the arm revolve in one direction. siphon off some of the white liquid and add the same amount of water.9 of a volt. for some it will turn one way. Outside of the scientific side involved. Enlarge the hole slightly. below the bottom of the zinc. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. square and about 9 in.Keep the dividing line between the blue and white liquids about 1/2 in. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must or course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. as in the other movement. changes white phosphorus to yellow. Take a piece of hardwood 3/8 in. If too low. herein I describe a much better trick. Ohio. g." which created much merriment. Effects of Radium [116] Radium acts upon the chemical constituents of glass. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. or think they can do the same let them try it. affects . At least it is amusing. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. so the observer will not detect the change which the hand makes --allow the first finger to slide along the top. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm. long. and should be used on a circuit of about 100 milli-amperes. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley Toledo. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. porcelain and paper. Make a hole through the center or this one arm. and then. while for others it will not revolve at all. and he finally from vexation threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. To operate the trick. A Skidoo-Skidee Trick [116] In a recent issue or Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. but the thing would not move at all. and therein is the trick. 2. and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I Invented the following trick and How to Cut the Notches called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. but do not agitate or mix the two solutions. the second finger along the side.. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig. In the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. This type of battery will give about 0. Very few can make it turn both ways at will. If any or your audience presume to dispute. for others the opposite way. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right.

a magnification of nine diameters or eighty-one times. If the worker is not after too high a magnification. but not essential. When a gelatine dry plate is magnified nine diameters. On top of the tripod is the folding arrangement. a means for focusing that lens in a minute manner. Naval Speed Record [116] On its official trial trip the British torpedo boat destroyer "Mohawk" attained the record speed of a little over 39 miles an hour.photograph plates and produces many other curious chemical changes. an old tripod screw. which can be moved forward and back by the rack and pinion. a short-focus lens. chemicals. there is a very simple and effective means of making photomicrographs which requires no additional apparatus that cannot be easily and quickly constructed at home. and the thousand and one little things of daily life--all make beautiful subjects for enlarged photographs. but this is less satisfactory. How to Enlarge from Life in the Camera [117] Usually the amateur photographer gets to a point in his work where the miscellaneous taking of everything in sight is somewhat unsatisfying: There are many special fields he may enter. earth. and. Reproduced with this article is a photograph of dandelion seeds -. This outfit need not be confined to seeds alone. the object carrier need have no independent movement of its own. To the front board is attached a box. The apparatus which produced this photograph consisted of a camera of fairly long draw. the grains of silver in the negative will be magnified also and produce a result that will not stand . however. a means for holding it vertical. that also can be obtained from hardware stores. says the Photographic Times. These cannot be made by taking an ordinary photograph and enlarging through a lantern. focusing being done by the front and back focus of the camera. and one of them is photomicrography. insects. If the bed for the object carrier be attached to the bed of the camera instead of to the front board. but small flowers. particularly when accurate dimensions are to be determined. if possible. and two sliding brass pieces with sets crews that may be purchased from any hardware store under the name of desk sliding braces. carrying the lens and the bed of the sliding object carrier. It is usually understood that this branch of photography means an expensive apparatus. an old bed plate from a camera for the screw to fit in. which is easily constructed at home with two hinged boards.

The material must be cut in suitable shaped gores or segments. or 3 ft. balloon. 905 57 lb. Fig. Get a piece of paper 15 ft. 7-1/2 in. 113 7 lb. 7 ft. and as it is fast becoming the favorite sport many persons would like to know how to construct a miniature balloon for making experiments. 6 ft. 179 11 lb. long and 3 ft. Goddard Jorgensen Unusual interest is being displayed in ballooning. The intersecting point of AB and CD is used for a center to ascribe a circle whose diameter is the same as the width of the paper. and a line. 5 ft. wide from which to cut a pattern. AB. 7-1/2 in. If the balloon is 10 ft. The advantage of this substitute is that there is always one handy to replace a broken or lost pen. Photographs made by photomicrography can be examined like any other photographs and show no more texture than will any print. 12 ft. Divide one-quarter of the circle . in Cu. How to Make a Pilot Balloon [118] By E. Cap. which is 15 ft. Mass. 10 ft 523 33 lb. while it is not so with the quill. 381 24 lb. 697 44 lb. We now take one-half this length to make the length of the gore. The following table will give the size. 9 ft. in diameter. 11 ft. 1. 5 in. Madison. Ft Lifting Power. Steel Pen Used in Draftsman's Ink Bottle Cork [117] A steel pen makes an ideal substitute for a quill in the stopper of the draftsman's ink bottle. Boston. then the circumference will be approximately 3-1/7 times the diameter. A line. as well as the capacity and lifting power of pilot balloons: Diameter. CD. In this article we shall confine ourselves to a 10-ft. or 31 ft. 8 ft. is drawn at right angles to AB and in the middle of the paper lengthways. 268 17 lb. is drawn lengthwise and exactly in the middle of the paper. 65 4 lb.--Contributed by George C.Magnified Nine Diameters close examination.

The paper is now folded on the line AB and then on the line CD. 4. This solution is afterward diluted with turpentine so it will work well. This will dry rapidly in the shade and will not make the oil hard. cutting all four quarters at the same time. When the paper is unfolded you will have a pattern as shown in Fig. and after marked is cut the same shape and size. It is now necessary to varnish the bag in order to make it retain the gas. of beeswax and boil well together. This will form the proper curve to cut the pattern. until all the intersecting lines are touched and the point C is reached. Put the remaining oil in a kettle with 1/8 lb. Procure 1 gal. boiled linseed oil and immerse the bag in it. A small portion of one end or a seam must be left open for inflating. The next operation is to fill the bag with gas. Hydrogen gas is made from iron and sulphuric acid. Perpendicular lines are drawn parallel with the line CD intersecting the division points made on the one-half line AB. If it is not tight then the bag needs another rubbing. The bag is now placed in the sun for a thorough drying. on the curved line from B to C. 70 thread. When all seams are completed you will have a bag the shape shown in Fig. This pattern is used to mark the cloth. Horizontal and parallel lines with AB are drawn intersecting the division points made on the one-quarter circle and intersecting the perpendicular line drawn parallel with CD. A small tube made from the cloth and sewed into one end will make a better place for inflating and to tie up tightly. Fill the bag with air by using a pair of bellows and leave it over night. A line is now drawn from B to E and from E to F. The cloth segments are sewed together. For indoor coating and drying use a small amount of plumbic oxide. The pattern is now cut. 2. and so on. using a fine needle and No. Repeat this operation four times. When the bag is dry apply this mixture by rubbing it on the bag with a piece of flannel. keeping the marked part on the outside. This test will show if the bag is airtight. making a double seam as shown in Fig. of the very best heavy body. The amounts necessary for a 10- . Sewing Segments Together being sure of a thorough drying in the sun each time.Pattern for Cutting the Segments into 10 equal parts and also divide one-half of the line AB in 10 equal parts. The surplus oil is squeezed out by running the bag through an ordinary clothes wringer several times. 3.

balloon are 125 lb. ft. B. with 3/4in. of sulphuric acid and 4 lb. using a fine brush. should not enter into the water over 8 in. washing well and then dipping five minutes in the following solution: A. of sulphuric acid. B. After washing a part. B. A. With a little care and patience and using some benzine. of iron. Clock oil can be procured from your druggist or jeweler. a clean white rag. wipe the brush on the rag and rinse in the benzine. pipe. All FIG. this should be repeated frequently. place the iron borings and fill one-half full of clear water. should be always connected with the bag while the generator is in action. Oil the tooth of the escapement wheel slightly. Dip the brush in the benzine and clean the spindles and spindle holes. with water 2 in. The barrels are kept tight while the generation is going on with the exception of the outlet. as shown in Fig.The Hydrogen Generator joints must be sealed with plaster of Paris. For an amateur it is not always necessary to take the clock to pieces. About 15 lb. 150 gr. if it is good it will dry off. until no more dirt is seen. but if any grease remains on the hand. to the bag. Secure two empty barrels of about 52 gal. and the teeth of the escapement wheel. this may be done with a toothpick or a sliver of woodcut to a fine point. C. Fill the other barrel.ft. 5. In the barrel. or a fan. a sable brush and some oil a clock can be cleaned and put into first-class running order. pipe extending down into the cooling tank. in the latter case great care should be exercised not to injure any of the parts. A. How to Clean a Clock [119] It is very simple to clean a clock. C. The oil should be of the very best that can be procured. 1 lb. The benzine should be clean and free from oil. which may sound rather absurd. The outlet. The 3/4-in. let the solution run out and fill again as before with water and acid on the iron borings. A. by fixing. 5 . leaving the hand quite clean. . Water 1 oz. ]. When filled with gas the balloon is ready for a flight at the will of the operator. with the iron borings. of water will make 4 cu. of iron borings and 125 lb. How to Make Blueprint Lantern Slides [120] Lantern slides of a blue tone that is a pleasing variety from the usual black may be made from spoiled or old plates which have not been developed. All loose dirt should be removed from the works by blowing with bellows. 1 lb. When the action is stopped in the generator barrel..Green Iron ammonium citrate . capacity and connect them. above the level of the water in barrel A. of gas in one hour. Vegetable oils should never be used. Potassium ferrocyanide 50 gr. You can test benzine by putting a little on the back of the hand. This is to give a water pressure head against foaming when the generator is in action. of lime should be well mixed with the water in the barrel B. oil the spindle holes carefully. Pour in one-half of the acid into the barrel. it is not fit to use. or dusting with a dry brush. . When the clock has dried.

Printing is done in the sun. Wash 10 minutes in running water and dry. When experimenting with these globes everything should be dry. toning first if desired. says the Moving Picture World. A longer exposure will be necessary. Bathe the plates 5 minutes. keeping the fingers out of the solution. and keep in the dark until used. Print to bronzing under a strong negative. Dry the plates in the dark. Prepare the solutions separately and mix equal parts for use. fix in hypo. or carbon. A good substitute is to use the orange glass from the ruby lamp. but the 110-volt globes will not glow. . Electric Lamp Experiments [120] Incandescent electric lamps can be made to glow so that they may be seen in a dark room by rubbing the globe on clothing or with a paper. Tartaric or citric acid 1/2 oz.Water 1 oz. Australia How to Make a Simple Wireless Telegraph [121] By ARTHUR E. 20 and 22-volt lamps will show quite brilliantly. of any make. 20 to 30 minutes. Dry in the dark. JOERIN An efficient wireless-telegraph receiving apparatus for distances up to 1. and a vigorous negative must be used. A cold. The negative pole. . The positive pole. Sliver nitrate 50 gr. may be constructed in the following manner: Attach a watchcase telephone receiver to a dry cell. This aerial collector can be made in . A Substitute for a Ray Filter [120] Not many amateur photographers possess a ray filter. but good cloud effects can be procured in this manner. This is done by attaching to a gas or water pipe.000 ft. or battery. This can be held in position in front of the lens with a rubber band. of the cell is connected to a ground wire. Ruhmkorff coil which is in action but not sparking. The miniature 16 cp. Brown or purple tones may be had by sensitizing with the following solution instead of the above: Distilled water 1 oz. Port Melbourne. or zinc. * * * * * * * Annual Regatta. leather or tinfoil and immediately holding near a 1/2-in. Exposure. dry atmosphere will give best results. to avoid blackened skin.. of the cell is connected to the aerial line. at the time of employment.

To Preserve Putty [121] Putty. holes . I have kept putty in good condition for more than a year by placing it in a glass jar and keeping it entirely covered with water. By connecting the telephone receiver to the cell and at the same time having a short circuit a receiving station is made. a positive and a negative. If the wave ceases. it is compelled to take the longer metallic way through the windings of the receiver. It is also necessary to get another lead pipe of the same length but only 3/4 -in. and have the other connected with another aerial line. 5 in. If the waves strike across the needle. As the telephone offers a high resistance. Solder a circular disk of lead to one end. Attach a small bent copper wire in the binding post that is attached to the zinc of the cell. of which all positive plates are connected to one terminal and the negative plates to the other terminal. File a V-shaped groove in the upper end of the carbon of the cell. lead pipe. and cut both ends smooth and square with the pipe. as described below. when left exposed to the air. which will cause the clickings that can be heard. making a ground with one wire. As this cup must hold the sulphuric acid it must be perfectly liquid-tight. either by using a screen wire or numerous wires For Distances up to 1000 Feet made in an open coil and hung in the air. the resistance between the needle and the carbon is increased. In this pipe should be bored as many 1/8-in. made of lead and placed in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. the resistance is less. In the bend of this wire and the V-shaped groove filed into the carbon. Large batteries made of large cells have a great number of plates. Use a spark coil in connection with a telegraph key for the sending station. and thus less current travels through the telephone receiver. both positive and negative. How to Make a Small Storage Battery [121] The cell of a storage battery consists of two plates.various ways. forming a cup of the pipe. in diameter. and as less current will flow the short way. long. lay a needle. This will complete the receiving station. will soon become dry and useless. The storage cell. part of the current will try to take the shorter high resistance through the needle. Secure a piece of 1-3/4-in. is the right size to be charged by a few gravity cells and is easily made.

When mixing the acid and water. The first charge should be run into the cell for about one week and all subsequent charges should only take from 10 to 12 hours. The lower portion of the block is cut away so it will just fit inside of the cup to form a stopper. says the Pathfinder. The large tube or cup is filled with a diluted solution of sulphuric acid.as possible. put it into the smaller tube and ram it down until the tube is almost filled. One end of this tube is hammered together as shown at A in the sketch to make a pocket to hold the paste. and leave it until the wood has become thoroughly saturated with the hot wax. B. and the other to the negative. one to the positive. This solution should be about one-twelfth acid. or tube C. namely: a square hole. an oblong one and a triangular one. The cell is now complete and ready for storing the current. Use care to keep the wax from running on the lead at any place other than the end within the wood block. A support is now made from a block of wood to hold the tube. is cut circular with the same diameter as the lead cup C. does not need to be watertight. by soldering the joint. except for about 1 in. A paste for the positive plate is made from 1 part sulphuric acid and 1 part water with a sufficient amount of red lead added to make of thick dry consistency. This support or block. on each end. The other plate is connected to the zinc. Stir the mixture with a stick and when a good dry paste is formed. A box of wood is made to hold the larger tube or cup. Two binding-posts should be attached. The cell may be charged with three gravity cells. Also remember that sulphuric acid will destroy anything that it comes in contact with and will make a painful burn if it touches the hands. of course. and the corners left open around the cup can be filled with sawdust. This. The paste that may have come through the holes is scraped off and the tube set aside to dry. The center of this block is now bored to make a hole the same size as the smaller lead pipe. in place and to keep it from touching the cup C. These are connected in series and the positive terminal binding-post on the storage cell is connected to the wire leading from the copper plate in the gravity cell. Fitting a Plug in Different Shaped Holes [122] A certain king offered to give the prince his liberty if he could whittle a plug that would fit four different shaped holes. D. a round one. be sure to add the acid to the water and not the water to the acid. This box can be square. A broomstick was used to make the plug and it was whittled in the shape shown . or tube B. Place the lead pipe in the hole and immerse it in smoking hot paraffine wax.

How to Make a Lightning Arrester [122] Secure a piece of wood about 3-1/2 in. A and B. is built 15 ft. A Home-Made Punt [123] A flat bottom boat is easy to make and is one of the safest boats.Fits Four Different Shaped Holes in Fig. The holes in the different places as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. between their upper edges and fasten them to the wood with binding-posts. The ends are cut sloping for about 20 in. 2. C. These pieces are placed together as closely as possible. Before nailing the boards place lamp wicking between them and the edges of the side boards. deep and 4 ft. 3. In order to make the punt perfectly watertight it is best to use the driest lumber obtainable. square that will furnish a nice finish and round the corners and make a small rounding edge as shown in the sketch. 1. as shown in Fig. Only galvanized nails should be used. Any heavy charge from lightning will jump the saw teeth part of the brass and is grounded without doing harm to the instruments used. At one end of the punt a skag and a rudder can be attached as shown in Fig. in place on the wood. were fitted by this one plug. The third binding-post on C is connected to the ground wire. back and under. using white lead between the joints and nailing them to the edges of the side boards and to a keel strip that runs the length of the punt. Chicago. --Contributed by Edwin Walker. and match them together. One wide board should be used for the bottom piece. 2. wide. The connections are made from the line wires to the two upper binding-posts and parallel from the lower binding-posts to the instrument. The third piece of brass. about 20 in. leaving about 1/16 in. is fitted between the pieces A and B allowing a space of 1/16-in. From a piece of brass 1/16 in. 1. The bottom is covered with matched boards not over 5 in. long. and has plenty of good seating capacity. This punt. C. wide. The sides are each made up from boards held together with battens on the inside of the boat near the ends and in the middle. . One bindingpost and a small screw will hold the piece of brass. It has the advantage of being rowed from either end. Ill. thick cut two pieces alike. as it is not readily overturned. Two pins are driven in the top board of each side to serve as oarlocks. all around the edge.

Wash. with its lower edge turned up to form a small shelf as shown at C. B.Easy to Build and Safe to Use Photographers' Printing Frame Stand [123] When using developing papers it is always bothersome to build up books or Adjustable to Any Height small boxes to make a place to set the printing frame in front of the light. thick and 3-1/2 in. Sometimes this experiment can be done several times by using the same bulb. Photographing a Streak of Lightning [124] . A. Apply the current and the heated air inside will soon expand and force the water out with great rapidity. long and fitted with a thumbscrew. The pipe that is soldered to the metal support will slide up and down the rod and the thumbscrew can be set to hold it at the desired point. A piece of 1/4-in. is cut 1 in. gas pipe. Shake the bulb gently until a part of the water is out and then screw the bulb into a socket with the point always downward. Tacoma. In Fig.-Contributed by Curtiss Hill. square (Fig 2). The main part of the stand is made by inserting a 5/16-in. 1 is shown the construction of the sliding holder. Heat and Expansion [124] Take an electric light bulb from which the air has not been exhausted and immerse it in water and then break off the point. Details for making a small stand that is adjustable to any desired height are shown in the sketch. The piece of pipe is soldered to the middle on the back side of a piece of metal that is about 4 by 4-1/2 in. As there is a vacuum in the bulb it will quickly fill with water. rod tightly into a block of hard maple wood that is 1 in.

no more current than a 16-cp. which can be developed in the usual manner. with the exception of insulated wire. which the writer has made. but the current is induced in it by the action of the alternating current supplied to the winding of . and to consume. lamp. to be supplied with 110-volt alternating current from a lighting circuit. The winding of the armature. says the Model Engineer. no special materials could be obtained. Should a lightning streak appear within the range of the lens it will be made on the plate. without auxiliary phase. It will require some attention to that part of the sky within the range of the lens so as to not make a double exposure by letting a second flash enter the open lens. may be of interest to some of our readers. Many interesting pictures of this kind can be made during a storm at night. The camera is set in a place where it will not get wet and left standing with the shutter open and the plate ready for the exposure. * * * * * Borax may be used as a solvent for shellac gum.The accompanying illustration is a remarkable photograph of a streak of lightning.--Contributed by Charles H. it had to be borne in mind that. Wagner. * * * * * How to Make a Small Single-Phase Induction Motor [124] By C. H. The principle of an induction motor is quite different from that of the commutator motor." has no connection with the outside circuit. In designing. Bell The following notes on a small single-phase induction motor. or "rotor. if possible. The problem to be solved was the construction of a motor large enough to drive a sewing machine or very light lathe.

5. it was important to have a very simple outline for the pieces. No doubt some energy is lost through the large number of joints. but a slight pull on the belt just as the current is turned on is all that is needed. also varnished before they were put in. 22 double cotton-covered copper wire. Unfortunately. holes. It then runs at constant speed whether given much or little current. but as the laminations are tightly held together and the circuit is about as compact as it could possibly be. and the end of the third to the end of the fourth. as shown in Fig. the bolts were coated with shellac and put into place for good. The stator is wound full with No. large holes being cut through the wood to enable this to be done. A very slight cut was taken in the lathe afterwards to true the circumference. an awkward job occurred in the magnet which was never entirely corrected. The rotor is made of laminations cut from sheet iron. were then drilled and 1/4-in. When put together they should make a piece 2 in. Holes 5-32 in. B." Neither commutator nor slip rings are required. The bearings were cast of babbitt metal. and when some of them got out of their proper order while being varnished. which were varnished lightly on one side and clamped on the shaft between two nuts in the usual way. All the pieces are alike and cut on the lines with the dimensions as shown in Fig. the end of the first coil is joined to the end of the second the beginning of the second to the beginning of the third. and as every bit of sheet iron had to be cut with a small pair of tinners' snips. and the connections are such as to produce alternate poles--that is. in diameter were drilled in the corners. thick. as shown in Fig. in a wooden mold and bored to size with a twist drill in the lathe. The armature tunnel was then carefully filed out and all taken apart again so that the rough edges could be scraped off and the laminations given a thin coat of shellac varnish on one side. which runs about 35 sheets to the inch. This peculiar construction was adopted because proper stampings were not available. but stops if overloaded for more than a few seconds. 1. The stator has four poles and is built up of pieces of sheet iron used for stove pipes. while the beginnings . 3. this little machine is not self-starting. all representing breaks in the magnetic circuit. In the middle of the pieces 1/4-in.the field-magnet. about 2-1/2 lb. being used. no steel being obtainable. bolts put in and tightened up. and is shown with dimensions in Fig. Figures 6 and 7 are sections showing the general arrangement of the machine. wrought iron. The shaft was turned from 1/2-in. probably the loss is not as great as it would appear at first sight. or "stator. with the dotted line. They are fitted with ordinary wick lubricators. and all sparking is avoided. to be filed out after they are placed together. and the motor rapidly gathers speed provided no load is put on until it is in step with the alternations of the supply. A. After assembling a second time. 4. 2. C. Each layer of four is placed with the pointed ends of the pieces alternately to the right and left so as to break joints as shown in Fig. and filled with rivets. The laminations were carefully built up on a board into which heavy wires had been driven to keep them in place until all were in position and the whole could be clamped down. They are not particularly accurate as it is.

All winding spaces are carefully covered with two layers of cambric soaked in shellac. One is by contact. if applied immediately. To Protect Book Covers How to Make Lantern Slides [127] The popularity of lantern slides. The ends are then folded on the short dotted lines. Newark. brush with water containing saturated solution of picric acid. 3-Contributed by C. and especially of colored ones. E. 2. and the other by reduction in the camera. and would not easily get out of order. The image should . it was well saturated with varnish before the next was put on. as shown in Fig. This type of motor has drawbacks. The paper thus folded is placed on the book cover as shown in Fig. Fold the paper on the long dotted line. 1.of the first and fourth coils connect to the supply. In making slides by contact. A lantern slide is merely a print on a glass plate instead of on paper. The lantern slide is a glass plate. A good method of exposing is to hold a lighted match about 3 in. exactly the same as a print is made on paper. a regulating resistance is not needed. as before stated. from the frame for three or more seconds according to the density. each limb being filled with about 200 turns. 24 double cotton-covered copper wire. If too late for alcohol to be of use. and all wound in the same direction. and as each layer of wire was wound. film to film. and as the motor runs at constant speed. having no commutator or brushes. McKinney. depending upon the number of alternations of the supply. it would be very simple to build. How to Make a Paper Book Cover [126] Book covers become soiled in handling and especially school books. select the negative and place it in the printing frame and put the lantern plate upon it. Jr. as a means of illustrating songs. Carbolic Acid Burns [126] The pain of carbolic acid burns can be relieved promptly by washing with alcohol. J. N. A paper cover can be quickly made by using a piece of paper larger than both covers on the book when they are open. Clamp down the back and expose just as in making a print. Development is carried on in the same manner as with a negative. coated with slow and extremely fine-grained emulsion. The rotor is wound with No. No starting resistance is needed. The size is 3-1/4 by 4 in.. has caused so large a demand for this class of work that almost any amateur may take up slide making at a good profit. which will make it appear as shown in Fig. When the folds are made the paper should then be just as wide as the book cover is high. but if regular stampings are used for the laminations. Various methods are applied for making a temporary cover that will protect the book cover. The four commencing ends are connected together on one side of the rotor and the four finishing ends are soldered together on the other. Lantern slides can be made in two different ways.

Being unbreakable. 2. The lantern-slide film that is new on the market can be handled in the same manner as the glass-plate slide. The Camera as It is Arranged in Front of the Window for Reducing the Size of a Picture. which should be kept in motion to prevent spots.appear in. Make or secure an inside kit to place in the plate holder of your camera to hold the lantern slide plate as shown in Fig. and the Method of Binding the Slides When the negative is larger than the lantern-slide plate. HOW TO MAKE A PORCH SWING CHAIR [128] . and then a plain glass. Contrasty negatives make the best slides. These can be purchased from any photo material store. 3. except that the binding is different. It is best. about a minute. Expose with a medium stop for about 20 seconds and treat the plate the same as with the contact exposure. they are much used by travelers. on the gelatine side of the lantern slide. if possible. When dry the lantern slide plate may be tinted any color by means of liquid colors. which must be fresh and kept as cool as possible in hot weather. also. 5. the high lights will stay white throughout the development and will come out as clear glass after fixing. and the three bound together with passepartout tape. over the mat. The colors may then be spread evenly with a soft brush. Unless this hole is on a line with the sky it will be necessary to place a sheet of white cardboard at an angle of 45 deg. to use a plain fixing bath. Draw lines with a pencil. This will enable you to focus to the proper size. The slide is put together by placing a mat made of black paper. and it is desirable to reduce the entire view upon the slide. In coloring the slide plate it is only necessary to moisten the gelatine film from time to time with a piece of cloth dampened in water. It is best to use the developers recommended by the manufacturer of the plates used. If the exposure has been correct. A. and fit a light-proof frame into it to keep out all light with the exception of a hole in which to place the negative. Fig. as shown in Fig. Select a room with one window. D. but the lantern slide plate should be made without any attempt to gain density. a little extra work will be necessary. the formulas being found in each package of plates. outlining on the ground glass of the camera the size of the lantern slide plate. 1. place the negative in the hole and focus the camera for the lantern slide size. and in the place where the plate will be in the plate holder when placed in position in the camera. B. The results are the same and the slides are not so bulky to handle. C. 4. as shown in Fig. The manner of binding them for use in a lantern is described on the circular enclosed with the film. on the outside of the frame to reflect the light through the negative as shown in Fig. and development should be over in three or four minutes. Place the camera in front of the hole in the frame.

in diameter on a piece of cardboard and about 3 in. Home-Made Water Wheel Does Family Washing [129] . The blind spot does not indicate diseased eyes. A piece of canvas. known as rods and cones. but it simply marks the point where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. The upper end is supported by using a rope in the form of a loop or bail. Corinth. but for appearance it is best to have them round or square with the corners rounded. in diameter and 20 in. from the ends. long. Vt. Beeswax Substitute [129] A wax from the rafie palm of Madagascar is being used as a substitute for beeswax. 1. as shown at B. The end of the chair to be used for the lower part is held about 16 in. Another rope is attached to the loop and through the hook and to a slide as shown. which point is not provided with the necessary visual end organs of the sight. or other stout cloth. Fig. and two pieces 1-1/4 in. Hastings. The two short pieces of wood are used for the ends of the chair and two 1-in. long. from the center of this dot draw a star. from the end piece of the chair. as shown in Fig. close the right eye and look steadily at the star while you move the cardboard until the point is reached where the dot disappears. from the floor with ropes direct from the grooves in the end pieces to the hook. This will prove the presence of a blind spot in a person's eye. These longer pieces can be made square. long. The two longer pieces are used for the sides and a tenon is cut on each end of them to fit in the 1-in. holes bored in the end pieces. in diameter and 40 in. The chair is now hung up to the porch ceiling with ropes attached to a large screw eye or hook.The material needed for making this porch swing chair are two pieces of round wood 21/2 in. wide and 50 in. is to be used for the seat. holes are bored in each end of them 1-1/2 in. and between the holes and the ends grooves are cut around them to make a place to fasten ropes. 1. as shown at A. Hold the cardboard so that the star will be directly in front of one eye. The other eye can be given the same experiment by turning the cardboard end for end. If the star is in front of the left eye. 2. This will allow for adjustment tp make the device into a chair or a hammock --Contributed by Earl R. 16 in. The canvas is now tacked on the end pieces and the pieces given one turn before placing the mortising together. while the dot will be in front of the other. How to Find the Blind Spot in the Eye [129] Make a small black circular dot 1/2 in. Fig. The middle of the loop or bail should be about 15 in.

as well as to operate other household machines. as shown in Fig. 1. made from an ordinary sash cord. which operates the washing machine by its reciprocating motion. They are not so and can be proved by measuring the distance of the top and bottom of any vertical strokes from the edge of the entire block. An Optical Illusion [130] When looking at the accompanying sketch you will say that the letters are alternately inclined to the right and left. . The top of the box was then tightly closed and a hole. Cal. A disk 1 in. It is the slant of the numerous short lines that go to make up the letter as a whole that deceives the eye. large enough to admit the nozzle of a garden hose. was bored so that the jet of water would flow upon the tin buckets that were nailed to the circumference of the wheel or disk. A small grooved wooden pulley was driven tightly on one of the projecting ends of the shaft. A pitman was attached to the large pulley. was run from the small pulley on the waterwheel to a large pulley. Auburn. A belt. in diameter was cut from a piece of rough board. Another hole was bored in the bottom of the box large enough to allow the waste water to run away freely. per square inch.-Contributed by P. 2. The pressure at the nozzle is about 20 lb. It will be found that a line joining the extremities of the strokes are strictly parallel to the top or bottom and that they are not on a slant at all.The accompanying sketch illustrates a very ingenious device which does the family washing. allowing the shaft to project through the holes. and is sufficient to drive the waterwheel under all ordinary circumstances. and the length of the stroke is adjusted by moving the position of the hinge joint on the arm of the washing machine. as shown in Fig. Two holes were then bored opposite each other through the sides of a wooden box in which the disk was placed. and on its circumference were nailed a number of cup-shaped pieces cut from old tin cans. They will be found to be exactly the same distance. O'Gara. Or take any of the horizontal strokes of the four letters and see how far their extremities are from the top and bottom of the entire block. A hole was then bored through the center of the disk and an old piece of iron rod was driven through to form a shaft. in thickness and 10 in. J.

or the number of rotations with any additional parts of a rotation added. or inconvenient to measure. 3/4 in. wide. to serve in measuring revolutions of the end of the wire. The part of a rotation of the bolt. direction. so that the hole will be continuous with the hole in the wood. Bore a 1/4-in. The width of the blocks will then be about 2 in. long and fasten them together with small pieces nailed across the ends. Solder one end of a stiff wire that is about 2 in. The bolt in making one revolution will descend a distance equal to the distance between the threads. Quite accurate measurements may be made with this instrument. The base is improved for the measuring work by fastening a small piece of wood on the board between the legs of the bench. long to the head of the bolt at right angles to the shaft. that a rule or other measuring device will not serve the purpose. carefully noting while doing so the distance that the end of the wire moves over the scale. and counting the threads in an inch of its length. and the construction is complete. and in the absence of the expensive micrometer. with as fine a thread as possible. hole through the center of the blocks in the 2 in. . square for a support. Put the bolt in the hole. then removing the object. divided by the number of threads to the inch. long. and fix a disc of heavy pasteboard with a radius equal to the length of the wire. The device is used by placing the object whose thickness is to be measured on the base under the bolt. and easily made apparatus of the micrometer form may be constructed as shown by the accompanying sketch. will be the thickness of the object. Remove the clamp and set the nut into one of the blocks. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the object. it serves a very useful purpose. Find the number of threads of the screw to the inch by placing the bolt on a measuring rule. and the thread cut to within a short distance of the head of the bolt. A small piece of metal is glued on this piece of wood at the point where the bolt meets it. thick and 2-1/2 in. and with its circumference graduated into equal spaces.Home-Made Micrometer [130] It often becomes necessary to find the thickness of material so thin. Cut out a piece from the block combination. Secure a common iron or brass bolt about 1/4-in. says the Scientific American. The head of the bolts should have a slot cut for the use of a screwdriver. screwing it through the nut. in diameter and about 2-1/2 in. Clamp together two blocks of wood with square corners which are about 1 in. leaving it shaped like a bench. and glue the bottoms of the legs to a piece of thin board about 2-1/2 in. and screwing the bolt down until its end just touches the base. to the top of the bench. A simple. fairly accurate.

The spokes are made from twelve pieces of 2 by 4-in. This exercise is one of many practiced by the boys of a boys' home for an annual display given by them. bolt in each hole.Another Electric Lamp Experiment [131] Break a portion of the end off from a 16-cp. yet with a little practice it may be accomplished. When the current is turned on small stars will be seen in the globe. This should form a hub on which to place the inner ends of the extending spokes that hold the platform. hole in each end to a depth of 6 in. Feat of Balancing on Chairs [131] Among the numerous physical exercises is the feat of balancing on the two rear legs of a chair while one foot rests on the front part of the seat and the other on the back of the chair. Shake the globe until all the filament is broken away. This may appear to be a hard thing to do. Short pieces of wood are nailed on the center pole about 2 ft. Place a 3/4-in. Screw the globe into a socket that sets upright and fill it with salt water. leaving only the ends of the platinum wire exposed. from the end that is to be used for the bottom. material 12 ft. long. The wheel should be open . the bolt being long enough to protrude 2 in. globe that has been thrown away as useless. Santa Maria. Removing Ink Stains [131] Two or three applications of milk which are wiped up with a dry cloth will remove india ink spots on carpets. Usually a wheel can be found in a scrap pile suitable to place on the pin that is in the top end of the center pole. beyond the end of the wood. How to Make a Merry-Go-Round Swing [131] A 6 by 6-in. Oal. Make one connection to the socket from the positive wire of a 110 volt circuit and the other to a ground. which show up fine at night. Bore a 3/4-in. piece of wood 12 ft. A dozen of the boys will mount chairs at the same time and keep them in balance at the word of a commanding officer. long is used for the center pole. --Contributed by Lindsay McMillan.

This wheel is used to attach wires for guying. O. Space the spokes with equal divisions and cover the outer 2 ft. A piece of sheet metal should be drilled and placed on the pin between the block and end of the pole to make a smooth bearing. A piece of brass 2 in. L. are fitted for bearings to receive the adjusting brass rod. thick. The spool . The width should be about 5-1/4 in. made of the same material. 1/2 in. pieces used for the spokes. B. long with the upper or wider part 4 in. Home-Made Arc Lamp [132] The frame of the lamp is made from bar metal 3/4 in. at the top and 4 in. which should be 1/4 in. Tex. long. the swing can easily be taken apart and changed from one place to another. long. and on its lower end a socket. long. wide and 1/8 in. of the ends with boards.Side and Top View or have spokes. is made in the usual manner by wrapping No. is soldered. A. Fort Worth. The bottom pin in the center pole is placed in a hole that is bored into a block of wood about 12-in. C. Stakes are driven into the ground and the wires fastened to them and to the wheel at the top end of the pole. from the ends. Wires are fastened to these hooks and to the twelve 2 by 4-in. H and J. The center pole is now placed in position and guyed with six wires that are about 35 ft. Care should be taken when attaching the wires to get the center pole to stand perpendicular. in diameter. wide and 1/8 in. Graham.-Contributed by A. This frame should be about 10-1/2 in. from the top end. is fitted into the off-set in the frame and riveted. and the lower part 61/2 in. at the bottom. square and 3 or 4 in. A brass curtain rod can be used for the rod B. long. bent and welded to make a continuous loop in the shape as shown at G in the sketch. as shown in the plan sketch on the right hand end of the drawing. 14 cotton-covered magnet wire on a wooden spool that has a soft iron core. The boards may be nailed or bolted. Twelve hooks should be placed at equal distances around the center pole about 1 ft. The wires should be tied around each spoke about 2 ft. P. If bolted and the wires made in a loop at the hooks. C. thick. A cross bar. The coil. thick is used for the armature. to be operated by the magnet coil. Holes are drilled through the frame and brass bushings.

making a hole just a little larger than the rod. then pulling at each end of the cord as in Fig. B. long. R. When you slide the pencil along the casing. 2. Tying a Knot for Footballs [133] One of the most prominent English football clubs kept the tying of this knot on the rubber hose of their football a secret and never allowed all of its members to know how it was tied. is drilled. and in numerous other like instances. Irrigation [132] The Mexican government has appropriated $25.is about 2-1/2 in. do it without any apparent effort. 1. D and E.000. which should be placed directly under the end of the coil's core. and it will appear to your audience as though you had hypnotized it. which is also connected to the brass ferrule. C. At the bottom end of the frame. Make one loop in the cord and then another exactly the same way. which is in turn connected to one terminal of the coil. This tie can be used on grain sacks. The two binding-posts are insulated from the frame the same as the ferrule S. a hole is drilled to receive a hard rubber bushing. Randolph. Figure 1 shows the pencil on the casing and Fig. Bradlev. heavy pressure slide the pencil some 3 or 4 in. then with a firm.000 for irrigation work. placing the end of the cord under the first loop. which may be had by using German silver wire. and it will stay as if glued to the casing. The armature. 2 the hat hanging on it.J. One connection is made from the main to the upper binding-post. When using on a 110-volt circuit there must be some resistance in connection. the other coil terminal being attached to the frame. A. A soft piece of iron. or a water rheostat heretofore described. that holds the lower carbon. by soldering. You may now hang your hat on the end of the pencil. is fastened to the opposite end of the armature with a screw. F. How to Hang Your Hat on a Lead Pencil [133] Take a smooth hexagon lead pencil. and directly centering the holes H and J.E. Mass. as A Secure Knot shown in Fig. --Contributed by Arthur D. and is adjusted in place by two set screws. This is a very neat trick if performed right.--A. S. . one without either rubber or metal end. and place it against a door or window casing. S. This end of the armature may be kept from swinging around by placing it between a U-shaped piece of brass fastened to the cross piece L. for insulating the brass ferrule. The other main connection is made to the lower binding-post.

hole in the center. The armature is made from a soft piece of iron. 32 or 34 gauge double-covered wire is wrapped on top of the primary. in diameter. The vibrator screw must be properly adjusted. about 1 in. which is soldered to the end of the vibrator directly opposite the end of the core. bent as shown and securely fastened to the cardboard end of the coil. cork with the wires put through about 3/16 in. The vibrator. where it can be pressed without attracting attention. After wrapping three or four turns of paper around the bundle of wires the cardboard ends are put on with the projections inside. for the secondary. and the support C are made from thin spring steel. D. and then 1. How to Give an Electric Shock While Shaking Hands [133] There is nothing quite so startling as to receive an electric shock unexpectedly and such a shock may be given to a friend while shaking hands upon meeting. One of the primary wires is connected to the screw support. apart and allow them to project about 1/2 in. so as to have four small pieces that can be bent out. Fig. A small screw is fitted in the end of the support. The shock produced is not harmful and the apparatus can be carried in the pocket. S. of small soft-iron wire to make a bundle about 3/16 in. in diameter. long and 1 in. The hole Details of Induction Coil should be cut as shown in Fig. The coil and battery are carried in the pockets and the cork button put in the outside coat pocket. which in turn is connected to the other terminal of the battery. A. for the primary. The other secondary wire is connected through the coat sleeve to a finger ring. wide. is connected to a flash lamp battery. 4 parts copperas and 2 parts bone black. square from a piece of copper and is fastened to the heel of one shoe and connected with a wire from the secondary coil which must be concealed inside of the trouser leg. The other primary wire is connected to a switch. about 1/8 in.500 turns of No. leaving the projections as shown. The core of the coil. S. Experiment with Heat [134] . Sufficient length of wire must be left outside at each end of both windings to make connections. The vibrator B. 24 gauge double covered magnet wire is first placed on the core. B. which should be tipped with platinum and also a small piece of platinum placed where the screw will touch the vibrator. about 3/16 in. The space around the coil in the box can be filled with paper to keep it tight. F. 2. The plate E is cut about 1/2 in. may be made from a 3/8-in. The switch. thick. is constructed in the usual manner. from the core and directly opposite. When the vibrator is not working the armature should be about 1/16 in. mixed with water to form a paste. About 70 turns of No. It consists of a small induction coil that can be constructed at home.Stove polish [133] Stove polish consists of 2 parts graphite. 1. so the coils of wire will hold them in place. C. in diameter and 1/16 in. The coil can be placed in an old box that has been used for talcum powder or shaving stick. The coil when complete will be about 2-1/2 in. Fig. The coil ends are made from cardboard. for adjustment. with a 3/16-in. long. in diameter and 2 in. 1.

if that be the name for the double toothed arrangement that catches into the lock. The knob on the dial extends out too far. therefore a piece of heavy tin was formed over the front of the trunk. to the thickness of the trunk lid or cover. brass plate. A leather shield may be used for this purpose. it laps down about 8 in. The hasp. While the paper is burning turn the glass over and set into a saucer previously filled with water. lighted. and the tin placed over the board and all fastened in position. Wrought nails are used which pass twice through the tin and both boards. between the boards. says a correspondent of the Metal Worker. in an ordinary water glass. The shield answers a further purpose of preventing any bystander from noting the numbers on the dial. which is only 3/8-in. thick on the inside. as shown in the sketch. board and trunk cover are all securely riveted together. The tin is 4 in. The support for the dial is soldered to the brass plate. 2 to fit the two holes. 16 in. The three screws were then put in the hasp. It is necessary to add 1/2-in. and then well clinched. An old key is filed down in the shape shown in Fig. 1. was to be secured by only three brass screws. thick on the outside and a board 3/8-in.Place a small piece of paper. This may be done by placing a brass plate 1/8-in. The water will rapidly rise in the glass. wide. . one for the key and the other to permit the operator to observe the numbers on the dial. which seemed to be insufficient. and the same distance inside of the new board. board. How to Attach a Combination Trunk Lock [134] A small combination lock for chests can be purchased for a small sum of money and attached to a trunk cover after first removing the old lock as shown in Fig. As the dial is convex it will need protection to prevent injury by rough handling. with which to operate the dial. the hasp tinned and soldered to the back of the now U-shaped tin. as shown by the heavy line in the cross section. which is cut with two holes. 1. Fig. long and when placed over the board. which may be filed off and two holes substituted. The lock. as shown.

one in each division. or in the larger size mentioned. and also used in case of performing the magic trick of allowing two persons to place their Construction of Magic Boxes heads in the box and change from one to the other. openings may be made in the bottom for this purpose. square and 10-1/2 in. The upper magic boxes as are shown in the engraving are about 12 in. but when the front part is illuminated. Thus a plain aquarium is set in the rear part and one with swimming fish placed in . or an empty cigar box is seen and immediately is filled with cigars. When making of wood. By means of an automatic thermostat arranged in the lamp circuit causing the lamps to light successively. not shiny. clear glass as shown. the glass. square and 8-1/2 in. The electric globes are inserted as shown at LL through the top of the box. The partition and interior of the box are rendered non-reflecting by painting with a dull.AN ELECTRIC ILLUSION BOX [135] The accompanying engravings show a most interesting form of electrically operated illusion consisting of a box divided diagonally and each division alternately lighted with an electric lamp. any article placed therein will be reflected in. These electric magic boxes as shown are made of metal and oxidized copper finished. an aquarium apparently without fish one moment is in the next instant swarming with live gold fish. black color. any article arranged within that part will be visible to the spectator looking into the box through the front opening. high for parlor use and the lower boxes are 18 in. and the back left dark. high for use in window displays. When the rear part is illuminated. an empty vase viewed through the opening in the box suddenly is filled with flowers. There is a partition arranged diagonally in the box as shown in the plan view. but for ordinary use they can be made of wood in the same shape and size. a door must be provided on the side or rear to make changes of exhibits. which completely divides the box into two parts. One-half the partition is fitted with a plain. which takes the same position to the observer as the one in the rear. If the box is made large enough.

This tank is then divided with a partition placed exactly in the center. or if desired a hand-operated adjustable resistance may be included in the circuit of each lamp for gradually causing the object to fade away or reappear slowly. The partition may also extend below the tank about 1-1/2 in. into the other. Many other changes can be made at the will of the operator. Instead of changing the current operated by hand. above the top of the tank. long and 1 ft. When there is no electric current available. matches or candles may be used and inserted through the holes H. Lamps may be connected in parallel and each turned on or off by means of a hand-operated switch or the button on the lamp socket. alternately. This partition should extend 3 or 4 in. Electric lamps may be controlled by various means to produce different effects. or a piece of this width put on the bottom. wide will be about the right size. For prints 4 by 5 and 5 by 7-in.Four Electric Magic Boxes Complete for Use the front. as shown at A in the sketch.. Replace Dry Putty [136] Painting over putty that has not become dry will cause scaling or cracking around the edges of the putty. Photo Print Washing Tank [136] The accompanying sketch shows a simple form of a print washing tank that tips from side to side by the weight of the water. this may be done automatically by connecting the lamps in parallel on the lighting circuit and each connected in series with a thermostatic switch plug provided with a heating coil which operates to automatically open and close the circuit through the respective lamp. as it appears. and with the proper illumination one is changed. a tank 2 ft. When using as a window display. as shown in the sketch. place the goods in one part and the price in the other. .

Keeps Prints Constantly Moving A row of holes about 1/2 in. in diameter is bored through each end of the tank, as shown at B. These holes will allow the water to spill out while the opposite side is filling. The tank may be made from 1/2-in. material and when completed as shown, lined with oil cloth to make it watertight. The tank is placed with the partition directly under a water tap and the flow of water will cause it to tip from time to time, keeping the prints constantly moving about in the water. Home-Made Soldering Clamps [137] Take a cotter pin and bend it over a small rod to bring the points together, as shown in the sketch. This will make a spring clamp that is opened to slip over the articles to be clamped together by inserting a scratch awl or scriber between the legs at the bowed portion. To make a more positive clamp before bending the legs to a bow, slip a short coil of wire over the pin, passing it down to the ring end. Wire 1/32 in. in diameter wound over a wire slightly larger in diameter than that of the cotter will do. In soldering, smoke the legs well to avoid solder adhering to them. The clamp is tightened by pushing up the coil ring toward the bow of the legs and then twisting it like a nut, the coil being wound right-handed, so that it will have a screw effect.

A Telephone Experiment [137] If the small apparatus, as shown in the accompanying sketch, is attached to the under side of an ordinary dining table, it will, if connected to a telephone circuit, set the table in vibration, so that any number of people who put their ears flat upon the table will hear the voice of a person speaking from a distance, apparently coming out of the table, says the Model Engineer. A small piece of wood, A, Fig. 1, is cut about 5 in. square, to the center of which is attached a small piece of soft iron wire, such as used for cores

Mechanical Table Talk of induction coils, about 4 in. long and bent in the form of a hook at the lower end, as shown at B. This wire is attached to the block of wood, A, as shown in Fig. 2. The end of the wire is soldered to a small brass plate which is set in the block so it will be level or flush with the top of the block and then fastened with two screws. The block A is fastened to the under side of the table with two screws. A small coil, C, is made by winding No. 24 silk or cotton covered wire around a small tube, either a piece of glass, a short straw or a quill. The coil is made tapering as shown without using wood ends. This coil is slipped over the wire B previous to soldering it to the small brass plate. The ends of the coil are connected to two binding-posts which are fastened to the block A. A small lead weight weighing 2 or 3 oz. is hung on the hook made in the lower end of the wire B. When all connections are made, as shown in Fig. 1, and the block fastened to the under side of the table, the apparatus is ready for use, and has only to be connected to an ordinary telephone transmitter and batteries as shown. The apparatus will work to a certain extent even if the weight is removed, though not so clear. Wax Wood Screws [137] Some workmen use tallow on lag or wood screws. Try beeswax for this purpose. It is much cleaner to use and is just as good if not better. How to Make an Induction Coil [138] A small shocking coil, suitable for medical purposes, may be constructed of materials found in nearly every amateur mechanic's collection of odds and ends. The core, A, Fig. 1, is a piece of round soft iron rod about 1/4 in. in diameter and about 4 in. long. A strip of stiff paper about 3/4 in. wide is covered with glue and wrapped around one end of the core, as shown at B, until the diameter is about 3/8 in. The portion of the core remaining uncovered is then wrapped with a piece of paper about 4 in. wide. No glue is used on this piece, as it is removed later to form the space, C, after the paper shell, D, has been wound upon it. This paper shell is made of stiff paper and glue the same as B and is made about 3/64 in. thick. Two pieces of hardwood, EE, 1-3/4 in. square and about 5/16 in. thick, are drilled in the center and glued on the ends of the paper shell as shown. The primary winding consists of 4 or 5 layers of No. 18 or 20 single cotton-covered magnet wire, the ends of which may be passed through small holes in the wooden ends. If a drill small enough is not available, the holes may be made with a hot knitting needle or a piece of wire heated to redness. After the primary coil is wound it should be thoroughly insulated before winding the secondary. This may be done by wrapping with 4 or 5 thicknesses of paper. The secondary coil should be wound with single covered wire, preferably silk-covered, although cotton will do. The more turns there are on the secondary the higher the voltage will be, so the wire used must be fine. Number 32 to 36 will give good results, the latter giving more voltage but less amperage. Each layer of the secondary winding should be insulated from the others by a piece of thin paraffined paper wrapped over each layer as it is finished.

It is well not to wind to the extreme ends of the paper insulations, but to leave a space of about 1/8-in. at each end of the winding to prevent the wires of one layer slipping over the ends of the paraffin

paper and coming in contact with the layer beneath, thus causing a short circuit. The secondary winding should have at least a dozen layers and should be carefully wound to prevent short circuiting. In order to reduce the strength of the current a piece of brass tubing, F, is pushed into the space, C, surrounding the core, or if no brass tubing of the required size is on hand, roll a paper tube, cover with 4 or 5 thicknesses of tinfoil and then wrap with more paper, using glue to hold the tinfoil in place and to keep the tube from unwinding. When the tube is pushed all the way in, the current produced

will be almost unnoticeable, but when it is withdrawn the current will be so strong that a person cannot let go the handles until the coil is shut off. After the secondary coil is wound it should be covered with stiff paper, and the whole coil, including the wood ends, should then be enameled black. It is then ready to be mounted on a wooden base as shown in Fig. 2. The secondary terminals are connected to the binding-posts, AA, which may be fastened on the base if desired. One wire from the primary is connected with the binding-post, B, and the other is connected with the armature, D, which may be taken from an old electric bell. The contact screw, E, also from an electric bell, is connected to the binding-post, C. The contact spring, F, should be bent against and soldered to the armature in order to make the vibrations more rapid. If a false bottom is used on the base, all the wiring may be concealed, which adds greatly to the appearance and if desired a small switch may be added. The handles, which may be old bicycle pumps or electric light carbons, are connected to the binding-posts, AA, by means of wires about 3 or 4 ft. long. This coil when operating with the tube pulled all the way out and connected to a single dry cell will give a current stronger than most persons can stand. Home-Made Toaster [139] Each outside frame of the toaster is made from one piece of wire 30 in. long. These are bent in a perfect square making each side 7-in. long. This will allow 1 in. on each end for tying by twisting the ends together. The first two wires inside and on each side of each frame are 8 in. long. Eight wires will be required for this purpose and as they are 8 in. long 1/2 in. is allowed on each end for a bend around the outside frame, as shown in the sketch. The two middle wires are extensions of the handles. Each of these wires are made from a piece about 26 in. long and bent in the shape of a U. The ends of the wire are bent around the frame in the same manner

as the other wires. This will leave the handle laying across the other side of the frame. The frame is fastened to the handle on this side by giving the handle one turn around the frame. The inside edges of the frame are now tied together with a small ring of wire which is loose enough to allow each half to swing freely. --C. D. M. Home-Made Shocking Machine [139] An ordinary electric bell may be connected up in such a way as to produce the same results as an expensive

Inexpensive and Effectual shocking machine. The connections are made from the batteries to the bell in the usual manner. Two other wires are then connected, one to the binding-post of the bell that is not insulated from the frame and the other to the adjusting screw on the make and break contact of the bell as shown in the sketch. The other ends of the wires are connected each to a common table knife. This will give quite a good shock and a much larger one can be had by placing one knife in a basin of water and while holding the other knife in one hand, dipping the fingers of the other hand in the water. --Contributed by D. Foster Hall. Mahogany Wood Putty [139] Mix venetian red with quite thick arabic muscilage, making it into a putty, and press this well into the cracks of mahogany before finishing. The putty should be colored to suit the finish of the wood, says the Master Painter, by adding such dry color to the gum as will give the best result. How to Make a Thermoelectric Battery [140] By Arthur E. Joerin A novel way of producing an electric current by means of hot and cold water, heat from a match or alcohol

Details of Battery lamp, is obtained from a device constructed as shown in the sketch. Take two hardwood boards, marble, or slate plates, about 8 or 10 in. long, place them together, as in Fig. 1, and mark and drill about 500 holes. These two pieces should be separated about 8 in. and fastened with boards across the ends, as shown in Fig. 2. Take soft copper wire, not smaller than No. 18 gauge, and cut in lengths to pass through the holes in the two boards, leaving sufficient end to make a tie. It will require about 70 ft. of wire to fill one-half the number of holes. Also, cut the same number of lengths from the same gauge galvanized-iron wire to fill the remaining holes. The wires are put through the holes in the boards alternately, that is: begin with copper, the next hole with iron, the next copper, the next iron, and so on, twisting the ends together as shown in Fig. 3. The connections, when complete, should be copper for the first and iron for the last wire. When the whole apparatus is thus strung, the connections, which must be twisted, can be soldered. Connect one copper wire to the bell and the other terminal, which must be an iron wire, to the other post of the bell. The apparatus is then short-circuited, yet there is no current in the instrument until a lighted match, or, better still, the flame of an alcohol lamp is placed at one end only. Best results are obtained by putting ice or cold water on one side and a flame on the other. The experimenter may also place the whole apparatus under sink faucets with the hot water turned on at one terminal and the cold water at the other. The greater the difference of temperature in the two terminals, the more current will be obtained. Very interesting experiments may thus be performed, and these may lead to the solving of the great thermoelectric problem. How to Make a Hygrometer [140] Mount a wire on a board which is used for a base and should be 3/8 by 4 by 8 in., as shown in the sketch. A piece of catgut--a string used on a violin will do--is suspended from the bent end of the wire. A hand or pointer is cut from a piece of tin and secured to the catgut string about 1/2 in. from the base. A small piece of wood and some glue will fasten the pointer to the string. The scale is

Simple Hygrometer marked on a piece of cardboard, which is fastened to the base and protected with a piece

of glass.-Contributed by J. Thos. Rhamstine. Softening Leather in Gloves and Boots [140] The leather in high-top boots and gauntlet gloves may be softened and made waterproof by the use of plain mutton tallow. Apply hot and rub in well with the fingers. How to Make a Mission Library Table [141] The mission library table, the drawings for which are here given, has been found well proportioned and of pleasing appearance. It can be made of any of the several furniture woods in common use, such as selected, quarter-sawed white oak which will be found exceptionally pleasing in the effect produced. If a planing mill is at hand the stock can be ordered in such a way as to avoid the hard work of planing and sandpapering. Of course if mill-planed stock cannot be had, the following dimensions must be enlarged slightly to allow for "squaring up the rough." For the top, order 1 piece 1-1/8 in. thick, 34 in. wide and 46 in. long. Have it S-4-S (surface on four sides) and "squared" to length. Also, specify that it be sandpapered on the top surface, the edges and ends. For the shelf, order 1 piece 7/8 in. thick, 22 in. wide and 42 in. long, with the four sides surfaced, squared and sandpapered the same as for the top. For the side rails, order 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 37 in. long, S-4-S and sanded on one side. For the end rails, 2 pieces 7/8 in. thick, 6 in. wide and 25 in. long. Other specifications as for the side rails. For the stretchers, into which the shelf tenons enter, 2 pieces 1-1/8 in. thick,

This Picture Is from a Photograph of the Mission Table Described 3-3/4 in. wide and 25 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the slats, 10 pieces 5/88 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 17 in. long, surfaced and sanded on four sides. For the keys, 4 pieces 3/4 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-7/8 in. long, S-4-S. This width is a little wide; it will allow the key to be shaped as desired. The drawings obviate any necessity for going into detail in the

description. Fig. 1 gives an assembly drawing showing the relation of the parts. Fig. 2 gives the detail of an end. The tenons for the side rails are laid off and the mortises placed in the post as are those on the end. Care must, be taken, however, not to cut any mortises on the post, below, as was done in cutting the stretcher mortises on the ends of the table. A good plan is to set the posts upright in the positions they are to occupy relative to one another and mark with pencil the approximate positions of the mortises. The legs can then be laid flat and the mortises accurately marked out with a fair degree of assurance that they will not be cut where they are not wanted and that the legs shall "pair" properly when effort is made to assemble the parts of the table. The table ends should be glued up first and the glue allowed to harden, after which the tenons of the shelf may be inserted and the side rails placed. There is a reason for the shape, size and location of each tenon or mortise. For illustration, the shape of the tenon on the top rails permits the surface of the rail to extend almost flush with the surface of the post at the same time permitting the mortise in the post to be kept away from that surface. Again, the shape of the ends of the slats is such that, though they may vary slightly in length, the fitting of the joints will not be affected. Care must be taken in cutting the mortises to keep their sides clean and sharp and to size. In making the mortises for the keyed tenons, the length of mortise must be slightly in excess of the width of the tenon—about 1/8-in. of play to each side of each tenon. With a shelf of the width specified for this table, if such allowance is not made so that the tenons may move sideways, the shrinkage would split the shelf. In cutting across the ends of the shelf, between the tenons, leave a hole in the waste so that the turning saw or compass saw can be inserted. Saw within one-sixteenth of the line, after which this margin may be removed with chisel and mallet.

In Fig. 3 is shown two views of the keyed tenon and the key. The mortise for the key is to be placed in the middle of the tenon. It will be noted that this mortise is laid out 1-1/16in. from the shoulder of the tenon while the stretcher is 1-1/8 in. thick. This is to insure the key's pulling the shelf tightly against the side of the stretcher. Keys may be made in a variety of shapes. The one shown is simple and structurally good. Whatever shape is used, the important thing to keep in mind is that the size of the key and the slant of its forward surface where it passes through the tenon must be kept the same as the mortise made for it in the tenon. The top is to be fastened to the rails by means either of wooden buttons, Fig. 4, or small angle irons. There are a bewildering number of mission finishes upon the market. A very satisfactory one is obtained by applying a coat of brown Flemish water stain, diluted by the addition of water in the proportion of 2 parts water to 1 part stain. When this has dried, sand with number 00 paper, being careful not to "cut through." Next, apply a coat of dark brown filler; the directions for doing this will be found upon the can in which the filler is bought. One coat usually suffices. However, if an especially smooth surface is desired a second coat may be applied in a similar manner. After the filler has hardened, a very thin coat of shellac is to be put on. When this has dried, it should be sanded lightly and then one or two coats of wax should be properly applied and polished. Directions for waxing are upon the cans in which the wax is bought. A beautiful dull gloss so much sought by finishers of modern furniture will be the result of carefully following these directions. A Hanger for Trousers [143] Secure two clothes pins of the metal spring kind for the clamps of the hanger. The pins are fastened one to each end of a looped galvanized wire. This wire should be about 6 in. long after a coil is bent in the center as shown in the sketch. The diameter of the wire should be about 1/8 in.

How to Make an Adjustable Negative Washer [143] The sketch herewith shows a washing box for negatives made from an ordinary wooden box. As can be seen, the grooved partition, A, is removable, and as several places are provided for

Washing Box its insertion, the tank can be made to accommodate anyone of several sizes of plates, says Camera Craft. The other stationary partition, B, which does not reach quite to the bottom of

the tank, is placed immediately next to the end of the tank, leaving a channel between the two for the inflow of the wash water. A narrow, thin strip, C, is fastened to the bottom of the tank to keep the plates slightly raised, at the same time allowing a clearer flow of the water from the bottom upwards to the discharge. The water enters the narrow partition at the end, flows under the partitions B and A, then upward between and parallel to the surface of the plates, escaping at the opposite end over the top of the tank end, in which the upper part has been cut away for that purpose. The depth of this cut, in the upper part of the tank end, should allow the overflow to be a trifle higher than the width of the largest size plate for which the tank is fitted. Partition B being stationary, can be nailed in position permanently, allowing the bottom edge to clear the bottom of the tank the desired distance. Partition A being movable should have attached to its bottom edge a couple of nails, D, or better still, wooden pegs, which will keep it also above the bottom of the tank at the desired height. A coat of paraffin paint should be applied, and, just before it sets perfectly hard, any rough spots trimmed down with a knife or chisel and a second lighter coat applied. If the wood is very dry and porous a preliminary coat of the paint should be applied and allowed to soak into the pores. It is also well to apply a coat of the paint to the joints at the corners and around the edge of the bottom before nailing together. Turn-Down Shelf for a Small Space [144] The average amateur photographer does not have very much space in which to do his work. The kitchen is the room used ordinarily for finishing the photographs. In many instances there will not be space enough for any extra tables, and so a temporary place is prepared from boxes or a chair on which to place the trays and chemicals. Should there be space enough on one of the walls a shelf can be made to hang down out of the way when not in use. A shelf constructed on this order may be of any length to suit the space or of such a length for the purpose intended. A heavy piece of wood, about

Turn Down Shelf 1-1/2 in. thick, and 4 to 6 in. wide, is first fastened to the wall at the proper height with nails, or, much better, large screws. The shelf is cut and planed smooth from a board 12-in. wide and about 1-in. thick. This board is fastened to the piece on the wall with two hinges as shown in Fig. 1. A small cleat is nailed to the outer and under edge of the board and in the middle as shown. This is used to place a support under the outer edge of the shelf. The support, A, Fig. 2, should be long enough to extend diagonally to the floor or top of the baseboard from the inner edge of the cleat when the shelf is up in its proper place. --L. L. Home-Made Electric Battery Massage [144] A simple and cheap electric massage device can be made by using three or

Electric Massage four cells of dry battery connected to two ordinary silver tablespoons, as shown in the sketch. The handles of the spoons should be insulated or the operator can wear either kid or rubber gloves. How to Make Tint Lantern Slides [144] Purchase some lantern slide plates and fix them in hypo without exposing, in the usual manner, same as you would an exposed plate, says the Moving Picture World. This leaves a thin, perfectly transparent emulsion film on the glass, which will readily take color. Mix a rather weak solution of clear aniline dye of the desired color and dip the plate in it, wiping the plate side clean. If not dark enough, dip again and again until desired tint is attained, letting it dry between each dipping. A very light blue tint slide will brighten a yellow film considerably, but the tint must be very light, just a bare tint. A Bicycle Catamaran [145] The accompanying photographs show a bicycle boat made to carry two persons.

This Catamaran Carries Two People This boat is constructed by using two galvanized iron tubes 18 ft. long and 12 in. in diameter, tapered at the front end down to cast-iron points, and the rear end shaped to attach rudders. These tubes are placed 26 in. apart, giving the boat an extreme width of 50 in. The cylinders support a platform and on the rear end of this platform is constructed a paddle wheel 52 in. in diameter with 16 spokes. On the end of each spoke is fastened a galvanized sheet metal blade 6 in. wide and 8 in. long. A large guard placed over the paddle wheel forms a seat for one person and a chair in front on the platform provides a place for a second person. The person in front helps to propel the boat with hand levers which are connected with rods to sprocket wheels on each side of the platform. The occupant of the rear seat contributes his part of the power with his feet on pedals of the shaft that carries the sprocket wheels. This shaft and sprocket wheels drive the paddle wheel by side chains of the bicycle kind. The boat is steered from the rear seat by ropes attached to double rudders. This boat will run at considerable speed and is very steady in rough water as it goes directly through large waves instead of going over them.--Contributed by Ernest Schoedsack, Council Bluffs, Iowa.

How to Make a Lead Pencil Rheostat [145] Take an ordinary lead pencil and cut seven notches at equal intervals on the pencil down to and around the lead, leaving it bare. A seven-point switch is constructed on a board of suitable size making the points by using screws that will go through the board. A small piece of tin or brass will do for a switch and is fastened as shown. The connections are made on the back side of the board as shown by the dotted lines. This will reduce 40 to 50 volts down to 5 or 10 volts for short lengths

Simple Rheostat of time.--Contributed by Roy Newby, San Jose, Cal. Homemade Shoe Rack [146] The accompanying sketch explains how a boy can make his own shoe rack that can be placed on the wall in

the clothes closet. Figure 1 shows the construction of the bottom to permit the dirt to fall through. Two boards, 9 in. wide and about 3 ft. long, with six partitions between, as shown, will make pockets about 6 in. long. The width of the pockets at the bottom is 2 in. and at the top 5 in.-Contributed by Guy H. Harvey, Mill Valley, Cal. How to Waterproof Canvas [146] The method used by the British navy yards for waterproofing and painting canvas so it will not become stiff and cracked is as follows: One ounce of yellow soap and 1/2 pt. of hot water are mixed with every 7 lb. of paint to be used. The mixture is applied to the canvas with a brush. This is allowed to dry for two days and then a coat of the same paint, without the soap, is laid on. When this last coat is dry the canvas may be painted any color desired. After three days of drying the canvas may be folded up without sticking together, and is, of course, waterproof. Canvas waterproofed in this manner makes an excellent covering for portable canoes and canvas boats. The color mixture for the soap and second application is made from 1 lb. of lampblack and 6 lb. of yellow ocher, both in oil; the finish coat may be any color desired. When no paint is

How to Make a Lamp Stand and Shade [147] A library light stand of pleasing design and easy construction is made as follows: Square up a piece of white oak so that it shall have a width and thickness of 1-3/4 in. or ferrous sulphate. from either end and in the crack between the pieces. time and patience will be saved by ordering one piece 1-3/4 in. is built on the front. Square up two pieces of the same kind of material to the same width and thickness. bore from each end. then use a red-hot iron to finish. This hole is for the electric wire or gas pipe if gas is used. and a solution of iron sulphate added. Building a House in a Tree Top [146] The accompanying photograph shows a small house built in a tree top 20 ft. 2 ft. square and 40 in. and the iron oxide is precipitated with the fatty acid as insoluble iron soap. dried and mixed with linseed oil. and boring two holes with a 1-in. lines gauged on each side of each. radius. 5 ft. The house is Lofty Sentry Box for Guarding Watermelon Patch 5 ft. each with a thickness of 1-1/8 in. wide. is the green vitriol. each. with a length of 13 in. however. O. 6 in. The vitriol combines with the potash of the soap. Chisel out the grooves and round off the corners as shown in the sketch. one for each side. The long piece can then be cut at home to the lengths specified above. and 6 ft. and the wood between the holes removed with turning saw and scraper steel. If a planing mill is near. These parts may be put together and fastened to the upright by means of two long screws from the under side. long. thick and 3 in. The entrance is made through a trap door in the floor of the house. from the ground. Columbus. using a 3/4-in. This house was constructed by a boy 14 years old and made for the purpose of watching over a melon patch.to be used on the canvas it may be waterproofed with a mixture made from soft soap dissolved in hot water. high. This precipitate is then washed. If the bit is not long enough to reach entirely through. The width of the grooves must be determined by laying one piece upon the other. wide. The center of each hole will be 2-1/2 in. a trysquare should be used to square the lines across the pieces. A small platform. Shape the under sides first. -Contributed by Mack Wilson. Square up two pieces to a width and length of 3 in. Iron sulphate. gauge for depth. and a door in front. piece is for the upright and should have a 1/2-in. square. but with a length of 12 in. hole bored the full length through the center. gauging both pieces from their top surfaces. all planed and sandpapered on all surfaces. The 13-in. The two pieces for the base are alike except the groove of one is cut from the top and of the other from the under side. This hole must be continued . The pieces can then be taken out. two pieces 1-1/8 in. hole. under sides together. 1 in. This can best be done by placing the two pieces in a vise. placed to either side of the 1/2-in. as shown. Three windows are provided. long. bit.

hole in each block. The shape of this piece can be made so as to accentuate the rivet heads and thus give a pleasing effect. is to cut each side of the shade separately and fasten them together by riveting a piece of metal over each joint." This piercing is done by driving the point of a nail through the metal from the under side before the parts are soldered or riveted together. Such shades can be purchased ready to attach. Electric globes--two.through the pieces forming the base. Find the middle of this diagonal by drawing the central portion of the other diagonal. Such shades are frequently made from one piece of sheet metal and designs are pierced in them as suggested in the "layout. The kind of wood finish for the stand will depend upon the finish on the wooden shade. If the parts are to be riveted. Fasten the braces in place by means of roundhead blued screws. thick and 3 in. When the filler has hardened. The metal shade as shown in the sketch is a "layout" for a copper or brass shade of a size suitable for this particular lamp. Saw the two blocks apart. The braces are easiest made by taking the two pieces which were planed to 1-1/8 in. enough additional metal must be left on the last panel to allow for a lap. No lap is needed when joints are soldered. Plane the surfaces on the saw cut smooth and sandpaper the curve made by the bit. sandpaper the "whiskers" which were raised by the water and fill with a medium dark filler. Directions will be found on the filler cans. at this point place the spur of the bit and bore a 1-in. square and drawing a diagonal on each. and one which will permit the use of heavier metal. The shade is made of wood glued up and has art glass fitted in rabbets cut on the inner edges. three or four may be attached as shown. Brown Flemish is obtained by first staining the wood with Flemish water stain diluted by the addition of two parts water to one part stain. The sketch shows one method of attaching. To make a shade such as is shown in the illustration is rather difficult. if shade is purchased. When this is dry. apply two coats of wax. sawing Details of Construction of Library Lamp Stand along a diagonal of each. Four small pieces of strap iron are bent to the shape shown and fastened to the four sides of the upright. For art-glass the metal panels are . A better way.

METAL SHADE . such as copper.The Completed Lamp cut out. as brass. the glass is inserted from the under side and held in place by small clips soldered to the frame of the shade. and reinforcing and riveting with another metal. Pleasing effects are obtained by using one kind of metal.Construction of Shade .

The main pipe of the stand will need to be of proper length to suit the focus of your camera. The cross that holds the middle arms should be 3/4 in. and the lengths of the pipes are made suitable for the size of the camera. The bottom cross and ells should be corked so as to . A small set screw provided in the back of this cross will hold the table in any position desired.Illuminating a Watch Dial at Night [149] This picture shows a watch holder. the object and the background. the other. The stand is very easily constructed from pipe and pipe fittings. Figure 1 shows the side. Home-Made Photographic Copying Stand [149] The difficulties of bad lighting on small articles can be entirely avoided by the use of a suitable support for the camera. The pipes and other connections are all 1/2-in. as shown in the sketch. The battery is set in a bracket under which a reflector extends downward to throw the light on the dial of the watch and to protect the eyes from the direct light. When using the stand as illustrated this is a very simple matter. one way and 1/2 in. The base is formed to make a tray to hold pins and collar buttons. In this manner small objects can be photographed without any deep shadow on one side. 2 the front view of this stand. The arms holding the glass. and Fig. should be set at a point about the middle of the main tube. Secures Good Light on Small Objects For illustrations it is often an advantage to show an object with a perfectly plain background and no deep shadows. as in ordinary devices. The entire stand and bracket are made from sheet metal. This can be determined by finding the length from the lens to the object after the bellows are extended to their full length. with a device to receive an ordinary electric pocket lamp and battery. but a light pressure with the palm of the hand will make the lamp glow. When a small object is to be photographed it is placed upon the glass table and the background fastened to the board. It is not necessary to seek in the darkness for a push button or switch. This will allow for adjustment of the glass table.

and glue to each side two other rings 1/4 in. The needle then will point to zero if the directions have been followed closely. The lamp will retain its brilliancy for about 6 months. and an inside diameter of 9 in.prevent any slipping and damage to the floor. An ordinary pocket compass. long. These lamps are used by watchmen of powder magazines. thick with the same inside diameter as the first ring and 11 in. pointing north and south. Any deviation from the dimensions will cause errors in the results obtained by its use. How to Make a Tangent Galvanometer [150] Secure a piece of wood 1/2 in. thus forming a 1/4-in. The two ends may be tied together with a string to hold them temporarily. as shown in the sketch. as it is very poisonous. thick and cut out a ring with an outside diameter of 10-1/2 in. Cut another circular piece 11 in. Place the galvanometer on a level table and turn it until the needle. or a pill bottle with screw or cork top and put into it a piece of phosphorus about the size of a pea and fill the bottle one-third full of pure olive oil that has been heated for 15 minutes--but not boiled. wide and 6-5/16 in. The ring is held upright in the hole by a small strip screwed to the base as shown. Cork tightly and the result will be a luminous light in the upper portion of the bottle. in diameter for a base. into which the ring first made should fit so that its inner surface is just even with the upper surface of the baseboard. Remove all pieces of iron or steel and especially magnets in the near vicinity of the instrument when in use. the groove should be wound with 8 turns of No. Home-Made Pocket Lamp [149] A simple and safe pocket lamp that will last for about 6 months without extra expense can be made at home for a few cents. and swinging freely. is fitted in these strips so that the center of the needle or pointer will be exactly in the center of the ring and its zero point mark at the half-way point between the two strips. Before mounting the ring on the base. in diameter. Make a hole in the center of this piece 1 in. If a lathe is at hand this ring can be made from a solid piece and the channel turned out. and connect the two ends of the wire to two binding-posts that are previously attached to the base. about 1-1/4 in. wide and 11 in. Coat the entire surface with brown shellac. channel in the circumference of the ring. long across the sides of the ring with their upper edges passing exactly through the center of the ring. as shown in the cut. lies exactly in the plane of the coil. 16 double cotton-covered magnet wire. They can be cut by means of a key-hole saw if a band saw is not accessible. thick 5/8-in. Fasten two strips of wood 1/4-in. Have your druggist take a strong vial of clear glass. Care should be exercised in handling the phosphorus. All screws and brads that are used must be of brass. The cutting of these circular pieces is not so difficult if a band saw driven by power is used. This makes a perfectly safe lamp to carry. outside diameter. If the light becomes dim. Connect one Tangent Galvanometer . Put the ring in place on the base. uncork and recork again.

1 oz.182 . Thus the light never passes through the cylinders and the observer does not see through. of the top. to which a wire has been soldered for connections. Home-Made X-Ray Instrument [151] Two cylinders. The results given should be multiplied by 1. How to Make a a Non-Polarizing Battery [151] Bichromate batteries are very expensive to maintain and dry cells do not furnish enough amperage for some kinds of experimental work. EE. B. Prepare a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda and fill the jar within 1 in. into these cylinders. and north of the Ohio river. The table gives correct values for the immediate vicinity of Chicago and that part of the United States lying east of Chicago.088 . Corresponding mirrors.3 for places south of the Ohio river and east of the Mississippi.500 .865 1.cell of battery to the instrument and allow the current to flow through the coils. high and place in the bottom of this jar the lower half of a tin baking powder can. The dimensions of the instrument are such that when the deflection is 45 deg. from the third to the fourth which reflects the light to the eye. in diameter and 8 in. The needle of the compass will be deflected to one side or the other.420 . The ampere is the unit chosen to designate the strength of the electric current.600 . AA. An opening extends downward from D of each cylinder so that light entering at one end of the Details of X-Ray Machine cylinder is reflected down at right angles by the first mirror to the second. are fitted at an angle of 45 deg. For other angles the value of the current may be found from the following table: Angles Degrees 10 20 30 40 45 50 55 60 70 Current Amperes . Place on top the so- . are mounted on a base. A cell of a battery that will run 10 hours with an output of over 1 ampere can be made as follows: Secure a jar about 4 in.289 .375 As the magnetic force that acts upon a magnet needle varies in different places the values given for the current will not be true in all parts of the country. and mirrors. above the half can. black oxide of copper. black oxide of manganese and some iron filings. but around any object inserted at X between the cylinders. Purchase a small crowfoot zinc and hang it about 1 in. the current flowing through the coils upon the ring is 1/2 ampere. and will finally come to rest at a certain angle-let us say 45 deg. are put in the base parallel with those in those cylinders.715 . CC. Place in the can a mixture of 2 oz. from the second to the third.

Figure 2 shows how the wheel will appear when complete. while a film of solid particles forms on the surface. always remove the oil with a siphon.lution a thin layer of kerosene or paraffin. and how the sails catch the wind and cause the wheel to revolve. This may be done by putting the scrapings on a piece of paper and blowing them into the lock through the keyhole. 31 gr. nitrate of ammonia and dissolve in 2 oz. alcohol. Put the solution in a long. A Floating Electromagnet [152] . -Contributed by Robert Canfield. This device makes an attractive advertising sign. of pulverized campor. When rain is coming the solid particles will tend gradually to mount. little crystals forming in the liquid. Painting Yellow Pine [151] When painting yellow pine exposed to the weather add a little pine tar with the priming coat. A Home-Made Barometer [151] Take 1/4 oz. if high winds are approaching the liquid will become as if fermenting. and placing four small sailing boats at equal points on the rim of the wheel. slender bottle. Colo. closed at the top with a piece of bladder' containing a pinhole to admit air. the wheel will revolve in one direction. Lock Lubricant [151] A door lock may be lubricated by using some lead scraped from the lead in a pencil and put in the lock. the threads should be painted with pure white lead. says Metal Worker. during fair weather the liquid will remain clear and the solid particles will rest at the bottom. When renewing. Revolving a Wheel with Boat Sails [152] A novel windmill or revolving wheel can be made by placing a light wheel so it will turn freely on the end An Unusual Type of Windmill of a post. The cell will only cost about 50 cents to make and 25 cents for each renewal. It makes no difference which way the wind blows. In Fig. which otherwise remains clear. 62 gr. 1 the direction of the wind is shown by the arrows. of pulverized nitrate of potassium. University Park. Rust Proofing Bolts [151] Where bolts are subject to rust. then they will not rust fast.

The insulation is removed from these ends and they are run through a piece of cork.A piece of iron placed in a coil of wire carrying a current of electricity becomes an electromagnet. the solution is made from sal ammoniac and water. The sketch shows how to make such an instrument. If zinc and copper are used. Homemade Air Thermometer [152] The illustration shows the complete thermometer. in diameter will serve very well for the box A. --Contributed by C. will allow the magnet to point north and south. a piece of zinc to one end and a piece of copper to the other. floating on a solution. If two of them are floating on the same solution. Solder in the side of the box . Air Thermometer deep and 2 in. Attach to the wires. The cork is then floated on a solution of acid. A paper-fastener box. Lloyd Enos. If such a coil and iron core be made small enough they can be attached to a cork and the cork. A Fish Bait [152] A very effective fish bait is made by inclosing a live minnow in a short section of glass tube. which is filled with water and both ends closed with corks. on the under side of the cork. with the zinc and copper hanging in the solution. A coil of insulated wire is wrapped around a small iron core. the solution is made from water and blue vitriol. about 1-1/4 in. The water in the glass tube is caused to rise and fall by the expansion and contraction of the air in the tin box. leaving a few inches of each end free for connections. The float will move about on the solution until the magnet iron will point north and south. This is used in place of the spoon. they will move about and finally arrange themselves end to end with the coils and magnet cores pointing north and south. If zinc and carbon are used.

Hold the part of the tube to be bent in the broad side of a gas jet. D. Connect the glass tube to B with a short piece of rubber hose. 1-1/4 in. A. Make a hole in the center of each cardboard just large enough to allow the brass tube to fit tight. is slipped over the spring to where the spring joins the wire. Any angle can be given glass tubing in this way. 10 wire about 10 in. bind with a short piece of fine copper wire. long for the base and fasten the coil to it. Rhamstine. to it. or made with a little black paint. can be made of oak. Take a small piece of soft iron. At the other end of the board and in the center drive a wire nail and attach a small spring. and on the other around the glass tube. A piece of paper 1-1/2 in. Put ends. cover and rim of the box with gold or silver paint. of No. hole. The standard. A circular piece of cardboard. Hold the bottom of the box to be blackened over a little burning cotton saturated with turpentine. H. The copper wire must be just long enough to allow the piece of iron. Home-Made Battery Voltmeter [153] Secure a piece of brass tube 3 in. Secure a piece of 1/4-in. away. wide and 2-1/2 in. . and in a minute or two the tube will bend with its own weight. On one side bend the wire around the tube B. and then solder on the cover. long and just large enough to slip freely through the brass Battery Voltmeter Construction tube and solder a piece of copper wire to it. If the hose is not a tight fit. 1. E. as shown in Fig. 1/2. C. long that has about 1/4-in. B. The black should not be put on until just before you paint the supports. long. is made from a piece of No. one on each side of the board.Contributed by J. wide and 6 in. and connect the two wires from the coil to them. Wind evenly about 2 oz.1-in. 26 cotton covered magnet wire on the paper between the ends and leave about 2 in. piece of 1/4-in. This instrument will measure the amount of heat given by a candle some 20 or 30 ft. long. This cardboard is to serve as the pointer. to hang part way in the end of the coil and still hold the spring in place. square and cut from heavy cardboard on this tube. The bottom of the box.in. of wire on each end extending from the coil.in. The base. The water can be put in with a medicine dropper. C.not shorter than 18 in. so that the only escape for the air is through the brass tube. Put on two or three layers of stout paper around the brass tube and between the cardboard ends. glass tubing . D. Thos. F. is covered with lampblack so as to readily absorb all heat that strikes the surface. G--No. thick. Use a board 1/2. stained and varnished.--and bend it as shown at D in the sketch. 14 wire will do. E. Bore holes for binding-posts. the other end of the copper wire being hooked to the spring. To this standard solder the supporting wire. The spring should be about 1 in. long is glued to the board so that it will be directly under the cardboard pointer and fit snugly up against the top . 3 in. A. brass tubing. D. The scale on the glass can be etched with hydrofluoric acid. B. C.

5 and the whole support is fastened just under the end pieces of the frame by hinges. When the glass becomes soft. Teasdale. some sheet metal and 2-1/4 yd. Y. The iron plunger. yet a good and beautiful Geissler tube can be made at home in the following manner: Procure a glass tube about 3-1/2 ft. The canvas is stretched as tight as possible over the two long side pieces and fastened on the outside edge of each piece with large headed tacks.of the coil. The four pieces 1-1/2 ft. and keep turning the tube so as to get an even heat. long. Wis. This is done by holding the end of the tube with the right hand and taking hold of the tube with the left hand about 4 in. two pieces 2-1/2 ft. two pieces 2 ft. 2.The hinges are attached as shown in Fig. 30 platinum wire and enough mercury to fill the tube and a small bowl. making a support as shown in Fig. about 1 in. The paper can be calibrated by connecting one cell of battery to the binding-posts. N. D. Make a mark directly under the place where the pointer comes to rest. . square of which two pieces are 6 ft. as shown in Fig. is drawn into the tube and consequently the pointer.--Contributed by Edward M. Details of Canvas Cot Construction Make two of these--one for each end. is drawn nearer to the coil. four pieces 1-1/2 ft. 5. The legs will fold up as shown by the dotted line and the cot can be stored in a small space. long. At the place mark the number of volts the cell reads when connected with a voltmeter. Hold the tube in a flame of a bunsen burner in such manner that the flame will strike the tube midway between the hands. four hinges. canvas. Cuba. 3 in. The first thing to do is to seal 1/2 in. 3-in. How to Make a Small Geissler Tube [154] At first this would seem to be a difficult piece of work. By dividing off the space between these marks you may be able to obtain a surprisingly correct reading when connected with the battery cells to be tested. of mercury will be sufficient. Smith. J.--Contributed by R. long. Milwaukee. 1 consists of wood 1-1/2 in. of 8-oz. in diameter. and two of them are nailed to one of the pieces 2-1/2 ft. E. How to Make a Folding Canvas Cot [154] All the material required to make the cot as shown in Fig. Make a rectangle of the two long pieces and the two 2-ft. of platinum wire in one end of the tube. long. pieces of wood as shown in Fig. long. of No. nailing well the corners together and reinforcing with a strip of sheet metal as shown in Fig. long are used for the legs. long having a hole through its center about 1/8 or 1/4 in. Four pieces of sheet metal are cut as shown in Fig. About 1-1/2 lb. 4 and fastened to the body of the frame with their lower ends hooking over pins driven in each leg at the proper place. 1. 3. from the right hand. Do the same with two or three cells and mark down the result on the scale.

Have the assistant hold the tube in the mercury at a slight angle. take hold of the tube with the right hand still keeping the flame on the tube. 2. This may be done by making a paper funnel and pouring the mercury slowly into the tube through the funnel. At the same time take the piece of glass that was broken off at the end in the first operation and hold it in the flame with the right hand. The tube is now ready for filling and the upper part will appear as shown in Fig. thus leaving a. from the sealed end and place the tube at that point in the flame. The air is expelled from the tube by filling with mercury. Break off the piece of glass. If the end of the tube is now placed in the flame of the burner. while you hold the burner in the left hand and allow the flame to strike the tube at the stated point. Place a finger over the end of the tube to keep the mercury in and invert the tube and set the end in the bowl of mercury. leaving 8 in. long. When it reaches the angle of about 60 deg. an assistant will be necessary for this last operation. touch the soft part of the tube with the end of the glass and draw the tube out into a point like that shown in Fig. of platinum in this aperture in the same manner as before being careful not to heat the tube too suddenly. small aperture in the long tube. 3. The part of the tube above this point will gradually bend over of its own weight as the glass softens. Break this thread off about 1/8 in. The finished end will appear as shown in Fig. and gradually draw the softened portion out until it separates from the main tube. Seal the remaining 1/2 in. holding in the left hand. The next operation is to seal the tube at the half-way point between the lower platinum wire and the mercury level. although nearly any size could be made in the same way. The mercury in the tube will sink until the level will be at about 30 in. using care to always keep the lower end in the mercury. As the lower end of the tube must be kept at all times in the bowl of mercury until the tube is sealed. Can. 6. When the tube is filled to within 1/2 in. of the funnel remove the funnel and tap the side of the tube gently in order to remove any small air bubbles that may be clinging to the sides of the tube. The tube now must be filled completely. The tube is now finished and when the platinum wires are attached to the terminals of a spark coil a beautiful blue light will appear in the tube with a dark space at the negative end or cathode. Measure 8 in. expelling all the air. of vacuum at the top. of the platinum wire and slip it through the fine hole made by breaking the glass thread so that one-half of the wire will be inside of the long tube. When both the tube and piece of glass are soft.. Keys. 4. Fig. --Contributed by David A. Loosening Rusted Nuts [155] Nuts that are rusted fast can often be loosened by giving a hard turn in the tightening direction. from the long part of the tube and the end will appear as shown in Fig. The air bubbles will rise and come to the top. Take 1/2 in. the glass will adhere to the platinum wire and the wire will thus be sealed in the tube.. Cleaning Greasy Stoves [155] . 5. Toronto.Construction of Geissler Tube remove the tube from the flame and quickly draw it out into a fine thread. This tube as described will be 8 in.

4. and 1/4 in. How to Make a Take-Down Background Frame [156] Many amateur photographers who desire to do portrait work at home have left the subject alone for the want of a suitable background. long. on the face of which are riveted flat strips of iron with extending arms. one on each end of a piece of wood that is 1/4 in. The frame is put together as shown in Fig. as in Fig. 1. Any background that will hang straight without need of being stretched can be hung on this frame. These arms are reinforced by riveting smaller pieces from one to the . long are nailed to the sides of the base piece parallel with and at a distance of 2 in. 3 in. The large pulley is about 14 in. from the end of same. 6. 5. The frame as shown in the sketch was devised and its chief advantage lies in the fact that when not in use it can be compactly tied together and stored away in a closet. as shown in Fig. but yellow pine is the best. in diameter. FIG. is screwed on each end of the base with 3-in. long. as shown in Fig.Details of Background Frame Home-Made Kite Reel [156] This kite reel is constructed from two old pulleys and a few pipe fittings. thick.6 -. These will form two pockets that will fit over the tops of the uprights. wood screws. 7. 1 in. 2. to receive the pieces nailed to the ends of the uprights. material 2 in. 3. 4 in. This forms a slot. 9 in. wide and 12 in. thick. long and two blocks are fastened on the ends of each that are to be used for the bottom. Almost any wood may be used in constructing this frame. These blocks are each 2 by 6-in. A frame such as is used by the professional is entirely out of the question in most homes. thick. wide and 5 ft. says a correspondent of Camera Craft. These are bent and nailed. wide and 5 ft. thick. cut in the shape shown in Fig. long. long. wide and 5 ft. 3 in. To secure a rigid frame it is essential that this. thick. 1 in. The width of the crosspiece is 1 in. and the single projection 3/4 in. A crosspiece 3/4-in. Fig. All pieces are to be dressed on all sides. Procure a piece of thick tin or brass and make two pieces like the pattern shown in Fig. with each projection 3-in.Greasy stoves may be cleaned with a strong solution of lye or soda. Four blocks 1/4 in. as it is easily obtained and at the same time very well suited for such work. joint be accurately put together. Two upright pieces are cut from 3/4 in. The base is made from a piece 3/4 in. wide and 3 in.

attach runners and use it on the ice. leaving the greater part of the screw extending. Attaching Runners to a Bicycle for Winter Use [157] Instead of storing away your bicycle for the winter. and sensitized with the following solution: Potassium Bichromate 15 gr. The photograph shows that this guide permits of being moved entirely over the top of the reel. which connects all arms together on both sides of the wheel. . Manhattan. The tire is removed from the rim of the rear wheel and large screws turned into the rim. first removing the crank. Bicycle Fitted with Runners for Snow A Paper That Makes Green Prints [157] A coating for ordinary paper that is said to give green prints is made with a two per cent solution of gelatine. Water 1 oz. above the runner level. R. Magnesium Sulphate 25 gr. --Contributed by C. Kan. Cut off the heads of the screws and file them to a point. The rear runners should be set so the rim of the wheel will be about 1/2 in. The smaller pulley is attached to the shaft and used as a brake.Old Pulleys and Pipe Fittings other. The brake is used only when running out the wire or string. iron and fastened to the bicycle frame as shown in the sketch. Welsh. by 1-in. The runners can be made from 1/4-in. says Photography. Mounted on the shaft with the pulleys is a guide for the kite wire or string.

fix a bottom to the cell in the same way. The wax impression is made by pouring melted beeswax on the article you wish to reproduce and removing after the wax gets cold. The wax mold then should be coated with black lead and polished. When completed the skating shoes will have the appearance shown on Fig. then surface dried or blotted off on a pad and laid film upwards on a sheet of glass. . 1 oz. Attach the other end of the wire to the wax impression. Mass. The print is washed. Make a solution of one part of oil of vitriol and 5 parts of water and pour this mixture into the porous cell. as shown in Fig. Printing is carried rather far. Copies Made from Wax Molds by Electro-Deposition [157] Fine copies of wax impressions can be made in the following manner: Procure an ordinary tumbler and fill it with a strong solution of sulphate of copper. After this is done make a porous cell by rolling a piece of brown paper around a stick and fastening the edge with sealing wax. --Contributed by Edward M. Wind the end of a copper wire around the end of a piece of zinc and place the zinc in the porous cell. The picture assumes a rich green color when developed. and the following developer is applied with a wad of cotton wool wrung out: Pyrocatechin Water 5 gr. Drill holes in the top part of the skate Skating Shoes for screws. and is then washed for five or ten minutes and dried quickly by heat. These will make as good skating shoes as can be purchased. How to Make Skating Shoes [158] Remove the clamp part. 3. This is done with a camel's hair brush. A fine copy can be made on the wax impression after the battery has been running about 12 hr. and very much cheaper. 2. from an ordinary clamp skate. Purchase a pair of high shoes with heavy soles and fasten the skates to the soles with screws. 1. Leominster. Newton. which is made by dissolving two cents' worth of blue vitriol in 1/2 pt. as shown in Fig.This mixture is spread over the paper in the usual way and the paper dried in the dark. also. --Contributed by Wallace C. of water. Treasdale.

A. with about 1/8-in. and to the bottom. 1-1/2 ft. square piece. which represents the back side of the door. about 10 in. high for rabbits. Two holes are bored through the cork and the bent tubes inserted in them. The door is made to swing freely on two large nails driven through the sides of the box. Take two glass tubes. The advantage of this trap is that where one animal is caught others are liable to follow. Church. 1. --Contributed by H. Va. causing the door to swing back and up. say. Place a 10-in.How to Make a Self-Setting Rabbit Trap [158] Secure a good-sized box. fasten a 2-in. The swing door B. high. hole. and 3 ft. Alexandria. F. The hole in the door being only large enough to admit a small portion of the rabbit's head. The thread is broken off at the . from one end. A small door is provided in the other end to remove the animals caught. long. also provides a way to make the hole of different sizes for squirrels or other animals. The spray tube may be made with a fine hole by first securing a tube longer than necessary and heating it at the proper point and drawing the tube out into a fine thread. Then. This prevents the animal from gnawing its way out. and bend them as shown in the sketch. and it will close by its own weight when the animal is inside. as shown in the sketch. too. the rabbits are not harmed in any way as they would be if caught in an ordinary trap. 2. How to Make an Atomizer [158] Secure a good-sized test tube and fit it with a cork. is made as shown Self-Setting Trap in Fig. This is done by heating them at the proper point over a gas flame until they are soft. Sheet metal or tin is cut to the proper size and tacked around the edge of the hole. 1 ft. wide and 4 in. so that one of the tubes will extend nearly to the bottom of the test tube and the other just projecting through the cork. extending the width of the box. and several rabbits will be trapped at a time. 1. Fig. board sloping from the end of the box to the cleat A. wide. the rabbit will push its way through to the bait. The hole in the door should be about 2 in. Fig.

long.. C. Out two rectangular holes. 1 in. being 1/8 in. 1. B. Fit an axle in the screw eyes and fasten a spool to the middle of the axle. This will be a guide as to just what will be secured upon the smaller plate when the kits are used. make a few simple kits to hold the smaller plates and fit the larger holders. A small motor will run the spools and drive the tape on which the figures are attached. 3. black cards on end together so that they will be square and true and bind the other ends with the strip of cloth so as to form a hinge. long. This opening. in size. high and 12 in. Cut a piece of thin black cloth. will retain the plate in position and cut off only that small amount of plate surface when the plate is exposed in the camera. Connect the spools with a belt made from tape about 3/4 in. Cut out the front part of the box down to a level with the top of the spools. 2. Cut an opening in the other piece. inside of the opening. camera and wish to use some 4. making the appearance of the ordinary stage. shorter at each end. as shown in Fig. The piece A will form the back of the kit and should have an opening cut in the center 4 by 5 in. Lay one of these kits down against the ground side of the focusing screen and draw a line around. Chicago. Take two pieces of pasteboard. Place a screw eye about 1/2 in. D. but cut it 1/4 in. Paste a piece of strong black paper.by 7-in. one in each end and exactly opposite each other. trolley cars. wide. automobiles. The front part of the box may be draped with curtains.by 5-in. and exactly 5 by 7 in. plates. How to Make a Miniature Stage [159] A good smooth box. black surfaced if possible. Fig. -Contributed by William M. Home-Made Kits for the Camera [159] If you have a 5. 10 in. wide. say 8 in. in size. over the under side of it to keep the plate from falling through. A and B. from the edge on each side of these openings. Crilly. On this belt fasten figures cut from heavy paper and made in the form of people.proper place to make a small hole. A painted scenery can be made in behind the movable tape. to be used as a driving pulley. On one of the two spools attach another smaller spool. Fig. will serve the purpose for the main part of this small theater. Lay it down on a piece of newspaper and coat one side with gum or mucilage. Jr. The two cards form a thickness about equal to a thick glass plate. and go in the holder in the same way. horses and dogs. Stand the two pieces of 5 by 7 in. says Camera Craft. shorter. . wide and 5 in.

into which the dog is harnessed.in. A cell of this kind can easily be made.. and will maintain this position if the containing vessel is moved about. The front wheels are guided by ropes attached from each end of the axle and a few turns around the lower end of the steering rod. The machine is nothing more than a boy's rubbertired wagon on which are mounted a box for a seat and a wheel steering device extending above and below the board of the wagon. wide will be required. A pair of shafts are attached to the rear. and to make it the proper size a sheet of zinc 8-1/2 in. Home-Made Dog Cart [160] The accompanying photograph shows a boy with his "dogmobile. This zinc is rolled into a cylinder 2-1/2. if the needle is displaced by force it will return to its position along the magnetic meridian as soon as the restraint is removed. This will allow for a lap of 5/8 in. making a . The needle will then point north and south. in diameter. long and 6 in. Close one end of the cylinder by soldering a disk of zinc over it. A sewing needle thus floating upon water may be used as a compass. but instead of the liquid commonly used a paste is formed by mixing sal ammoniac and other salts with water and packed in the cell so it cannot spill. which is tightly soldered only on the outside of the seam. How to Make a Dry Battery Cell [160] Dry battery cells are composed of the same materials for the poles.A Floating Compass Needle [160] When a thoroughly dry and clean sewing needle is carefully placed on the surface of water the needle will float even if the density of steel is 7 or 8 times that of water. of sand Dog-Power Cart left by the pavers and a grade of 6 per cent." The photograph was taken when they were on a new pavement which had 2 in. if it has previously been magnetized.

fodder. and by making the string tighter or looser you can regulate the thickness of the paraffin. pine. supported near the bottom of the pan by the standards T and T. This makes the wire smooth. To keep the pan from sliding place a flatiron or some other weight on it. The details of the construction are given in the diagram. with narrow flanges. The salts for filling are 1/4 lb. 3/4 lb. plaster of paris. in which P is the pan. Four nails should be driven in the base just outside of the edge of the pan to keep it from sliding off the pan. making the knots so they will not pull through the hole in the leather. These may be made of two short pieces of a roller fitted into the holes bored in the base. layer of paste in the bottom of the cylinder and place the ends of the carbon rods on this with their plated ends up. File the rods to remove the copper plate. long which are copper plated. pine with a piece of leather tacked on one side. of rosin and 2 oz. fuel and packing purposes. Carbons used in arc lamps will do. All soldering should be done on the outside and none of the solder allowed to run on the inside of the seam. allowing one end of the wire to project about 2 in. for a connection. closely filling the cylinder to within 3/4 in. chloride of zinc mixed into a paste by adding 1/2 pt. when the paraffin is melted. 1 lb. in diameter and 6 in. Pack the paste in. zinc oxide. Hold the rods in the center of the cylinder and put the paste in around the rods with a stick. This is done by immersing them in a dish of smoking hot melted paraffin until the pores are thoroughly saturated. Bore a hole in the base between the two spools and pass the wire through this hole. of the plate at one end. Tie the three rods in a close bundle with the copper-plated ends together and make a contact with each rod by soldering a wire to the plated ends. and a notch between the base and the pan. Form a 1/2-in. under the spool in the paraffin. sal ammoniac. of water. Home-Made Apparatus for Paraffining Wire Uses of Peat [161] Peat is used in Germany for bedding. Secure three carbon rods 1/2. then through a small hole in the leather and a notch in the block A. says Electrician and Mechanic. B is a base of 1 in. . Tie a string around the wire between the leather and the paraffin.watertight receptacle. This space at the top is filled with a mixture of 1/2 lb. pull out the wire as needed.in. A is a block of l-in. beeswax melted together. Do not paint any surface. of the top. All seams on the inside should be painted with asphaltum in order to cover any particles of solder. Secure a pan to be used for this purpose only. short time. Connection is made to the zinc by soldering a wire to the outside of the cylinder. one that will hold about 1 qt. The plated ends of the carbons should be covered with paraffin for about 1 in. 1/4 lb. filter. only the joints. This wax seals the cell and prevents any evaporation. F is a spool. Place the pan on the stove. S is the spool of wire supported near one end of the base by nailing on standards H and H. How to Paraffin Wire [161] The following description of how to make an apparatus with which to paraffin wire as needed makes clear a method of construction that is simple and easy to put together in a. leaving about 1/2-in.

Take a piece of hardwood 3/8-in. and in the second movement you scratch the notches with the nail of the second finger when the hand is coming toward the body. and one friend tells me that they were . Very few can make it turn both ways at will. by the Hindoos in India. Two or three of these arms may have to be made before one is secured that is of the exact proportions to catch the vibrations right. thus making the arm revolve in one direction." which created much merriment.. the thumb and second finger changing places: e. enough to allow a common pin to hold the arm to the end B and not interfere with the revolving arm.Scientific Explanation of a Toy [162] In a recent Issue of Popular Mechanics an article on "The Turning Card Puzzle" was described and illustrated. Then slightly taper the end marked B until it is nicely rounded as shown in Fig. 2. and therein is the trick. Next make an arm of a two-arm windmill such as boys make. and many other things in order to make the arm operate. Toledo. Ohio. Enlarge the hole slightly. while for others it will not revolve at all. so the observer will not detect the change which the band makes--allow the first finger to slide along the top. By using the magic words the little arm will obey your commands instantly and your audience will be mystified. I have been told that a similar arrangement is used by a tribe of Indians in the state of Washington. Outside of the scientific side involved herein I describe a much better trick. the second finger along the side and the thumb nail will then vibrate along the notches. for others the opposite way. * * * * * * * The foregoing article describing the "Skidoo-Skidee Trick" appeared in a recent issue of Popular Mechanics. no matter how fast the little arm is revolving when changed to the second movement. Try it and see. let them try it. as in the other movement. thus producing two different vibrations. How to Cut the Notches To operate the trick. in the first movement you scratch the notches with the thumb nail while the hand is going from the body. To make the arm revolve in the opposite direction--keep the hand moving all the time. and then. from vexation. and with the forward and backward motion of the other allow the first finger to slide along the top edge. threw the trick into the fire and a new one had to be made. g. One person whom I now recall became red in the face by shouting skidoo and skidee at it. or think they can do the same. On one of the edges cut a series of notches as indicated in Fig 1. for some it will turn one way. you must say "skidee" and the arm will immediately stop and begin revolving in the opposite direction. and he finally. At least it is amusing. grip the stick firmly in one hand. You will no doubt be accused of blowing or drawing in your breath. Make a hole through the center of this one arm. --Contributed by Charles Clement Bradley. Unless the trick is thoroughly understood. In order to make it work perfectly (?) you must of course say "skidoo" when you begin the first movement. square and about 9 in. long. About the time when the expression "skidoo" first began to be used I invented the following trick and called it "Skidoo" and "Skidee. but the thing would not move at all. If any of your audience presume to dispute.

with this exception: if the stick has enough spring. so that it is back in the old position for the next upward motion. and the hand held in the sunlight so that a spot of sunlight was reflected upon the wall. A tiny mirror was attached to the end of the pin. 4. 3.100 r. It was observed and the direction of rotation correctly stated by a man who was unaware of the source of the motion. If the pressure was upon an edge. Irregular spacing of the notches did not interfere with the action. secondly. The hole in the revolving piece must be larger than the pin. but the section may be circular or even irregular in shape. at the same time pressing with the thumb or finger of the moving hand against the oblique face of the stick. The above experiments led me to the conclusion that the operation of the device is dependent upon a circular motion of the pin. The experiments were as follows: 1. rotation was obtained. It is necessary to show here that a slight circular motion is sufficient to produce the result and. Speeds between 700 and 1. The depth of the notches was also unimportant. 5. This toy interested me so much that I have made an investigation into the causes of its action. If the stick be clamped in a vise no results are obtained. m. The direction of rotation depends upon which face is pressed. this upward motion against the oblique pressure upon the (say) right hand side gives also a lateral component of motion towards the left. and. this motion relieves somewhat the oblique pressure from the right hand side. gave the best results. by means of a center punch. and this was confirmed by the following experiments. no rotation resulted. while with the right hand a nail or match stick is rubbed along the notched edge. A square stick with notches on edge is best. and a depression made in the end slightly eccentric. 6. that such motion can be produced by the given movements of the hands. The center of gravity of the revolving piece must lie within the hole. If the end of the pin is inserted in this depression. one end of the notched stick is held firmly in the left hand. one circular and one due to the irregular movements of the hand holding the stick. although it should be suited to the size of the nail for best results. The action is somewhat similar to swinging the toy known as a locust around with a slight circular motion of the hand. As the nail strikes the opposite side of the notch the stick is knocked down again. but at times the circular motion became very pronounced. the reaction from the holding (left) hand moves the stick to the right slightly. When the pressure was applied upon a face normal to the first. A piece of brass rod was clamped in the chuck of a lathe. Usually the orbit was too irregular to show a continuous and closed circular path. Thus a circular or . rotation of the lathe will produce rotation of the revolving piece. The Lathe Experiment while the hand holding the other end of the stick is kept as nearly as possible in the axis of the lathe. if there is a close fit no rotation is obtained. The notches were then rubbed in the usual way. The spot of light upon the wall moved in a way which disclosed two components of motion. the rotation may be obtained. and the end clamped is far enough away from the notched portion. 2. A rectangular stick had notches cut on one face. p. 7.sold on the streets of our large cities many years ago. The production of the circular motion can be explained in this way: When the rubbing nail comes to a notch the release of pressure sends the stick upward. and I think the results may be of interest. To operate. If the hole is not well centered the trick cannot be performed.

C. and not to friction of the pin in the hole. D. Make a hole a little smaller than the diameter of a candle and about one-third of the way from the closed end of the can.. Lloyd. unwetted by the liquid. . or greasy. All that is needed is an empty tomato or coffee can. Reproduced herewith are a series of photographs showing successive stages in the entry of a rough sphere into milk and water. Washington. at first. That the motion of the revolving piece is due to a swinging action. A Study of Splashes [164] When a rough." The diameter of this sphere was about 3/5 in. graceful column to a height which may be even greater than that from which the sphere fell. A. or dusty sphere falls into a liquid. Home-Made Lantern [163] Tin Can Lantern The accompanying picture shows a lantern which can be made almost anywhere for immediate use. G. the motion of the stick and hence of the revolving piece will be counterclockwise. as shown. a piece of wire and a candle. it will be clockwise. For oblique side pressure from the right (notches assumed upward). Sloan. the liquid is forced away from the sphere. if the pressure is from the left. and the direction of this motion is the same whether the nail be rubbed forward or back. instead of flowing over and wetting the surface of the sphere. If the sphere is quite smooth the liquid rises up around and enclosing it in a sheath says Knowledge and Scientific News.elliptic motion is repeated for each notch. is proved by experiments 3 and 4. the upper portion is. Minn. while at the same time it gathers volume from below and rises ultimately as a tall. is driven violently away. This kind of lantern can be carried against almost any wind and the light will not be blown out. A wire is tied around the can. Duluth. forming a handle for carrying. and the height of the fall about 6 in.D. The gradual thickening of the crater wall and the corresponding reduction in the number of its lobes as the subsidence proceeds is beautifully shown. Thereafter there rises from the depth of the crater an exquisite jet which in obedience to the law of segmentation at once splits up in its upper portion into little drops.. --Contributed by G. --Contributed by M. Examination of the photographs shows that the liquid. Ph. and the resultant "basket splash. so far as can be seen from the photographs.

Splashes from a Sphere In Milk and Water .

How to Make a Miniature Electric Locomotive [165] A miniature electric railway is a thing that attracts the attention of almost any person. Solder a pin to the back of the head when it is to be used for a stick pin. Each pair of wheels is fitted on a 1/4-in." The electric locomotive described herewith uses for its power a small battery motor costing about $1. axle. The cost of a toy electric locomotive is beyond the reach of many boys who could just as well make such a toy without much expense and be proud to say they "built it themselves. If a collar button base is soldered to the back of the head instead of the pin it can be used for a button. the wheels can be turned at some machine shop. Make the frame from three pieces of heavy . hole drilled in the center.How to Make a Stick Pin [164] A fine stick pin or button can be made from a new one-cent piece. These can be gold plated by a jeweler and then you will have a neat pin or button. as shown in Fig. thick and 1 in. with a 1/16-in. Four wheels are made from a round bar of metal. If one has no The Different Parts for Making the Electric Locomotive lathe. The first thing to do is to make the wheels and axles. about 2-5/8 in. long. flange and a 1/4-in. as shown. Each wheel is 1/4 in. 1. in diameter. One of the axles should be fitted with a grooved belt wheel. Carefully file out all the metal around the Indian head and slightly round the edges. or a good emblem for the Order of Redmen.

San Antonio. The track can be made from strips of tin put in a saw cut made in pieces of wood used for ties. In making the connections the travel of the locomotive may be made more complicated by placing a rheostat and controlling switches in the line. before doing so drill four 1/4-in. as shown in Fig. and the locomotive is ready for running. These ends are fastened together. wood. The first piece. The connection for the motor runs from one binding post to the trolley and this connection must be well insulated to avoid a short-circuit. Fig. Automatic switches can be attached at the ends of the line to break the circuit when the locomotive passes a certain point. A magnetized watch must be placed in a Watch Demagnetizer coil that has an alternating current of electricity flowing through it to remove the magnetism. each in its proper place. The current. 16 cotton-covered copper wire. A trolley. 3. This will save buying a track. Fuller. Fig. or main part of the frame. wide and of the dimensions shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Maurice E. 5. The cost of making the wheels and purchasing the track will not be over $1. bent as shown. as shown in Fig. is turned on the lamp and coil and the magnetized watch . Texas.50. As it will be necessary to place a 16-cp. of No. These pieces are riveted in the middle of the oblong frame. is made from a piece of clock spring. Two end pieces for the coil are made as shown in Fig.brass. The trolley should be well insulated from the frame. Wind upon the spool thus formed about 2 lb. bent into an oblong shape and the ends soldered or bolted together. to the top of the piece fastened to the frame lengthwise. long. The other binding-post is connected to the frame. put together complete. are shown in Fig. The other two pieces are 1/2-in. from the ends and insert the ends of the axles. 1 from 1/4-in. which must be 110 volt alternating current. long glued to the inside edges of the holes cut in them. holes 1 in. so that the engine can be started and stopped at will from a distance and the speed regulated. with cardboard 3 in. If the ends are to be soldered. The parts. A groove is made in the tin to keep the trolley wire in place. and a small piece of tin soldered to the top end for a brush connection. 3/4 in. both the coil and lamp can be mounted on a suitable base and connected as shown in Fig. One connection from the batteries is made to the trolley wire and the other to a rail. 3. 4. wide and 16 in. 6. The motor is now bolted. is made from brass. Demagnetizing a Watch [166] A test can be made to know if your watch is magnetized by placing a small compass on the side of the watch nearest the escapement wheel if the compass pointer moves with the escapement wheel the watch is magnetized. lamp in series with the coil. bottom side up. 2. Run a belt from the pulley on the motor to the grooved wheel on the axle. The trolley wire is fastened to supports made of wood and of the dimensions given in Fig. A demagnetizer can be made as shown in the illustration. 2.

How to Make a Pocket Skate Sharpener [166] Secure a square file and break off a piece. pulling vigorously at the first corner of the handkerchief. Place the runner of the skate in the clip and hold flat on the surface of the runner. When the file gets filled with filings it can be removed and cleaned. Allow this to cool slowly while in the tongs. Push the clip back and forth until the skate is sharpened. trick of removing a dime from the bottom of an old fashioned wine glass without touching the coin. Fig 1. as shown in Fig. Cincinnati. 2. This can be done by wrapping a wet piece of cloth or asbestos around the middle and holding it in the jaws of a pair of tongs which will only leave the end uncovered and projecting from the tongs about 1/2 in. and as this end . Fasten the file in the clip with small bolts. Draw the temper in the ends of this piece of file. but do not heat the center. Fig. This will draw the temper in only the ends which are filed. then continue to tighten much more. Hold this projecting end in a flame of a plumber's torch until it is a dull red. The dime is first placed in the bottom of the glass and then a silver quarter dropped in on top. When cold treat the other end in the same way. the length of a paper clip. Also drill a hole in each end of the spring on the paper clip to match those drilled in the piece of file. Blow hard into the glass in the position shown and the dime will fly out and strike the blower on the nose.slowly drawn through the opening in the center of the coil. O. 1. as shown in Fig. 3. Untying-a-Knot Trick [167] Tie a double knot in a silk handkerchief. and holes drilled in them. If the piece of file is fitted to the same width as the skate runner the sides of the paper clip will hold the file level with the surface of the runner without any trouble. The quarter will not go all the way down. as shown in the accompanying sketch and tighten the last tie a little by slightly drawing the two upper ends. --Contributed by Arthur Liebenberg. Sharpener for Skates Old-Time Magic [167] Trick with a Coin in a Wine Glass [167] The accompanying sketch shows a.

or should the lathe head be raised. the pawl is disengaged and the mandrel turned to another tooth in the clock wheel. All the old clock wheels that can be found should be saved and used for index wheels. The frame is made from a 1/2 in. For instance: if the clock wheel has 18 teeth it can be made to index 6. which is in a mandrel placed in the centers of the lathe. When the mandrel is put in between the centers a small pawl is fastened with a screw to the frame with its upper end engaging in a tooth of the clock wheel. a short mandrel with the cutter near the end can be placed in a chuck. never thinking that he could make them on his own lathe. or apparent security of the knot. In the sketch. A small attachment can be made to fasten in the tool post of a lathe and the attachment made to take a mandrel on which to place the blank for cutting a gear. at the moment when you cover the knot with the unused part of the handkerchief. One clock wheel will index more than one number of teeth on a blank wheel. one of which should have a screw thread and lock nut for adjustment in putting in and removing the mandrel. Should too much spring occur when cutting iron gears the frame can be made rigid by blocking up the space between it and the lathe bed. 2 and 1 respectively. and adjusted . The slip knot as described then must be made in apparently the same way and untied with the thumb while the knot is in the folds of the handkerchief. All of these wheels should be fitted to one end of the mandrel. which can be drawn out without disturbing the form.belongs to the same corner it cannot be pulled much without loosening the twisted line of the knot to become a straight line. A shows the end of the cutter and B the side and the shape of the cutting tool. The cutter mandrel is placed in the centers of the lathe. Gear-Cutting Attachment for Small Lathes [167] When in need of small gears for experimental or model machines the amateur usually purchases them. square iron bent as shown in the sketch with the Gear-Cutting Attachment for Lathes projecting end filed to fit the tool post of the lathe. has finished a cut for a tooth. When the trick is to be performed. In order to get the desired height it is sometimes necessary to block up the lathe head and the final depth of the tooth adjusted by the two screws in the projecting end of the frame which rests on the rocker in the tool post. The blank wheel is put on the outer end of the mandrel and a clock wheel having the number of teeth desired placed on the other end. 9 or 18 teeth to the blank by moving the number of teeth each time 3. A pair of centers are fitted. The other corner forms a slip knot on the end. tie two or three very hard knots that are tightly drawn and show your audience that they are not easy to untie. When the cutter A.

(3. Bunker. swing lathe. (2. above the surface. This Work Is Done with a Nail Set and Nut Pick . The connection and eye are then covered with tape as shown in Fig. Bott. Beginning at the left and reading to the right they are: -Case for court-plaster. When connecting to batteries. Make free-hand one quarter of the design. holding it in place with the left hand. Brooklyn. Simple Arts and Crafts Leather Work [168] Very interesting and useful pieces of leather work can be done with nothing more for equipment than a cup pointed nail set such as carpenter use. Each end of the wire is put through the eye of a cotter pin. if four parts are to be alike. Fourth row: -Needle or pin case. Wire Terminals for Battery Connections [168] Cotter Pin Wire Terminal. Y. Procure a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. Put a piece of double-surfaced carbon paper between the parts and trace over the design already drawn. gentleman's card case or bill book. trace the outline. gear blank and clock wheel is inserted in the tool post of the lathe and adjusted for depth of the cutter. 2. --Contributed by Howard S. Third row: -Pin ball (has saddler's felt between the two leather disks).to run true. of the object and the decorative design with the nut pick so as to make a V-shaped groove in the leather. In making symmetrical designs such as are here shown. Fig. The pawl is released and the mandrel turned to the proper number of teeth and the operation repeated.) With the cup-pointed nail set stamp the background promiscuously. blotter back. eye glass cleaner or pen wiper (has chamois skin within). Frequently the parts are fastened by punching holes and lacing through these with leather thongs or silk cord. book mark.) Place the paper design on the leather and.) Make on paper the design wanted. or one-half of the design. such as brass or marble. long. rapid blows on the top with a hammer or mallet. lady's belt bag. in diameter can be made on a 6-in. note book. dividing it into as many parts as desired. watch fob ready for fastenings. The accompanying illustrations show some of the things that can be made. The lathe is started and the gear blank fed on the cutter slowly until the tooth is cut. tea cosey. draw center lines across the required space. This is done by making an effort to hold the point of the set about 1/4 in. Good connections on the end of wires for batteries can be made from cotter pins. a sewing machine will be needed to fasten the parts together. With such objects as coin purses and card cases.) Moisten the back side of the leather with sponge or cloth with as much water as it will take yet not show through on the face side. lady's card case. Second row: -Two book marks. When the nuts are tightened the connection will be better than with the bare wire. spread the pin and push the parts under the nut with one part on each side of the binding-post. (4. Fold over along these center lines. at the same time striking light. N. and a nut pick. An ordinary machine will do. coin purse. 1. (5. --Contributed by Samuel C. (1. tea cosey. about 1-1/2 in.) Take the paper off and working on the leather directly make the grooves deeper. (6. twisted around itself and soldered. In this manner gears 3 in. The frame holding the mandrel. if but two parts.) Place the leather on some hard nonabsorbent material.

and an ordinary bottle. some heavy rubber hose. Secure .How to Make a Simple Still [170] A still to distill water can be made from a test tube.

The whole device is placed in a glass berry dish and covered with a pane of glass. Florida. The rubber tube will not stand the heat very long and if the still is to be used several times. and place the cork exactly in the middle of the needle. The bottle should stand in a basin of cold water. When the water in the test tube begins to boil the steam passes over to the bottle. and push it through a cork. pull it through the cork to one side or the other. In making an instrument of this kind the quartz can be purchased from a dealer in minerals. Thrust a pin. B. through a receiving instrument in which two pieces of quartz of different composition were used on the electrodes. The whole arrangement is balanced on a thimble with balls of wax stuck on the heads of the matches. The bottle is also fitted with a stopper containing a piece of tube. If the needle is not horizontal. from Key West. or change Magnetized Needle Revolving on a Pin the wax balls. A. into which fit a small piece of tube. Homemade Mariner's Compass [170] Magnetize an ordinary knitting needle.C. where it condenses. Brighten White Paint [170] Add aluminum bronze to a white or light paint that is to be used for lettering on a dark ground. and both bottle and test tube connected with a rubber tube. Quartz Electrodes Used in Receiving Wireless Messages [170] · Details of the Receiving Instrument Wireless messages have been received at Washington. through the cork at right angles to the needle and stick two sharpened matches in the sides of the cork so that they will project downward as shown.Distilling Water a stopper for the test tube.. a distance of 900 miles. The basin should be supplied with cold water as fast as it begins to get warm. and bore a hole through the center. C. D. The electrodes are made . a metal tube should be supplied to connect the test tube and bottle. One piece must contain copper pyrites and the other zincites. The test tube is partly filled with water and supported or held over an alcohol lamp.

thick. several strips 1/2 in. free from knots. Connect as shown in the illustration. as shown in Fig. The vertical rudder is to keep the machine headed into the wind and is not movable. take the glider to the top of a hill.cupping to hold the minerals and each should have a screw adjustment to press the pieces of quartz in contact with each other. The ribs should have a curve as shown in Fig. 1. thick. --Contributed by Edwin L. by 3/4 in. Place the two main surfaces 4 ft. 12 uprights 1/2 in. 1. or flying-machine. thick. The landing is made by pushing the weight of the body backwards.in. the rudder sticks 3/4 in. The 41 ribs may be nailed to the main frames on the upper side by using fine flatheaded brads 7/8 in. 1-1/2 in. The frames for the two main surfaces should be constructed first. which is nailed to the rudder sticks connecting to the main frame. 1. All bolts used should be 1/8 in. The surfaces must be true or the machine will be hard to balance when in flight. These ribs are spaced 1 ft. All wiring is done with No. Powell. as shown in Fig. These frames formed by the crosspieces should be braced by diagonal wires as shown. 2 arm sticks 1 in. How to Make a Glider [171] By Carl Bates A gliding machine is a motorless aeroplane. The glider should be examined to see that the frame is not warped or twisted. and these sticks are held rigid by diagonal wire and also by guy wires leading to the sides of the main frames as shown in Fig. The rudders are fastened to the glider by the two rudder sticks. stretched tightly over the bent ribs and fastened securely with tacks to the rear ends of the ribs. which is tacked to the front edge. use 10-ft. wide and 3 ft. The whole structure is made strong and rigid by bracing with diagonal wires. long for the body of the operator. square and 8 ft long. First prepare from spruce planks the following strips of wood. by bolting the crosspieces to the long beams at the places shown by the dimensions in Fig. long. apart and bolted to the long beams in the center of the opening in the lower plane where the operator is to take his position. C. long. If 20-ft. long. 3. The horizontal rudder is also made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. The style of glider described in this article is known as the "two-surface" or "double-decked" aeroplane. slacken speed and settle. propelled by gravity and designed to carry a passenger through the air from a high point to a lower point some distance away. wide and 20 ft. lengths and splice them. wide and 4 ft. long. placed in the corner of each crosspiece and beam. wide and 3 ft. beyond the rear edges of the main frames. and is the most interesting and exciting sport imaginable. You will find that the machine has a surprising amount of lift. lumber cannot be procured. the rib is arched by springing down the loose end and nailing to the rear beam. for building the vertical and horizontal rudders. wide and 4 ft long. 1/2. and arranged to intersect the vertical rudder at its center. In the center of the lower plane surface there should be an opening 2 ft. wide and 4 ft. The uprights are fastened by bolting to the crosspieces. thick. 3/4 in. The two arm sticks should be spaced about 13 in. using a high resistance receiver. 41 strips for the bent ribs 3/16 in. as shown in Fig. 2. The frames of the main surfaces are now ready to be covered with cloth. and is composed of two arched cloth surfaces placed one above the other. long. 2 in. This will cause the glider to tip up in front. The operator can then land safely and . Flying in a glider is simply coasting down hill on the air. and also to keep it steady in its flight. The horizontal rudder is also immovable and its function is to prevent the machine from diving. 2. This rudder is held in position and strengthened by diagonal wires and guy wires. apart and connect with the 12 uprights. After nailing one end of a rib to the front long beam. 12 crosspieces 3/4 in. 1-1/4 in. get in between the arm sticks and lift the machine up until the arm sticks are under the arms as shown run a few steps against the wind and leap from the ground. D. the amount of curvature being the same in all the ribs. 16 piano wire. Cambric or bleached muslin should be used for the covering. To make a glide. In building a glider the wood material used should be straight-grained spruce. both laterally and longitudinally. The cloth should also be glued to the ribs for safety. Washington. and if the weight of the body is in the right place you will go shooting down the hillside in free flight. thick. This rudder is made of cloth stretched over a light wooden frame. Four long beams 3/4 in. in diameter and fitted with washers on both ends. apart and extend 1 ft.

gradually increasing the distance as he gains skill and experience in balancing and landing. Of course. but this must be found by experience. Details of the Glider The proper position of the body is slightly ahead of the center of the planes. The machine should not be used in winds blowing faster than 15 miles an hour. The higher the starting point the farther one may fly. Glides are always made against the wind. Great care should be .gently on his feet. and the balancing is done by moving the legs. the beginner should learn by taking short jumps.

The illustration shows two lines of flight from a hilltop. half man and half horse. --Contributed by L. Boys Representing the Centaur [173] This is a diversion in which two boys personate a Centaur. a creature of Greek mythology. Wash How to Make a Flash Lamp [174] . the glider travels on the upper line caused by the body of the operator taking a position a little back of the proper place. The Making Up the Centaur second player is covered over with a. otherwise the operator might suffer a sprained ankle or perhaps a broken limb. When heated a little. The first player should hold a bow and arrow and have a cloak thrown loosely over his shoulder as shown in Fig. This makes a good ladle for melting small amounts of babbit or lead.exercised in making landings. M. One of the players stands erect and the other behind him in a stooping position with his hands upon the first player's hips. Bellingham. which causes the dip in the line. Home-Made Ladle for Melting Babbitt [173] Secure a large sized old bicycle bell and rivet a heavy wire or strap iron on one side for a handle. Imitation hoofs of pasteboard may be made and fastened over the shoes. hammer out the edge on one side for a lip to pour from. as shown in Fig. 2. shawl or table cover which is pinned around the waist of the first player. 1. and on the lower line he changes his position from front to back while flying. Olson. A tail made of strips of cloth or paper is pinned to the rear end of the cover.

Bend a ring on one end of the larger piece of wire. wide into a small cup about 3/8 in. Cut out a little place for the tube to enter the cup at the small end and then solder the tube and cup to the bottom of the box as shown in the illustration. To make a simple and inexpensive flash lamp. Wrap the ring at the top of the spiral piece of wire all the way Made from a Tin Salve Box around with the strip of asbestos paper. in diameter at one end and 1/4 in. The tube and cup should be well soldered on the seams to make them airtight. first secure from your druggist an empty salve box about 3 in. While at the drug store get 3 ft. The light from the . When through with the lamp place the cover over it. long and about 3/8 in. pushing the asbestos ring down inside the box. To make a flash with this lamp fill the little cup in the center with flash powder and moisten the asbestos ring with alcohol. When all is ready for the picture the alcohol is lighted and a quick blow of the breath through the rubber tube will force the flash powder upward into the flame and cause the flash. These with a strip of light asbestos paper and some small iron wire. Next roll up a strip of tin 1/2 in. 14 in. Photographing the New Moon [174] To make a photograph of the moon is quite difficult and no good picture can be made without an expensive apparatus. about the size of stove pipe wire. a piece of brass or steel wire. the tennis ball taking the part of the moon. of small rubber tubing. wrapping them together over and over until the entire ring is covered. At home and with your own hand camera you can make a good picture of the new moon by the use of a flash light on a tennis ball. Place the tube in the nail hole so that one end comes almost to the center of the box inside and the other end projects about 1/2 in. Now visit the tin shop and get a small piece of scrap tin 3 or 4 in.Indoor photographs are made much better with the use of a flashlight than by depending on light from windows. in diameter. outside the box. The ball is suspended in front of a black cloth screen. will complete the material list. this will cost about 15 cents. in diameter and form the remaining portion of the wire into a spiral. The lighting can be made from any direction to suit the operator. Cut a strip of tin 2 in. Wind the rubber tubing around the box and you have a neat outfit that can be carried in the pocket. wide and roll this around an 8penny nail so as to form a small tube which will just fit the hole made in the salve box. making it 2-1/2 in. the camera focused by holding a burning match near the ball and the exposure made by burning a small quantity of flash powder at one side and a little below the ball. long. soldering the end in the bottom of the box near the cup. at the other. square. Carefully punch a hole through the salve box on one side near the bottom with a 10penny nail. about the size of door screen wire. Slip the end of the rubber tube over the tin tube on the side of the box and the flash lamp is complete. If lighting flash powder when not in a regular flash lamp the flash cannot be depended upon and in some instances is dangerous.

Take hold of the loop end of the cord in the lower handle and drawing it first How the Scissors Are Removed through the upper handle and then completely over the blades of the scissors. 1. It is a good trick to spring upon a company casually if you have practiced it beforehand. M. while others will fail time after time. but puzzling when the trick is first seen. Dayton. Tennis Ball Photographed Old-Time Magic.Part II [175] Removing Scissors from a Cord [175] A piece of strong cord is doubled and fastened to a pair of scissors with a slip knot. O. This is very simple when you know how. --Photo by M. as shown in Fig. A playing card is balanced on the tip of the forefinger and a penny placed on top immediately over the finger end. 2. as shown in Fig. leaving the penny poised on the finger end. After passing the ends of the cord through the thumb hole of the scissors they are tied fast to a chair. Coin and Card on the First Finger [175] This is a simple trick that many can do at the first attempt. door knob or any other object that may be of sufficient size to make the ends secure. The trick is to release the scissors without cutting the cord. If done properly the card will flyaway.flash only striking one side of the ball gives the effect of the new moon. With the right hand forefinger and thumb strike the edge of the card sharply. . as shown in the sketch. Hunting.

Old-Time Magic-Part III [176] Disappearing Coin [176] While this is purely a sleight-of-hand trick. and the coin will disappear up your coat sleeve. Sticking a Coin Against the Wall [176] Cut a small notch in a coin—ten cent piece or quarter will do--so a small point will project. then give the coin in the right hand a whirl. On opening the hand the coin will not be seen. and pass once more through the flame to obtain the luster. and by careful manipulation the wax when warm can be made to flow around the pin head and form pretty stripes and designs. and by a rapid twist of the fingers whirl the coin and at the same time close the hand. as described. four of them turning around the fifth or central figure . The head can be made in any shape desired while warm. then put it on the hatpin head. cool thoroughly in cold water and dry carefully. Hold the end of the stick over a flame until the wax is soft enough to drop." or the Chinese students' favorite game. When the desired shape has been obtained. it will take very little practice to cause the coin to disappear instantly. while the one in the right shall have disappeared. Stripes and designs may be put on the foundation by applying drops of other brilliant colored wax. If a certain color is to be more prominent. place the other two. This game is played by five persons. When this is pressed firmly against a wood casing or partition the coin will stick tightly. as before. The coin in the right hand will disappear up your sleeve. Cool in water and dry. A Chinese Outdoor Game [176] The accompanying illustration shows the "grand whirl. as shown. hold the lump over the flame.How to Make Sealing Wax Hat Pins [175] Select a stick of sealing wax of the desired color for the foundation of the hat pin. and the left hand on being unclosed will contain two quarters. Take a quarter of a dollar between the thumb and finger. the wax to make this color must be applied last and the pin put through the flame again. closing both hands quickly. one between the thumb and finger of each hand. When sufficient wax has adhered to the pin. Take three quarters and hold one in the palm of the left hand. revolving the pin at the same time so the wax will not drop and the head will form a round ball.

Here is a method by which you can make a picture of a streak of lightning on a clear night in your own house.Chinese Doing the Grand Whirl with their arms locked about each other and the two outside persons swinging in midair with their bodies almost horizontal. How to Make a Static Machine [177] Static electricity is produced by revolving glass plates upon which a number of sectors are cemented. and then set the glass up against the back of two boxes which are set to have a space between them of 4 or 5 in. Take a sharp lead pencil and outline a flash of lightning upon the smoked surface. Home-Made Photograph of a Lightning Flash [176] How many times has each amateur photographer tried to photograph the lightning's flash? Some good pictures have been obtained by a ceaseless effort on the part of the operator. Smoke this uncovered space over a candle's flame until the soot is thick enough to prevent light passing through. passing through neutralizing brushes. After darkening the room set your camera ready for the exposure and burn a small quantity of flash light powder in the same place in which the candle was held. This will make an impression upon the plate of the flash drawn on the smoked glass. A lighted candle is held behind the glass so the light will shine through for focusing the camera. distribute electric charges . or more in width. these sectors. Paste two strips of black paper on a piece of glass that is 10 in. square so as to leave a clear space through the center 2-in. using a fine needle to make the smaller lines.

3/4 in. long. and 4 in. in diameter. from about 1/4-in. The sectors should lie flat on the glass with all parts smoothed out so that they will not be torn from their places as the plates revolve. by holding a piece of emery wheel to the edges while they are turning. The two pieces. A fiber washer is then put between the plates and a brass tube axle placed through the hole. Two solid glass rods. The shellac should be tacky when the pieces of tinfoil are put in place. with the face that rests against the plate 4 in. in diameter. The glass selected for the plates must be clear white glass. in diameter and 15 in. and brass axle turn on a stationary axle. 3. The frame of the machine is made from any kind of finished wood with dimensions shown in Fig. in diameter.Details of a Homemade Static Machine to collecting combs attached to discharging rods. should be long enough to be very close to the sectors and yet not scratch them when the plates are turning. in diameter. free from wrinkles. A hole must be made exactly in the center of each plate. long and the shank 4 in. material 7 in. 1 in. C C. The circle is then marked on each plate and cut with a glass cutter. long and the standards 3 in. copper wire with two brass balls soldered to the ends. wide. The hole is to be made 3/4 in. are fitted in holes bored into the end pieces of the frame. The sectors are cut from tinfoil. Fig. and of a uniform thickness. are soldered into two hollow brass balls 2 or 2-1/2 in. The fork part is 6 in. 1-1/2 in. the cutting edge of which should be kept moistened with 2 parts turpentine and 1 part sweet oil while drilling. Before turning the pieces a hole is bored through each piece for the center. to which insulating handles . Holes are drilled on the inside of the forks. Water should be applied to the edges while doing the work. as shown in Fig. Several hours' time will be required for the glue to set. This wood axle is centrally bored to admit a metal rod tightly. close grained wood turned in the shape shown. brass tubing and the discharging rods. 2. and the outer end 11/2 in. 1. The turned pieces are glued to the glass plates over the center holes and on the same side on which the sectors are fastened. as shown in Fig. and 16 sectors put on one side of each plate. The shanks of the collectors are fitted in these brass balls with the ends extending. or teeth. The drive wheels. Fig. GG. EE. and are fastened on a round axle cut from a broom handle. long. and pins inserted and soldered. turned wood pieces. after they are mounted. and the glass should be of sufficient size to cut a circular plate 16-in. The plates are trued up. One of the best ways to make the hole is to drill the glass with a very hard-tempered drill. D. and extends through the standards with a crank attached to one end. Two pieces of 1-in. Two plates are necessary to make this machine. and this hole must be of such a size as to take a brass tube that has an internal diameter of 3/4 in. 4. 3. the smaller end being turned with a groove for a round belt. The plates. A thin coat of shellac varnish is applied to both sides of the plates. at the other. The divisions can be marked on the opposite side of the plate and a circle drawn as a guide to place the sectors at proper intervals. These pins. and this should be done before cutting the circle. the side pieces being 24 in. are made from solid. wide at one end. are made from 7/8-in. in diameter. in diameter. RR. The collectors are made.

Brass balls are soldered to the upper ends of the discharging rods. Colorado City. The caps are fitted with screws for adjusting the brushes. and forms were only used for the inside of the surrounding wall. KK. Home-Made Swimming Pool Old-Time Magic-Part IV [179] Cutting a Thread Inside of a Glass Bottle [179] This is a trick which can only be performed when the sun shines. A little experimenting will enable one to properly locate the position of the neutralizers for best results. Lloyd Enos. These rods and brushes are called the neutralizers. Caps made from brass are fitted tightly on the ends of the stationary shaft. wide and 22 ft. The money was raised by various means to purchase the cement. but it The Glass Directs the Sun's Rays . 4 parts sand and 10 parts gravel together and the bulk moistened with water. A Concrete Swimming Pool [178] Several boys from a neighborhood in the suburbs of a large city concluded to make for themselves a swimming tank of concrete. in diameter. The bottom was made the same as laying a sidewalk. 12 ft. The concrete was made by mixing 1 part cement. one having a 2-in. Colo. ball and the other one 3/4 in. and the brushes thus made must be adjusted so they will just touch the plates. Tinsel or fine wire such as contained in flexible electric wire are soldered to the ends of these rods. which are bent as shown. The tank may be hidden with shrubbery or vines planted to grow over a poultry wire fence. and drilled through their diameter to admit heavy copper rods. The ground was selected in a secluded spot in a neighbor's back yard and a hole dug to a depth of 4 ft. long. --Contributed by C. D.are attached. and the work was done by themselves..

fold and place it between two pieces of board with the fold up. All that is required to perform the feat is to hold a magnifying glass so as to direct the sun's rays on the thread. When the cardboard is taken from the vise it will appear as shown at B and when unfolded. the boards are then put in a vise as shown. HOW TO MAKE COPPER TRAYS [180] Copper trays such as are shown in the accompanying illustration are very useful as well as ornamental about the house. and bore a hole 1/2 in. Procure a clear glass bottle and stick a pin in the lower end of the cork. making a double line on which a key is placed and the string held as shown by the dotted lines in the sketch. bit. pens . string together. "The Key Will Drop from the String" Reverse the operation and take hold of the inside line near right-hand thumb with the little finger of the left hand. How to Bore a Square Hole [179] You would not consider it possible to bore a square hole in a piece of cardboard. The key will drop from the string. Removing a Key from a Double String [179] Tie the ends of a 5-ft. using a 1-in. deep. as at A. Start the bit with the screw point in the fold.is a good one. You will then have the string as it appears in the sketch. They can be used to keep pins and needles. Quickly let loose of the string with a little finger on one hand and a thumb on the other and pull the string taut. Turn the palms of the hands toward you and reach over with the little finger of the right hand and take hold of the inside line near the left-hand thumb. yet such a thing can be done. Attach a thread to the pin and tie a small weight to the end of the thread so it will hang inside the bottle when the cork is in place. Inform your audience that you will sever the thread and cause the weight to drop without removing the cork. Take a cardboard or a thin piece of wood. The thread will quickly burn and the weight fall.

If the lines have been drawn with soft pencil. 9. For the metal working there will be needed a pair of tin shears. and the third one 1/4 in. 3. remove the screws and the metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. The second oblong was 3/4 in. Use . 6. 5. they make attractive little pieces to have about. about 3/4-in. screw-driver and sheet copper of No. Cut off a piece of copper so that it shall have 1/2 in. or cigar ashes. inside the second on all. stamp the background promiscuously. Inside this there should be drawn still another oblong to represent the margin up to which the background is to be worked. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. Four-part symmetry will require two lines and two foldings. Simple designs work out better than fussy ones and are more likely to be within the ability of the amateur. With a 20-penny wire nail that has the sharpness of its point filed off. The first thing to do in preparation for making them is to prepare the design. If the decoration is to have two parts alike—symmetrical--divide the space with a line down the middle. extra metal on each of the four sides. draw on paper an oblong to represent it. 23 gauge. then fold along this line and trace the second half from this one. Raise the ends. inside the first on all. etc. above the metal. adjusting the corners as shown in the illustration. slim screw.. at the same time striving to keep it at 1/4 in. unless it would be the metal shears. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. and when the decorations are well designed and the metal nicely colored. flat and round-nosed pliers. Having determined the size of the tray.and pencils. With a piece of carbon paper trace upon the copper lines that Articles Made from Copper shall represent the margin of the tray proper and the lines along which the upturned sides of the tray are to be bent. With the flat pliers "raise" one side of the tray. file. The trays shown are 5-3/4 by 6-3/4 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4in. sharp division between background and design. also trace the decorative design. They are easily made. This is to make a clean. the small ash tray 4 by 4 in. using a nail filed to chisel edge. etc. require no equipment in the way of tools except what are usually found about the house. Draw one-half the design free hand. the long pen and pencil tray 4-3/4 by 9-1/2 in. 2. Proceed as follows: 1. very rapid progress can be made. two spikes. 7. 8. With a nail make a series of holes in the extra margin. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. draw another one to represent the lines along which the metal is to be bent up to form the sides. then the other side. Inside this oblong. Fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. Chase or stamp along the border of the design and background. When the stamping is completed. rubbing the back of the paper with a knife handle will force enough of the lead to the second side so that the outline can be determined.. above the work and striking it with the hammer. 4.

A Bald Head Photographed Finger Mathematics [181] By Charles C. then moving it about over a flame such as a bunsen burner until the turpentine burns off. but change the figures a little and say 49 times 48 and the chances are that instead of replying at once he will have to figure it out with a pencil. The eyes. 9. begin by holding your hands with the palms toward the body and make imaginary numbers on the thumbs and fingers as follows: Thumbs. third fingers. On close observation you will notice that the face is made on the bald head of the person sitting behind the table. and fourth fingers. Bradley All machinists use mathematics. In the first numbering. The subject's face is horizontal and resting upon his hands. second fingers. Very pretty effects may be obtained by covering the tray with turpentine. Copper is frequently treated chemically to give it color. Ask a machinist what would be the product of 9 times 8 and his ready reply would be 72. 10. first fingers. nose and mouth are cut from black paper and pasted on the bald spot. By using the following method it is just as easy to tell at a glance what 99 times 99 are as 9 times 9. and the effect will be most pleasing. 8. 6. Suppose you desire to multiply 8 by 9. put the eighth finger on one hand against the ninth finger of the other hand as shown. You will be able to multiply far beyond your most sanguine expectations. Photograph of a Clown Face [181] At first glance the accompanying photograph will appear as if the person photographed is wearing a false face or has his face painted like a clown. 7. "8 Times 9" The two joined fingers and all the fingers above them (calling the thumbs fingers) are .the round-nosed pliers for this purpose. The copper will "take on" almost all the colors of a rainbow.

or 60. above 20 times 20. etc. Supposing 6 times 6 were the figures. Still. hence 80 plus 60 plus 4 equals 144. thumbs. The total tens added to this last named sum will give the product desired. Thus: Referring to above picture or to your hands we find three tens on the left hand and four tens on the right. At a glance you see seven tens or 70. On the right hand you have three units and on the left nothing. which would be 70. then returning to the upper fingers and multiplying the two on the right hand by the two on the left we would have 4. above 15 times 15 it is 200.. 12. Put together the tips of the fingers labeled 12. and 70 plus 2 equals 72. or 80. or the product of 8 times 9. the product of 12 times 12. there are no fingers above. we might regard the four upper fingers in the above example as four twenties. . and the six lower fingers as six tens. We also find two units on the left hand and one on the right. All the fingers below the joined fingers are termed the lower fingers. Put your thumbs together. Adding 4 to 40 gives us 44. and each of the lower fingers represents a unit value of one.. At this point we leave the method explained in Case 1 and ignore the units (lower fingers) altogether. or numbers above 10. "6 Times 6" "10 Times 7" Supposing 10 times 7 is desired. 600. In the second numbering. Two times one are two. 2 times 2 equals 4. which would be 16. 11. Three times nothing gives you nothing and 70 plus nothing is 70. Put the little finger of the left hand against the first finger of the right hand. below the thumbs are four units on each hand. etc. Above 10 times 10 the lump sum to add is 100. etc. Let us multiply 12 by 12. 25 times 25.. The addition of 100 is arbitrary. therefore the rule of adding the lump sum is much the quicker and easier method. At a glance you see four tens or 40. which tens are added. We now add 100 (because anything over 10 times 10 would make over 100) and we have 144. The sum of the units on one hand should be multiplied by the sum of the units on the other hand. renumber your fingers. and 20 plus 16 equals 36. but being simple it saves time and trouble.called the upper fingers and each has a value of ten. so the two thumbs represent two tens or 20. or the product of 6 times 6. We go back to the upper fingers again "12 Times 12" and multiply the number of upper fingers used on the one hand by the number of upper fingers used on the other hand. first fingers. if we wish. 400. viz. as high as you want to go.

forties. 2. For figures ending in 6. the value of the upper fingers being 20. Optical Illusions [183] If a person observes fixedly for some time two balls hanging on the end of cords which are in rapid revolution. whether the one described in second or third numbering. first finger 17. the lump sum to add. and. Take For example 18 times 18. . thumbs. In some experiments two incandescent "pills" of platinum sponge. At a glance we see six twenties plus 2 units on left hand times 2 units on right hand plus 200 equals 324. but you must remember that for figures ending in 1. "18 Times 18" Above 25 times 25 the upper fingers represent a value of 30 each and after proceeding as in the third numbering you add 600 instead of 200. 3. were hung in tiny aluminum bells from a mica vane wheel which was turned constantly and rapidly in one direction by hot air from a gas flame to keep the platinum in a glow. In the fourth numbering the fingers are marked. Also when the image on the retina is made less distinct by the use of a convex or concave lens. such as an used for lighting gas-burners. being 80). the upper fingers representing a value of 20. Proceed as in the first numbering and add 200. Proceed as in the second lumbering. at the will of the observer. beginning the thumbs with 16. further. 4 and 5 proceed as in the second numbering. first fingers 22. not rotation. This system can be carried as high as you want to go. Just three things to remember: Which numbering is to follow. adding 400 instead of 100. the value which the upper fingers have. If the observer watches the rotating objects from the side. 9 and 10 the third numbering applies. lastly. In 82 times 84 the value of the upper fingers would be 80 (the half-way point between the two fives. Oppose the proper finger tips as before. and you will be able to multiply faster and more accurately than you ever dreamed of before. 8.In the third numbering to multiply above 15 renumber your fingers. The inversion and reversion did not take place. as one might suppose. And the lump sum to add. about a vertical axis. Determine the value of the upper fingers whether they represent tens. but was compulsory and followed regular rules. however. when he removes his spectacles. 7. the inversion takes place against his will. 75 and 85. and so on.. twenties. For example. the revolution seems to reverse. the value of the upper fingers would be 50. the direction of revolution will seem to reverse. whether they are parallel to each other or more convergent. or from above or from below. the condition being that the image on the retina shall be eccentric. with a change in the convergence of the optical axes. or what. 21. any two figures between 45 and 55. thirties. It takes place also. which is the half-way point between the two fives. in the case of a nearsighted person. etc.

The ports were not easy to make. one fixedly observes one of these and then permits or causes change in the sharpness of the image on the retina. The inversion will be continued as soon as one observes fixedly a point at the side. and the surface was made smooth for the valve seat. the other appearance asserts itself. when he knows which direction is right. and putting a cork on the point. Here it is a question of the perception of depth or distance. as . The experiment is made more simple by taking a hat pin with a conspicuous head. tee. The cylinder consists of a 3-in. Steam Engine Made from Gas Pipe and Fittings [184] Almost all the material used in the construction' of the parts for the small steam engine illustrated herewith was made from gas pipe and fittings. one seems to see sometimes the head of the pin. and this is the same in the case of the rotating balls. but whether one of the wings or the other comes towards the observer. A flat slide valve was used. the direction of seeming revolution depends on which one of them one considers to be the front one and which the rear one. the third opening being threaded and filled with a cast-iron plug turned to such a depth that when the interior was bored out on a lathe the bottom of the plug bored to the same radius as the other part of the tee. The outside end of the plug extended about 1/4-in.Illusions Shown by Revolving Platinum Sponge "Pills" and Hat Pins inversion results every time that the image on the retina is not sharp. It is then not a question of which is the front or the back of the wheel. From the foregoing the following conclusion may be reached: When. holding it firmly in a horizontal position. in the case of a perception remitting two appearances. sometimes the point towards him. Looking at it in semidarkness. The cause of this optical illusion is the same where the wings of windmills are observed in the twilight as a silhouette. But even a change in the degree of indistinctness causes inversion.

. when the bottom is flattened by placing the bowl. about 2 in. across and 1/2 in. bottom side up. The eccentric is constructed of washers. Cut the copper to the circular form and size just mentioned. inexpensive. and file the edge so that it will be smooth and free from sharp places. deep. saw off a section of a broom handle. -Contributed by W. Ill. 21 gauge sheet copper of a size sufficient to make a circular disk 6-1/2 in. pipe. it is easily built. Kutscher. How to Make a Copper Bowl [185] To make a copper bowl. The crosshead runs in guides made from a piece of gas pipe with the sides cut out and threads cut on both ends. across the head. Begin at the center and work along the rings--giving the copper a circular movement as the beating proceeds--out toward the rim. If nothing better is at hand. such as is shown in the illustration. on a flat surface and beating the raised part flat. in diameter. round one end and insert a handle into a hole bored in its middle. Both ends of this plate were drilled and tapped to receive 1-1/2-in.The Engine Is About 20 Inches High they had to be drilled and chipped out. The end of the shaft has a pillow block to take a part of the strain from the main bearing. These are to aid the eye in beating the bowl to form. One end is screwed into a rim turned on the cylinder head and the other is fitted into an oblong plate. Beating copper tends to harden it and.. H. With a pencil compass put on a series of concentric rings about 1/2 in. as in a vise. These pipes were then screwed into pipe flanges that served as a base. and anyone with a little mechanical ability can make one by closely following out the construction as shown in the illustration. The main frame consists of one 1-1/2in. Continue the circular movement and work from the rim back toward the center. and make in one end a hollow. Fasten the block solidly. if continued too long without proper treatment. and while holding the copper on the hollowed end of the block. The open part of the cross was babbitted to receive the main shaft. Next take a block of wood. First make a round-nosed mallet of some hard wood. secure a piece of No. beat with the mallet along the concentric rings. pipe 10 in. The tools are simple and can be made easily. which should have a diameter of about 1-1/4 in. While this engine does not give much power. apart. The steam chest is round. as it had to be made to fit the round tee connection. about 3 by 3 by 6 in. long and one made up from two pieces of pipe and a cross to make the whole length 10 in. This operation is to be continued until the bowl has the shape desired. Springfield.

as it softens the metal. especially when the object is near to the observer. holding the ends of the paper in the fingers of each hand. sharp vinegar to the furniture polish. To overcome this hardness. In a few seconds unfold the paper and you will find that the shot has melted without even scorching the paper. cover the copper with turpentine and Shaping the Bowl and Sawing the Lace hold over a Bunsen burner until all parts are well heated. The stereograph produces this result in another way than by prisms as in the . a small hole was drilled with a band drill in each space and a small-bladed metal saw inserted and the part sawed out. C. the other to the left. Camden. S. wrap it tightly in one thickness of tissue paper. In the illustration the border design shown was laid out in pencil. O. The appearance of a bowl is greatly enhanced by the addition of a border. heat the copper over a bed of coals or a Bunsen burner to a good heat. place the part that holds the shot over the flame of a match just far enough away from the flame not to burn the paper. To produce color effects on copper. This process is called annealing. the one sees a trifle more to the right-hand side. Cleaning Furniture [185] After cleaning furniture. The Principles of the Stereograph [185] Each of our eyes sees a different picture of any object. the greasy appearance may be removed by adding some good. is one of the best cleansers of dirty furniture. which is nothing else than diluted acetic acid. Melting Lead in Tissue Paper [185] Take a buckshot. Vinegar.will cause the metal to break. The stereoscope is the instrument which effects this result by bringing the two pictures together in the senses. --Contributed by W. Hay. and.

at a distance apart corresponding to the distance between the centers of the pupils. As a result of looking at it through the stereograph. from the stereograph. this black image consisting only of the blue portions of the picture. On white paper one makes a picture or mark with a red pencil. In the same way the right eye sees through the orange screen only a black picture on a red background. The reason is that the red rays are absorbed by the blue filter. Looking at this through a green glass it appears black on a green ground. the only difference being that in the case of the stereograph the background for each eye is colored. The arrangement of the two pictures can be so that one sees the pictures either in front of or on the back of the card on which they are printed. Looking through the blue glass with the left eye.stereoscope. neither can they be very far apart in order to produce the desired result. they are not seen against the red ground of the picture. In the pictures the red and the green lines and dots must not coincide. The stereograph consists of a piece of card. it. as for instance red and green." which increases the sense of depth and shows the effect of distance in the picture. The principle on which the stereograph works may be demonstrated by a very simple experiment. But they seem black. the one for the left eye being blue. Through the glass one will see only a regular surface of the color of the glass itself. It is just as though they were not there. and which contain all the colors of the spectrum. . If one looks at the picture first with the right eye alone through the orange glass. looking at it through a red glass of exactly the same color as the picture. one sees a colorless black and white picture which stands out from the background. Through the orange gelatine all the white portions of the picture seem orange. but the red picture which is seen by it is a black one. In order that the picture shall be "plastic. in the proper choice of colors. would serve the same purpose. The red portions of the picture are not seen. and then with the left eye through the blue glass. that for the right. The openings are covered with transparent gelatine. Through a red glass a green picture will appear black. disappears fully. however. Try looking at the front cover of Popular Mechanics through these colored gelatine openings and the effect will be produced. the left eye sees through a blue screen. because. with the stereograph. diameter. the further from the card will the composite image appear. In order to make them appear before the card. while both eyes together see a white background. The further apart the pictures are. and lies to the right on the picture. and the right eye sees the lefthand picture. In the manufacture of a stereoscope the difficulty is in the proper arrangement of the prisms. only the orange rays may pass through. The picture is viewed at a distance of about 7 in. one will understand the principle on which the little instrument works. having therein two circular openings about 1-1/4 in. each eye sees a black picture representing one of the pictures given by the stereoscope. orange. Any other part of complementary colors than blue and orange. and without any picture. one sees only those portions which are red on the picture. The left eye therefore sees a black picture on a red background. So with the stereograph. In the first place there is Looking Through the Colored Gelatine only one picture. not two mounted side by side. although they pass through the screen. because of the rays coming from them. they must be a very trifle apart.

Cover the mercury over with a little alcohol. 1/4 in. which is placed with some pressure on the moving wire. thick. A small connecting bar is cut from a piece of brass 1/8 in. The shaft of the motor is bent about 18 in.12 gauge wire in these holes and bend the top end at right angles. This should only be bored about half way through the block. one hole to fit the motor shaft and the other to slip on a No. The motor must run continuous if the coil is used for writing code signals. the end of the wire will be in the mercury for about one-half of the stroke. Fill the bottle with mercury to a point so that when the motor is running. Two L-shaped pieces of brass are fastened to the side of the block and drilled with holes of such a size that a No. in diameter. The proper height of the mercury can be regulated for best results. in the shape of a crank. etc. Motor-Driven Make-and-Break Put the connecting brass bar on the motor shaft with washers fitted tight on each side and slip the other end over the bent end of the wire. long and a hole drilled in each end. Have the wire plenty long so it can be cut to the proper length when the parts are all in place. The motor can be run with a current from a separate course or connected as shown on the same batteries with the coil. wide and 1 in. The sketch herewith shows how to make the motor-operated break. The wire is now cut so at the length of the stroke the end will come to about one-half the depth. wireless.Mercury Make-and-Break Connections for Induction Coils [187] Induction coils operating on low voltage have a make-and-break connection called the "buzzer" to increase the secondary discharge. the common "buzzer" operated by the magnetism of the core in the coil and the mercury break operated by a small motor. so that in turning it will describe a circle 1/4 in. The other binding-post is connected to a small brass brush attached to the side of the vertical piece. 14 gauge iron wire is bent and put into the side of the bottle with the end extending to the bottom. Cal. or the middle of the bottle. A No. 12 gauge wire will slip through snugly. San Francisco. The weight of the air in round . How to Make a Barometer [188] Atmospheric pressure is measured by the barometer. A small round bottle about 1/2 in. --Contributed by Haraden Pratt. Two blocks of wood are nailed together in the shape of an L and a small motor fastened to the top of the vertical piece. Two types of make-and-break connection are used. Place a NO. The other end of this wire is attached to one binding-post placed at the end of the bottom block. 12 gauge wire. in diameter is now fitted in a hole that has been previously bored into the middle of the bottom block and close up to the vertical piece.

Before fastening the scale. while a rise indicates fair weather and in winter a frost. high. but before attempting to put in the mercury. Only redistilled mercury should be used. 34 ft. and a slow fall. square. But if a standard barometer is not available. When the tube is filled to within 1 in. Seal one end of the tube by holding it in the flame of a gas burner. Put a little paraffin in the bottle and melt it by holding the bottle over a small flame. In this base cut a groove to fit the tube and the space to be occupied by the bottle is hollowed out with a chisel to a depth of 3/4 in. and the tube should be perfectly clean before filling. 30 in. After the instrument is in place put enough mercury in the bottle so the depth of the mercury above the bottom end of the tube will be about 1/2 in. long. wide and 40 in. The instrument is put aside while the base is being made. if you choose. . thick. The instrument is made secure to the base with brass strips tacked on as shown in the sketch. the instrument. are marked off and divided into sixteenths. high. Cut a base from a piece of 7/8-in. and the inches numbered 27 up to 31.. long. The bottle and tube are inverted and after a few ounces of mercury are put in the bottle the tube may be raised out of the wax. have the base ready to receive the parts just described when they are completed. which will soon soften the glass so it can be pinched together with pliers. will calibrate itself. high. The filling is continued until the tube is full of mercury. if accurately constructed. or. the contrary. the instrument should be compared with a standard barometer and the scale adjusted so both readings are the same. internal diameter and about 34 in. In general. The scale is fastened to the base with glue or tacks and in the position behind the tube as shown in the sketch. The 4 in. wide and 4 in. square. During the frosty days the drop of the mercury is followed by a thaw and a rise indicates snow. to the square inch and will support a column of water 1 in.6) 1 in. The glass bottle containing the wax covered bottom is now placed over the end of the tube and pressed firmly to insure an airtight fit with the tube. so the bottle rests on one-half of its diameter above the surface of the board and one-half below. a drop in the mercury indicates a storm and bad weather. Sudden changes in the barometer are followed by like changes in weather. but be careful not to bring its edge above the surface of the mercury. or a column of mercury (density 13. inside diameter and 2 in. long. a glass tube 1/8 in. The tube is now to be filled with mercury. When cool the paraffin should cover the bottom about 1/16 in. pine 3 in. This may be accomplished with a paper funnel. place a large dish or tray beneath the tube to catch any mercury that may accidentally be spilled. of the open end place the forefinger over the hole and tilt the tube up and down so all the air will gather at the finger end. a bottle 1 in. The slow rise of the mercury predicts fair weather. The scale is made on a piece or cardboard 2 in. The parts necessary to make a simple barometer are.numbers is 15 lb.

Mark out seven 1-in. 5. the size of the outside of the bottle. wide and 10 in. Procure a metal can cover. This can be done with a glass cutter or a hot ring. which is slipped quickly over the end. The cover is punched full of holes to admit the air and a cross cut in the center with the four wings thus made by the cutting turned up to form a place to insert the candle. Sandpaper all the surfaces and round the edges slightly. 2. a cover from a baking powder can will do. A Checker Puzzle [189] Cut a block from a board about 3 in. 3. 1. This light can be used on a post or hung from a metal support. The puzzle is to make the first three change places with the last three and . The metal cover is fastened to the bottle with wires as shown in the sketch. 6 and 7.Home-Made Post or Swinging Light [189] Remove the bottom from a round bottle of sufficient size to admit a wax or tallow candle. and place them as shown in Fig. Make six men by sawing a curtain roller into pieces about 3/8 in. long. squares on the surface to be used for the top and color the squares alternately white and black. Number the pieces 1. thick. a lid fit it on the end where the bottom was removed.

2's place. 3 into No. 2 over No. as well as for a boy's camping outfit.J. 1 into No. 5. Move 9-Jump No.-Contributed by W. Move 8-Jump No. Cape May Point. 1. Move 4-Jump No. 3. 6 into No. using checkers for men. Move 10-Move No. 3 over No. N. 1 to No. This can be done on a checker board. 5 over No. in diameter. but be sure you so situate the men that they will occupy a row containing only 7 spaces. while paint requires recovering three or four times a year. Move 12-Jump No. 2. procure unbleached tent duck. To make such a tent. 6 in. Move 6-Move No. says the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Move 2-Jump No. Move 3-Move No. Woolson.Position of the Men move only one at a time. 7 over No. The illustrations show a plan of a tent 14-ft. long and 2 ft. Make 22 sections. Move ll-Jump No. 6. 6. Move 14-Jump No. How to Make a Bell Tent [190] A bell tent is easily made and is nice for lawns. This may be done as follows: Move 1-Move No. 5 over No. Move 13-Move No. 3 to the center. shaped like Fig. Gold Railroad Signals [189] Covering railroad signals with gold leaf has taken the place of painting on some roads. Gold leaf will stand the wear of the weather for 15 or 20 years. 3. L. as shown in Fig. 3. 6 to No. 6 over No. Move 7-Jump No. 5's place. l over No. 2's place. 5's place. 7 over No. 1. Move 5-Jump No. Move 15-Move No. each 10 ft. 7. After the 15 moves are made the men will have changed places. 2 . 2 over No. 2. which is the very best material for the purpose. 7's place.

and the space between the ground and the wall when the tent is raised. with a socket joint and rounded at the top to fit into the apex of the tent. then trace the design on the brass by laying a piece of carbon paper between the pattern and the brass. fasten down the wall by means of loops of stout line fastened to its lower edge and small pegs driven through them into the ground. 6. 5) stuck in the ground. Fold back the edges of the opening and the bottom edge of the bell-shaped cover and bind it with wide webbing. Run the stay ropes from the eyelets in the circular cover to stakes (Fig. For the top of the tent have the blacksmith make a hoop of 1/4-in. Fig. will do. long. Pa. use a small awl to punch the holes in the brass along the outlines of the figures traced. Also stitch on coarse canvas 6 in. After transferring the design to the brass. from the top.in. wide at the bottom and hem the edges. Bind it at the upper edge with webbing and at the bottom with canvas. made in two sections. Punch holes in the brass in . Simple X-Ray Experiment [190] The outlines of the bones of the hand may be seen by holding a piece of rice paper before the eyes and placing the spare hand about 12 in. across and having eyelets at the seams for attaching the stay ropes. which should be An Inexpensive Home-Made Tent double-stitched on a machine. --Contributed by G. As shown in the sketch. How to Make a Candle Shade [191] Layout the pattern for the shade on a thin piece of paper. At the end of this seam stitch on an extra gusset piece so that it will not rip. high.J. Stitch the upper edge of the wall firmly to the bell cover at the point indicated by the dotted line. The last seam sew only for a distance of 4 ft. added. making the arcs of the circle with a pencil compass. Fig. back of the rice paper and before a bright light. Use blocks. 3 in. a line is drawn parallel 1/4 in. leaving the rest for an opening. tapering in a straight line to a point at the top. Make the apex into a hood and line it with stiff canvas. Stitch the canvas at the apex around the hoop and along the sides. These dimensions allow for the laid or lapped seams. 2. to a smooth board of soft wood. Allowance must be made for the lap and as 1/4 in. Near the apex of the cover cut three triangular holes 8 in. 5. wide by 12 in. In raising the tent. These are ventilators. Nail a thin sheet of brass. 9 by 12 in. about 9 in. as in Fig. Tress. on the stay ropes for holding the ends and adjusting the length of the ropes. wide at the bottom. long and 4 in. from the one drawn through the center to the outside circle that terminates the design. 6-in.. fill with canvas edging. the pattern for this particular shade covers a half circle with 2-3/4 in. wide at the bottom. 2 in. The bony structure will be clearly distinguishable. diameter. Make the tent wall of the same kind of cloth 2 ft. in diameter. Have the tent pole 3 in. Emsworth. round galvanized iron.

A Putty Grinder [191] Having a large number of windows to putty each week. cut out the brass on the outside lines. It will not. fasten the ends together and place on the wood cone. the metal will stay and hold the perfect shape of a cone much better. fasten them with brass-headed nails or brads. Corr. If a wood-turning lathe is at hand. bend into shape. The glass-beaded fringe is attached on the inside of the bottom part with small brass rivets or brads placed about 3/4 in. When all the holes are punched. Chicago. but before punching the holes. I found it quite a task to prepare the putty. The grinder will soften set putty and will quickly prepare cold putty.the spaces around the outlined figures. --Contributed by Miss Kathryn E. The thin sheet brass may be procured from the local hardware Punching the Holes Completed Shade Pattern dealer and sometimes can be purchased from general merchandise stores. remove the brass sheet from the board and cut it along the outer lines as traced from the pattern. The holes being punched after the shade is shaped. The holes are now punched on the outlines traced from the pattern and the open spaces made full of holes. then bend the brass carefully so as not to crease the figures appearing in relief. I facilitated the work by using an ordinary meat cutter or sausage grinder. apart. When the edges are brought together by bending. . around the outside of the pattern. excepting the 1/4-in. The pattern is traced as before. the shade can be made better by turning a cone from soft wood that will fit the sheet-brass shade after it is shaped and the edges fastened together.

A large washer is placed on top of the post and the hub or cast-iron ring set on the washer. The d i a g ram drawing shows the construction. pipe. to remain above the ground and a 7/8-in. a heavy wheel with four spokes of such a size as to be drilled and tapped for 1/2-in. Home-Made Small Churn [192] Many people living in a small town or in the suburbs of a city own one Making Butter cow that supplies the family table with milk and cream. grind old putty or make putty from whiting and oil. the jar being shaken so the cream will beat against the ends in the process of butter-making. --Contributed by Geo. and a driven wheel attached to an axle having a crank on the inner end. Badger. pipe is used for the hub. These pipes are .. A 6-in. The jar is wedged in between the cleats and the churning effected by turning the crank. This crank is connected to a swinging cradle with a wire pitman of such a size as to slightly bend or spring at each end of the stroke. or less. Sometimes the cream will accumulate. piece of shafting is driven into the top part of this post for an axle. A fruit jar usually takes the place of a churn and the work is exceedingly hard. better still. The accompanying sketch shows clearly how one boy rigged up a device having a driving wheel which is turned with a crank. Mayger. the rim must be removed and only the spokes and hub used. square cedar post is set in the ground about 3 ft. --Contributed by H. so the hub can be fitted to the shafting that is driven in the post. The hole in the hub must be 7/8 in. The drilled and tapped holes in the four spokes are each fitted with a 4-1/2 length of 1/2-in. or center on which the frame swings. allowing 2 ft. but not in sufficient quantities to be made into butter in a large churn. If a wheel is selected. G. Home-Made Round Swing [192] Gas pipe and fittings were used wherever possible in the making of the swing as shown in the photograph.however. partially filled with cream. The cradle is made with a cleat fastened to each end. Que. Oregon. or. between which is placed the fruit jar. Stevens. E. A cast-iron ring. Dunham.

The Merry-Go-Round Complete each fitted with a tee on the end and into this tee uprights of 1/2-in. The wires from the brass rings run through the center pipe to the top and are connected to the lamp sockets. Old-Time Magic-Part V [193] . A ring of fiber on which two brass rings are attached is fastened to the hub and connections are made to the two rings through two brushes fastened to the post with a bracket. The four seats are fastened to the four pipes with 1/2-in. in diameter is fitted in between two seats and used as the propelling wheel. pipe flattened on the inner end and fastened with bolts to a flange. pipe connect each spoke and seat to the flange on the center pipe. bent to the desired circle. The bottom part of the cloth covering is held in place by a 1/2-in. Details of the Swing Small miniature electric lights are fastened to the overhead braces and supplied with electric current carried through wires to the swing by an ingenious device attached to the under side of the cast-iron ring or hub of the wheel. The uprights at their upper ends are also fitted with tees and each joined to the center pipe with 1/2-in. An extra wheel 18 in. and also short lengths with a tee and axle for the 6-in. This wheel has bicycle cranks and pedals and carries a seat or a hobby horse. wheel are fitted in the under side of the tee. pipe. The wires run under the surface of the ground outside and connected to the source of electricity. pipe in suitable lengths are screwed. pipe clamps. Four braces made from 1/2-in.

The performer. and the necessary tension is secured by three rubber bands around the box as before. The can is then shown to be empty and the boxes given to one in the audience to be opened. This is found to be a handkerchief which was previously prepared on another table concealing the nest of boxes. in the smallest box between the cover and the box and three rubber bands wrapped around the box as indicated. The handkerchief is spread over the can and then he brings the nest of boxes. In like manner the remaining boxes are Appliances for the Disappearing Coin adjusted so that finally the prepared nest of boxes appears as in Fig. The coin can easily be passed into the inner box through the tin guide. 3. is bent in the shape as shown in Fig. and the guide withdrawn. as shown in Fig. 1. This guide is inserted about 1/8 in. They will be greatly surprised to find the marked coin within the innermost box. Then apparently he looks for something to cover the can. This slot should be just large enough for the coin that is used to pass through freely. He explains how he will transfer the coin and passes his wand from the can to the boxes. and dropped on the table. The nest or series of boxes in which the coin is afterwards found should consist of four small sized flat pasteboard boxes square or rectangular shaped and furnished with hinged covers. The coin in the right hand is quickly slipped into the guide of the nest of boxes. 2 to serve as a guide for the coin through the various boxes. He removes the cover with the left hand and passes his wand around the inner part of the can which is then turned upside down to prove that it contains nothing. which should be marked by one of the audience for identification. the bottom of the can in his palm with the slot at the right side. and to have its lower edge on a level with the bottom of the can. The can is then placed on the table with his left hand. is explaining that he is looking for a suitable cover for the can. Herewith is illustrated a method by which anyone can . This box is then enclosed in the next larger box. The cover is replaced and the can shaken so the coin will rattle within. entirely home-made and yet the results are as startling as in many of the professional tricks. The marked coin is dropped into the can by some one in the audience.The Disappearing Coin [193] This is an uncommon trick. the guide being allowed to project between the box and the cover. The smallest need be no larger than necessary to hold the coin and each succeeding box should be just large enough to hold the next smaller one which in turn contains the others. but as he cannot find one he takes the handkerchief instead. A small baking-powder can is employed to vanish the coin. The performer comes forward with the tin can in his right hand. which was placed in an upright position. The shaking of the can is continued until the coin has slipped through the slot into his palm. How to Keep Film Negatives [194] There are many devices for taking care of film negatives to keep them from curling and in a place easily accessible. A strip of tin about 1 by 1-3/4 in. while doing this. then the guide can be withdrawn which permits the respective boxes to close and the rubber bands hold each one in a closed position. Cut a slot in the bottom on the side of the can.

D.make a place for the negatives produced by his or her special film camera. The leaves are made from white paper and when the negatives are in place the pictures made on them can Negatives on White Paper Background easily be seen through to the white paper background. Home-Made Match Safe [194] Details of the Match Safe Cut a piece of tin in the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. The matches will fall into the half circle tray at the lower end of the box which will be kept full of matches until they are all used from the box. The device is made up similar to a post card album with places cut through each leaf to admit each corner of the negatives. 1. or tied together similar to a loose-leaf book. Colo. the objects to be projected have no need of being transparent. 2. Remove one end from the inside box containing matches and slip the back of the match safe through between the bottom of the inside box and the open end box that forms the cover. Two electric globes are made to cast the strongest possible light on the picture card set between them and in front of which a lens is placed to project the view on the screen. Bend the saw-toothed edges at right angles to the piece on the dotted lines. it requires no expensive condensing lens. An Electric Post Card Projector [195] A post card projector is an instrument for projecting on a screen in a darkened room picture post cards or any other pictures of a similar size. These half circle pieces are soldered to the sides of the teeth of the half circle made in the long piece of tin. in a half circle. the whole being enclosed in a light-tight box. Mo. first. thus adding only such pages as the negatives on hand will require. St. in diameter on another piece of tin. Denver. Make a circle 3-1/2 in. The lantern differs from the ordinary magic lantern in two features. Bend the part that is marked 5-1/2 in. The box can be made of selected oak or . White. cut out the circle and cut the disk in two as shown in Fig. F. --Contributed by H. These leaves can be made up in regular book form. and second. Louis. -Contributed by C. Harkins.

The door covering this hole in the back. and. The sides of this box should be made quite smooth and a good. long. Two strips of wood 1/2 in. wide. focal length. long. The portion shown carrying the lens in Fig. from the top and bottom and 2-1/2 in. 3-1/2 in. as shown in Fig. An open space 4 in. The lens to be used as a projector will determine the size of the box to some extent. and tacked to the inside surface of the door. fit into the runners. deep in the center of which a hole is cut to admit the lens. from each end of the outside of the box. The holes must be covered over on the top with a piece of metal or wood to prevent the light from showing on the ceiling. wide and 6-1/2 in. The part carrying the lens is a shallow box 4 by 5 in. The box should be constructed of well seasoned wood and all joints made with care so they will be light-tight. long are fastened along the top and bottom of the back. wide and 5 in. 5-1/2 in. high and 11 in. The runners to hold the part carrying the lens are two pieces 2-1/4 in. high in the center is for the part carrying the lens to slide for focusing. 1. A box should first be made 5-1/2 in. long and should be placed vertically. 2. Details of the Post Card Lantern Two keyless receptacles for electric globes are fastened to the under side of the top in the position shown and connected with wires from the outside. This piece should not be more than 1/2 in. which is also used as a carrier for the post cards. wide and 6-1/2 in. and 2 in. in diameter should be bored in the top between and in a line with the lights. A hole is cut in the back of the box 4 by 6 in. represented by the dotted line in Fig. wide by 5 in. This will be 3/4 in.mahogany. but not tight. 1 is made to slide in the main body of the lantern for focusing. from each end. is made from a board 4-1/2 in. The door is hinged to the lower strip and held in position by a turn button on the upper strip. high and must . The measurements given in these instructions are for a lens of about 5 in. If a camera lens is used. the flange should be fastened with screws to the front part of this shallow box. AA. Two or three holes about 1 in. Plumbago can be rubbed on to prevent sticking and to dull any rays of light. The slides for the picture cards are made from strips of tin bent as shown. These will provide ventilation to keep the pictures from being scorched or becoming buckled from the excessive heat.

Ohio. April. The length of these reflectors can be determined by the angle of the lens when covering the picture. The Knuckles Designate the 31 Day Months The Fuming of Oak [196] Darkened oak always has a better appearance when fumed with ammonia.. The oak to be fumed is arranged in the box so the fumes will entirely surround the piece. Bradley. until you reach July on the knuckle of the little finger. This process is rather a difficult one. West Toledo. then drop your finger into the depression between the first and second knuckles. but the description herewith given may be entered into with as large a case as the builder cares to construct. --Contributed by Chas. Herewith is illustrated a very simple method to determine the number of days in any month. The reflectors must not interfere with the light between the picture and the lens. calling this February. Each month as it falls upon a knuckle will have 31 days and those down between the knuckles 30 days with the exception of February which has only 28 days. In operation place the post card upside down in the slides and close the door. or any other metal receptacle of good proportions. June and November. calling that knuckle January. Sliding the shallow box carrying the lens will focus the picture on the screen. This is clearly shown by the dotted lines in Fig. Oak articles can be treated in a case made from a tin biscuit box. A Handy Calendar [196] "Thirty days hath September. 1. and many other rhymes and devices are used to aid the memory to decide how many days are in each month of the year. and extending the whole height of the lantern.Post Card Lantern Complete be colored dead black inside to cause no reflection. Place the first finger of your right hand on the first knuckle of your left hand. C. and so on. The reflectors are made of sheet tin or nickel-plated metal bent to a curve as shown." etc. then the second knuckle will be March. then begin over again with August on the first knuckle and continue until December is reached. but they must be sufficiently large to prevent any direct light reaching the lens from the lamps. the article may be propped up . provided it is airtight. as it requires an airtight case.

In each place two electrodes. The solution with which each jar is to be filled consists of the following: Water Sodium Carbonate Alum 2 qt. In both Fig. Schenectady. Y. taking care to have all the edges closed. The alternating current comes in on the wires as shown. The immersed surface of the aluminum should be about 15 sq. one of lead and one of aluminum. in. and all joints sealed up by pasting heavy brown paper over them. The wax must be thoroughly dissolved and then more turpentine added until the preparation has the consistency of a thick cream. How to Make an Electrolytic Rectifier [197] Electrolytic Rectifier and Connections Many devices which will change alternating current to a direct current have been put on the market. which is sufficient for charging small storage batteries. A saucer of ammonia is placed in the bottom of the box. The chief point is to see that no part of the wood is covered up and that all surfaces are exposed to the fumes. but probably there is not one of them which suits the amateur's needs and pocketbook better than the electrolytic rectifier. The process may be watched through the glass and the article removed when the oak is fumed to the desired shade. and set aside for half a day. and the direct current is taken from the point indicated. 2. A hole may be cut in the cover and a piece of glass fitted in. This can be applied to the wood with a rag and afterward brushed up with a stiff brush. Crawford. H. Any leakage will be detected if the nose is placed near the tin and farther application of the paper will stop the holes. N. The process of waxing is simple: Cut some beeswax into fine shreds and place them in a small pot or jar. fruit jars are required.with small sticks. but waxed. Pour in a little turpentine. 2 tablespoonfuls 3 tablespoonfuls Care should be taken to leave the connections made as shown in Fig. 1 and 2. and the lead 24 sq. For the construction of such a rectifier four 2-qt. --Contributed by J. The capacity of this rectifier is from 3 to 5 amperes. The immersed surface of the lead being greater than that of the aluminum. or suspended by a string. Ask someone to cross their first and second fingers and place them on the marble as shown in the illustration. The Rolling Marble [197] Take a marble and place it on a smooth surface. giving it an occasional stir. in. the lead will have to be crimped as shown in Fig. the lead is indicated by L and the aluminum by A. Then have the person roll the marble about and at the same time close the eyes or look in another direction. 1. The person will imagine that there are two marbles instead of one. the lid or cover closed. The top of a table will do. . running small motors and lighting small lamps. Wood stained in this manner should not be French polished or varnished.

You manage to keep this handkerchief where it will be picked out in preference to the others. and take the handkerchief and unfold it. tie them in a small package with a ribbon and put them under a glass. you remove the glass. he throws the other.. as well as others. at the time of request for handkerchiefs. Then beg several other handkerchiefs from the audience and place them on the one held by the two persons. He. which you warm with your hands. When several handkerchiefs have been accumulated. as you have held it all the time. Fill the cannon with gas from a gas jet and then push a Gas Cannon Loaded cork in the bore close up to the spark plug. Turn the switch to make a spark and a loud report will follow. Connect one of the wires from a battery to a spark coil and then to the spark plug. O. have some one person draw out one from the bunch and examine for any marks that will determine that this handkerchief is the one to be mended after being mutilated. This trick is very simple. Attach the other wire to the cannon near the spark plug. The pieces are then all collected and some magic spirits thrown over the torn and cut parts. everyone will recognize the mark and be amazed not to find a cut or tear in the texture. bore out the fuse hole large enough to tap and fit in a small sized spark plug such as used on a gasoline engine. The person selected to pick out a handkerchief naturally will . After a few seconds' time. although pretending to thoroughly mix them up.A Gas Cannon [197] If you have a small cannon with a bore of 1 or 1-1/2 in. are to cut off pieces from this handkerchief and to finally tear it to pieces. --Contributed by Cyril Tegner. who has two handkerchiefs exactly alike and has given one of them to a person behind the curtain. Old-Time Magic-Part VI [198] A Handkerchief Mended after Being Cut and Torn Two persons are requested to come forward from the audience to hold the four corners of a handkerchief. Cleveland. on the handkerchiefs held for use in the performance of the trick. You have an understanding with some one in the company.

it can be used as safely as an ordinary sailing canoe.take the handiest one. Crocker. J. When the handkerchief has been torn and folded. wash clean and dry and then bend the four ends inward. Take the two diagonal corners of a handkerchief. near a partition or curtain. one in each hand and throw the main part of the handkerchief over the wrist of the left hand and tie the knot as shown in the illustration. A Good Mouse Trap [198] When opening a tomato or other small can. The mouse can get in but he cannot get out. and you will have the handkerchief without any knot. but in making one. The table should be made with a hole cut through the top and a small trap door fitted snugly in the hole. Pull the ends quickly. Drop in a piece of bread and lay the can down upon its side and the trap is ready for use. Be sure to select the best materials and when complete cover the seams well with paint. leaving a hole about 3/4 in. How to Make a Sailing Canoe [199] A canvas canoe is easily made and light to handle. in diameter in the center. . on a table. Victor. Bend the four ends outward and remove the contents. Therefore such a craft cannot be used in all waters. Finishing Aluminum [198] Rubbing the surface of an aluminum plate with a steel brush will produce a satin finish. it must be remembered that the cloth will tear.-Contributed by E. so it will appear to be a part of the table top. but by being careful at shores. put it under the glass. Colo. and pulling the Tying and Untying a Knot ends only to untie them again. allowing the loop over the left hand to slip freely. cut the cover crossways from side to side making four triangular pieces in the top. This trap door is hinged on the under side and opens into the drawer of the table and can be operated by the person behind the curtain who will remove the torn handkerchief and replace it with the good one and then close the trap door by reaching through the drawer of the table. The Magic Knot [198] This is a very amusing trick which consists of tying one knot with two ends of a handkerchief. Be sure that this is the right one. if any snags are encountered.

1 piece for forms and bow pieces. Both ends are mortised. of 1-1/2-yd. 50 ft. by 16 ft. at the ends. and is removed after the ribs are in place. 1/4 in. Then there will be no trouble experienced later in putting the parts together. from each end to 1 in. is 14 ft. square by 16 ft. one 6 in. wide and 12 ft. by 2 in. as illustrated in the engraving. long. drilled and fastened with screws. Two forms are made as shown in Figs. by 16 ft. they are fastened with bolts put through the three pieces. 1/8 in. ducking. 11 yd. of rope. 9 ft. 1 in. screws and cleats. apart. wide and 12 ft. 2 in. spacing them on the large mould 4 in. by 12 in. and the other 12 in.Completed Sailing Canoe The materials necessary for the construction of a sailing canoe. 2 and braced with an iron band. are as follows: 1 keelson. 1 piece. 1 in. 7 ft. 1 mast. after cutting the ends to fit the bow and stern pieces. thick and 3/4 in. and fastened with screws. for the bow. See that all the pieces fit their places as the work proceeds and apply the canvas with care. long. wide. 14 rib bands.. The sharp edges on one side of each rib-band are removed and seven of them fastened with screws to each side of the moulds. and. The stern and bow pieces are cut as shown in Fig. 8 in. for the stern piece. 1. for center deck braces. The larger mould is used temporarily while making the boat. for cockpit frame. Study the sketches showing the details well before starting to cut out the pieces. wide 12-oz. clear pine. The keelson. long. by 15 ft. by 10 ft. The ribs are made of 28 good barrel hoops . 1 in. wide in the center and tapered down from a point 4 ft. 3 in.. by 2 in. wide unbleached muslin. selected pine. Fig. Paint. of 1-yd. the smaller is placed 3 ft. 4 outwales. 2 gunwales. by 8 in. 3 in. 8 yd. 3 and 4. Be sure to get the bow and stern pieces directly in the middle of the keelson and at right angles with the top edge. long. The gunwales are now placed over the forms and in the notches shown. from the stern. 1 in. 1 piece. from the bow and the large one.

wide and 14 in. Braces. The ribs should be put in straight and true to keep them from pulling the rib-bands out of shape. is cut to fit under the top boards. corner braces. 4 in. thick and 1/2 in. They are 1 in. 6 in. a block for the mast to rest in must be made and fastened to the keelson. 7 and 8. 1 in. Fig. 1/4 in. With an expansive bit bore a hole 3 in. This block. 6. put on the outwale strips and fasten them to the gunwales between every rib with 1-1/2-in. The main deck braces are fastened to the gunwales with 4-in. tacking the canvas as it is stretched to the outside of the gunwale. thick 1-1/2 in. A strip of this is nailed along the center piece over the canvas. wood screws. from the bow. also. wide and 3 ft. thick and 12 in. Be sure to get the block and hole directly over the block that is fastened to the keelson. A piece of oak. thick. length of canvas is cut in the center. These are put in 6 in. and a seam made joining the two pieces together. corner braces and to the center piece with 2-in. Putting on the canvas may be a difficult piece of work to do. square and is kept from splitting by an iron band tightly fitted around the outside. long. When this is well tacked commence stretching and pulling the canvas in the middle of the gunwales so as to make it as even and tight as possible and work toward each end. wide. Seam the canvas along the stern and bow pieces as was done on the keelson. 3-1/2 ft. screws. There are three deck braces made as shown in Figs. 6 and 7. apart. bent to the right shape and fastened over the canvas on the bow. Fig. is a cube having sides 6 in. The block is fastened to the keelson. A seam should be made along the center piece. The outwales are nailed on over the canvas. A block of pine. Figs. .Details of a Home-Made Sailing Canoe which should be well soaked in water for several hours before bending them in shape. The deck is not so hard to do. 5. long. thick. form the ends of the cockpit which is 20 in. in diameter through the block. is fastened with screws over the canvas on the stern piece. doubled. and fastened to them with bolts. gunwales and keelson. apart and are fastened to the rib-bands with 7/8-in. Before making the deck. After the ribs are in place and fastened to the rib-bands. with bolts through countersunk holes from the under side. Fill the seam with thick paint and tack it down with copper tacks along the center of the keelson. a center piece is fitted in the other mortises. 1 in. The 11-yd. yet if the following simple directions are followed out no trouble will be encountered. long is well soaked in water. A 6-in. The mast hole on the deck is made as follows: Secure a piece of pine 1 in. Put on a coat of boiled linseed oil all over the frame before proceeding farther. wide. long. a piece 1/4 in. The trimming is wood. wide and 24 in. Cut this in halves and mortise for the center piece in the two halves and fasten to the gunwales. board is fitted into the mortises shown in these pieces. The other deck braces slope down from the center piece and are placed 6 in. 9. but be careful to get the canvas tight and even. square and are mortised into the center piece and fastened to the gunwales with screws.

The holes are made oval to allow all the little ones to get their heads out for fresh air. thick by 2 in. Wilmette. The rooms are made up with partitions on the inside so each opening will have a room. Several coats of good paint complete the boat. or more long and a bolt about 1/2 in. . All the holes are arranged so they will not be open to the cold winds from the north which often kill the birds which come in the early spring. The mast can be made of a young spruce tree having a diameter of 3 in. which are held together with two pieces of iron bent as shown in Fig.The rudder is made as shown in Fig. The house will accommodate 20 families. E. at the other. are used for the boom and gaff. is bolted to the keelson over the canvas for the outer keel. The sail is held to the mast by an iron ring and the lift rope at the top of the mast. Put the bolt through the middle hole of the hinge and replace the nut as shown in the drawing. long. Ill. 10 with a movable handle. 11. The canoe is driven by a lanteen sail and two curtain poles. each fitted with a turnbuckle for tightening. wide at one end and 12 in. Fig. The boom rope is held in the hand and several cleats should be placed in the cockpit for convenience. Proper Design for a Bird House [201] This bird house was designed and built to make a home for the American martin. 9-3/4 by 9-3/4 by 8-1/2 ft. A strip 1 in. wide. at the base with sufficient height to make it 9 ft. The keel. which is held to the boom and gaff by cord lacings run through eyelets inserted in the muslin. long that will fit the holes in the hinge. which is fastened to the outer keel with bolts having thumb nuts. A chock is placed at the bow for tying up to piers. A pulley is placed at the top and bottom of the mast for the lift rope. 12. is 6 in. Tronnes. Around each opening is an extra ring of wood to make a longer passage which assists the martin inside in fighting off the English sparrow who tries to drive him out. Get a fast Hand Vise Made from a Hinge joint hinge about 2 in. A Home-Made Hand Vise [201] A very useful little hand vise can easily be made from a hinge and a bolt carrying a wing nut. each 1 in. The long overhanging eaves protect the little birds from the hot summer sun. With this device any small object may be firmly held by simply placing it between the sides of the hinge and tightening the nut. The mast has two side and one front stay. in diameter and 10 ft. apart in the muslin. The inside of the rooms should be stained black. long. The eyelets are of brass placed 4 in. The sail is a triangle. --Contributed by O.

5. The materials necessary for the cross-shaped boomerang are one piece hard maple 5/16 in. wide. Cut the maple. --Contributed by O. The materials necessary for the T-shaped boomerang are: One piece of hard maple 5/16 in. thick. Take this and fold it over . on each side of the center and fasten the short length between the lines with the screws as shown in Fig. After going some distance and ascending slowly to a great height in the air with a quick rotary motion. E. one 11-1/2 in. How to Make Water Wings [202] Purchase a piece of unbleached muslin. Tronnes. Find the exact center of the long piece and make a line 1-1/4 in. except that one of the pieces is grasped in the hand and the throw given with a quick underhand motion. flat on one side. A little practice is all that is necessary for one to become skillful in throwing them. Bevel these pieces the same as the ones for the Tshaped boomerang. with the ends and the other side rounding. as shown in Fig. All of the boomerangs when completed should be given several coats of linseed oil and thoroughly dried. square. and the other 18 in. long. Two other types of boomerangs are illustrated herewith and they can be made as described. thick. 2. 2-1/2 in. 1 yd. who seemed to have the least intelligence of any race of mankind. and 3 ft. The two pieces are fastened together as shown in Fig. five 1/2-in. pieces and plane the edges of these pieces so the ends will be 1-1/2 in. 3. The last two boomerangs are thrown in a similar way to the first one. Fig. wide and 30 in. flat-headed screws. making the edges very thin so they will cut the air better. wide. 2-1/2 in. One end of the stick is grasped in one hand with the convex edge forward and the flat side up and thrown upward. The Details of Three Boomerangs boomerang is a curved stick of hardwood. Wilmette.Boomerangs and How to Make Them [202] A boomerang is a weapon invented and used by the native Australians. long and five 1/2-in. The corners are cut from these pieces as shown in Fig. pursuing a ricochet motion until the object is struck at which it was thrown. Bevel both sides of the pieces.into two 14-in. 2 in. If thrown down on the ground the boomerang rebounds in a straight line. 1. long. The short piece should be fastened perfectly square and at right angles to the long one. it suddenly returns in an elliptical orbit to a spot near the starting point. about 5/16 in. 4. Ill. Cut the piece of hard maple into two pieces. long. wide and 2 ft. flat headed screws. This will keep the wood from absorbing water and becoming heavy. taking care to cut exactly the same amount from each corner. thick.

Glue a three cornered piece. A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron. Fig. 1. but can be governed by circumstances. Bliss. soaked with water and blown up. C. square. thick. long. of each end unwound for connections. An occasional wetting all over will prevent it from leaking. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying. wide and 6-3/4 in. If carefully and neatly made. When the glue is set. After the glue. Louis. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire. C. St. long. thick. pieces 2-5/8 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. wide and 5 in. The bag is then turned inside out. E. The pointer is made as shown in Fig. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. The sides are 3-1/4 in. long. wide and 6-1/2 in. square. A. then centered. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. the mechanical parts can be put together. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out. is placed on the other pieces and a Ushaped opening 1-3/4 in. wide and 4-1/2 in. long. forming a double piece 1-1/2 ft. at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. Another piece. about 3/8 in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. and glue to this board two smaller pieces. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. long. Make a double stitch all around the edge. 2 and 3. As these wings are very large they will prevent the swimmer from sinking. --Contributed by W. fasten the sides to the pieces with glue. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. D. wide and 2-3/4 in. Figs. 1-1/4 in. which is a piece 5-1/4 in. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. wide . This front is centered and fastened the same as the back. with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. thick and 3 in. A. Insert a piece of tape at this corner to be used for tying around the opening when the bag is blown up. and take care that the pieces are all square. Cut another piece of board. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. is set. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. Wind three layers of about No. this square box is well sandpapered. has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. long. as well as the edges around the opening. The front. and make a turn in each end of the wires. How to Make an Ammeter [203] The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. B. wide and 3 ft.once. 3/8 in. and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece. 3-1/4 in. Details of an Ammeter The back is a board 3/8 in. the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. leaving a small opening at one corner. F. long. and the four outside edges. long. 5 from 1/16-in. are rounded. the top and bottom. 6-1/2 in. Mo. 3 in. forming an eye for a screw. About 1/2 in. to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces.

The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. Austwick Hall. F. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. board. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. The stronger the current. --Contributed by George Heimroth. and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Yorkshire.5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. I. G. so it will just clear the tin. A pointer 12 in. from one end. A small opening is made in the pointer into which an ordinary needle is inserted. is fitted in a hole bored in the center of the hour circle.R. is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. bored in the back. 4. A thin compass card divided into degrees is fitted on the edge of this disk for the declination circle. England This star finder can easily be made by anyone who can use a few tools as the parts are all wood and the only lathe work necessary is the turned shoulder on the polar axis and this could be dressed and sandpapered true enough for the purpose. long is fastened with a small bolt to the center of the declination circle. Place the tin. The first thing to do is to get a true N and S meridian mark. the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized. When the current flows through the coil. This needle is adjusted to the degree to set the pointer in declination and when set. long. C. The instrument is now ready for calibrating. level this and have it firmly fixed facing due south with a line drawn through the center . In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply.A. that has the end turned with a shoulder. The hour circle A is half of a similar card with the hour marks divided into 20 minutes. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. The upper end of the polar axis is fitted with a 1/4-in. A brass tube having a 1/4-in. 4 is not movable. Chapman. from the spindle. long. 1/16 in. hole is fastened to the pointer. R. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. the greater the magnetism of the metal strips. 5. in diameter. and fasten in place. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. Secure a slab of stone or some other solid flat surface. the part carrying the pointer moves away. The resistance is now adjusted to show . wide and 9 in. L. 5-1/2 in. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. wide and 2-1/2 in. and allowance made for the magnetic declination at your own place. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete. Two side pieces cut with an angle equal to the colatitude of the place are nailed to the base and on top of them is fastened another board on which is marked the hour circle as shown. 1/4 in. the pointer is clamped with the bolt at the center. and as the part Fig.and 2-5/8 in. the same size as the first. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. long. Like poles repel each other. The base is a board 5 in. thick. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass. Another strip of tin. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. How to Make an Equatorial [204] Condensed from article contributed by J. The polar axis B is secured to the board with a wooden collar and a pin underneath. long which is fitted with an ordinary wood screw in each corner for leveling. The end of the polar axis B. showing a greater defection of the pointer. These wires should be about 1 in. Fig. An index pointer is fastened to the base of the polar axis. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. W.S. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. 4. Richmond Hill. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil. This can be approximately obtained by a good compass. Fig. and the farther apart they will be forced.

Subtract right ascension of planet from the time shown by the clock. say Venus at the date of observation. The foregoing tables assume that you have a clock rated to siderial time. Then set the pointer D to the declination of the object. Home-Made Equatorial but this is not absolutely necessary. You now want to know if this planet is east or west of your meridian at the time of observation.and put the equatorial on the surface with XII on the south end of the line. 10 min. 10 min. 30 min. If you can obtain the planet's declination on the day of observation and ascertain when it is due south. There will be no difficulty in picking up Venus even in bright sunlight when the plant is visible to the naked eye. mean clock shows Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to hour 1 12 --13 2 --10 5 2 --3 minute 0 --10 --50 20 10 --10 second 0 ----0 0 0 --0 Books may be found in libraries that will give the right ascension and declination of most of the heavenly bodies. or at the top that could be turned on before starting up the stair and on reaching the top turned out. at 9 hr. 1881. shows mean siderial. The following formula will show how this may be found. Electric Light Turned On and Off from Different Places [205] How nice it would be to have an electric light at the turn in a stairway. thus: 9 hr. and vice . A. all you have to do is to set the pointer D by the needle point and note whether Venus has passed your meridian or not and set your hour index. M. Add 12 hrs Right ascension of Venus Set hour circle to before meridian Again-----------------At 1 hr. To find a celestial object by equatorial: Find the planet Venus May 21.

The Wiring Diagram versa when coming down. Cross Section and Completed Cell Secure a small unglazed vessel to fit inside of the zinc.f. owing to the low internal resistance. Conn. The light may be turned on or off at either one of the switches. New Haven. The wiring diagram as shown in the illustration will make this a pleasant reality. Optical Illusion [206] Can you tell which of these three figures is the tallest? Make a guess. and fill it with a strong solution of nitric acid. Procure a glass jar such as used for a gravity battery. or such a receptacle as used in a sal ammoniac cell. and then verify its correctness by measurement.m. This wiring may be applied in numerous like instances. Fill the outer jar with a solution of 16 parts water and 5 parts sulphuric acid. Hall. or. --Contributed by Robert W. The electric globe may be located at any desired place and the two point switches are connected in series with the source of current as shown in the sketch. The connections are made from the zinc and carbon. . Take a piece of sheet zinc large enough so that when it is rolled up in the shape of a cylinder it will clear the edge of the jar by about 1/2 in. if one of these cannot be had. How to Make a Bunsen Cell [206] This kind of a cell produces a high e. get a glazed vessel of similar construction. Solder a wire or binding-post to the edge of the cylinder for a connection.

fresh grass. was pieces found in a scrap pile that usually occupies a fence corner on almost every farm. Strips should be cut to fit snugly in the stuffing box. Hardening Copper [206] A successful method of hardening copper is to add 1 lb. This was fastened between some wooden blocks which were bolted on the tool carriage of a lathe and then bored out to a diameter of about 2 in. of alum and 4 oz. The fish cooks quickly--15 or 20 minutes--according to their size. 3/8 in. long. and for anything that requires more time for cooking it makes the best covering. the fish or game from the fire if no other material is at hand. thick. after scraping away the greater part of the coals. Then. and heap the glowing coals on top. arsenic to every 20 lb. Packing Cut from Felt Hats [206] Felt from an old hat makes good packing for automobile water-circulating pumps. Fig. it will expand the felt and make a watertight joint. Clay also answers the purpose of protecting. especially for cooking fish. 1. If you eat fish or game cooked after this fashion you will agree that it cannot be beaten by any method known to camp culinary savants. inside diameter and about 5 in. 1-3/4 in. consisted of an old shaft with a hole . Wash and season your fish well and then wrap them up in clean. of melted copper and stir for 10 minutes. The boring bar. cover up with the same. A fire is built the size for the amount of food to be cooked and the wood allowed to burn down to a glowing mass of coals and ashes.One Way to Cook Fish [206] One of the best and easiest ways of cooking fish while out camping is told by a correspondent of Forest and Stream. Homemade Gasoline Engine [206] The material used in the construction of the gasoline engine. as shown in the accompanying picture. put the fish among the ashes. The cylinder consists of an old pump cylinder. Wet paper will answer. When the follower is screwed down. leaves or bark.

and with a small projection to fit snugly inside the cylinder bore. and threaded on both ends. When these flanges were tightly screwed on the casting and faced off smooth the whole presented the appearance of a large spool. fastened with a pin. Two pieces of 3/4 -in. when they were turned in. Two heads were then made to fit over the outer ends of the valve cages. pipe. the remaining flange fitting on the Steps in Making the Home-Made Gasoline Engine end of the valve cage and the center extending down inside to make a long guide for the . thick. A wood mandrel with a metal shaft to turn in the centers of a lathe was made to fit the bored-out cylinder. These heads looked similar to a thread spool with one flange cut off. a small part of the end of each pipe projected on the inside of the cylinder head. These pieces of pipe serve as valve cages and are reamed out on the inside ends to form a valve seat. Two holes were then drilled in this head and tapped for 3/4-in. about 1/2 in. Complete Homemade Gasoline Engine The back cylinder head was made from a piece of cast iron.bored through the center and a tool inserted and held for each cut by a setscrew. turned to the same diameter as the flanges. The cylinder was then placed on the mandrel. Flanges were next made from couplings discarded from an old horsepower tumbling rod. pipe were fitted to these holes so that. to fit on the threaded ends of the cylinder casting. The outlet for the exhaust and the inlet for the gas and air are through holes drilled in the side of each pipe respectively and tapped for 1/2-in. pipe.

angle iron was riveted to one side of the finished frame to make a support for the crankshaft bearing. A hole was cut through the angle irons and plate the same size as the bore of the cylinder so the piston could be taken out without removing the cylinder. and which gave such satisfactory results. 30 in. If the dripping stops when the valve is pressed down. then removed and the first one threaded and cut off. A piece of this rod was centered in a lathe and turned so as to shape six or more screws. Studs were made by threading both ends of a proper length rod. The rough frame. Fig. The main part of the frame consists of a piece of 1/2-in. the needle valve connected with the float should be investigated. 3. The flywheel and mixing valve were purchased from a house dealing in these parts. Fig. The water jacket on the cylinder is a sheet of copper formed and soldered in place. Dripping Carburetor [208] If gasoline drips from the carburetor when the engine is not running. thick and 3 in. a jump spark would be much better. A Merry-Go-Round Thriller [209] Swinging on the Merry-Go-Round As a home mechanic with a fondness for amusing the children I have seen many descriptions of merry-go-rounds. angle iron are riveted vertically on the ends of the Ushaped iron and a plate riveted on them to close the open end and to form a face on which to attach the cylinder with bolts or cap screws. The cap screws were made from steel pump rods. Two pieces of 2-1/2-in. 2. Iowa. but never one which required so little material.valve stems. It . then it should be ground to a fit. the float is too high. If the valve keeps dripping. The three rings were made from an old cast-iron pulley. 5. and the guides for the rods that operate the valves. bent in the shape of a U. wide. Fig. The gears to run this shaft were cut from solid pieces on a small home-made gear-cutting attachment for the lathe as shown in Fig. This long frame had to be made to accommodate the crosshead which was necessary for such a short cylinder. The gear on the crankshaft has 20 teeth meshing into a 40-tooth gear on the cam shaft. was then finished on an emery wheel. Make-and-break ignition is used on the engine. square iron. and brass bands put on to co v e r the soldered joints. These heads are held in place by a wrought-iron plate and two bolts. long. as the one illustrated herewith. --Contributed by Peter Johnson. one of which is plainly shown in the picture. The rod was held in a vise for this last operation. however. and on the outside of this piece is riveted a bent piece of sheet metal 1/8 in. Both valves are mechanically operated by one cam attached to a shaft running one turn to two of the crankshaft. 4. This plate also supports the rocker arms. The U-shaped iron is placed near one edge of the sheet metal. labor and time. Clermont. then the second and so on until all of them were made into screws. A 1-in. The piston and rod were screwed together and turned in one operation on a lathe.

The upper end of the post is wound with a few rounds of wire or an iron strap to prevent splitting. from the center. strong clear material only should be employed. One set of ropes are passed through holes at the end of the crosspiece and knotted on top. long. Seat the heavier of the riders on the latter seat. I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage . square. completes the merry-go-round. care must be taken to have the two riders sit at the same moment. being held in position by spikes as shown. As there is no bracing. Be sure to have room for the ropes to swing out at high speed. which will make it a sufficiently tight fit. and a little junk. The upright is a 4 by 4-in. butting against short stakes. These two pieces must be securely bolted or spiked together. A rope tied to the crosspiece about 2 ft. long is the pivot. Make the hole for the bolt very loose through the crosspiece." as this is one of the mirth-making features of the machine. Nieman. the materials being furnished by an accommodating lumber pile. extending above. A 3/4 -in. long. and. A malleable iron bolt. This makes an easy adjustment. If it is to be used for adults. in fact. moving it toward the center until a balance with the lighter rider is reached. The seats are regular swing boards. Put plenty of soap qr grease between the crosspiece and upright. in the ground with 8 ft. On this depends the safety of the contrivance. It looks like a toy. The illustration largely explains itself. with no trees or buildings in the way. The other set should be provided with loops at the top and slid over the crosspiece. hole bored in the post. strengthened by a piece 4 in. for the "motive power" to grasp." little and big. --Contributed by C. rope is not too heavy. The "wobble" mentioned will give an agreeable undulating motion.was erected in our back yard one afternoon. so that there will be plenty of "wobble. but a few dimensions will be a help to anyone wishing to construct the apparatus. Drive this bolt in a 3/8-in. W. so it must be strong enough. or the iron bolt will be bent out of line. The crosspiece is 2 in. Use a heavy washer at the head. you will have in a minute enough thrill and excitement to last the balance of the day. This will be found surprisingly evident for so small a machine. How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite [210] The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail. and long enough to keep firmly in the post. 3/4 in. no matter what your age or size may be. set 3 ft. timber. square and 2 ft. supported by a stout and serviceable rope. which adds greatly to the flying sensation. He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction. square and 5 ft. from all over the neighborhood. Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet. It is braced on four sides with pieces 2 in. but once seat yourself in it and begin to go around. 12 ft. in diameter and 15 in. long. and it has provided unlimited pleasure for "joy-riders.

The backbone is flat. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately. which he folds and cuts along the dotted line. Two ends--the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do--are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle. if nothing better is at hand. 2. away. After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig.the fingers.2 emery. The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows: From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. 1. a wreck. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. The bow is now bent. long. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. 1/4 by 3/32 in. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. as shown in Fig. therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries.Parts of a Chinese Kite in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand. 4. and sent to earth. then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. A reel is next made. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. Both have large reels full of . square. light and strong. These ends are placed about 14 in. he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer. or was punctured by the swift dives of the other. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. then it is securely fastened. Having placed the backbone in position. one for the backbone and one for the bow. To wind the string upon the reel. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. He shapes two pieces of bamboo. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly. therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. and 18 in.

Bunker.string. Various holes bored in the bench on an arc will permit the board to be set at any angle. and these in turn are bolted or screwed to the bench. The vise may be made into a swing vise if the wrench is mounted on a board which is swung on a bolt at one end and held with a pin at the other as shown in the illustration. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite. --Contributed' by Harry S. the balance. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. Two holes bored through the thumb piece will greatly facilitate setting up the jaws tightly by using a small rod in the holes as a lever. Newburyport. It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. N. often several hundred yards of it. The handle end is held down with a staple. The inside jaw is used in clamping and is operated with the thumb screw of the wrench. the first tries to spear him by swift dives. he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away. Home-Made Vise [211] An ordinary monkey wrench that has been discarded is used in making this vise. Mass. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft. If the second kite is close enough. Home-Made Changing Bag for Plate Holders [212] A good bag for changing plates and loading plate holders and one that the operator can see well to work in can . common packing thread. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. he pays out a large amount of string. First.-Contributed by S. Moody. The wrench is supported by two L-shaped pieces of iron fastened with A Swivel Bench Vise a rivet through the end jaw. or glass-covered string. Brooklyn. C. Y. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string. he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull.

must be attached to a 3-ft. Place the two pieces with their edges together so they will form half a circle disk and cover both sides with a piece of the flannel and pin them in place. A bag made up in this manner is for use only for a short time. Fold the cloth up so it will be 1 yd. Procure a sheet of asbestos from a plumbing shop and cut it in the shape of the top of your table.Made of Black Cambric be made by anyone on a sewing machine. Cut four pieces of canton flannel. cutting the circular piece into quarters. Corinth. This will make it possible to work in the bag as long as you wish. Vt. A binding of white cotton tape is then basted around the edges to hold all the pieces together until they are stitched on a sewing machine. tack or fasten the layers together so they will not slip and cut an 8-in. If it is necessary to do considerable work at a time. If the table is round. Home-Made Asbestos Table Pads [212] Asbestos table pads to prevent the marring of polished table tops from heated dishes can be easily made at home much cheaper than they can be bought. Hastings. Put a drawstring in the edge of the cloth around the open side and the bag is complete ready for use. 1) which will make five layers of cloth. length of 2-in. such as mill men use. rubber hose and the hose run through a hole in the bag. A line of machine stitching is made all around the outside and through the middle . lengths (Fig. each the size of half the table top. Take the cambric and fold it into 2-yd. Two of the asbestos pieces are used to make one-half of the pad. square (Fig. then a dust protector. then draw the string up tight. Take the holders and plate boxes in the lap and put the bag over the head and down around the body. make the pad as shown in the illustration. --Contributed by Earl R. square hole in the middle of one half (Fig. Ten yards of black cambric or other black cloth and a little ruby fabric will be required. 2) and sew the ruby fabric over the opening. Be sure and make the seam light-tight and have enough layers of ruby fabric so no white light can get in. 3) and sew up the edges to make a bag with one side open.

Use a sponge to dampen the leather on the rough side. non-absorbent surface to lay the leather on while at work.9-1/4 in. A shade of brown is the best as it does not soil easily and does not require coloring. Enlarge the accompanying pattern to the given dimensions. 17-1/2 in. Make the other half circular disk in the same way. from C to D. get a piece of Russian calf modeling leather. E. which spoils the leather effect. The flannel is used with the nap side out so it will make the pad soft and noiseless. This will form a hinge so the two quarters may be folded for putting away.. hard pencil. from E to F. How to Make a Ladies' Handbag [213] To make this bag. 2-1/4 in. and E to G. trace this or some other appropriate design on it.. and then cut the leather the size of the pattern. not so damp that the water will come through to the right side when working. 6-1/4 in. but damp enough to allow the design to be well impressed Pattern on the leather. . 16-1/4 in. Now lay the pattern on the right side of the leather and with the smallest end of the leather tool or a sharp. Calif. Wharton.Pads Made of Asbestos between where the edges of the asbestos sheets join together. G to H.. Oakland. Use a smooth. any number of pads can be made to cover them in the same manner with the hinge in the middle of each pad. If leaves are wanted in extending the table.-Contributed by H. trace the design carefully on the leather. Moisten the . The dimensions of the full sized bag are: from A to B. This kind of a pad furnishes perfect protection to the table from any heat or moisture.

To complete the bag. Trace the openings for the handles. also lines A-G. and corresponding lines on the other side. lacing the sides of the end pieces in with the sides of the bag. and E-G. apart. Cut out the leather for the handle openings. if not more than 1 in. Crease the lines A-G and B-H inward for ends of bag. Remove pattern and trace the design directly on leather with the round point of tool. Removing Wire Insulation [213] The claw of a hammer can be used for removing the insulation on copper wire. A Small Electric Motor [214] The drawing herewith shows a simple electric motor which can be easily constructed by any boy who is at all handy with tools. about 1/8 in. until it is made distinct and in marked contrast to the rest of the leather. Care should be taken not to cut the holes too near the edge of the bag lest the lacing pull out. G-J. H-B. make holes all around the edge of the bag about 1/8 in. get something with which to make a lining. with the rounded sides of the tools. Cut it the same size as the bag. Do not make sharp marks but round the edges of the lines nicely. Now cut narrow thongs. is taken off at a time. place both together and with a leather punch. wide. A piece of oozed leather is the most satisfactory. I made this motor .leather as Design on the Leather often as necessary to keep it sufficiently moist to work well. and lace through the holes.

1. Moving a Coin Under a Glass [214] Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth. A common magnet which can be purchased at any toy store is used. The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. Each leg of the armature is wound with 10 ft. The shaft is made from an old discarded knitting needle. bent U-shaped and fastened to the wood flywheel. B. The bead should not have an eye larger in diameter than the shaft.M. Shannon. . each being a half circle. The commutator is made from an old 22 cartridge filed into two equal parts. 1. of No. The brushes are fastened to each side of the upright piece of wood supporting the brass bearing B. which is screwed on the end of a piece of wood mortised in the base. Each half of the commutator must be insulated from the other half. both of which are made fast to a collar on the shaft E. iron. D. which is fastened to a small piece of brass with sealing wax. The small brass piece is fastened to the base with screws. The armature core is a strip of 1/16 by 1/4-in. 2-1/4 in. Pasadena. towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch. The top end of the shaft runs in a hole bored in a brass support. Calif. The lower end of the shaft runs in a glass bead. in length. as shown in Fig. 24 gauge magnet wire. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger. 2. long. The one shown is 3-1/2 in. Each half of the commutator C is connected to the coils AA as shown in Fig. --Contributed by J. The connections to the battery are shown in Fig. The collar can be made by wrapping paper around the shaft until the required size is obtained.Electro-Magnet Motor many times when a boy and can say that if carefully constructed it will run with greater rapidity than the more expensive ones.

Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions. near the center. are the best kind to make. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. from the bottom end.Removing the Coin The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. balloon should be about 8 ft. will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. How to Make Paper Balloons [215] Balloons made spherical. high. Paper Balloon Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon The paper may be selected in several colors. The gores for a 6-ft. and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. 1. This may be remedied by buckling a valise or shawl strap around the horn. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. and the gores cut from these. pasted in alternately. Improving Phonograph Sound [214] When playing loud and harsh records on a phonograph the music is often spoiled by the vibration of the metal horn. or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the . or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon.

2. is supported by two braces over an alcohol lamp in the middle of the boat. common whitewash may be left on for a few hours and then washed off with warm water. The steam. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. saturating it thoroughly. take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. using about 1/2-in. The pipe B opens into the stern of the boat at C. leaving the solution on over night. the iron is dried and the paint will stick to it readily. Staunton. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. Sectional View and Completed Boat To Remove Grease from Machinery [216] A good way to remove grease or oil from machinery before painting is to brush slaked lime and water over the surface. The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. In starting the balloon on its flight. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. As the boat is driven forward by this force. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire. attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it. A small pipe is fastened to the top of the boiler in such a way that the open end will be opposite the open end of another pipe. If the gores have been put together right. the steam arises to the surface in the form of bubbles. These are to hold the wick ball. In removing grease from wood. Fig. after which the paint will adhere permanently. so it will hang as shown in Fig. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop. The boat soon attains considerable speed. lap on the edges. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. After washing. B. 1. Any good paste will do--one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. as shown in Fig. coming through the small pipe A. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by R. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball. having the ends bent into hooks as shown. somewhat larger in size. the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. 4. 3. A. and carries with it a certain amount of air out through the opening C into the water. is driven forcibly through the larger pipe B. A Simple Steamboat Model [216] The small boat shown in the accompanying sketch may have a length of 12 to 18 in. E. A Game Played on the Ice [216] .widest point. leaving a long wake behind. and is constructed in the following manner: A small steam boiler. 5. The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace. in diameter.

The handle is attached by boring a hole near one end in the middle of the block and driving in a wood pin. 1. apart and blocks of wood are placed every 6 ft. The exact outlines of the photograph can be obtained this way without destroying the print. in bowling form. apart on these lines. The outlines drawn by the first method are cut through the paraffin in the same way.Two lines are drawn parallel on the ice from 50 to 100 ft. high and 8 in. Third. a sliding block similar to the blocks that are placed on the lines with the exception that it has a handle. This will prove an interesting and enjoyable pastime for skaters. leaving the brass surface perfectly clean. long. one can be utilized by tracing direct to the surface of the paraffin. as is shown in Fig. Second. The player opening the game skates to the line and delivers. The exposed part of the plate is now ready to be etched or eaten away to the right depth with acid. The blocks are about 6 in. wide by 6 in. Two of these blocks are provided for the reason that when a player bowls one of the opposing player's blocks over the line he is entitled to another throw. the photograph can be traced on tissue paper and then retraced on the paraffin surface. The mixture should be placed in a glass or earthenware . The side wins that bowls over all of the opposing Bowling Over the Opponent's Blocks players' blocks first. cut out the outlines of the photograph and lay it on the paraffin surface. long and each provided with a handle. then pouring the liquid over the entire surface of the brass. There are three ways of doing this: First. The hole is bored slanting so as to incline the handle. In using either of the two methods described. then trace around the edges with the point of a needle or sharp point of a knife. The acid solution is made up of 1-1/2 parts muriatic acid and 2 parts water. When the paraffin has cooled sufficiently the outlines of the photograph must be drawn upon its surface. carbon paper must be placed on the paraffin before the tissue paper or photograph is laid upon it. Making Photo Silhouette Brass Plaques [217] Secure a brass plate having a smooth surface the right size for the photograph and cover it with a coat of paraffin. if you have several copies of the photograph. The sliding blocks should be at least 1 ft. The paraffin is carefully removed from the inside of the lines. This is done by heating the paraffin in a vessel hot enough to make the wax run freely.

If any places show up where the paraffin has not been entirely removed they must be cleaned so the acid will eat out the metal. being careful not to dent the metal. Fig. The finished silhouette will appear as shown in Fig. The wood should be painted black with the same paint used in the plaque. Polish the plate by rubbing it with a piece of flannel. If the plate is a small one a saucer will do for the acid solution. The plaque is backed with a piece of wood 3/4 in. Paint the heads of four thumb tacks black and use them in fastening the plaque to the board. Hellwig.Fig. 1 Waxed Brass Plate vessel. The acid should be removed every five minutes to examine the etching. --Contributed by John A. Rinse the plate in cold water. stand in a tray and heat it sufficiently to run off all the paraffin. Telescope Stand and Holder [218] With the ordinary small telescope it is very difficult to keep the line of sight fixed . N. Aligning Automobile Headlights [217] Automobile headlights should be set to throw the light straight ahead. Pour the acid on the plate where the paraffin has been removed and allow it time to etch. 2. Albany. thick. Drill a small hole in each of the four corners. not pointed down at the road at an angle. When the acid solution becomes weak new solution must be added until the proper depth is secured. the dimensions of which should exceed those of the brass plate sufficiently to harmonize with the size of the plaque. Y. 2 Finished Plaque The plaque can be given a real antique finish by painting the etched part with a dull black paint.

6 in. and not produce the right sound. wide and of any desired height. either a vertical or a horizontal motion may be secured. leaving the metal rims and nibs at each end. in diameter. and. Rubber bands are put around the telescope to prevent rubbing at the places where the straps enclose it. Fasten the can on it with a piece of sheet brass or . wide and 8 in. The wood pieces were made of mahogany well rubbed with linseed oil to give them a finish. The telescope is secured to the piece G by means of the pipe straps FF. --Contributed by R. It may be of interest to those owning telescopes without solar eyepieces to know that such an eyepiece can be obtained very cheaply by purchasing a pair of colored eyeglasses with very dark lenses and metal rims. 1 Fig. With this device. after bringing the desired object into the line of sight. A. 2 Made of a Camera Tripod device illustrated herewith. A. are screwed to the circular piece. A circular piece of wood. long for the base. and supported in a vertical position by the wood standard D. S. Take an ordinary electrical bell and remove the gong. CC. through which passes the set screw S. The pipe straps of different sizes can be obtained from a plumber's or gas and steam fitter's store. 5 in. A semi-circular slit is cut in the piece G. Corner irons. it will interfere with the regular tone vibrations. which is 4 in. B. Break off the frame. with a set screw. and Fig. To meet the situation I constructed the Fig. Va. Place these over the eyepiece of the telescope and secure in place with rubber bands looped over the nibs and around the barrel of the instrument. The corner irons and set screws or bolts with thumb-nuts can be purchased at any hardware store. In Fig. any kind having a smooth flat bottom will do. If the bottom is not perfectly flat. Anyone owning a tripod can construct this device in three or four hours' time at a trifling cost. 2 the front view. How to Make an Electrical Horn [218] Secure an empty syrup or fruit can. is fastened to a common camera tripod. 1 is shown the side view of the holder and stand.upon any particular object. the set screws will hold the telescope in position. Remove the label by soaking it in hot water. clip off the striking ball and bend the rod at right angles. thick. Cut a block of wood 3/4 in. These corner irons are also screwed to. Richmond. To this standard is secured the wood shield-shaped piece E by the screw G upon which it turns. Paine.

This horn. in diameter of some 1-in. and bolted it to the wheel on the washing machine. I made a wheel 26 in. S. Ill. D. it can be mounted on the inside of the can. If the two projecting parts of the vibrator are sawed off with a hacksaw. Usually a lamp globe costs less than an aquarium globe of the same dimensions. will give a soft pleasant tone that can be heard a block away. and solder the end of the vibrator rod to the metal. if carefully adjusted and using two cells of dry battery. connecting the engine and washing machine wheel. shrunk an iron band on it for a tire. thus producing sound waves. Lake Preston.-Contributed by John Sidelmier. This will make a very compact electric horn. pine boards. as only the can is visible. Machine Belted to the Motorcycle Home-Made Aquarium [219] A good aquarium can be made from a large-sized street lamp globe and a yellow pine block. R. then the motorcycle belt thrown off and the long belt run on. . and adjust the contact screw until a clear tone is obtained.Tin Can and Bell Parts tin as shown in the sketch. The rapidly moving armature of the bell vibrator causes the bottom of the can to vibrate with it. using a small block of wood to elevate it to the level of the center of the can. Kidder. Mount the bell vibrator on the base. Connect two dry cells to the bell vibrator. A long belt the same width as the motorcycle belt was used to drive the machine. Driving a Washing Machine with Motorcycle Power [219] The halftone illustration shows how 1 rigged up my washing machine to be driven by the power from my motorcycle. The pitch of the tone depends on the thickness of the bottom of the can. -1. The motorcycle was lined up and the engine started. La Salle.

The frame is placed on bearings so it may be turned over to examine both sides. thick and 12 in. O. Holes are cut in the card to receive the coins C. square. Pa Protect Your Lathe [219] Never allow lard oil to harden on a lathe.Procure a yellow pine block 3 in. they can be arranged in a frame as shown in Fig. and covered over on each side with a piece of glass. Lamp Globe as an Aquarium it is then less liable to develop a continuous crack. If the collection consists of only a few coins. Kane. The drawers can be taken out and turned over. Pour more cement inside of the globe until the cement is level with the top of the block. B. --Contributed by C. --Contributed by James R. If there is a large collection of coins. Feet may be added to the base if desired. 2. Finish with a ring of cement around the outside and sprinkle with fine sand while the cement is damp. The weight of the pine block makes a very solid and substantial base for the globe and renders it less liable to be upset. How to Make Lantern Slides [220] . Fig. 1. Cut out a depression for the base of the globe as shown in Fig. the frame can be made in the same manner and used as drawers in a cabinet. Purdy. 1. Pour in aquarium cement and embed the globe in it. The frame is made of a heavy card. Frame for Displaying Both Sides of Coins [220] It is quite important for coin collectors to have some convenient way to Holding Coins between Glasses show both sides of coins without touching or handling them. Doylestown. Ghent. The more uneven and twisted the grain the better for the purpose. A. the same thickness as the coins.

pen and ink or colored crayons can be used. The more coats applied the darker the color will be. Staining Wood [221] A very good method of staining close-grained woods is to use muriatic acid. Use a small wooden clip in taking the plates out of the box. plus a 3/8-in. of developer. Secure a number of glass plates of the size that will fit your lantern and clean them on both sides. Dissolve a piece of white rosin in a half-pint of gasoline and flow it over one side of the plates and allow to dry. A rivet punch is desirable. and a stout board upon which to work up the design. as the rosin and gasoline give a surface that can be written upon as easily as upon paper. and buying new ones or even making them from photographic negatives is expensive.E. Smith. The material required is a sheet of No. plates is shown in detail in the accompanying sketch. several large nails. When the slide becomes uninteresting it can be cleaned with a little clear gasoline and used again to make another slide. cut and grooved. Milwaukee.J. The tools needed are few: a pair of tin shears. But by the method described in the following paragraph anyone can make new and interesting slides in a few minutes' time and at a very small cost. they become uninteresting. a hammer or mallet. This method of staining has the advantage of requiring no wiping or rubbing. 24 gauge copper or brass of a size equal to that of the proposed holder. being careful not to scratch the sensitive film. The acid is put on with a brush like any ordinary stain. How to Make a Developing Box [220] A box for developing 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 -in. Neyer. --Contributed by August T. It will hold 4 oz. Sheet-Metal Whisk-Broom Holder [221] A whisk-broom holder such as is shown in the accompanying picture may be easily made by the amateur. Allow it to fill all crevices so that the developing box will be watertight. Boxes for larger plates Details of the Developing Box can be made in the same manner. into which to place the screws . melted and applied with a brush. Noble. Toronto. Canada. One Cloud. a heavier piece can be placed on the bottom. and cannot be duplicated by any known pigment. and then glued together as indicated. a metal block of some kind upon which to pound when riveting. A lead pencil. Coat the inside of the box with paraffin or wax. A slide can be made in this way in five minutes and an interesting outline picture in even less time than that. It is made of strips of wood 1/4-in. Place the dried plate over a picture you wish to reproduce and draw the outline upon the thin film. thick. --Contributed by J. though not absolutely necessary. for after the slides have been shown a few times. Wis. border all around. This solution also makes an ideal retouching varnish for negatives. --Contributed by R.A great many persons who have magic lanterns do not use them very much. If desired. The colors thus obtained are artistic and most beautiful. Cal.

Fasten the metal to the board firmly. If the design is to be of two-part symmetry. Carefully work out the design desired on a piece of drawing paper. and file it to a chisel edge. screws placed about 1 in. Trace around this pattern on the metal and cut out the shape. avoiding sharp curves in the outline because they are hard to follow with the shears when cutting the metal. rounding it just enough to take the sharpness off so that it will not cut the metal. Punch rivet holes in holder and band. With this same carbon paper transfer the design to the metal. place a block of wood upon it and pound on this block. using 1/2-in. To flatten the metal preparatory to fastening it to the board. both outline and decoration. at the widest part and has proven a satisfactory holder for a small broom. There are several ways of working up the design.that are to be used to hold the metal to the board while pounding it. Take the nail. a 10 or 20-penny wire or cut. This tool is used for indenting the metal so as to bring out the outline of the design on the surface. Completed Holder Brass Fastened to Board-Method of Riveting or the surface will be dented and look bad in the finished piece. Make a paper pattern for the metal band that is to hold the broom. The simplest way is to take the nail and merely "chase" the outlines of holder design. never upon the metal directly. draw one part. then fold on a center line and duplicate this by inserting doublesurfaced carbon paper and tracing the part already drawn. Remove the screws. apart in holes previously punched in the margin with a nail set or nail. also a hole by which to hang the whole upon the . cut off the surplus metal and file the edges until they are smooth. like the one shown. The design shown in the picture is 6 by 8 in.

How to Make a Camp Stool [222] The stool. hole bored into each leg 2-1/2 in. up from the lower end. Do not bend it over or flatten it. Use a rag tied to a stick and do not allow the acid to touch either your hands or clothes. long. hole bored in the top pieces as shown in Fig. and two lengths. the distance between the centers of the holes being 7-5/8 in. 3/4 in. 1. Each pair of legs has a joint for folding and this joint is made by boring a hole in the middle of each leg. Provide four lengths for the legs. long. square and 181/2 in. being ball bearing. long. using a 1/2in. for the top. Do the riveting on a metal block and keep the head of the rivet on the back of the holder. the parts consisting of the frame from an old bicycle pedal wrapped with insulated wire to make the armature and three permanent magnets taken from an old telephone magneto. A metal lacquer may next be applied to keep the metal from early corrosion. The entire length of each part is rounded off for the sake of neatness as well as lightness. About 1/2 yd. wide material will be required for the seat and each end of this is nailed securely on the under side of the top pieces. square and 11 in. is made of beech or any suitable wood Camp Stool Details with a canvas or carpet top. Rivet the band to the holder. The pedal. A Small Home-Made Electric Motor [222] The accompanying photographs show the construction of a very unique electric motor. one 8-1/2 and the other 10-1/2 in. 3. Clean the metal by scrubbing it off with a solution composed of one-half water and one-half nitric acid. as shown in Fig. Punch the rivet holes with a nail set and make the holes considerably larger than the diameter of the rivet. in the other. for the lower rails. 2. square. rotated with very little friction and at a surprisingly high rate of speed. . The woodwork may be stained and varnished or plain varnished and the cloth may be made to have a pleasing effect by stencilling in some neat pattern. l-1/8 in. inserting a bolt and riveting it over washers with a washer placed between the legs as shown in Fig. This rounding is done by pounding around the outer edge of the rivet end and not flat upon the top as in driving a nail. in one piece and 9-5/8 in. two lengths. each 1 in. The legs are shaped at the ends to fit into a 5/8-in. The lower rails are fitted in the same way. of 11-in.wall. for in flattening the raised edges the holes will close. Round up the "upset" end of the riveted part as shown in the picture.

was soldered to it as shown in the photograph. Attalla. having quite a length of threads.The Motor Complete The dust cap on the end of the pedal was removed and a battery connection. The flanges were removed from an ordinary spool and two strips of brass fastened on its circumference for the commutator. but instead of fastening the rear runners solid to the top board and the front runners to turn on a solid plane fifth wheel. Ala. --Contributed by W. Quackenbush. The illustration will explain this construction without going into detail and giving dimensions for a certain size. The shape of this nut made a good pulley for a cord belt. New York City. The spool was held in position by a small binding Commutator Parts post nut. It will be noticed that the top board may bend as much as it will under the load without causing the front ends of the rear runners and the Coaster Sled with Rocker Runners rear ends of the front runners gouging into the snow or ice. --Contributed by John Shahan. Rocker Blocks on Coaster Sleds [223] The accompanying sketch shows a coasting sled with rocker blocks attached on both front and rear runners. they are pivoted so each pair of runners will rock when going over bumps. How to Make a Watch Fob [223] . as these rocker blocks can be attached to any coaster or toboggan sled. F. The runners and the other parts of the sled are made in the usual way.

Assemble as shown in the sketch. Two pieces of felt. Luther. New Way to Remove a Bottle Stopper [224] Take a bottle of liquid. D. from the end. from one end. long. The other end is passed through the ring of the watch and fastened in the buckle as in an ordinary belt. and with the aid of a napkin form a pad which is applied . making a lap of about 1 in. stitched on both edges for appearance. in depth. long. Mich. college or lodge colors. wide and 4-1/4 in. buckle from a harness maker and you will have all the parts necessary for the fob. and the other 2-3/4 in. Drill Lubricant [223] A good lubricant for drilling is made by dissolving 3/4 to 1 lb..This novelty watch fob is made from felt. The end of the strap having the two holes is put through the slots cut in the wide pieces and the tongue of the buckle is run through both holes. each 1-1/4 in. initial. one about 1 in. long. of sal-soda in one pailful of water. something that is carbonated. The desired emblem. Make a hole with a punch 1-1/4 in. and a slit is cut through the double thickness to match the one cut in the first piece. in from the other end of one piece cut a slit 1/2 in. the end of the other piece is folded over. Purchase a 1/2-in. and 3/8 in. college or lodge colors combined in the making with emblems or initials colored on the texture. wide and 8-1/4 in. are cut V-shaped on one end of each piece about 1 in. The strap is made from a strip of felt 3/16 in. or pennant is stenciled on the outside of the folded piece with class. and two holes in the other. Ironwood. --Contributed by C. using class.

which can be procured from a plumber. 2. This method allows a wide range of designs. Ind. then lacquered with white shellac or banana bronzing liquid. The wings are made of copper or brass and finished in repoussé. as shown at B. Fig. or can be tarnished and the high places burnished with 000 sandpaper or steel wool. from the center and opposite each other. about 2 in. 1/4 in. or more in height. Strike hard with repeated blows against the solid surface of a wall. is cut in the shape shown in Fig. A piece of lead. Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other. or a pasteboard box. the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. Imitation Fancy Wings on Hinges [224] The accompanying sketch shows how I overcame the hardware troubles when I was not able to find ready-made hinges in antique design for a mission sideboard and buffet. sometimes with so much force that a part of the liquid comes with it and deluges the spectators. if desired by the operator. as shown in the sketch. in the cover and the bottom. and the cork will be driven out. which can be made at home with ordinary tools. --Contributed by John H. 1. Schatz. Punch two holes A. Fancy Hinge Wings How to Make a Child's Rolling Toy [224] Secure a tin can. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of .Removing the Stopper to the lower end of the bottle. in diameter and 2 in. Indianapolis.

non-absorbent surface upon which to lay the leather while working it. A piece of thick glass. When the can is rolled away from you. on both top and bottom. --Contributed by Mack Wilson. Columbus. 5. O.Rolling Can Toy lead. putting in the design. A nutpick with a V-shaped point will do if the sharpness is smoothed off by means of a piece of emery paper. 1. There Portfolio Design will also be needed a level. metal. so that it will indent without cutting the leather. made of paper strips pasted on the tin. it winds up the rubber band. as shown in Fig. allowing the two ends to be free. How to Make a Portfolio [225] Secure a piece of Russian modeling calf leather of a size equal to 12 by 16 in. and the ends of the bands looped over them. but are not essential for this piece if the nutpick is at hand. Make a paper pattern of the size indicated in the accompanying drawing. These tools can be bought for this special purpose. are turned up as in Fig. The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes. The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. . or marble will serve. The necessary tools consist of a stick with a straight edge and a tool with an end shaped like that of a nutpick. Fig. 4. thus storing the propelling power which makes it return. The pieces of tin between the holes A. 3.

Begin work by moistening the leather on the back side with a sponge or cloth. mark over the design. holding the pattern firmly in place so that it will not slip--if possible get some one to hold the pattern for you--place the straight edge on the straight lines and mark out or indent. I secured a board 3/4 in. this should be done before the holes are punched or the lacing done. If it is desired to "line" the inside. After this has been done. deep in its face. and cut a flat bottom groove 3/16 in. A pencil may be used the first time over. The edges should be about 1/8 in. The surplus stock around the edges may not be cut off. The pattern is now to be removed and all the lines gone over with the tool to make them deep and uniform. thick. or more thick on each side. face up. and as there was no Vise on Bench vise on the bench I rigged up a substitute. --Contributed by Henry Schaefer. New York City. wide and 20 in. and. The board was then attached to the bench with two screws passing through washers and the two holes . long and bored a 1/2-in. 1 in. 3 in. allowing Steel Pins in Wood the end of each to protrude just far enough to act as a tooth. hole through it. In this way a good gear for light work can be quickly and cheaply constructed. A Home-Made Vise [226] While making a box I had some dovetailing to do. Next place the leather on the glass. Drill holes into the wood on each point stepped off and insert steel pins made of wire. from each end. Moisten as much as you dare and still not have the moisture show on the face side. thicker than the pinion. A neat way to finish the edges is to punch a series of holes entirely around through which a thin leather thong may be laced. Measure the distance between centers of two adjacent teeth in the pinion and step this off around the periphery in the bottom of the groove. one can be made in the following manner: Turn up a wood disk to the proper diameter and 1/4 in. Gear for Model Work [225] When a gear is needed to drive a small pinion and there is none of the right size at hand.

Now fit up the two clamps. Fasten the slides to the front pieces with . Syracuse. Brooklyn. Fasten the front top board to the crosspieces by lag screws through from the under side. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 12 in. Rice. If the stock is purchased from the mill ready planed and cut to length. 4 guides. 1-1/2 by 3 by 24 in. The cardboard will spin around rapidly and present quite an attraction. 2 crosspieces. Cardboard Spiral Turned by Heat [226] A novel attraction for a window display can be made from a piece of stiff cardboard cut in a spiral as shown in Fig. 1 piece for clamp. The heads should be countersunk or else holes bored in the top boards to fit over them. A small swivel must be put in the string at the top or near the cardboard. M. 1 by 9 by 80 in. 1. 3 by 3 by 6 in. Y. Birch or maple wood makes a very good bench and the following pieces should be ordered : 4 legs. 2 side rails. 1 piece for clamp. Tie a piece of string to the center point of the spiral Spiral Cut from Cardboard and fasten it so as to hang over a gas jet. 1 top board. 2 by 2 by 18 in. then fasten them securely together with 3/8 by 5-in. 1 by 12 by 77 in. much of the hard labor will be saved. and fit it in place for the side vise. Cut the 2-in. square holes in the 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-in. in diameter. if it is desired to have the spiral run for any length of time. The screws can be put in from the top for the 1-in. 1-1/2 by 6-1/2 by 14 in. N. 1 piece. New York. --Contributed by Harry Szerlip. 3 by 3 by 20 in. thick top board. This bench can be made easily by anyone who has a few sharp tools and a little spare time. 2 end rails. 3 by 3 by 62-1/2 in. 1 back board. lag screws as shown. 1 top board. 1 screw block. countersinking the heads of the vise end. Cut tenons on the rails and mortise the posts. Also cut square holes in the one end piece for the end vise slides as shown. pieces to the tops of the posts with screws. --Contributed by A. 2 by 12 by 77 in. Also fasten the 11/2 by 3 by 24-in. Make the lower frame first.in the board into the bench top. 2. The cardboard should be about 7 or 8 in. Fasten the end pieces on with screws. Fig. 1-1/2 by 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. 3 by 3 by 36. A Workbench for the Amateur [226] The accompanying detail drawing shows a design of a portable workbench suitable for the amateur woodworker. pieces for the vise slides. The screws should be of a length suitable to take in the piece to be worked.

3 and 6 in. This list can be added to as the workman becomes more proficient in his line and has need for other tools. 1 jack plane or smoother. 1 bench plane or jointer. 1 compass saw. 1 pocket level. 1 brace and set of bits. a list is given which will answer for a general class of work. After Detail of the Bench you have the slides fitted. The back board can now be fastened to the back with screws as shown in the top view. 24 in. 2 screwdrivers. 1 countersink. 1 set chisels. The bench is now complete. 1 rip saw. 1 marking gauge.screws. . 1 claw hammer. The amateur workman.. will find this a very handy and serviceable bench for his workshop. Countersink the heads of the screws so they will not be in the way of the hands when the vise is used. 24 in. 1 pair dividers. They can be purchased at a hardware store. 1 2-ft. As the amateur workman does not always know just what tools he will need. 1 wood scraper. rule. A block should be fitted under the crosspiece to hold the nut for the end vise. 1 cross cut saw. 1 monkey wrench. except for a couple of coats of oil which should be applied to give it a finish and preserve the wood. The two clamp screws should be about 1-1/2 in. Only the long run.. in diameter. If each tool is kept in a certain place. 1 nail set. 1 set gimlets. as well as the pattern maker. it can be easily found when wanted.. put them in place and bore the holes for the clamp screws. 1 pair pliers.

being softer.1 6-in. Fig. will be easier to work. Pa. and the knife will be given a new lease of usefulness. 1. Fig. How to Make a Leather Spectacle Case [228] The spectacle case shown in the accompanying illustration may be made of either calf or cow skin. 1. but will not make .1. The calf skin. try square. 2 and 00 sandpaper. 2. Workbench Complete Repairing a Worn Knife Blade [228] When the blade of a favorite pocket knife. 3. 1 oilstone. after constant use. Kane. the projecting point A. Fig. Fig. becomes like A. will sink into the handle as shown at D. ---Contributed by James M. it is more dangerous than The Blade Is Cut Down useful. but if the blade is fastened in a vise and the point B filed off until it is like C. To cut down the already worn blade would leave only a stump. No. Doylestown.

Be careful in stamping not to pound so hard as to cut the leather. Take a stippling tool--if no such tool is at hand. water or heat will not affect. Having prepared the two sides. when dry. give the surface a thorough coating of varnish. the same method of treatment is used. The extreme width of the case is 2-3/8 in. After this coating of cement is applied directly to the plaster. which steam. Turn the leather. and hold it in place while both the outline and decoration are traced on the surface with a pencil or some tool that will make a sharp line without tearing the paper. -Contributed by Julia A. such as copper or brass. If cow hide is preferred. if smoothed with emery paper so that it will not cut the leather.as rigid a case as the cow skin. Two Designs of Cases Waterproofing a Wall [229] The best way to make a tinted wall waterproof is to first use a material composed of cement properly tinted and with no glue in it--one that will not require a glue size on the wall. Two pieces will be required of this size. go over the indentations a second time so as to make them sharp and distinct. a cup-pointed nail set will do--and stamp the background. If calf skin is to be used. It is intended that the full design shall be placed on the back and the same design placed on the front as far as the material will allow. they may be placed together and sewed around the edges. but a form will need to be made and placed inside the case while the leather is drying to give it the right shape. There are special modeling tools that can be purchased for this purpose. Place the leather on a small non-absorbent surface. and the length 6-5/8 in. After the outlines are traced. The form can be made of a stick of wood. but a V-shaped nut pick. . secure a piece of modeling calf. New York City. First draw the design on paper. cover it completely with water enamel and. lay the design on the face. and moisten the back side with as much water as it will take and still not show on the face side. This will make a perfectly impervious covering. then prepare the leather. will do just as well. White. Put on the design before the two parts are sewed together. A little rubbing on the point with emery will take off the sharpness always found on a new tool.

Portland. Jaquythe. The emery surface of the cloth was placed outward and trimmed to the same diameter as the wheel. Richmond.Polishing Flat Surfaces [229] The work of finishing a number of brass castings with flat sides was accomplished on an ordinary polishing wheel. A. New York City. C. On coming down to the lower floor it is often found that the bob has been secured either too high or too low. Cal. This cushion of rubber eliminates vibrations. as shown in the sketch. will be had for adjusting the bob accurately either up or down. Adjusting a Plumb-Bob Line [229] When plumbing a piece of work. it is common practice to fasten the plumb line to a nail or other suitable projection. and an adjustable friction-held loop. if there is no help at hand to hold the overhead line. --Contributed by W. --Contributed by Chester L. Herrman. When fastening the line give it plenty of slack and when the lower floor is reached make a double loop in the line. and they will not slip nor mar the finest surface upon which they rest. Rubber Tip for Chair Legs [229] An inexpensive method of preventing a chair from scratching the floor is to bore a hole of the proper size in the bottom end of each chair leg and then procure four rubber stoppers of uniform size and press them into place. Tightening up on the parts AA will bind the loop bight B. This made a sanding and polishing wheel in one. Maine. . from which the first few layers of cloth were removed and replaced with emery cloth. --Contributed by Chas. Cobb.

Repairing A Roller Shade [229] A very satisfactory repair can be made by using a good photographic paste to fasten a torn window shade to its roller. Its top is bent at right angles and the other end is riveted to a base. Mass. The drier consists of a pipe of sufficient length to enter the longest boot leg. The strip for the handle was riveted to the end of the scoop. The boot or stocking to be dried is placed over the pipe and the whole set on a heated surface. Wright. was marked out as shown. the pattern being cut on the full lines and bent on the dotted ones. especially when the bottom of the bin was nearly reached.Drier for Footwear [229] A drier for footwear can be readily made by a tinner. The scoop can be used for other purposes as well. . To overcome this difficulty I constructed a square-shaped scoop that gave entire satisfaction. --Contributed by Geo. A Shot Scoop [230] In the ammunition department of our hardware store the shot was kept in regular square bins and dished out A Small Square Scoop Made of Tin for Dipping Up Shot Stored in a Square Bin with a round-bottom scoop. This was very difficult. for instance. Conn. B. an inverted stewpan. in whose bottom a few perforations have been made to let air in. --Contributed by Wm. or anyone that can shape tin and solder. 6-1/4 by 9-3/4 in. A thick piece of tin. as the round scoop would roll over them and only pick up a few at a time. Middletown. Cambridge. The heat will cause a rapid circulation of air which will dry the article quickly. Roberts..

care should be taken to prevent the hot water from coming in contact with anything but the cane. Heat an iron and hold it as near as possible to the stain without discoloring the paper. apply powdered calcined magnesia. This process also tightens the shreds of cane and does not injure ordinary furniture. such as chair seats. of boiling water. but a much better device for the purpose is shown in the sketch. The brushes are pressed outward against the inside surfaces of the pipe with a wire and spring. or by applying steaming cloths to the cane. then immerse the print in it and squeegee. The usual method is to beat the pipe after taking it down to be cleaned. Herbert. This can be prevented by sponging with hot water. --Contributed by C. A scrub brush is procured and cut in two. Bone. so some bones were quickly calcined. used as part of furniture. --Contributed by Paul Keller. F. If the article is highly polished. and plaster of Paris are also excellent absorbents of grease. There was no quicklime to be had. often becomes loose and the threads of cane pull out. But it is possible to put in ten or twelve of them. Cleaner for a Stovepipe [230] A long horizontal pipe for a stove soon fills with soot and must be cleaned. If any traces of the grease are left. had oil from a lamp spilled over it. L. on a clear piece of glass. Let the solution cool to about 110 deg. pulverized and applied. With a great deal of care the coins may be made to fall without disturbing the water. Place a number of nickels or dimes on the table near the glass and ask your spectators how many coins can be put into the water without making it overflow. Tightening Cane in Furniture [230] Split cane. The next morning there was no trace of oil. the parts being hinged to a crosspiece fastened to a long broom handle. When dry. No doubt the reply will be that the water will run over before two coins are dropped in. then dissolving in 3-1/2 oz.. Mounting Photo Prints on Glass [231] Photograph prints can be mounted on glass with an adhesive made by soaking 1 oz. A beautifully bound book. which has been tried out several times with success.Removing Grease Stains from the Leaves of a Book [230] Happening to get a grease spot on a page of a valuable book. but only an odor which soon vanished. . take a damp cloth or soft sponge and wipe off any surplus gelatine on the glass. Illinois. Ind. well calcined and powdered. of sheet gelatine in cold water to saturation. as shown. I found a way to remove it without injury to the paper. and quite new. and the grease will disappear. but not running over. face down. Indianapolis. Dropping Coins in a Glass Full of Water [231] Take a glass and fill it to the brim with water. the surface of which will become more and more convex before the water overflows. Chicago. taking care that the surface of the water is raised a little above the edge of the glass.

set and thumbscrews. 2 in. If properly adjusted. This coaster is simple and easy to make. and should be about 1 by 1-1/2 in. New York. It is constructed of a good quality of pine. soft steel with the opening 6 in.. Tarrytown. the pieces . The pieces marked S are single. 6 in. The U-shaped clamps are made of 3/4-in. --Contributed by Geo. long. deep and 5 in. The skate runner is adjusted to the proper height by 1/2-in.Hollow-Grinding Ice Skates [231] The accompanying sketch illustrates a practical method of clamping ice skates to hold them for grinding the small arc of a circle so much desired. wide and 12 in. Howe. A.. thick. true and uniform which will hold on the ice sideways and not retard the forward movement. a slight concave or hollow can be made full length of the runner. How to Make a Bicycle Coasting Sled [231] The accompanying drawing and sketch illustrate a new type of coasting sled built on the bicycle principle. The block Skate Runner Fastened in Clamp of wood holding the clamp and skate can be pushed along on the emery-wheel table in front of the revolving wheel. says Scientific American. high and are bolted to a block of wood.

even if one is not skilled in the work of forming them all in accordance with the rules. A footrest is provided consisting of a short crosspiece secured to the front of the frame and resting on the two lower slats. which drops down between the two top slats and is secured with a pin. they will look remarkably uniform. Coasting The runners are shod with iron and are pivoted to the uprights as shown. Spelling Names with Photo Letters [232] There are. many amateur photographers who make only occasional trips afield or through the more traveled thoroughfares with their cameras during the winter months. Illustrated herewith is something different from the album or photographic calendar. no doubt. The best method is to use a good pair of scissors or a sharp knife. E. to the underside of which is a block. Many combinations can be made of these letter pictures to spell out the recipient's name or the season's greeting. and should be 1/2 by 1-1/2 in. The seat is a board. a smooth board and a straightedge are all the tools needed. with a short bolt through each pair as shown. albums and the like. A sharp knife. If the letters are all cut the same height. double pieces being secured to the uprights to make a fork. Each one is generally interested in working up the negatives that he or she made during the summer or on that last vacation into souvenir post cards. Be sure to have the prints a little larger than the letters to insure a sufficient margin in trimming. so as to have a white margin around the finished letters.Has the Lines of a Bicycle marked D are double or in duplicate. says Camera Craft. During the holidays the letters may be made from winter scenes . The frame and front fork are hinged together with four short eyebolts. The letters forming part of the word POPULAR are good examples of this work. for sending to friends. Their size depends on the plate used. The masks which outline the letters are cut from the black paper in which plates come packed.

If they are now placed in a light falling from the side and slightly in front. What the printer calls black face letters are the most suitable. they can be trimmed to a uniform black line all around. do not forget to cut out a piece to correspond to the center. and then arrange them in the desired order to spell out the name or greeting. This piece can be placed on the printing paper after the outline mask has been laid down. Holding a Loose Screw [233] A piece of sheet lead put on each side of a screw will fill up and hold the threads in a too large hole. Still another suggestion is to cut out the letters. mount them on short pieces of corks. The puzzle is to get . The prints are no more difficult to make than the ordinary kind. and. but with flowers interspersed and forming a background. each letter will cast a shadow upon the background. A third means of securing a novel effect by photographing down an arrangement of the letters is to have them cut out in stiff form as in the last method. trim the card even with the bottoms of the letters. using care to get it in the right position. and then photograph both the letters and their reflections so as to nicely fill a post card. A Checker Board Puzzle [233] Place eight checker men upon the checker board as shown in the first row in the sketch. Another application of the letters in copying is to paste them on a white card as before." An Easter greeting may have more spring-like subjects and a birthday remembrance a fitting month. these letter pictures can be made with a black border. and using these as a mask for a second printing after printing the full size of the negatives. and closing the frame carefully so that the small piece will not be disturbed. for example. in turn fastened to a white card forming the background. The letters should be of the kind to give as large an area of surface to have as much of the picture show as possible. the greeting so spelled out makes a most unique souvenir. So arranged. photographing them down to the desired size. So made. mounted on a white card and photographed down to post card size. the letters will stand out from the card about 1/2 in.to spell "A Merry Christmas" or "A Happy New Year. Letters Made from photographs By cutting the letters out of black paper in a solid form. and in the finished print the letters will look as if suspended in the air in front of the surface of the card. stand the strip of card on a mirror laid flat on a table. after. In cutting out an 0. pasting the prints on some thin card.

Placing the Checkers them in four piles of two men each without omitting to jump over two checker men every time a move is made. By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week. when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit. N. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes. The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. with the longest end outside. then place a coin between the second and third fingers of the right hand. so they will lie horizontal. Bayley. G. The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves. then jump 3 over 4 and 6 on 7 and the positions will appear as shown in the third row. The first move is to jump 5 over 4 and 3 on 2 which is shown in the second row.-Contributed by I. says the American Thresherman. squeezes along past the center of the tube. hung on pivots. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion. A Home-Made Rabbit Trap [233] Rabbit in the Trap A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. the tube righting itself at once for another catch.Changing a Button into a Coin [234] Place a button in the palm of the left hand.J. jump 1 over 2 and 5 on 4 to get the men placed like the fourth row and the last move is to jump 8 over 3 and 7 on 6 which will make the four piles of two men each as shown in the fifth row. of its top. Cape May Point. Old-Time Magic . snow or anything to hide it. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. A hole 6 or 7 in. He smells the bait. long that will just fit are set in. Keep the right hand faced down and the left hand .

saying that you are rubbing a button into a coin. allowing the coin to drop into the left hand. then expose again. Buttonhole Trick [234] This trick is performed with a small stick having a loop attached that is too small for the stick to pass through. Pull back the cloth and you have the string looped in the hole with a hitch the same as if the stick had been passed through the string. The stick may be removed by pulling up the loop as if you were passing the stick through it. E. Y. Spread out the string and place it each side of the buttonhole. stop quick and Making the Change the button will go up the right-hand coat sleeve. Stamps removed in this way will have a much better appearance when placed in an album. Brooklyn. With a quick motion bring the left hand under the right. or rub the hands a little before doing so. Rhode Island. Idaho. Szerlip. Parker. Dry the stamps between two white blotters. --Contributed by Charles Graham. so as to conceal the coin and expose the button. Imitation Arms and Armor PART I [235] . How to Remove Paper from Stamps [234] Old stamps as they are purchased usually have a part of the envelope from which they are taken sticking to them and in removing this paper many valuable stamps are torn or ruined. Press the hands together. Place all the stamps that are stuck to pieces of envelopes in hot water and in a short time they can be separated without injury. N. --Contributed by L. pulling up the cloth and passing the stick through the hole as before. Pocatello. Pawtucket. then spread the string. then draw the cloth around the hole through the string until it is far enough to pass the stick through the hole. --Contributed by L.faced up. putting the stick in the hole and leaving the string on the outside.

The cross guard is flat and about 1 in. in building up his work from the illustrations. Cut out the wood with a scroll saw or a keyhole saw. tapering down to 1-1/2 in. are very expensive and at the present time practically impossible to obtain. Quickly paint the blade well with thin glue on one side. and will thereby greatly add to their interest and value. put on the wider strip of tinfoil and glue the overlapping edge and press it around and on the surface of the narrow strip. The cross guard is cut out and a hole made in the center through which to pass the handle end of the blade. so that where names are given the amateur can so label them. Several ridges are cut around the handle to permit a firm grip. The width of the blade near the handle is about 2-1/2 in. long. and allowing a few inches more in length on which to fasten the handle. the ridges around the wood may be imitated by gluing and tacking on pieces of small rope. or a complete suit of armor. whether he requires a single sword only. The handle is then mortised to receive the 1 by 2-in. and if carefully made. end of the blade. The cross guard must be covered with tinfoil in the same manner as the blade. as used by the knights and soldiers in the days of old. long with a handle of sufficient length to be grasped by both hands. full size. An executioners' sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 1 Fig.. says the English Mechanic. remove the surplus with a sharp knife and paint the handle with brown. thick. The blade should be about 27 in. 1. The drawings are so plain that the amateur armorer should have very little difficulty. When the glue is thoroughly dry. narrower. if any.. When the whole is quite dry. Mark out the shape and size of the blade on a piece of wood 1/8 in. then the hole in the handle is well glued with glue that is not too thick and quite hot. The end for the handle is cut about 1 in.Genuine antique swords and armor. or designs in this article are from authentic sources. The blade with the cross guard is inserted in the handle and allowed to set. then lay evenly and press on the narrow strip of tinfoil. wipe the blade . The blade is covered with tinfoil to give it the appearance of steel. using a straightedge and a pencil. Secure some pieces of tinfoil and cut one strip 1/2 in. 2 Fig. trim the edges down thin and smooth both surfaces with fine sandpaper. wide and 2 in. they will look very much like the genuine article. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. 4 on the blade. Glue the other side of the blade. 3 Fig. and if the amateur does not possess a lathe on which to turn the shape of the handle. near the point end. The handle is next made. dark red. The accompanying illustration shows four designs of swords that anyone can make. in width. The pieces. or green oil paint. The cross guard is now glued and placed Fig.

in the widest part at the lower end. drive together and then plane off the triangular corners marked A. This sword is about 68 in. the width near the pommel 1-1/2 in. and finish by fastening with a little glue and a small tack driven through the cord into the handle. of course. long. The enamel paint sold in small tins will answer well for this purpose. 1. using a soft and dry piece of cloth. in diameter. the other is flat or halfround. take two pieces of wood. the other is flat or half-round. The length of the handle. the lines marking the path of the dovetail through the stick. Cut the dovetail on one end of each stick as shown in Fig. The pommel is a circular piece of wood. 2. This sword is made in wood the same as described for Fig. 4. the length of the blade 28 in. should be about 9 in. square and of any length desired. the other two are identical. The sharp edge is on the longer curved side. The handle of this sword is oval and covered with plaited cord. The handle is painted a dull creamy white in imitation of ivory. such as cherry and walnut or mahogany and boxwood. The ball or pommel on top of the handle is steel. the illustration. thick and 5 in. allowing for a good hold with both hands.. about 1-1/2 in. 3. 1. The sword is then ready to hang in its chosen place as a decoration. A Chinese scimitar is shown in Fig. The joint is separable and each part is solid and of one piece. not for use only in cases of tableaux. 1. If it is found difficult to plait the cord on the handle as in the illustration. and 3 in. wind it around in a continuous line closely together. A Dovetail Joint Puzzle [236] A simple but very ingenious example in joinery is illustrated. except that the handle has to be covered with a round black cord. 2. In making. 1/8 in. A Turkish sabre of ancient manufacture from Constantinople is shown in Fig.. Fig. The cross guard and blade are covered as described in Fig. In the finished piece. The sharp or cutting edge is only on the short side. Both edges of the blade are sharp. the dovetail appears on each side of the square stick of How the Joint Is Cut wood. as it is . In making this scimitar. preferably of contrasting colors. for which this article will be especially useful to those who are arranging living pictures wherein swords and armor are part of the paraphernalia. follow the directions as for Fig. The end of each piece after the dovetails are cut appear as shown in Fig. A two-handed sword used in the 14th and 15th centuries is shown in Fig.with light strokes up and down several times. shows only two sides. has a cross guard and blade of steel with a round wood handle painted black. 1. 3. Radiator Water [236] Pure rain water is the best to use in a cooling system of an automobile engine.

Mass. thick and from 14 to 16 ft. long and with the lower ends drilled to fit the horizontal of the U-shaped rod. at the lower end. Morse. Several punches of different sizes and shapes will be needed. as can the pitch bed or block. about 3/8 in. The violent sneezing caused the button to be blown out. Brass Frame in Repoussé [237] Punches can be purchased. being dressed down thin at one end and fastened. It is made of a plank. The accompanying sketch shows the method of constructing a springboard that does not depend upon the bending of the wood for its spring. A piece of mild steel. are fastened two pieces of strap iron. Fasten this to the plank with bolts. piping and jackets by hard water. had caused the button to be pushed farther up the channel. this method can be used to relieve the child when medical assistance is not at hand. took a pinch of snuff between the thumb and forefinger and held it close to the child's nose. and if so. in an attempt to remove it. --Contributed by John Blake. Syracuse. N. Such an accident may come under the observation of any parent. --Contributed by Katharine D.free from the mineral substances which are deposited in the radiator. The distracted mother happened to think of snuff. The boards are generally made so that the plank will bend. Doctors probed for the button without success. Both can be made easily. however. can be easily worked into tools shaped as desired. as there was some at hand. 2 in. Franklin. or an insecure fastening. long. causes many a plank to snap in two or come loose from its fastenings in a short time. Buggy Springs Used beneath the Board Taking Button from a Child's Nostril [237] A three-year-old child snuffed a button up its nostril and the mother. Should the springs be too high they can be moved forward. Y. one end of which is secured with a hinge arrangement having a U-shaped rod whose ends are held with nuts. each about 1 ft. A cold . square. On each edge of the board. Secure a pair of light buggy springs from a discarded rig and attach them to the ends of a square bar of iron having a length equal to the width of the plank. Springboard for Swimmers [237] A good springboard adds much to the fun of swimming. and. as shown in the sketch. The thinness of the plank.

Next drill a hole in the center waste and saw out for the opening. Trim up the edges and file them . turn the metal over and "touch up" any places improperly raised. heat the pitch slightly and place the metal.. With carbon paper trace the design on the brass. 5 lb. Keep stirring the mass so that it never boils. plaster of Paris. a file to reduce the ends to shape. Place the metal on the pitch bed and work over the outline of the design. and with the raising punches work up the shape as desired after the pitch has hardened. use pitch and plaster in equal parts with 1/10 part tallow. place a board on the metal and pound until the metal assumes a flat shape again. on the pitch.. tallow. using a small metal saw. When this has been done. The illustration shows an iron receptacle. Use the chisel-edged tool and try to Working Out The Design make the lines continuous. The metal will probably be warped somewhat. A small metal box must be secured to hold the pitch. To remedy this. secure a piece of brass of about No. 1/2 Design for the Frame lb. Melt the pitch first and add the plaster by degrees. 5 lb. When the desired form has been obtained. 18 gauge. and a piece of emery paper to smooth and polish the end of the tool so that it will not scar the metal. For a piece of repoussé such as the frame shown. To put it in another way.chisel will be needed to cut the metal to length. design down. The pitch is prepared by heating the following materials in these proportions: pitch. See that the pitch and plaster are dry so that the moisture will not cause the pitch to boil over.

using powdered pumice with lye. Mark the position of the weight and start the motor. Next measure accurately the distance in feet covered by the weight in its ascent and obtain the correct weight in pounds of the weight. This may be applied to the problem of finding the horsepower of a motor by fastening a piece of twine about 25 ft.smooth. in one second. --Contributed by Harold H. or 550 ft. Place the screen on top of the vessels so that the swing will hang in the center of the inner vessel. Clean the metal thoroughly. which divided by 1/6 gives 180. and hang a bird swing. This in turn divided by 33. Fasten a weight to the other end of the line as heavy as the motor or engine can lift and still run. space between the vessels with water. Cut a piece of galvanized screen into circular form to cover the larger vessel. Moss should be put over the top of the screen so that the two separate vessels can not be seen. Perhaps an illustration will make this solution much plainer.000 equals in round numbers 1/200 part of a horsepower. 3. 30 ft. make an unusual show window attraction. Horsepower is the rate of work and a unit is equal to 33. Fill the 3-in. Secure two glass vessels having straight sides of the same height. over the smaller vessel. It is comparatively easy to determine the horsepower put out by almost any machine by the following method which is intended for small battery motors and small steam engines. per second. That is lifting 33. in diameter (Fig. These should be placed before the metal is lacquered. 1) and the other 12 in. long to the shaft of the engine or motor to be tested in such a way that when the shaft revolves it will wind up the string similar to a windlass. it may be well to know what horsepower means. living together in what seems like one receptacle. but not to stop it. in 10 seconds or 1/6 of a minute. Suppose the motor will lift a weight of 1 lb. Before giving the description.000 lb. the bottoms being covered with moss and aquarium decorations which can be purchased at a bird store. and still revolve. . in diameter (Fig. The smaller is placed within the larger.000 and the quotient will be the horsepower of the motor or engine. at the same time accurately measuring time in minutes and seconds it takes to lift the weight from the lowest point to the highest. 1 ft. It must weigh enough to slow the power down a little. one 18 in. 1 ft. in one minute or 550 lb. Fig. lb. Illusion for Window Attraction [239] Gold fish and canary birds. to keep it from floating. per minute. in the center. Multiplying 1 by 30 we get 30. Upon the cleansed metal put a lacquer to prevent tarnishing. or fraction of a horsepower. Finding the Horsepower of Small Motors [238] A small motor often excites curiosity as to its true horsepower. Cutter. Metal clips may be soldered to the back to hold the picture in place and also a metal strip to hold the frame upright. Guesses in this direction vary remarkably for the same motor or engine. Multiply the weight by the distance covered and divide the result by the number of minutes or fraction of a minute obtained and divide this last result by 33.000 ft. A weight--a box filled with sand will do--should be placed on top of the screen. Cotton batting fastened to the end of a stick will make a good brush. lb. A. 2). Place the motor in such a position that the twine will hang freely without touching anything: out of a high window will do.

Campbell. It is best to mix only as much paste as required for immediate use. --Contributed. or on a pedestal. Brooklyn. Y. N.3 Fig.18 in. Cleaner for White Shoes [239] Finely ground whiting mixed with water to the consistency of paste makes a very good coating for white shoes. Diameter Fig. 1 Fig. Crossing Belt Laces [239] Belt laces should never cross on the side next to the pulley as they will cut themselves in two. 2 Fig. The effect is surprising.4 Birds and Fish Apparently Together Place the birds in the inner vessel and the fish in the water. How to Make a Candlestick Holder [240] A candlestick of very simple construction and design can be made as follows: Secure a piece of brass or Candle Holder Complete . Diameter 12 in. A brush can be used in applying the mixture which will dry in a few minutes. Szerlip. Mass. To complete the effect and aid the illusion the vessels can be set in a box lined with black velvet. by L. F. Somerville. --Contributed by J.

and then. Details of Candle Holder A Home-Made Duplicator [240] The usual gelatine pad. A sheet of newspaper is laid upon the pad and a round stick or pencil is passed over it to make the surface level and smooth. Trim the sharp corners off slightly. which. Use a file to smooth all the cut edges so that they will not injure the hands. also a pair of tin shears and a piece of metal upon which to rivet. to keep the metal from tarnishing. as it is apt to sour and mold in the summer and freeze in the winter. Rivet the cup to the base. and the clay . then by drawing a straightedge over it.copper of No. 23 gauge of a size sufficient to make the pieces detailed in the accompanying sketch. is. The surface of the pad is now saturated with pure glycerine. Cut out a piece of metal for the base to a size of 5-1/2 by 5-1/2 in. The manner of making and fastening the handle is clearly illustrated. From 50 to 75 copies of the original can be made in a short time. after which it is ready for use. Draw a pencil line all around the margin and 5/8 in. as a rule. With the pliers shape the sides as shown in the illustration. often render it useless after a few months service. This is poured upon the surface after it is slightly warmed. Remove the newspaper and place the original copy face down on the leveled surface and smooth it out in the same way so that every part touches the pad. In riveting. for the tray may be dropped and the pad dented or cut into pieces. shape the sides as shown in the photograph. covering the same and then laying a cloth over the pad and allowing it to stand long enough for the clay to absorb the glycerine. with other defects. This compound is impervious to water. unsatisfactory. Polish both of these pieces. A good lacquer should be applied after the parts have been properly cleaned and polished. This clay is as easily worked as a putty and is spread into the tray. Do not be content merely to bend them over. A riveting hammer and a pair of pliers will be needed. care should be taken to round up the heads of the rivets nicely as a good mechanic would. which may be of wood or tin. the same as removing writing from a slate. keeping the center high. using any of the common metal polishes. and cut out the shape with the shears. A compound that is almost indestructible is the preparation sold at art stores as modeling clay. so the negative print is removed by simply washing with a damp sponge. The original copy is written with a copying pencil or typewritten through a hectograph ribbon. with the pliers. Remove the copy in about five minutes and place the clean sheets of paper one after another on the surface and remove them. The action of the weather has no effect upon this compound and it is proof against accident. This rounding is easily accomplished by striking around the rivets' outer circumference. Next lay out the holding cup according to the plan of development shown. and the surface leveled by pounding with a mallet or hammer. which is the principal part of the average hectograph or duplicator. This makes it possible to place another original on the pad immediately without waiting for the ink to vanish by chemical action as in the original hectograph. away from the edge.

It consists of a rubber connecting tube with two flat pieces of wood clamped over the center and adjusted with screws. The apparatus is started by clamping the rubber tube tightly and then exhausting the air in the siphon tube. Mich. then placing the end in the upper reservoir and releasing the clamp until the water begins to drop. Aerating Water in a Small Tank [241] A simple way of producing air pressure sufficient to aerate water is by the use of a siphon as shown in Fig. Northville. The siphon is made of glass tubes. the device will work for an indefinite time. Grand Rapids. The clip and card can be kept together by piercing the card and bending the ends of the wire to stick through the holes. The air receiver and regulating device are attached to the top end of the lower tube. Dunlop. The clip is attached to a page as shown in the sketch. If the reservoir is kept filled from the tank. The ends of these tubes should be so adjusted that the continuous drops of water from the upper will fall into the tube below. 2. Houghton. The only caution is to keep it covered with a cloth saturated in glycerine while not in use. in diameter and 5 in. The succession of air bubbles thus imprisoned are driven down the tube and into the tank below. The regulator is placed in the tube or siphon above the air receiver. --Contributed by John T. The receiver or air inlet is the most important part. the longer pieces being bent on one end as shown. Its purpose is to retard the flow of water from the siphon above and make it drop rapidly. Shettleston. -Contributed by Thos. Scotland. 3/4 in. DeLoof.can be pressed back and leveled. as shown in Fig. A. --Contributed by A. A hole is filed or blown through one side of the glass for the admission of air. The ends of the smaller glass tubes are passed through corks having a diameter to fit the ends of this larger tube. . 1. It is made of a glass tube. long. Mich. Paper-Clip Bookmark [241] The combination of a paper clip and a calling card makes a good bookmark.

The following described arms are authentic designs of the original articles.2 Forcing Air Through Water Imitation Arms and Armor-Part II [242] Imitation swords. As the handle is to . will look well if they are arranged on a shield which is hung high up on a wall of a room or hall. allowing a little extra length on which to fasten the handle.FIG. London. stilettos and battle-axes. long. The extra length for the handle is cut about 1 in. Cut the sword out with a saw and make both edges thin like a knife blade and smooth up with sandpaper. This sword is 4 ft.1 FIG. says the English FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 Three Fifteenth Century Swords Mechanic. 1. in width and 2 in. put up as ornaments. thick with the aid of a straightedge and pencil. long with the crossguard and blade of steel. A German sword of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The handle is next carved and a mortise cut in one end to receive the handle end of the blade. The imitation sword is made of wood and covered with tinfoil to produce the steel color. The shape of the sword is marked out on a piece of wood that is about 1/8 in.

The blade is cut from a piece of 1/4in. long with wood handle and steel embossed blade. which is about 2-1/2 ft. 11 were used. 9. These must be cut from pieces of wood. 5. 8. remove all the surplus with a sharp knife. Both handle and axe are of steel. studded with brass or steel nails. 7. and gradually shaping off to the middle of the axe by the use of a chisel. A large screw-eye must be inserted in this ball. Fill the hole in the handle with glue and put it on the blade. paint it a dark brown or black. wipe the blade up and down several times with light strokes using a soft rag. Three large. 6. 3 is shown a claymore. Another poniard of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig. The crossguard must be covered in the same manner as the blade. The crossbar and blade are steel. Sheets of tinfoil are secured for covering the blade. in width. The blade and crossbar are in imitation steel. The blade and ornamental crossbar is of steel. firmly glued on. very broad. A German stiletto. steel crossbar and blade of steel with both edges sharp. sometimes called cuirass breakers. The thick hammer side of the axe is built up to the necessary thickness to cover the handle by gluing on pieces of wood the same thickness as used for the blade. allowing equal margin of tinfoil to overlap the edges of the blade. Cover the ball with some pieces of linen. Stick the wider strip on the other side in the same way. The rope is finished by covering with tinfoil. then glued on the blade as shown. with both edges of the blade sharp. This weapon is about 1 ft. glue and put it in place. finishing with sandpaper and covering with tinfoil. At the beginning of the sixteenth century horseman's battle-axes shaped as shown in Fig. Cut two strips of tinfoil. string.represent copper. In Fig. with wire or string' bound handle. The sword shown in Fig. A large screw-eye is screwed into the top of the handle. This stiletto has a wood handle. This sword is about 4 ft. Some short and heavy spike-headed nails are driven into the ball to give it the appearance shown in the illustration. A steel band is placed around the handle near the top. The ball is made as described in Fig. the lower part painted black and the upper part covered with tinfoil. 2 is a two-handed Swiss sword about 4 ft. the axe is of steel. in length. long and has a wood handle bound closely around with heavy cord. A screw-eye is screwed into the upper end. or Scottish sword of the fifteenth century. round-headed brass or iron nails fixed into the front side of the handle will complete the axe. 8 is shown a short-handled flail. The spiked ball may be made of wood or clay. small rope and round-headed nails. the upper part iron or steel. Quickly cover one side of the blade with a thin coat of glue and evenly lay on and press down the narrow strip of tinfoil. the ornamentations can be built up of wire. The imitation of the steel band is made by gluing a piece of tinfoil on a strip of cardboard and tacking it to the handle. The lower half of the handle is of wood. Glue the overlapping edges and press them around on the surface of the narrow strip. A German poniard is shown in Fig. A sixteenth century German poniard is shown in Fig. The whole handle can be made of wood in one piece. When the whole is quite dry. sharp edges on both sides. the same as used on the end of the handle. The round part is made thin and sharp on the edge. Cut this out of a piece of wood and make a center hole to fit over the extra length on the blade. A Russian knout is shown in Fig. This weapon is also about 1 ft. 10 is shown a Sclavonic horseman's battle-axe which has a handle of wood painted dark gray or light brown. leaving a small peg at the end and in the center about the size of a No. 4. long with a dark handle of wood. 20 spike. narrower. sharp on both edges with a handle of dark wood around which is wound spirally a heavy piece of brass or copper wire and held in place with round-headed brass nails. When the glue is thoroughly dry. and both eyes connected with a small piece of rope twisted into shape. This axe is made similar to the one . The handle is of wood. with both edges sharp. is shown in Fig. In Fig. When dry. A length of real iron or steel chain is used to connect the handle with the ball. In Fig. The spikes in the ball are about 1 in. The pegs are glued and inserted into holes drilled into the ball. one about 1/2 in. in length. long. The crossbar is flat and about 1 in. The projecting ornament in the center of the crossguard may be cut from heavy pasteboard and bent into shape. wood with a keyhole saw. which can be imitated by covering a piece of wood that is properly shaped with tinfoil. wider than the blade and the other 1/4 in. the whole finally having a thin coat of glue worked over it with a stiff bristle brush and finished with bronze paint.

Old-Time Magic . together as shown in Fig. will last until the wrapping member is worn through without being weakened. 10. W. When the woodwork is finished the handle and axe are covered with tinfoil.The Growing Flower [244] This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. If an earthen jar of this kind is not at hand. Davis. such as braided fishline. Ancient Weapons How to Make a Round Belt Without Ends [243] A very good belt may be made by laying several strands of strong cord. and as the tension members are all protected from wear. so the contents cannot be seen. --Contributed by E. use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper. When wrapped all the way around. . the ends are tied and cut off. 2. 1 and wrapping them as Method of Forming the Belt shown in Fig. This will make a very good flexible belt.described in Fig. will pull where other belts slip. Chicago. high.

--Contributed by A. The liquid turned into the glass will become red like wine. The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends. An iron nail cannot be used again in putting on a new roof. Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen. causing the flowers to grow. in a few seconds' time. Repeat both parts in the same order then begin to pour the liquids contained in the tumblers back into the pitcher in the order reversed and the excess of acid will neutralize the alkali and cause it to lose its color and in the end the pitcher will contain a colorless liquid. N. These wires are put in the jar. Set the tumblers so you will know which is which and proceed as follows: Take hold of a prepared tumbler with the left hand and pour from the pitcher. add a few drops of the phenolphthalein to the water in the pitcher and rub a small quantity of the alkali solution on the sides of two of the tumblers and repeat. 1 and put together as in Fig. Solid zinc nails last forever and can be used as often as necessary. Bridgeton.J. with the circle centrally located. the cost of zinc nails is only about 2-1/2 times that of iron nails. Water and Wine Trick [244] This is an interesting trick based on the chemical properties of acids and alkalies. The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward. held in the right hand. about one-third the way down from the top. S. filled with water. apparently. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers. only using as large a quantity of the acid as will escape notice on the remaining tumblers. The materials needed are: One glass pitcher. four glass tumblers. -Contributed by Kenneth Weeks. pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth. some of the liquid. Calif. 2. Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end. The dotted lines in Fig. an acid. Set this full tumbler aside and take the pitcher in the left hand and pour some of the liquid in one of the tumblers containing the acid as it is held in the right hand. Cheap Nails are Expensive [244] The life of iron shingle nails is about 6 years. an alkali and some phenolphthalein solution which can be obtained from your local druggist. or using small wedges of wood. There will be no change in color. As zinc is much lighter than iron. To make the flowers grow in an instant. Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork. Oakland. Cutting Lantern Slide Masks [245] . Macdonald.Flower Grows Instantly Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. Before the performance.

says a correspondent of Photo Era. Cal. the scratching noise sometimes heard and the forcing of the needle into a soft record. The accompanying drawing shows a way to mark masks which is simple. not only because of the fact just mentioned.It has long been a puzzle to me why round cornered masks are almost invariably used for lantern slides. place the guide over a piece of black mask paper and prick through the proper intersections with the point of a pin. This outlines the desired opening. unless some special device is used. 2 for height. which may then be cut out easily with a knife and straight edge. A. Form for Marking Out Rectangular Lantern Slide Masks Relieving the Weight of a Talking Machine Reproducer [245] Too loud reproduction from a record. The drawing is exactly lantern slide size. and equally worthy of individual treatment. so that masking a slide becomes just as important as trimming a print. Jaquythe. Certainly the present commercial masks are in very poor taste. when most works of art are included within rectangular spaces. because the extension arm and reproducer are too heavy. but also because he can suit the size of the opening to the requirements of each slide. This will be determined by the intersection of the ruled lines. and kept ready for use at any time. --Contributed by W. Lay the slide over such a guide and note the size of the opening best suited to the picture. If the size wanted is No. When many slides are to be masked. it becomes tedious work to treat each one separately. practical and costs nothing. can be remedied in the following manner: Attach a small ring to the under side of the horn and use a rubber band to lift the extending arm slightly. Richmond. It should be cut up in pieces 3-1/4 by 4 in. How to Make a Thermometer Back in Etched Copper [246] . which are numbered for convenience in working. Slides can be works of art just as much as prints. The worker who wishes to make the most of every slide will do well to cut his own masks. The black paper from plate boxes and film rolls is excellent for making masks. 4 for width and No. It is folly to give each slide a mask opening of uniform size and shape.

the mixture being made by pouring the acid into the water. With a small brush and ordinary asphaltum or black varnish. the margin and the entire back of the metal. When etched to the desired depth. The worker may change the outline or proportions as desired. Finish the cleaning by scrubbing with turpentine and a brush having stiff bristles. The asphaltum is to keep the acid into which the metal is to be immersed later from eating any part of the metal but the background. a little less acid than water. The acid bath is composed of nitric acid and water. Cut out the outline with metal shears and file the edges smooth. is about right for the No. These colors fade away in the course of a long time. and do not inhale the fumes. take the metal out of the acid occasionally and examine it to see how deep the acid has eaten it—1/32 in. A line is drawn down the paper and one-half of the outline and decoration worked out. remove the piece and with an old knife' scrape off the asphaltum. a piece of carbon paper is inserted between the folds and the design transferred on the inner surfaces by tracing with a pencil over the half of the outline previously drawn. but they can be easily revived. The essential thing is to keep a space upon which to place the thermometer. Put the asphalt-coated metal in the bath and allow it to remain for four or five hours. paint the design. The one shown is merely suggestive. The decoration. With a stick. Draw a design. If the metal is first covered with turpentine and then heated over a flame. the paper is folded along the center line. Keep this solution off the hands and clothes. or a pair of old tongs. When this coat has dried put on a second and then a third. Trace the design and outline upon the metal. In the design shown the extreme width is 3-1/2 in. or. depending upon the thickness of the metal and the strength of the acid. using the carbon paper. all the colors of the rainbow will appear on its surface. not the water into the acid. too.Etching copper is not a very difficult process. and the extreme length 7 in. Secure a sheet of No. about half and half. 16 gauge. possibly. which is dangerous. may be changed. Another way to get these colors is to heat the metal and then . 16 gauge copper of the width and length Copper Thermometer Holder wanted for the back of the thermometer. This design is in what is known as two-part symmetry. Two coats or more are needed to withstand the action of the acid. This done.

and these in turn put through holes punched in the copper back. as shown in the illustration. Purchase a dozen or so battery electric bells (they are cheaper if bought by the dozen) and screw them to the board. and bore two holes. A. They have holes through their top and bottom ends through which metal paper fasteners can be inserted. A green finish is obtained by painting the background with an acid stain composed as follows: 1 part ammonia muriate.plunge it into the acid bath quickly. (battery posts will do) and put them through the holes as in Fig. long. Fig. punch a hole through it and put in under post E. as shown in Fig. --Contributed by Vincent de Ybarrondo. repeat as many times as is necessary. Buttons for the bells may be purchased. about 3 ft. L is the carbon wire running from the batteries to I. 1. to the table. C and D. Cut out a piece of tin. If one coat does not give the depth of color desired. 24 parts water. 5. The connections are simple: I. Then get two posts. 3 parts ammonia carbonate. wide and of the same length as the table. and about 2-1/2 ft. Nail or screw the buttons to the table. about 1 in. is a wire running from one end of the table to the other end. so that when it is pressed down. allowing each coat time to dry before applying the next. 0 indicates the batteries. the bell will ring. wide. high. with the wires underneath. it will touch post F. about 8 in. about 2-1/2 in. To Make an Electric Piano [247] Make or buy a table. but it is cheaper to make them in the following way: Take a piece of wood and cut it round. J is another wire attached in the same way. in diameter and 1/4 in. 2. Nail a board. apply a coat of banana oil or lacquer. Bore two holes near the posts of each bell for the wires to pass through. long and 1 ft. It may be either nailed or screwed down. 2. R is a wire running from I to one post of the bell. through it. thick. Fig. as in Fig. or more wide. Arrange the bells in the scale shown at B. M is the zinc wire running from the batteries to wire J. P is a wire running from J to one post of a button. Thermometers of suitable size can be bought in either brass or nickel. Fig. 5. To "fix" this color so that it will not rub off. Paint the table any color desired. Each button should be connected with its bell in the same way. and to keep the metal from tarnishing. 4. How the Electric Piano is Constructed Make two holes in the table for each button and its wires. 3/8 in. Q is another wire running from the other post of the button to one of the posts of the bell. 3. attached to a post at each end. Fig. Fig. When the button S is pressed. . as at H. 2.

the shield put on in place and handle parts put together and left for the glue to set. The two bands or wings can be made by gluing two pieces of rope around the handle and fastening it with tacks. long. Cut the handle and spike from one piece of wood and glue the wings on at equal distances apart around the base of the spike. A thin coat of glue is quickly applied to the surface of the wood and the tinfoil laid on evenly so there will be no wrinkles and without making any more seams than is necessary. The circle is marked out with a compass. the wood peg inserted in one of them. Secure some tinfoil to cover the parts in imitation of steel. remove all the surplus that has been pressed out from the joints with the point of a sharp knife blade and then sandpaper the surface of the wood to make it smooth. The entire length of this weapon is about 24 in. handle and all. is to appear as steel. The head must have a pattern sketched upon each side in pencil marks. The circular piece or shield can be cut from a piece of wood about 1/4 in. long serves as the dowel. An English mace used about the middle of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The head is fastened on the end of the handle with a dowel in the same manner as putting the handle parts together. the octagonal head in one piece and the handle in two parts. the steel parts represented by tinfoil stuck on with glue and the ornaments carved out with a carving tool. These rings can be carved out. It will be easier to make this mace in three pieces. thick. 2.PART III [248] Maces and battle-axes patterned after and made in imitation of the ancient weapons which were used from the Ancient Weapons fourteenth to the sixteenth century produce fine ornaments for the hall or den. A hole is made through the center for the dowel of the two handle parts when they are put together. so that the circular shield shown at the lower end of the handle can be easily placed between the parts. A wood peg about 2 in. but they are somewhat difficult to make. The imitation articles are made of wood. The entire weapon. An engraved iron mace of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. 1. After the glue is dry. This weapon is about 22 in. A hole is bored in the end of both handle pieces and these holes well coated with glue. the handle is round with a four-sided sharp spike extending out from the points of six triangular shaped wings.. such as . mounted with an eight-sided or octagonal head.Imitation Arms and Armor . says the English Mechanic.

the base having a brad to stick into the ball. . with a sharp carving tool. The top has six ornamental carved wings which are cut out. All of these axes are about the same length. long. or pieces of heavy wire heated to burn out the pattern to the desired depth. fastened on the handle and covered with tinfoil. long and has a wood handle covered with dark red cloth or velvet. sharp-pointed and coneshaped. as shown. and firmly pressed into the engraved parts with the finger tips or thumb. studded with large brass or steel nails. The wood spikes are also covered with tinfoil. Figure 7 shows an English horseman's battle-axe used at the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. covered with red velvet. at the end of the fourteenth century is shown in Fig.ornamental scrolls. The ball may be made of clay or wood and covered with tinfoil. When the whole is finished and cleaned Battle Axes of the Fourteenth. the whole handle finished off with small brass-headed nails. 5. the hammer and spike. as described in Fig. 3. is shown in Fig. The handle is of wood and the axe in imitation steel. The axe is shown in steel. then the hammer put on the base of the spike. The handle is of steel imitation. with a golden or yellow cord wound spirally over the cloth. an excellent substitute will be found in using a sharp-pointed and redhot poker. The lower half of the handle is wood. leaves. it is covered with tinfoil in imitation of steel. etc. The spikes are cut out of wood. These ornaments must be carved out to a depth of about 1/4 in. Its length is about 3 ft. The spike made with a peg in its lower end and well glued. If such a tool is not at hand. 8. The handle and axe both are to be shown in steel. The handle also has a scroll to be engraved. A war hammer of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. The spiked ball and the four-sided and sharp-pointed spike are of steel. can be firmly placed in position by the peg fitting in a hole made for its reception in the top of the handle. also. The upper half of the handle is steel. A German foot soldier's poleaxe used. 6. the lower part to have a gold or red silk cord wound around it. covered in the middle with red cloth or velvet and studded with large-headed steel nails. Figure 4 shows a Morning Star which is about 26 in. Finish up the steel parts with tinfoil. flowers. The entire handle should be made of one piece. This weapon is about 22 in. The handle is made of dark wood and the axe covered with tinfoil. 2. Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries Up. The tinfoil should be applied carefully. The following described weapons can be constructed of the same materials and built up in the same way as described in the foregoing articles: A horseman's short-handled battle-axe. or the amateur cannot use it well. as before mentioned. A French mace used in the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. used at the end of the fifteenth century. The handle is of wood. Figure 9 shows an English foot soldier's jedburgh axe of the sixteenth century.

the knife resting on its back. 5. The plays are determined by the position of the knife after the fall. Each person plays until three outs have been made. A foul ball is indicated by Fig. --Contributed by Herbert Hahn. a three-base hit. calls for a home run. 1. as shown in Fig. 2. 6. The knife falling on its side (Fig. and so on for nine innings. . 4). A one-base hit is secured when the large blade and the end of the handle touch the board as in Fig. The small blade sticking in the board which holds the handle in an upright position. then the other plays. Both blades sticking in the board (Fig. A twobase hit is made when the large blade sticks in the board. 3. Fig. and with a quick upward movement of the forefinger it is thrown into the air to fall and land in one of the positions shown.Playing Baseball with a Pocket Knife [250] An interesting game of baseball can be played by two persons with a common pocket knife on a rainy day or in Positions of the Knife Indicate the Plays the winter time when the regular game cannot be played outdoors. as in Fig. Chicago. The knife is opened and loosely stuck into a board. 7) calls for one out.

The negative must be well washed after going through the solutions to take away any trace of hypo. of water for an hour or two. while the committee is tying him up. Campbell. The Invisible Light [251] The magician places two common wax candles on a table. one of them burning . Mass. sometimes a drop of moisture will cause the print to stick to the gelatine film on the glass. This he does. hypo to 1 pt. If it is spotted at all.A Sack Trick [251] The magician appears accompanied by his assistant. When they are satisfied that the bag or sack is all right. 3. He has a sack similar to a meal bag only on a large scale. as shown in Fig. which will remove the spots in a couple of hours. Sack Trick-Holding the Rope Inside the Bag The solution is when the assistant enters the bag he pulls in about 15 in. Remove as much of the paper as can be readily torn off and soak the negative in a fresh hypo bath of 3 or 4 oz. It may be found that the negative is not colored. He then selects several people from the audience as a committee to examine the sack to see that there is absolutely no deception whatever in its makeup. The bag with its occupant is placed in a small cabinet which the committee surround to see that there is no outside help. The magician then takes his watch and shows the audience that in less than 30 seconds his assistant will emerge from the cabinet with the sack in his hand.How to Remove Paper Stuck to a Negative [250] When making photographic prints from a negative. the magician places his assistant inside and drawing the bag around him he allows the committee to tie him up with as many knots as they choose to make. the negative must be washed for a few minutes and placed in a combined toning and fixing bath. as shown in Fig.-Contributed by J. 1. F. As soon as he is in the cabinet he merely lets out the slack thus making enough room for his body to pass through. 2. Somerville. the sack is again examined and found to be the same as when it was first seen. with the rope laced in the cloth. Then a little gentle rubbing with the finger-not the finger nail will remove anything adhering to the film. When he is out of the bag he quickly unties the knots and then steps from his cabinet. of the rope and holds it. Old-Time Magic . The upper end of this bag is shown in Fig.

Brown. The lantern must be arranged so that the lens will be on a horizontal line with the hole in the paper. . 4 oz. of turpentine. Members of the audience are allowed to inspect both the table and the candles. A Handy Drill Gauge [252] The accompanying sketch shows a simple drill gauge which will be found very handy for amateurs. Drill Gauge screw. The shades of the remaining windows are then drawn and the lantern is operated in the usual way. The magician walks over to the burning candle. the remaining space being covered by a piece of heavy paper.brightly. thus causing it to light. with a width and length that will be suitable for the size and number of drills you have on hand. A window facing the sun is selected and the shade is drawn almost down. showing that there is nothing between them. thick. Lebanon. Ky. of water and 1 oz.. and the audience gaze on and see nothing. bolt. 4 oz. 3/4 in. B. at the same time saying that he has a light between his hands. of sugar. the other without a light. Using the Sun's Light in a Magic Lantern [251] The light furnished with a small magic lantern does very well for evening exhibitions.Contributed by Andrew G. in plain sight of the audience lights the candle apparently with nothing. In reality the magician has a very fine wire in his hand which he is heating while he bends over the lighted candle. Ky. Evans. you take the gauge and find what size drill must be used in drilling the hole. A mirror is then placed just outside of the window and at such an angle that the beam of light is thrown through the hole in the paper and the lens of the lantern. Drill a hole through the wood with each drill you have and place a screw eye in one end to be used as a hanger. of plumbago. Louisville. with which he is going to light the other candle. shades the light for a few seconds. When you want to drill a hole for a pipe. Stove Polish [252] A good stove polish can be made by mixing together 1 lb. but the lantern can be used in the daytime with good results by directing sunlight through the lens instead of using the oil lamp. turns to the audience with his hands a few inches apart. invisible to them (the audience). Mix well and apply with a cloth or brush. New York City. and. The gauge consists of a piece of hard wood. A small hole is cut in the paper and the lantern placed on a table in front of the hole. Thome. He then walks over to the other candle. etc. --Contributed by C. --Contributed by L. the lamp having been removed and the back opened. He turns to the other candle and touches a grain of phosphorus that has been previously concealed in the wick with the heated wire.

Denniston. The cell is charged by placing the zinc in the paper tube and both placed into the tin can.A Home-Made Daniell Cell [252] An effective Daniell galvanic cell may be constructed from material costing very little money. Do not add water to the acid. Two liquids are necessary for the cell. This is necessary since the hour axis must point to the north pole of the heavens whose elevation above the horizon is equal to the latitude of the observer's . with a copper wire soldered at one end forms the negative electrode. or blotting paper. In making up the solution. N. A strong solution of common salt may be used in place of the oil of vitriol in the porous cup. into a tube of several thicknesses. thick. diameter. steady current. Connect the two wires and pour the dilute acid into the porous cell around the zinc. Its current strength is about one volt. but is not so good. Y. It is best to let the action continue for a half hour or so before putting the cell into use. A common tin tomato can with a copper wire soldered to the top forms the jar and positive electrode. To make the porous cell. A current generates at once and metallic copper begins to deposit on the inside of the can. A Home-Made Equatorial [253] By Harry Clark The ordinary equatorial is designed and built for the latitude of the observatory where it is to be used. about 5 in. 5 in. Tie the paper firmly to prevent unrolling and close up one end with plaster of paris 1/2 in. It is well to slightly choke the tube to better retain the plaster. The porous cup should always be emptied after using to prevent the diffusion of the blue vitriol solution into the cup. as otherwise the tin would be soon eaten full of holes. A piece of discarded stove zinc rolled into an open cylinder of about 1-1/2-in. and then immediately turn the blue vitriol solution into the can outside the paper cup. long with an internal diameter of 2 in. roll a piece of heavy brown wrapping paper. which will give a strong. --Contributed by C. and the low cost of maintenance makes it especially adapted for amateurs' use. H. for the material. running for hours at a time without materially losing strength. The paper used must be unsized so that the solution scan mingle through the pores. amply sufficient for all ordinary experimental work. A battery of a dozen cells should cost not to exceed 50 cts. For this reason it will be necessary to pour out the blue vitriol solution into another receptacle immediately after through using. long. Make a strong solution in a glass or wooden vessel of blue vitriol in water. Several hours working will be required before the film of copper becomes sufficiently thick to protect the tin from corrosion when the cell stands idle. Dilute some oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) with about 12 times its measure of water and keep in a bottle when not in use. and the paper tube must be well rinsed before putting away to dry. Pulteney. add the acid to the water with constant stirring. but can be made up into any required voltage in series. This makes one of the most satisfactory battery cells on account of the constancy of its current.

The frame for the hour axis is about 12 in. it was found best to make them in halves as metal bearings are usually made. Finally. a positive adjustment was provided. The frame is held together by small brass machine screws. a piece of shafting was roughened by rolling it on a file placed in both bearings and turned with a brace. Instrument for Locating Stars The instrument is mounted on a tripod or piece of iron pipe carrying a short vertical rod of 3/8-in. All corners are carefully mortised and braced with small brass angle-pieces. A great deal of trouble was experienced in boring out the bearings until the following method was devised. By this arrangement of two perpendicular shafts the hour axis may be directed to any point in the heavens without care as to how the tripod or pipe is set up. The . one drawing them together. the other holding them apart. while the other end is attached by two screws. It is best quality wood free from imperfections in straight strips one yard long and of a uniform width of about 5/8 in. long with a bearing at each end. It has been the aim of the writer to build a very simple instrument for amateur work which would be adjustable to any latitude. carrying at one end the declination circle and the pointer at the other. carrying the hour circle at one end. steel. The declination axis is also of 1/4-in. After much experimentation with bearings. The bearing was then loosened and a bit run through it to bore the other. The end of the shaft is clamped in a short block of wood by means of a bearing like the ones described. As to thickness. This calls for a suitable house to protect the instrument. The shaft which it carries is 1/4-in. steel. The declination axis must be perpendicular to both the hour axis and the line of sight over the pointer. One end of the block is hinged to the axis frame.station.) may be obtained. any multiple of 12-point (about 1/8 in. A rectangular wooden frame with suitable bearings rotates about this shaft. thus saving much work in fitting up joints. but somewhat lighter. so easily set up ready for work and so portable that it need not be left out of doors from one evening until the next. The entire frame of the instrument is made of cherry and it will save the builder much time if he will purchase cherry "furniture" which is used by printers and can be obtained from any printers' supply company. The loose half is held in place by guides on all four sides and is tightened by two screws with milled nuts. To insure this. The frame has also two horizontal bearings carrying a short shaft to the end of which the frame carrying the hour axis is firmly clamped. and at the other the frame for the declination axis which is similar to the other. The bearings were gradually tightened until perfectly ground. One hole was bored as well as possible. The final adjustment of an ordinary equatorial is very tedious so that when once set up it is not to be moved. steel. Fifty cents will buy enough wood for an entire instrument.

The pole is 1 deg. are tightened. The error due to large aperture is reduced by using a very long pointer which also makes it possible to focus the eye upon the front sight and the star simultaneously. All these adjustments. it is not perpendicular to the declination axis. The clamp is attached as shown in the illustration. since it allows an unobstructed view of the heavens while indicating the exact point in question. All set screws. It is. In using the instrument the hour axis can be directed to the north pole by the following method. look up its declination and right ascension in an atlas. With the declination axis in an approximately horizontal position the place where the pointer cuts the horizon is noted. shows on the declination circle on that side of 90 which is toward "Mizar. the number of hours increases while the pointer travels oppositely to the stars. Turn the hour circle into a position where the pointer can describe a circle through "Mizar. When properly set it will describe a great circle. They were nicely graduated by a home-made dividing engine of very simple construction. To locate a known star on the map. but this is not necessary for a reason soon to be explained. Set the declination circle to its reading. and if it is not again directed to the same point. apart. Subtract the clock time from the right ascension (plus 24 if necessary) and set the hour circle to the result. The forward sight is a bright brass peg illuminated by a tiny electric lamp with a reflector to shield the eye. and 15 min. If the result is more than 24 hours. It is evident from a study of the picture that the position of the small pointer which indicates the reading on the hour circle is not independent of the way in which the tripod or pipe is set up. Point it approximately to the north star." Only a rough setting is necessary. It would then be useless to adjust it carefully to zero when the pointer cuts the "zenith" as is done with a large equatorial. The reading is indicated by a cut on a small aluminum plate attached to a pointer. 45 min. from the star on a straight line from the star to "Mizar. Proper adjustment will cause it to do so. The eye piece is a black iron washer supported on a small strip of wood. the adjustment is made by setting the clock or watch which is part of the outfit. attached to the shafts by means of wooden clamps. Then the pointer is carefully turned through 180 deg. To adjust the instrument it is set up on the iron pipe and the pointer directed to some distant object. The declination axis is then turned through 180 deg. subtract 24. The declination circle is graduated from zero to 90 deg.. save the one in the pipe. Each shaft. since the pupil of the eye dilates very much in darkness. and the figures were engraved with a pantograph. The pointer is directed to Alpha. and the hour reading subtracted from 24 hours (the approximate right ascension of the star) gives the time which the clock should be set to indicate.axis is adjusted by turning these screws. The figures are arranged so that when the instrument is set up. The star will then be seen on the tip of the pointer. It is desirable that the hour circle should read approximately zero when the declination axis is horizontal. once carefully made. The pointer arranged in this way is a great improvement over the hollow tube sometimes used. Now turn the pointer so that a reading of 88 deg. Cassiopiae. The circles of the instrument are of aluminum. The aperture should be 1/4 in. when the pointer should again cut at the same place. To find a star in the heavens. The pointer is of two very thin strips placed at right angles and tapered slightly at each end. The hour circle is divided into 24 parts and subdivided to every four minutes. All of these settings should require not more than five minutes. Add the clock time to the hour reading to get right ascension. turn the pointer to the star. A Ground Glass Substitute [255] Ordinary plain glass coated with the following mixture will make a good ground . need not be changed." the star at the bend of the handle in the Big Dipper. excepting those on the declination axis. clamp both axes and turn the shafts in the base until the pointer is directed accurately to the north star." When this is done. in each direction from two points 180 deg. Declination is read directly. Instead. is provided with this adjustment.. adjusted to read zero when the pointer and two axes are mutually perpendicular as shown in the picture.

3 or 4 in. is the real cannon ball. as shown in the sketch. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier.. cannon balls. The dance will begin. of ether.glass substitute: Dissolve 18 gr. of gum sandarac and 4 gr. A Miniature War Dance [255] A piece of paper. If the Indians are decked out with small feathers to represent the head gear and trailing plumes. Join the hands of the two end men with a little paste so as to form a circle of Indians holding hands. He opens up the bag and takes out a ball which he passes to the audience Balls Made of Spring Wire for examination. New Orleans. Saving an Engine [255] Turning the water on before starting the gas engine may prevent breaking a cylinder on a cold day. Cover one side of a clear glass and after drying it will produce a perfect surface for use as a ground glass in cameras. is folded several times. Ohio. The next thing to do is to punch holes in heavy cardboard that is large enough to cover a pot or stew pan. which is the one examined. and Indian War Dance partially fill the vessel with water. taking care not to add too much. of gum mastic in 3-1/2 dr. The ball is found to be the genuine article. -Contributed by Ray E. In reality the first ball. OLD-TIME MAGIC [256] Removing 36 Cannon Balls from a Handbag The magician produces a small handbag and informs the audience that he has it filled with 20-lb. Set this covered vessel over a heat and bring the water to a boiling point and then set the miniature Indians on the perforated cover. Plain City. and the first fold marked out to represent one-half of an Indian. If this will be too transparent. then add 1 2-3 dr. and so on until 36 of them lie on the floor. He makes a few passes with the wand and produces another ball. long. add a little more benzole. Strosnider. the others . La. a great effect will be produced. Cut out all the folds at one time on the dotted line and you will have as many men joined together as there were folds in the paper. benzole.

Return the card to the pack. Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards. take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them. taps. Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card. These balls can be pressed together in flat disks and put in the bag. Somerville. San Francisco. 2. Wis. Campbell. Cal. This pin should not stick out beyond the thickness of the spring. The pin can be driven through the cover to prevent it from being pulled entirely out of the box. small brooches. without taking up any great amount of space. and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack. When the spring is released it will fill out the black cloth to represent a cannon ball that cannot be distinguished from the real article. but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band. as shown in the illustration. Milwaukee. To keep the contents from spilling or getting mixed in my case I used a small fastener as shown in the accompanying illustration.. 1). A Rising Card Trick [256] A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. A hole is drilled on the upper part to receive the pin that is driven into the sliding cover. Mass. which is bent up at the point so the pin will freely pass under it. In boxes having a sliding cover. The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band. etc. Sliding Box Cover Fastener [256] While traveling through the country as a watchmaker I found it quite convenient to keep my small drills. The fastener is made of steel or brass and fastened by means of small screws or tacks on the outside of the box. How to Chain a Dog [257] A good way to chain a dog and give him plenty of ground for exercise is to stretch a clothesline or a galvanized . F. Fig.are spiral-spherical springs covered with black cloth (Fig. --Contributed by Herm Grabemann. --Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara. The only Card Slips from the Pack things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. --Contributed by J.

Hartford. I do a great deal of water-color work and always felt the need of a suitable color dish. as shown in the illustration. the dishes are deep enough to prevent spilling the colors into the adjoining ones. Water-Color Box [257] There are many different trays in the market for the purpose of holding water colors. Some of the advantages are: Each color is in a separate dish which can be easily taken out and cleaned. the advantage being the use of a short tie rope eliminating the possibility of the animal becoming entangled. This method can also be used for tethering a cow or horse. . I bought 22 individual salt dishes and made a box to hold them. Beller. from the bottom of the box. This box has done good service. and the box can be made as big or as small as individual needs require. round pieces 2-1/4 in. The chain from the dog's collar is fastened to the ring. thus giving ample store room for colors. The tray containing the color dishes and brushes rests on 1/4-in. Connecticut. Color Trays Made of Salt Dishes -Contributed by B. prints. but they are either too expensive for the average person or too small to be convenient. Saving Ink Pens [257] Ink usually corrodes pens in a short time. At last I found something that filled my want and suited my pocketbook.The Dog Has Plenty of Room for Exercise wire between the house and barn on which is placed a ring large enough to slide freely. slides and extra brushes. which will absorb the acid and prevent it from corroding the pens. This can be prevented by placing pieces of steel pens or steel wire in the ink.

Folding Quilting-Frames [258] The frame in which the material is kept stretched when making a quilt is usually too large to be put out of the way conveniently when other duties must be attended to. with well packed horse manure. and a hook and eye fastened on the other side to hold the parts rigid when they are in use. 2). and especially are the end pieces objectionable. Darke. will answer the purpose. The other tub should be fitted with a faucet of some kind -a wood faucet. as it adds both fertilizer and moisture. the frame is narrow enough to be easily carried from one room to another. West Lynn. Never use the ways of a lathe for an anvil or storage platform.I Lathe Safety [258] Always caliper the work in a lathe while it is standing still. a hinge screwed to the under side to hold them together. holes in the bottom of one. Put the first tub on top of the other with two narrow strips between them (Fig. tacking the gauze well at the corners. it is ready to use on house and garden plants and is better than plain water. 1). about threefourths full. When the ends are turned under. O. The end pieces are cut in two at one-fourth their distance from each end. costing 5 cents.A Plant-Food Percolator [258] Obtain two butter tubs and bore a large number of 1/4-in. This can be remedied by hinging the ends so they will fold underneath to the center. Fill the upper tub. -Contributed by C. or placed against a wall. FIG. . Mass. When the water has percolated through into the lower tub. and pour water on it until it is well soaked. then cover the perforated part with a piece of fine brass gauze (Fig.

when they are raised from the pan. with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel. if this is not available. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge. cutting the cane between the holes. and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. and each bundle contains . A drip shield which will stop the fluid and cause it to run back into the pan can be easily made from a piece of sheet rubber or. he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane. often to soil the sleeves of a clean garment. Cut a washer with the hole large enough to fit snugly about the wrist. from a piece of the inner tube of a bicycle tire. they should be knocked out. but not so tight as to stop the Shields for the Arms circulation of the blood. new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position. --Contributed by L. Chicago. The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. How to Cane Chairs [259] There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. Eifel. If the following directions are carried out. A pair of these shields will always come in handy. If plugs are found in any of the holes. oil or other fluid.A Drip Shield for the Arms [258] When working with the hands in a pan of water. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and. it is very disagreeable to have the liquid run down the arms. M. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it.

after having been pulled tight. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned.Three Stages of Weaving enough to reseat several chairs. held there by inserting another plug. and. as shown in Fig. then across and down. it should be held by a plug. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. put about 3 or 4 in. and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off. The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side. Whenever the end of one strand is reached. which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes. as it must be removed again. and 8 or 10 round wood plugs. 1. and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind. Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked. First Layer of Strands First Two Layers in Place Pass the end up through the next hole. In addition to the cane. No plugs . a square pointed wedge.

1 lat. After completing the second layer. --Contributed by M. 3. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts. W. put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. as shown in Fig. How to Lay Out a Sundial [261] The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. Patrick. as for example. and the one we shall describe in this article. D. making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. 1. Michigan. it is 4. 1. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1° or . it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired. If you have a table of natural functions. 41°-30'. When cool. placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal. 3. stretch the third one. as the height of the line BC for lat. The chemicals will not affect the rosin. a tray repaired in this manner will last a long time. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place. From table No. 40°. Detroit. 42° is 4. If handled with a little care.3 in. No weaving has been done up to this time. All added to the lesser or 40°.2 in. Fig. one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through.5 in. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time. 4. the height of which is taken from table No. It consists of a flat circular table. and for 1° it would be . can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB. as shown in Fig.075 in. and for lat. 1. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. -Contributed by E. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude. or the style. 5. Heat a soldering-iron or any piece of metal enough to melt the rosin and let it flow through the break. is the base (5 in. The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon. Their difference is . the next smallest. and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes.= 4. using the same holes as for the first layer.should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. 5 in. the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. There are several different designs of sundials. is the horizontal dial. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding. R.075 in. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. Even with this lubrication. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations. in this case) times the .42 in. called the gnomon. Repairing a Cracked Composition Developing Tray [260] Fill the crack with some powdered rosin and heap it up on the outside. After finishing this fourth layer of strands. for 2°. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. lat. The style or gnomon. a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. although they are quite accurate if properly constructed. the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. Start at one corner and weave diagonally.15 in. and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day. rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used. as it always equals the latitude of the place. the height of the line BC. Fig.2+. During the weaving. but the most common. trim off the surplus rosin.15+. we have 4. 41 °-30'. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand. This will make three layers.

Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown. and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given Details of Dial TABLE No.68 5-30 6-30 5.83 27° 2.00 40° 4.99 2.37 5.18 28° 2.97 5 7 4.77 2.02 1. or if of stone.tangent of the degree of latitude.26 4. For latitudes not given.76 1. and for this size dial (10 in. Height of stile in inches for a 5in. Lat HOURS OF DAY 12-30 1 1-30 2 2-30 3 3-30 11-30 11 10-30 10 9-30 9 8-30 20 .66 1.55 30° 2.55 4.32 6. if of metal. gives the 6 o'clock points.66 latitude. .87 1.06 2.14 5.57 1.55 5.42 1. 2 for given latitudes. base.82 5.38 . The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.41 38° 3. and perpendicular to the base or style.49 3.50 26° 2.46 .11 3. To layout the hour circle.82 3.37 54° 6.20 60° 8.23 6.81 4.46 3. placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points.33 42° 4. long. according to the size of the dial. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in.12 52° 6.64 4 8 3.55 46° 5.89 50° 5. with a radius of 5 in.39 .93 6.56 .03 3. may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. 2.16 1.10 6.42 .79 4.40 34° 3.96 32° 3.85 1.33 . Draw two semi-circles.59 2. Its thickness. using the points A and C as centers.66 48° 5.87 4. The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight. which will represent the base in length and thickness.94 1.88 36° 3.30 2. or more. Draw the line AD.63 56° 7.16 40 .93 2. Fig. for various latitudes Latitude Height Latitude Height 25° 2.40 1.29 4-30 7-30 3. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial.07 4.42 45 .85 35 .91 58° 8. draw two parallel lines AB and CD. Chords in inches for a 10 in. circle Sundial.44 44° 4. 2.28 . interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style.82 2.30 1.49 30 . and intersecting the semicircles.57 3. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. Table NO.19 1.27 2. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. A line EF drawn through the points A and C. an inch or two. 1.

54 60 . The designs shown represent original arms of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. June 15.30 2. and the .87 6. which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. London.57 1..77 3.53 1. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. An ordinary compass.from Sundial lime.08 1. Iowa. it will be faster.add those marked + subtract those Marked . If the dial is east of the meridian chosen. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15.60 4.50 55 . The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker. 3 Corrections in minutes to change. Mitchell.79 6.34 5.93 6.24 5. or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole.21 2. Sept. if west. Sun time to local mean time.06 2. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. 25. will enable one to set the dial. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part IV [263] The ancient arms of defense as shown in the accompanying illustrations make good ornaments for the den if they are cut from wood and finished in imitation of the real weapon. says the English Mechanic.98 4. adding to each piece interest and value. and for the difference between standard and local time. April 16. reducing the answer to minutes and seconds.12 5. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. 3. 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco.49 3.46 5.37 2.89 3.46 4. after allowing for the declination. then the watch is slower. 2 and Dec. 900 Chicago. and on these dates the dial needs no correction. The + means that the clock is faster. This correction can be added to the values in table No. Each weapon is cut from wood.50 . care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face.52 Table No. E. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York. The blades of the axes and the cutting edges of the .19 2.72 5.10 4. each article can be labelled with the name. making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west. changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached.14 1. --Contributed by J.71 2.63 1. 20 Day of month 1 10 January +3 +7 +11 February +14 +14 +14 March +13 +11 +8 April +4 +2 -1 May -3 -4 -4 June -3 +1 +1 +3 +5 +6 July August +6 +5 +3 September +0 -3 -5 October -10 -13 -15 November -16 -16 -14 December -11 -7 -3 30 +13 +5 -3 -3 +3 +6 +1 -10 -16 -11 +2 When placing the dial in position. The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid. Sioux City.means that the dial is faster than the sun. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year.01 1.68 3.82 3.49 5. 3. As they are the genuine reproductions.

Fork and Halberd A French partisan of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The other side is then covered with the tinfoil of a size that will not quite cover to the cutting edge. the length of which is about 5 ft. A Swiss halberd of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. brush a thin coat of glue on the part to be covered and quickly lay on the foil. long from the point where it is attached to the handle. Partisan. long with a round handle having the same circumference for the entire length which is covered with crimson cloth or velvet and studded all over with round-headed Spontoon. . When putting on the tinfoil. After laying the foil and allowing time for the glue to dry. This combination of an axe and spear is about 7 ft. with a handle of wood bound with heavy cord in a spiral form and the whole painted a dark color. and is coveted with tinfoil in imitation of steel. 3. 1. The entire length of the fork from the handle to the points is about 10 in.swords are dressed down and finished with sandpaper and the steel parts represented by covering the wood with tinfoil. If a cutting edge is to be covered the tinfoil on one side of the blade must overlap the edge which is pasted on the opposite side. The length of the tassel or fringe is about 4 in. The widest part of the blade from spear to spear is about 8 in. The weapon is 6-1/2 ft. long from the point of the spear to the end of the handle.. wipe the surface with light strokes up and down several times using a soft piece of cloth. Glaive and Voulge brass nails. Figure 2 shows a German military fork of the sixteenth century. The spear head is of steel about 15 in.

The spear head from its point to where fixed on the handle is about 9 in. Figure 4 shows an Austrian officers' spontoon. The holes in the axe can be bored or burned out with red-hot iron rods. long. The length of the spear point to the lower end where it joins on to the handle is 14 in. which are a part of the axe. The length of this bar is about 5 in. The spear is steel. press it well into the carved depressions. The bands can be made of cardboard and glued on to the wood axe. The tassels or fringe used in decorating the handles can be made from a few inches of worsted fringe. These bands can be made very strong by reinforcing the cardboard with a piece of canvas. used by Italians in the sixteenth century. long. The blade is engraved steel with a length of metal work from the point of the spear to where it joins the handle or staff of about 18 in. sharp on the outer edge and held to the handle by two steel bands. used about the seventeenth century. Figure 9 shows a tilting lance with vamplate used in tournaments in the sixteenth century. The outer and inner edges of the crescent-shaped part of the axe are sharp. The vamplate can be made of cardboard covered with tinfoil to represent steel and studded with brass nails.which is square. The extreme width of the axe is 16 or 17 in. The edges are sharp. the holes being about 1/4 in. The entire length of the metal part from the point of the spear to where it joins the staff is 15 in. A very handsome weapon is the German halberd of the sixteenth century which is shown in Fig. This axe is cut out with a scroll or keyhole saw and covered with tinfoil. long with a round wooden handle. A small curved spear point is carved from a piece of wood. 7. is shown in Fig. The cross bar which runs through the lower end of the spear can Halberd. This weapon is about 6 ft. 5. covered with tinfoil and fastened on with round-headed brass or steel nails. It has a round wooden handle painted black or dark brown. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. sharp on the outer edges. Figure 6 shows a Saxon voulge of the sixteenth century. long and wound around the handle or staff twice and fastened with brass-headed nails. The band of metal on the side is cut from cardboard. about 4 in. The small circular plate through which the bar is fixed can be cut from a piece of cardboard and glued on the wooden spear. At the end is a four-pronged piece of steel. An Italian ranseur of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. 6 ft. The extreme length is 9 ft. covered with tinfoil and fastened on the end of the handle as shown. long with a round staff or handle.. Ranseur and Lance be made in two pieces and glued into a hole on each side. with a round wood handle and a steel axe or blade. with a round wooden handle fitted at the lower end with a steel ornament. The entire length is about 6-1/2 ft. The engraved work must be carved in the wood and when putting the tinfoil on. in diameter. The wood pole is covered with cloth or painted a dark color. The spear and axe is of steel with a handle of plain dark wood. It is about 6 ft. . 8. A gisarm or glaive.

The twisted cross cords should . a solid screen will be made instead of a portiere. 4. Some designs require only one knot at the bottom. How to Make Japanese Portieres [265] These very useful and ornamental draperies can be easily made at home by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. 1. 1 and 2 are shown how the paper is cut tapering. or in holes punched in a leather strap. This is important to secure neatness. It is best to make a rough sketch of the design on paper. Be sure to get a cord of such size that the beads will slip on readily and yet have the least possible lateral movement. B. although beads of glass or rolled paper will produce good results. H. 5. This is done with a needle made from a piece of small wire.-Contributed by R. They can be made of various materials. One end of each cord is tied to a round piece of wood. the most durable being bamboo. The first step is to select the kind of beads desired for stringing and then procure the hanging cord. The paper beads are easily made as shown in Figs. apart. while readily adaptable and having a neat appearance. This will greatly aid the maker in carrying on the work. This ladle will be found convenient for melting babbitt or lead. Substances such as straw. 2 and 3. used for spacing and binding the whole together. as shown in Fig. The cross cords are woven in as shown in Fig. Bamboo and Straw Portieres When the main part of the screen is finished. are put in place. Ohio. As many of these cross cords can be put in as desired. Cut all the cords the same length.An Emergency Babbitt Ladle [264] Take an old stove leg and rivet a handle on it and then break the piece off which fastens on the stove. and if placed from 6 to 12 in. and as it appears after rolling and gluing down the ends. Workman. Iron or brass rings can be used if desired. In Figs. the cross cords. A straight paper bead is shown in Fig. making allowance for the number of knots necessary to produce the design selected. are less durable and will quickly show wear. Loudonville. The large and rounding part of the leg makes the bowl of the ladle.

bamboo or rolled paper. remove the old rubber tires and wind the tape on the rims to the proper thickness. and put through in such manner that they will not be readily seen. The finished portiere will resemble drawn work in cloth. The design is made by stringing beads of colored glass at the right places between the lengths of ground material. in which was placed a piece of glass. We took an empty tomato can and cut out the tin. The cords are knotted to hold the bamboo pieces in place. The first design shown is for using bamboo. Four V-shaped notches were cut. The second design is to be constructed with a plain ground of either straw. New York. and it was necessary to devise something that would take its place. New Orleans. One bead is placed at the extreme end of each cord. shaped as shown at C.be of such material. for a length extending from a point 2 in. Many beautiful hangings can be easily fashioned. below the top to within 1/4 in. A slit was cut in the bottom. This was turned over the top of the other can. The rows of twisted cord placed at the top keep the strings properly spaced. Makeshift Camper's Lantern [266] While out camping. M. If paper beads are used they can be colored to suit and hardened by varnishing. near the top of the can and their points turned outward. procure some rubber tape a little wider than the rims of the old wheels. Trim the edges with a sharp knife and rub on some chalk or soapstone powder to prevent the . The cords are hung upon a round stick with rings of metal to make the sliding easy. Lantern Made of Old Cans New Tires for Carpet-Sweeper Wheels [266] The rubber tires on carpet-sweeper wheels often become so badly worn and stretched that they fail to grip the carpet firmly enough to run the sweeper. 3 in. La. A larger can was secured and the bottom perforated. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. as shown at B. Lockport. Harrer. and the pointed ends thus formed were turned up to make a place for holding the base of a candle. -Contributed by Geo. our only lantern was accidentally smashed beyond repair. wide. of the bottom. Each side of the cut-out A was bent inward in the shape of a letter S. To remedy this. A heavy wire was run through the perforations and a short piece of broom handle used to make a bail.

do not throw away the gloves. The brass should be somewhat larger than the design. The platform is securely fastened to two strong wooden arms or braces. is placed in grooves or slots fastened against the side of a wall. turned over but not fastened. Sanford. about 1/16 in. Cal. --Contributed by W. but cut off the gauntlets and procure a pair of gloves with short wrists to which the old gauntlets can be sewn after the wrist bands have been removed from the new gloves. the brass is loosened from the block. The plank with the platform attached may be raised or lowered to the desired height and held there . Schaffner. if the finished work is to be The Finished Flag bright. Pasadena. Indent the name and outline of the flag with a small chisel with the face ground flat. A pair of gauntlets will outwear three or four pairs of gloves. The staff is a small brass rod with a knob attached to the top end. Maywood. wide. which in turn are nailed to a 2 by 12-in. as shown in the small drawing at the upper left-hand corner of the sketch. is shown in the accompanying sketch.tape from sticking to the carpet. Newburgh. and two along the side for attaching the staff. This is done by heating the brass and quickly applying a coat of shellac. Y. Ill. The brass is fastened to a block of soft wood with small nails driven through the edges. An Adjustable Punching-Bag Platform [267] A punching-bag platform. Shay. The edges are now cut off and four holes drilled. giving the appearance of hammered brass. and the whole outside of and between the letters is indented with the rounded end of a nail. This plank. The sewing may be done either by hand or on a machine. as it cannot be done after the flag is completed. two for the chain by which to hang the flag to the wall. gathering in any fullness in the bellows of the cuff on the under side. plank as long as the diameter of the platform. sinking the lines deeper and deeper by going over them a number of times. After this is finished. N. This should be done gradually. A coat of lacquer is applied to keep it from tarnishing. It would be well to polish the brass at first. How to Make an Ornamental Brass Flag [266] The outlines of the flag--which may be of any size to suit the metal at hand--and the name are first drawn on a sheet of thin paper and then transferred to the brass by tracing through a sheet of carbon paper. --Contributed by Joseph H. A sweeper treated in this manner will work as well as a new one. H. --Contributed by Chas. suitable for the tall athlete as well as the small boy. Gauntlets on Gloves [266] When the fingers or palms of gloves with gauntlets wear out.

--E. the pendulum swings . K.by a pin or bolt put through the bolt-hole of the plank and into a hole in the wall. Jaquythe. It consists of a piece of copper wire 7/8 in. bent as shown. Home-Made Electric Clock [268] The clock illustrated herewith is driven by means of electromagnets acting directly on the pendulum bob. Cal. Protect Camel Hair Brushes [267] Camel hair brushes for painters' use should never be allowed to come in contact with water. Marshall. Oak Park. Ill. A. Richmond. Unlike most clocks. -Contributed by W. in diameter. This clasp is capable of standing a strong pull and will hold the lamp and socket with a glass shade. Adjustable Platform Clasp for Holding Flexible Lamp Cords [267] A very easily made drop-light adjuster is shown in the illustration.

Place the second board in the clamps in the same manner as the first. The pendulum bob at the lower end is adjusted to swing just clear of the electromagnets.. Two uprights. C. Method of Joining Boards [268] The amateur wood-worker often has trouble in joining two boards together so that they will fit square and tight. Secure a board. wide that is perfectly flat. Chicago. high. The accompanying sketch shows a simple and effective method of doing this. are secured in the base bar. thick. Metzech. 6 in. If the cutting edge of the blade is not vertical. 5/16 in. such as this one. says the Scientific American. 3/4 in. long and at each side of this.Magnetic Clock forward and backward instead of laterally. Each is fitted with a piece of copper wire provided with a small brass spring tip. about 6 in. letting it extend over the inside edge about 1 in. B. The clock train is taken from a standard clock and the motion of the pendulum is imparted to the escape wheel by means of a pawl. which is lifted at each forward stroke of the pendulum by an arm projecting forward from the pivotal end of the pendulum rod. and are connected at the top by a brass yoke piece on which the clock frame is supported. In using this method. and on the return swing of the pendulum the circuit of the other magnet is similarly closed. only have the opposite side up. Now place the board to be joined. bearing on the latter. . in diameter. high. high. Secured centrally on this base is a 1/8 by 3/4-in. wide. The construction is very simple. Lay the plane on its side and plane the edge straight. Each magnet attracts the pendulum until its circuit is broken by release of the center tip. away. bar. --Contributed by V. Mounted at the righthand side of the base are three tall binding-posts. on the board B. because one does not have to bother about winding a clock. Fasten another board. to the first one with screws or glue. is an electromagnet. thereby closing the circuit of first one magnet and then the other. 7-1/2 in. the center one being 2-3/4 in. and the result is not only novel but well worth while. Thus the pendulum is kept in motion by the alternate magnetic impulses. and fastening it to the others with clamps at each end. which serves to swing the central tip first against one and then against the other of the side tips. These springs lie in the plane of the pendulum. A. about 12 in. high and 1/4 in. in diameter and 1-7/16 in. first-class joints can be made without much trouble. the boards planed in this manner will fit as shown in the upper sketch. and the other two 2-5/8 in. The clock is mounted on a wooden base measuring 3-3/4 by6-1/2 in. by 1-5/16 in. Just below the yoke piece a hole is drilled in each upright to receive the pivot pins of the crosspiece secured to the upper end of the pendulum rod.

attach the rubber bands and pull the trigger. Fig. A rectangular hole 3/16 in. Phoenixville. by driving a pin through the wood. 2. The assembled parts are shown in Fig. The side pieces with the grooves for the glass are shown in Fig. The film when in a chemical-soaked condition is easily damaged. The top rubber band will fly off and drive the cardboard Details of Toy Gun square 75 ft. wide and 5 in. 1. Pa. whose dimensions are given in Fig. . Vanderslice. The trigger. Place the cardboard square in the nick B. long. 1.Toy Gun for Throwing Cardboard Squares [269] The parts of the gun are attached to a thin piece of wood 1 in. Rubber bands are fastened in these notches as shown in Fig. Photographic Developing Tray [269] Plates developed in an ordinary tray must be removed from the bath occasionally for examination. Two of each of these pieces are made with mitered ends. 3. A pocket is provided for the liquid developer in one end of the tray when it is turned up in a vertical position. wide and 1 in. The tray illustrated herewith was made for the purpose of developing plates without having to take hold of them until the bath had completed its work. The short groove shown in the top piece of the illustration is for inserting the plate covering on the pocket end of the tray. long is cut in the wood longitudinally along its axis and 13/8 in. The cardboard should be about 1/2 in. the examination being made through the plate and the bottom of the tray. These can be cut from any old pasteboard box. --Contributed by Elmer A. plates should be made 8 in. A tray for developing 5 by 7-in. from one end. or more. square. is fastened in the hole A. Fig. 4. A small notch is made with the point of a knife blade at B and notches are cut in the end of the wood as shown at C. as shown at A. It is best to use a piece of wood cut from the side or cover of a cigar box. square inside. 1.

Rubber Bands in Kite Balancing Strings [270] Kite flyers will find it to their advantage to place rubber bands of Bands in String suitable size in the balancing strings to the kite. The glass bottom of the tray is 8-1/2 in.A. -Contributed by J. Fostoria. 5 parts of black filler. 2 parts of whiting. square. This will prevent a "break-away" and also make the right pull. if only two bands are put in the . and the mitered corners well glued and nailed.Developing Tray with Glass Bottom Two blocks. as shown in the illustration. one-half the length of the side pieces. The wood pieces should be well soaked in hot paraffin. Ohio. rubbing varnish and turpentine. Iron Putty [269] A good filler used as a putty on iron castings may be made as follows: Take. 5 parts of pulverized silica and make into a paste with a mixture of one part each of coach japan. on all edges to set in the grooves of the side pieces. Simonis. by weight. are put in between the glass plates to hold the plate being developed from dropping down. when the tray is tipped up in a vertical position. which allows 1/4 in. 3 parts of stiff keg lead.

It must be kept moist and well . In constructing helmets. 1. place tracing paper on its surface. is fitted in a brass tube which should have a sliding fit in another shorter and larger tube fastened to the end of the box. The apparatus is made of a box 8 in. is set at an angle of 45 deg. preferably copper.lower strings. II. If the wire fits the lamp loosely. long. Bend the wire so that the spring presses the lamp against the metal. The inside of the box and brass tube are painted a dull black. says the English Mechanic. The metal parts can Wire Socket be attached to any smooth surface of wood without making a regular base. A piece of metal. the device is set with the lens tube directed toward the scene to be painted or sketched and the lens focused so the reflected picture will be seen in sharp detail on the glass. 2 and the coil-spring socket fastened across it in the opposite direction. but with the apparatus here illustrated an inexperienced person can obtain excellent results. How to Make Miniature Electric Lamp Sockets [270] A socket for a miniature lamp can be made as shown in the sketch. is necessary. London. Mass. which may be either of ground or plain glass. --Contributed by Thos. Dartmouth. and it may be made as a model or full sized. Select your colors and put them on the respective colors depicted on the glass. In use. wide and about 1 ft. Grand Rapids. 8 in. No. in the opposite end of the box. and now the amateur armorer must have some helmets to add to his collection. Michigan. deep. DeLoof. all you have to do is to fill in the lines in the picture on the ground glass. There is no limit to the size of the helmet. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part V [271] The preceding chapters gave descriptions of making arms in imitation of ancient weapons. A double convex lens. If you wish to make a pencil drawing. This reflects the rays of light passing through the lens to the surface K. An Aid in Sketching [270] Sketching requires some little training. A brass spring wire is wound around the base of the threads on the lamp and an eye turned on each end to receive a screw and a binding-post. is attached to a wood base as shown in Fig. remove the lamp and press the sides of the coil closer together. Shaw. -Contributed by Abner B. as shown in Fig. A mirror. The lid or cover EF protects the glass and. keeps the strong light out when sketching. G. If a plain glass is used. and the picture can be drawn as described. a mass of clay of any kind that is easily workable and fairly stiff.

joined closely together. as in bas-relief. The fleur-de-lis are slightly raised. Scraps of thin. The side view of the helmet is shown in Fig. and left over night to soak. give it a thin coat of oil-sweet or olive oil will answer the purpose very well. and will also show where there may be any deficiencies in the modeling. and the basin of soaked paper near to hand. 3. This helmet has fleur-de-lis in embossed· work. 2. as shown in Fig. The way to make a helmet is described in the following method of producing a German morion. A large Making the Clay Model and Three Helmet Designs Board or several planks. the clay model oiled. This is done with the aid of a pair of compasses. pressing it well on the clay and into and around any crevices and patterns. brown. All being ready. The paper should be torn in irregular shapes about as large as the palm of the hand. which must be quite hot and put on as quickly . or some thin glue. This wood being passed carefully and firmly over the clay will bring it into shape. and over the crest on top. The clay. take. will be necessary. cut out the shape from a piece of wood. 1. and the deft use of the fingers. To aid in getting the helmet in correct proportion on both sides.kneaded. is put on the board and modeled into the shape shown in Fig. wrapping paper are put to soak in a basin of water to which has been added about a tablespoonful of size melted and well stirred. After the clay model is finished. The cut-out pattern shown in Fig. which can then be easily remedied by adding more clay. 1. up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it upon the model. on which to place the clay. with a keyhole saw. and continue until the clay is completely covered. The size of this board will depend on the size of the work that is intended to be modeled upon it. 4 is the side outline of the helmet. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. shown in Fig. and on each side is a badge of the civic regiment of the city of Munich. This being done. a few clay-modeling tools.

peak and lobster shell neck guard in one piece. and the ear guards in two pieces. The vizor can then be made and put in place with a brass-headed nail on each side. or. In Fig. The edges were varnished and then the patch was set in the open space. The whole helmet. This helmet is elaborately decorated with fancy and round-headed nails. which should be no difficult matter. 1. and smooth and finish all over with some fine sandpaper. one for each side. and so on. A burgonet skull-cap of the seventeenth century is shown in Fig. When the helmet is off the model. until there are from four to six coats of glue and paper. the skullcap. a crest on top. then another coating of glue. square in shape. through which to insert some fancy brass nails. A hole in the peak of the helmet allows it to hang in front of the wearer's face. with the exception of the vizor. owing to the clay being oiled. Put on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. the paper coating should be quite stout and strong enough for the helmet to be used for ornamental purposes. 9. They are all covered with tinfoil.as possible. How to Repair Linoleum [273] A deep crack or fissure right in front of the kitchen cabinet spoiled the appearance of the new linoleum. Indianapolis. a few lines running down. make holes with a small awl at equal distances. 5. How to Make an Electric Stove [273] The parts necessary for making an electric stove are: Two metal pie plates of the . and is held in any position by a thumbscrew as shown in the illustration. 6 is shown an Italian casque of a foot soldier of the sixteenth century. All of the helmets are made in the same manner as described for Fig. An Italian cabasset of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. --Contributed by Paul Keller. will make it look neat. trim off any ragged edges of paper with a sharp knife. This helmet may have the appearance of being richly engraved as shown in one-half of the drawing. so as to allow the wearer to breathe freely. The linoleum was given a good coat of varnish making it more durable. This helmet was worn about the sixteenth century. the helmet to be modeled in three pieces. The paper is then given a thin coat of glue and sections of tinfoil stuck on to give it a finished appearance. as seen in the other part of the sketch. In Fig. A vizor helmet is shown in Fig. the piecing could not be detected. as shown: in the design. Before taking it off the model. The oblong slits in front of the vizor must be carefully marked out with a pencil and cut through with a knife or chisel. bending the points over and flat against the inside of the helmet. 7. and was probably used for tilting and tournaments. The damaged spot was removed with a sharp knife and from a left-over scrap a piece was cut of the same outline and size. 8 is shown a large bassinet with a hinged vizor which comes very much forward. Indiana. When dry. should be modeled and made in one piece. The vizor is composed of a single bar of metal. The band is decorated with brass studs. When perfectly dry. which slides up and down in an iron socket attached to the front of the helmet. This helmet has a movable vizor in the front that can be lifted up. The center of the ear guards are perforated. and around the neck a narrow gorget which rests upon the wearer's shoulders. This contrivance should be made of wood.

Punch holes in one of the pie plates. one oblong piece of wood. 4 lb. each 4-1/2 in. 1. The rim of the second plate is drilled to make two holes. as shown in Fig. the fuse block. long. apart and should be at equal distances from the center hole D. thick. Fig. is held to the base by two screws which are run through the holes BC and take the position shown by DD. Fig. Fig. holes being bored in the base to make the wire connections. The holes B and C are about 3 in. Fig. wide and 15 in. is shown in Fig. and used to hold the Details of Electric Stove rims of both plates together. The two binding-posts are attached on the base at D. Fig. The points marked BB are the glass tubes. Fig. Two holes are bored through the base to correspond with the holes D and A in the bottom plate. to project through the holes D and A of the plate. if this cannot be obtained. long. The glass tube is cut to make two pieces. The wires run through the glass tubes GG. Fig. 12 in. above the collar. Two small flaps are cut and turned out and holes punched in their centers. until it is within 1 in. and C. is made with a diameter to receive the first plate snugly. or. long. Fig. thick sheet asbestos. The reverse side of the base. 4. when they are placed in opposite positions. to receive screws for holding it to the base. of mineral wool. should extend about 1/4 in. AA. 4. also the switch B and the fuse block C. in diameter and 9 in. with slits cut for the wires. German-silver wire is better. 2. two middle-sized stove bolts with nuts. GG. 3 in. the wood can be thoroughly sandpapered on one side and the corners and edges rounded off on the upper side. Two bolts are soldered in the holes E and F. The two holes. AA. The collar is then screwed to one end of the base. Fig. one small switch. as shown in Fig. of the top. one fuse block. The small scraps should be dampened and made into pulp to fill the space H. are allowed to project about 1 in. 4. If asbestos is used. the sheets should be cut into disks having the same diameter as the inside of the collar. The rim of the plate should be level with the top edge of the collar. AA. and two large 3in. as shown in Fig. as it stands a higher temperature. and holes cut to coincide with the holes D and A of the plate. 1. are on the rim and should be exactly on a line with the hole D punched in the center. of No. if the measurements are correct. The plate. about 80 ft. 4. and. which can be bought from a local druggist. 1. 4.same size. These tubes are forced into the holes bored in the base. that will match the holes E and F in the first plate. 4. Fig. 1. for connections. JJ. to rest on the wool and the ends of the glass tubes. 3. 4. This will make an open space between the plates. high. Fig. is then packed down inside the collar. The mineral wool. 1. 22 gauge resistance wire. about 1/4 in. This can be done easily by filing a nick in the tube at the proper point and breaking it. about 1 lb. two ordinary binding posts. the holes leading to the switch. This will allow the plate. 1 in. 2. of fire clay. If a neat appearance is desired. A round collar of galvanized iron. FF. Fig. 2. The best way to find the correct length of the resistance wire is to take a large clay . 1. one glass tube. E and F. screws. Fig.

Cnonyn. then. and the coil laid in a spiral winding on the damp clay. will slip and come in contact with each other. The top plate is put in place and screwed down. the other end is connected to the wire projecting from the outer glass tube. II. A 5-ampere fuse wire is about strong enough. deep. Richmond. Cover over about 1 in. The fuse wire (about 5 amperes) is put into the fuse block. Catherines. as the turns of the wires. above the rim. Jaquythe. It should have the proper consistency to mould well. hole in the ball as shown in Fig. when heated. a short piece of fuse wire is fastened to each of its two ends. apart. as the wire should not be allowed to become any hotter. If this is the case. While the clay is damp.or drain tile and wind the wire tightly around it. 1 and place it with the hole up in damp sand and press or tamp the sand lightly around the ball as shown in the section. When the tile is in place. Cut a 1/2-in. Next. sold in department and toy stores for 10 cents. It should not be set on end. The dry paper ball prevents any sputtering of the hot lead. one end of the coil is connected with the wire in the central glass tube. As these connections cannot be soldered. causing a short circuit. If it is not thoroughly dry. more wire should be added. and pressed into it. Pour melted lead into the gate until it is full. Removing Pies from Pans [275] . KK. A connection is made to these two wires from an electric-light socket. The wire is then made into a long coil by winding it around a large wire nail. The round lead weight for shot-putting or hammer throwing can be cast in a hollow cardboard or pressed-paper ball. The clay. when cool. Fig. steam will form when the current is applied. It should be set aside in a warm place for a few days to dry out the packing. using care not to get it too wet. When the sand is tamped in and the plug removed. H. How to Make Weights for Athletes [274] Many times boys would like to make their own shots and weights for Mold for the Lead athletic stunts. Fig. St. is then packed in the first plate to a height of about 1/4 in. --Contributed by R. the ends of the wires should be twisted closely together. This point marks the proper length to cut it. In making a lead sphere as shown in the illustration. A. When this is done. it is not necessary to know the method of molding. This completes the stove. A file can be used to remove any rough places. A wood plug inserted in the hole will prevent any sand falling inside. but do not know how to go about it to cast the metal. The tile is then set on its side with a block or brick under each end. --Contributed by W. Cal. 2. Can. shake it out from the sand and remove the charred paper. so that the circuit will not become broken. It should not be left heated in this condition. Make sure that the coils of wire do not touch each other or the top plate. 4. the fire clay is moistened and well mixed. The wire will get hot but probably remain the same color. The top plate is used when cooking and removed when making toast. and wires with a socket adapter connected to the two binding-posts. it leaves a gate for the metal. If the wire gets bright hot when the current is turned on. The coils should be open and about 1/8 in. one of the feed wires is disconnected from the fuse wire and gradually moved farther down the coil until a point is found where the resistance wire glows a dull red. allowing a space between each turn.

bent to the same outline as the inside of the pan and pivoted at its center. is large enough. constructed of 3/4-in. says the Photographic Times. A Temporary Funnel [275] The amateur photographer often has some solution which he desires to put into a bottle which his glass funnel will not fit. and the cheesecloth C stretched and tacked over them. Thorne. the baked dough can be separated from the tin with one revolution of the cutter. square material in any size. Then clip a little off the . The cutter is made from a piece of heavy tin. Stretcher for Drying Photograph Prints [275] A quick and convenient way to dry prints is to place them on a cheesecloth stretcher. Such a stretcher can be made on a light wood frame. as shown. the pie will be damaged. thereby causing the amateur to be dubbed a "musser. Several of these frames can be stacked and a large number of prints thus dried at the same time." A better way is to take an ordinary envelope and cut it off as shown by the dotted lines. --Contributed by Andrew G. If a knife with a flexible blade is not used. but 12 by 24 in. The funnel made by rolling up a piece of paper usually allows half of the solution to run down the outside of the bottle. The prints should be placed face up on the cloth. and the prints will dry rapidly.Sometimes the juices from a hot pie make it stick to the pan so tightly that a knife blade must be run under to cut it loose. the air can enter from both top and bottom. If the stretcher is made in Cloth on the Frame this way. Separating Pies from Pans If the pie pans are provided with the simple attachment shown in the accompanying sketch. Ky. Louisville. The end pieces B are fastened on top of the long side pieces A. and the frame set near a window.

14 in. high. 1. wide and 7 in. which is fastened in a hole in the top part of the upright B so that the end C will protrude slightly. The current passing through the magnet pulls the driving arm toward the bolt head. A 1/8-in. W. high. wide. It is cheap and you can afford to throw it away when dirty. 1/2 in. are fastened with screws about half way between the end of the base and the upright B. 2-1/2 in.Paper Funnel point. 1. The upright B. The connecting rod E. hole is bored through the top part of each support so they will be in a line for the axle. thereby saving time and washing. 3. Wrap a thin piece of paper around the bolt between the washers and wind the space full of No. long. in diameter. is made of a piece of soft sheet iron. slip on two cardboard washers. The board can be raised to place . The contact F is made of a strip of copper. the arm is again brought back against the copper strip F. Figs. 22 gauge magnet wire. The uprights on each side of the block are better shown in Fig. The end view of these supports is shown in Fig. wide and 3 in. Fig. and you have a funnel that will not give any trouble. 1. is secured across the base about one-third of the distance from one end and fastened with a wood screw put through from the under side. one at the head end and the other against the upright B. at GG. causing a break in the current. Fig. The turning of the shaft pulls the arm away from the copper piece F. which are fastened to the base. each 1 in. A small flywheel is attached to one end of the shaft. The magnet core C is made of a carriage bolt. high. The apron or board in front slides on the two front ropes. long. thick and 3 in. 1. long. for the crank. Iowa. 1/2 in. as shown. Le Mars. thick. A small block is fastened to the lower end of the metal and pivoted between two uprights. Before placing the bolt in the hole of the upright. The driving arm D. -Contributed by S. Procure a box of the right size and saw it out in the shape shown in the illustration. The axle is made of a piece of steel 1/8 in. This is to open and close the circuit when the engine is running. Connect two dry cells to the binding-posts and turn the flywheel. allowing each end to project for connections. open out. which gives the shaft a half turn. The connections are made as shown in Fig. Herron. Fig. An offset is bent in the center. each 1/2 in. in diameter and about 4 in. Child's Home-Made Swing Seat [276] A very useful swing or seat for children can be made from a box or packing case. 2. long. An Electric Engine [276] The parts of this engine are supported on a base 3/4 in. Shaft Turned by Magnetism which is 1/2 in. is made of wood and fastened to the upper end of the driving arm D with a small screw or nail. 1 and 3. Two supports. 4 in. thus the current is broken and applied at each revolution of the shaft. As the shaft revolves. thick and 3 in.

Stecher. The board is braced with lath or similar strips of wood. One or more pots may be used. Fit the cleats as close as possible to the sides of the pot. and carefully breaking the clay away until the opening is large enough to admit a small bird. or the braces may be of twigs and branches of a tree to make a rustic effect. --Contributed by William F. . as shown in the sketch. Place the pot. 3 in. In designing the roost. bottom side up. The board on which the pots are fastened is nailed or screwed to a post or pole 10 or 12 ft.the Made of a Box child in the box and to remove him. Mass. making a framework suitable for a roost. Clay Flower Pots Used for Bird Houses [277] A novel use of the common garden flower pot may be made by enlarging the small opening at the bottom with a pair of pliers. wider than the diameter of the largest pot used. and fasten it to the board with wood cleats and brass screws. on a board. in height. The ropes are fastened to the box by tying knots in their ends and driving staples over them. Dorchester. the lath can be arranged to make it quite attractive.

shows a method of winding the rope on a round stick to make circular objects. Coat the board along the lines of the patterns with melted paraffin. How to Make Rope Grills [277] Beautiful and useful household ornaments. paraffin and paint or varnish. when combined. common window cord (called sash cord) about 5/16 in. The design must be considered first and when one is selected. using an ordinary painter's brush to prevent the ropes from sticking to the boards after they are soaked in glue and run around the nails. odd corners. in diameter. The materials required are rope or. Take a smooth flat board and layout the design or designs which. then bend or twist it along or around the lines desired. F. Gas expands by about 1/491 part of its volume for each deg. Soak the sash cord in common glue sizing for a short time. if it is other than straight lines. windows. adopt the method described. F. preferably. as shown in Fig. If the meter is warmed 10 deg. shelves.. 1. 1. will produce the pattern desired. etc. ordinary glue. and give it time to dry. grills and gratings for doors.Pots Fastened to the Board Location of a Gas Meter [277] The gas meter should not be located in a warm place or the gas will expand before the meter measures it and the gas bill will be proportionately increased. Drive finishing nails at the angle points or along curves as required. A few strips of wood or molding are very handy to use around the edges. Fig. The bottom part of the sketch.. can be made by the following method at a slight cost and by anyone possessing a little ingenuity. without any corresponding benefit. that it is heated. Wind the . it will make the gas cost over 2 per cent more.

M. Lockport. -Contributed by Geo. Y. I-Method of Forming the Rope In Fig. These suggest ideas in making up combinations or in plain figures and the number is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer. six designs are shown. A Simple and Effective Filter [278] . 2. 2-Designs for Grills desired number of turns and when dry. N.Fig. cut and glue them together. Fig. Harrer.

Insert the chimney in a hole cut in a wood shelf used as a support. The opening for the animal to put his head into is semicircular. The fine organic matter may penetrate the cotton for about 1 in. Press a tuft of absorbent cotton into the small part of the neck to a depth of about 3 in... and the sides do not cover the jaws. chips of iron rust. will be retained by the cotton. Armor and Clay Models An open chamfron of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. Pour the water in until the filter is filled. says the English Mechanic. As the . This piece of horse armor.Procure an ordinary lamp chimney and fit two or three thicknesses of cheese cloth over the end of it. London. makes a splendid center for a shield on which are fixed the swords. but no farther. etc. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VI [279] A mass of any kind of clay that is easily modeled and fairly stiff must be prepared and kept moist and well kneaded for making the models over which paper is formed to make the shape of the articles illustrated in these sketches. The size of the board depends upon the size of the work to be made. etc. The resultant filtered water will be clear and pure. Cutting Tools [278] The cutting point of a tool should never be below the centers.. and is a good piece for the amateur armorer to try his hand on in the way of modeling in clay or papier mache work. 1. which was used in front of a horse's head. when it will be observed that any organic matter. A modeling board must be made of one large board or several pieces joined closely together upon which to work the clay.

If size cannot be obtained from your local painter. 2. The ragged edges of the paper are trimmed off with a sharp knife and the whole surface smoothed with fine sandpaper. which is separate. The clay forms modeled up ready to receive the patches of brown paper on the surface are shown in Figs. 4. This triangularshaped support. and so on until there are five or six coats of glue and paper. the rougher the better. and the clay model oiled. give the paper a thin and even coating of glue. The breastplate and tassets of this armor are supposed to be in one piece. as shown in the sketch. A day before making the clay model some pieces of thin. It is not necessary to have smooth boards. All being ready. These are passed through the buckles shown at the top right and left-hand corners of the front plate. a weak solution of glue will do equally well. There is a belt around the waist which helps to hold the back plate on. 8. A German fluted armor used at the beginning of the sixteenth century is shown in Fig. The method of making armor is the same as of making helmets. which must be quite hot and laid on as quickly as possible. pressing it on well and into and around any crevices and patterns. This gauntlet may be molded in one piece. This being done. 3 is shown a gauntlet of the seventeenth century with separately articulated fingers. The tassets are separate and attached to the front plate with straps and buckles. but as larger pieces are formed it is well to use less clay owing to the bulk and weight. The entire head piece must be modeled in clay with the hands. When this is dry it will be strong enough for all ornamental purposes. Attached to the back of the plate would be two short straps at the shoulder. 6 and 7. which must be made separately and fastened with the thumb shield to the leather glove that is attached to the inside of the gauntlet. except the thumb and fingers. as the surface will hold the clay. An arrangement is shown in Fig. Lay on a second layer of paper as carefully as before. take up one piece of paper at a time and very carefully place it on the surface of the model. which can be made in any size. A mitten gauntlet of the fifteenth century is shown in Fig. with the exception of the thumb shield.main part of this armor is worn in front of the head the extreme depth is about 4 in. Continue this operation until the clay model is completely covered on every part. as it would not be seen when the gauntlet is hanging in its place. The armor is now removed from the model. then another coat of glue. but the back is not necessary. In Fig. and will require less clay. This can be made in one piece. is placed on the modeling board or bench and covered with clay. A breastplate and tassets of the sixteenth century are shown in Fig. Corrugated Breastplate and Former The part covering the wrist is a circular piece. Then carefully glue on sections of tinfoil to give the armor the appearance of steel. but for . This will make the model light and easy to move around. 2. size of the palm of the hand and put to soak in a basin of water in which a tablespoonful of size has been dissolved. For decorative purposes the back plate need not be made. 5 to reduce the amount of clay used. after which it is covered with a thin and even coating of sweet or pure olive oil. brown wrapping paper are torn in irregular shapes to the. and therefore it is not described. The thumb shield is attached to the thumb of an old glove which is fastened with round headed nails on the inside of the gauntlet. the same as in Fig.

La Rue. The two pieces of foil. two in each jaw. place the two in one jaw so they will fit between the two of the other jaw. When locating the place for the screw eyes. the two pieces of foil will draw together. If it does not hold a charge. Fasten a polished brass ball to. Home-Made Hand Vise [280] A vise for holding small articles while filing can be made as shown in the illustration. Calif. and the instrument is ready for use. N. 2. . will be about right. cut into the shape shown in Fig. long. Detector for Slight Electrical Charges [281] A thin glass bottle is thoroughly cleaned and fitted with a rubber stopper. Goshen. A narrow leather belt placed around the armor will cover the joint. --Contributed by John G.convenience in making it will be found best to make them separately and then glue them together after they are taken from the model. and if it holds a Aluminum Foil in a Bottle slight electrical charge. The bottom of the rod is bent and two pieces of aluminum foil. Buxton. each about 1/4 in. will be very useful for marking out the fluted lines. running down the plate. are better shown in Fig. Put a nail through the eyes when the jaws are matched together and they are ready for the wedge in clamping the article to be filed. 9. Redondo Beach. Y. The vise consists of three pieces of wood. 1/2 in. Fluted armor takes its name from a series of corrugated grooves. but 3-1/2 in. A hole is made through the center of the stopper large enough to admit a small brass rod. are glued to it. A piece of board. --Contributed by Ralph L. the foils will not move. the top of the rod. Place the article which you wish to test near the ball. The hinge for connecting the two jaws is made of four small screw eyes. in depth. fastened to the rod. two for the jaws and one a wedge. wide and 1/2 in. The length of this rod will be governed by the shape of the bottle.

long. used for signaling the fisherman when a fish is caught. A long gash is cut in the ice and then a round hole is made with a chisel. as shown in the illustration. Home-Made Candle Holder [281] The candlestick or holder shown in the illustration is made of an ordinary tin can. Texas. thus making it ornamental as well as useful. the board should be cut slightly wider and a 1/2-in. At a point 6 in. as indicated in the . as this will cut under the water without splashing. Three triangular cuts are made in the cover or bottom of the can and the points turned up about the can die. such as is used for canning salmon or potted ham. as follows: Secure a piece of paper and upon it draw the outline and design. Both ends of the board should be notched deeply. How to Make a Match Holder of Wood and Metal [282] A very simple piece of art craft work is easily made. wide at one end and narrowing down to about 1 in at the other.Fishing through Ice with a Tip-Up [281] The tip-up. M. about 15 in. thus enabling one person to take care of as many lines. --Contributed by Mrs. The can may be bronzed. Corsicana. A. silvered. The chipped ice can be removed with a pail. Two or three wrappings of fine copper wire may be wound around the board on each side of the hole to give added strength. hole bored through it. the other end will tip up and signal the fisherman. is made of a 1/4-in. from the smaller end. 2-1/2 in. Bryan. enameled or otherwise decorated. A rod or round stick of wood is passed through the hole in the tip-up and placed across the round hole. When a fish is hooked. pine board. Tip-Up in Place The fishhook is baited in the usual way and hung on a line from the short end of the tip-up. Any number of holes can be cut in the ice and a tip-up used in each.

long over all. as shown. using powdered pumice and lye. Having completed the drawing. The green and red are barbarously brilliant when first put on. thick. If soft wood. Rub a coat of weathered oil stain over the whole back and wipe dry with a cloth. such as basswood or pine was used. Any kind of wood will do. or even pine. A good size is 5 in. Polish the metal. This may be made of brass or copper and need not be of very heavy gauge-No. Basswood or butternut. Carefully bend the metal to shape by placing it on the edge of a board and putting another board on top and over the lower edge so as to keep the bending true. they are "greyed" in a most pleasing manner. and trace upon it the design and outline. will do as well as the more expensive woods. The illustration shows how this will look and the size of the parts for the back dimensioned above. punch the holes. take a piece of thin wood. Next prepare the metal holder. The easiest way to get the shape of the metal is to make a paper pattern of the development. but by covering them at the same time the background is colored brown. it may be treated by burning with the pyrography outfit. Put the tacks in the lines of the design so that the holes will not show in the finished piece. The size may be made to suit the taste of the worker. When it has dried over night. Malachite and mahogany are the colors to use. through which small round-head brass screws are to be placed to hold the metal to the wood back. wide by 6 in. 3/8 or 1/4 in. then with a nail. The wood back may be treated in quite a variety of ways.Match Holder accompanying sketch. The metal holder should be proportioned to this size. put a coat or two of wax and polish . using a piece of carbon paper. A couple of thumb tacks should be used to fasten the paper and design in place. 22 is plenty heavy enough." Next stain the leaves of the conventional plant with a little green wood dye and with another dye stain the petals of the flower red. If no outfit is at hand a very satisfactory way is to take a knife and cut a very small Vshaped groove around the design and border so as to keep the colors from "running. Trace this shape on the metal with the carbon paper and cut it out by means of metal shears.

of pure olive oil. long. A board with notches cut in the ends will make a good swing board which can be removed instantly. Homemade Telegraph Key [283] Key and Connections A piece of wood. the background might be lowered and the plant modeled. Instead of the usual two short ropes. Protecting the Fingers from Chemicals [283] The finger nails and fingers may be easily protected from stains of chemicals by coating them with a wax made up as follows: Melt white wax in the same manner as melting glue. thick. This may be done by cutting the wax into small pieces. with rings for the large boys and a swing for the smaller ones. the whole being finished in linseed oil. . --Contributed by W. Richmond. Cal. If one has some insight in carving. Pass the rope along the crosspiece and down the post and tie it to cleats nailed at a height that can be easily reached.over the wood as the directions on the can suggest. wide and 5 in. All sharp edges should be sandpapered to prevent Rings and Swing the rope from being cut. The fingers should be dipped into the wax while it is in a liquid state. Combined Turning Rings and Swings [283] This trapeze. A. tied and bolted through the top crosstimber bore two holes large enough for the ropes to pass through easily. This will keep the rope from slipping off when the rings and swing are raised and lowered. hard woods such as cherry or mahogany should be used. The metal holder may next be fastened in place. are used for the cores of the magnets. 1/2 in. Two wire nails. To each ounce of melted wax thoroughly stir in 1 dr. yet protects the skin from the chemicals. It is useful for photographers. placing them in a vessel and setting the vessel in boiling water. At the ends of the crosspiece drive two nails. can be made on the same standards. long. allowing them to project 1 or 2 in. each 1 in. 2 in. If carving is contemplated. is used for the base of this instrument. Jaquythe. This will form a coating that will permit the free use of the fingers.

leaving about 1/4 in. A piece of tin. about No.Each nail is wound with three or four layers of fine insulated magnet wire. the paper covering put on. similar to that used in electric bells. The armor should be supported by a light frame of wood built up on the inside. The chain mail seen between and behind the tassets is made by sewing small steel rings on a piece of cloth as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. says the English Mechanic. Imitation Arms and Armor-Part VII [284] The helmets. then covered with red. Figure 2 shows how the armor is modeled on the side of the left leg. The key lever is cut from a thin piece of wood. of the end bare so that they may be driven into the wood base. The whole figure when completed is placed on a square box covered with red or green baize. This is for making the contact between the copper on the key and the wires from the coils. acts as a spring to keep the key open. at A. the top of which is just even with the top of the nails in the coils. as shown by the dotted lines. The two lower pieces must be built up and padded out with straw. cloth or baize to represent the legs. and pivoted in a slotted block which is used as a base for the key. behind the coils is fastened a small block of wood. These rings may be purchased at a hardware store or harness shop. Lynas. 25 gauge. The clay is modeled as described in previous chapters. is fastened with two screws to the top of this block. Two vertical pieces are firmly attached to the box so they will extend up inside the legs. About 1 in. H. and at the top of them is attached a crosspiece on which is placed a vertical stick high enough to carry the helmet. and the tinfoil applied in imitation of steel. when the key is pushed down. and the end bent slightly so as to clear the top of the nails about 1/32 in. --Contributed by W. The connections for the coils are shown in the sketch. . breastplates and gauntlets described in parts V and VI can be used in making up a complete model for a full suit of armor of any size. London. A small piece of tin is fastened to the base under the knob of the key. except that for the legs. Protecting Sleeves [283] Bicycle trousers-guards make excellent sleeve bands when the cuffs are turned back and rolled above the elbows. 3. passing over the end of the key and attached to the base with a tack. A piece of bare copper wire is fastened along the under side of the key. 1. All of the parts for the armor have been described. in the shape shown in the sketch. cut in the shape of the letter T. A rubber band.

A Home-Made Tripod Holder [284] An inexpensive tripod holder. apart. hole in the center. Take the piece shown in Fig. long. and eight small holes. can be made in a few minutes' time. Secure two strips of wood. in the other end. 1 and drill a 1/4in. When dry give the surface a coat of varnish. at each end. make the same series of eight small holes and. holes. apart. brass paper fasteners will be found useful. The two pieces are bolted together. In one end of the piece. about 1 in. 1 in. and round off the ends to improve their appearance. for the sake of lightness. or ordinary plaster laths will do. Cut them to a length or 40 in. a stout cord or strings in making up the patterns on the parts.. These can be purchased at a stationery store. Secure the kind having a round brass head from which hang two brass tongues. there is absolutely no danger of one of the legs slipping out of position. and plane them down to a thickness of 3/16 in. not too tight. go over the armor with a coat of silver paint put on with a brush. 3 in. Instead of using brass headed nails. Silver paper will do very well. and prevent the points from doing damage to the polished surface or puncturing an expensive rug or carpet. 2. drill six 1/4-in. These are pushed through a hole and spread out flat on the opposite side. Other materials can be used in the place of tinfoil to represent steel. Fig. By moving the position of the bolt from. completes the equipment. A 1/4-in. flat headed carriage bolt.Full Suit of Armor In making up the various pieces for a full model it will be found very convenient to use rope. So set up. one that will prevent the tripod from slipping on a smooth floor. one to another . but if either the tinfoil or silver paper are found difficult to manipulate. says Camera Craft. and the points of the tripod legs inserted in their respective small holes.

allowing the four ends to hang in four directions. in Fig. The same sort of simple apparatus built slightly stronger. Take hold of the loop and turn it as shown in Fig. The ends of the strings are raveled out so as to make a tassel.of the larger holes in the strip. Proceed in the same manner and keep on until about 1-1/2 in. lay Cover B and the one under D. Four pins stuck through each corner and into the layers will hold the ends from coming apart. Start with one end. and the one beneath C. 2. and lay it over the one to the right. as shown in Fig. for instance. then B over C and the end stuck under A. long. and then lay D over C and stick the end under A. A is the first string and B is the second. 1. This will make a square fob which will appear as shown in Fig. D over A and C. doubled and run through the web of A. Then draw all four ends up snugly. 4. In this sketch. of the ends remain unwoven. 2. but instead of reversing . Fig. as in portraiture and the like. How to Weave a Shoestring Watch Fob [285] Having procured a pair of ordinary shoestrings. taking the same start as for the square fob. makes an The Tripod Cannot Slip excellent tripod clamp for use when the camera has to be shifted about. A round fob is made in a similar way. Then take B and lay it over A. the one marked A. Commence the next layer by laying the end A back over B and D. almost any desired inclination of the camera can be secured. leaving a loop 1-1/2 in. 2. C over D and B. and with a small caster under each of the three series of small holes. take both ends of one of them and force the ends through the middle of the other.

The loop is for attaching the fob to the watch. A loop. always lap one string. over the one to its right. the design of which is shown herewith. as at A in Fig. 3. then weaving the layers both ways from the point where the strings are tied. slipping the last end of the four strings under and tightening all. as B. Monroeville. Fasten the ends with pins and ravel out for a tassel. 5. After the weaving is complete and the tassel ends made. Other designs can be made in the same manner. a small stiff wire is forced through the center to form the shape of a horseshoe. 1-1/2 in. --Contributed by John P. is to be made of leather. Strings of different colors will make up a very pretty fob. long. Ohio. as in making the square fob. Rupp. The round fob is shown in Fig. It may be made of Russian calf and the background modeled down . is left out at the center before starting on one side. A fob in the shape of a horseshoe can be made by taking four shoestrings and tying a small string around the middle of them. especially if silk strings are used. How to Make a Table Mat of Leather [286] The table mat.Fobs Made from Shoestrings the ends of each alternate layer.

thus forming a vacuum sufficient to hold the coin. it can be easily renewed. and strike it hard with a downward sliding motion. filling them with wax. The wax is usually applied by hand to the heated surface of the iron. . A second method is to secure a piece of sheepskin and. Houghton. using the reverse side. Any smooth piece of steel. Draw the one-fourth on paper to the size desired and then fold on lines A and B. The rubbing of the hot iron over this cloth absorbs just enough of the wax to make the iron work smoothly. To do this the leather is moistened on the back side just enough to make the leather take the impression of the tool. A.Pattern for the Table Mat as has been described in several previous articles dealing with leather work. The striking and pressure expel the air between the quarter and the wood. Take the hand away and the coin will remain on the woodwork. pressing it against the wood. trace the design on the reverse side by means of carbon paper. The accompanying pattern shows but one-fourth of the mat. outline the design by means of a pyrographer's outfit. but not enough to make the moisture show through on the face. that will not cut or scratch the leather and will make a V-shaped depression will do. such as a nut pick. On the calfskin the pattern is to be held on the leather and the tool worked over the pattern to get the outline transferred. Making Coins Stick to Wood by Vacuum [287] Take a quarter and place it flat against a vertical surface of wood such as the side of a bookcase. A third method is to secure a piece of sheep or goat skin. beeswax or paraffin. This manner of treating leather is so common that it needs no description. After this the pattern is to be removed and the leather modeled. door facing or door panel. When the supply of wax is exhausted. and put the outline and design in with brush and stains such as are sold for this purpose. Northville. A much better and handier way is to bore five or six holes in one end of the ironing board to a depth of half its thickness. and covering them over with two thicknesses of muslin. -Contributed by A. Sad Iron Polisher [286] A small amount of wax is necessary on an iron for successful work. tracing this one-fourth on the other parts by the insertion of double-surfaced carbon paper. Mich.

D. This is a very important point as it is the margin that adds richness to all prints. and slip the coin in the pocket thus formed. After the plaster has thoroughly dried. Petersburg. be mixed to cover the bottom of the dish about 1/2 in. Enough plaster should. This method holds the coin in the center of the envelope where it cannot work around and cut through the edges. --Contributed by Beatrice Oliver. Earthen dishes will be found more convenient. and about 12 in. Y. Mix same of the plaster in clear water so it will be a little thick. and usually a regular coin mailer is not available. but sometimes it How the Paper is Folded becomes necessary. it is best to leave a plain white margin. A very simple and secure way to wrap a coin or coins for mailing is as follows: Procure a piece of heavy paper. place it face down in the dish. If the print or plaster is inclined to stick. The hot iron will not burn the wood and it cannot slip off the tacks. Fold together on lines C. press into place and remove all drops of water with a soft cloth. nearly as wide as the envelope is long. Fold on the dotted lines shown by A and B in the sketch. although tin ones can be used with good success. --Contributed by O. Be sure and have the print in the center of the dish. making the last two folds wide enough to fit snugly in the envelope. New York. says Photographic Times. thick.Simple and Safe Method for Sending Coins by Mail [287] Sending coins by mail is not as a rule advisable. take a knife and gently pry around the edges and it can be removed without breaking. Select the print you wish to mount. long. but any kind that will not stick may be used. The size of the dish will depend on the size of the print to be mounted. Platinum or blueprint papers work well. The cast can then be removed and the print should be fast to it. and after wetting. . any tint may be worked on the margin by the use of water colors. if blueprints are used. E and F. apart and driven in only part way. Pour the plaster into the dish over the print and allow to stand until it becomes quite hard. Iron Rest for an Ironing Board [288] A flatiron rest can be made on an ironing-board by driving a number of large tacks into one end of the board. N. remaining above the surface of the board. This iron rest is always with the board and ready when wanted. those on matte paper will work best. Prints of any size may be used by having the mold or dish large enough to leave a good margin. Ill. Mounting Photographs in Plaster Plaques [287] Purchase a few pounds of plaster of paris from your local druggist and select a dish of the desired shape in which to make your cast. leaving about 1/4 in. The tacks should be about 1 in. J. Thompson.

How to Preserve Egg Shells [288] Many naturalists experience difficulty in preserving valuable egg shells. One of the . at the extremity of which is fixed a small crystal of hyposulphite of soda. but crystallization will immediately set in as soon as it touches the lower hyposulphite of soda solution. Dissolve in another glass 100 parts of acetate of soda in 15 parts of boiling water. as shown at the left in the sketch. and this will crystallize the same as the other solution. Cover the dish with a conical chimney made of tin and expose to the upper opening the flowers that are to be decolored. Decoloration of Flowers by Fumes of Sulphur [288] Dissolve some sulphur in a small dish which will inflame by contact with air thus forming sulphuric acid fumes.. bell flowers. without mixing the solutions. When the hyposulphite of soda solution becomes crystallized. filling the same about onehalf full. Pour this solution slowly on top of the first in such a way that it forms an upper layer. etc.Instantaneous Crystallization [288] Dissolve 150 parts of hyposulphite of soda in 15 parts of water and pour the solution slowly into a test tube which has been warmed in boiling water. as shown in the right of the sketch. The two solutions are then covered over with a thin layer of boiling water and allowed to cool. will be rendered perfectly white. Lower into the test tube a wire. The action is very rapid and in a short time myrtle. violets. roses. lower in the upper solution a crystal of acetate of soda suspended by another wire. The crystal traverses the solution of acetate without causing trouble.

The core with its attached driving wheel is shown in Fig. 1. take care to have the diaphragm lie perfectly flat and not made warping by any pressure applied while the solder is cooling. the diameter at the small or outer end being 1-5/8 in. The tin horn can be easily made. The first point should be ground blunt. Shabino. and at the larger end. L. to keep the core from coming off in turning. not too tightly. driven in tightly to serve as a bearing. as shown in the sketch. should be soldered to the box. The core for holding the cylindrical wax records is 4-1/2 in. Millstown. --Contributed by L. or delicate tints of the egg. 3. The location of these parts is shown in Fig. turned a little tapering. which should be of thin ferrotype tin. but which will not wobble loose. The motor base and the support are fastened by screws turned up through the cover or top of the box. melt common beeswax and force it into the shell with a discarded fountain pen filler..most effective ways of preserving them is as follows: After the egg is blown. Phonograph and Construction of Parts . shading. The diaphragm. in diameter and 1 in. 2. and soldered to the center of the diaphragm. The motor can be controlled by a small three or four-point battery rheostat. The most delicate shells treated in this manner can be handled without fear of breaking. is about 2-1/2 in. about 1/8s in. is threaded and turned into the upper end of the support. long and made of wood. A rod that will fit the brass tube. Anyone of the various battery motors may be used to supply the power. South Dakota. made of heavy tin. The dotted lines show the brass bearing and rod axle. The hole in the core is fitted with a brass tube. 1-7/8 in. The end of the axle should be provided with a thread over which a washer and nut are placed. The sound box. Set in a cool place until the wax hardens. as shown. attached to the sound box with a piece of rubber hose and held so it will swing the length of the record by a rod attached to the top of the box. A wood wheel with a V-shaped groove on its edge is nailed to the larger end of the cylinder. When soldering these parts together. Homemade Phonograph [289] Make a box large enough to hold four dry cells and use it as a base to mount the motor on and to support the revolving cylinder. thick. Fig. The support for the cylinder is first made and located on the cover of the box in such a position that it will give ample room for the motor. and the transparency of the wax will not alter the color. The needle is made of a piece of sewing needle. long.

Colo. Chicago. Victor. Stick the point end of the fully open blade into the side of a lead pencil and use the half-open blade as the center leg of the compass. and. Jr. he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four. Ill. Turn with the knife handle to make the circle. open one to the full extent and the other only halfway. The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch. Gold. E. dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away. The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it. A Substitute for a Compass [289] An easy way to make a pencil compass when one is not at hand. and weighted it with a heavy stone. while playing in the yard close to a grain house. The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it. A Nut-Cracking Block [290] . Pencil on the Knife Blade A Novel Rat Trap [290] A boy. mice in the bottom. says the Iowa Homestead. and a hole was b r 0 ken in it just above the ground. put a board on top. is to take a knife with two blades at one end. The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom. wondering what it was.--Contributed by Herbert Hahn.Contributed by E.

. Can. There is no need of holding the nut with the fingers. Y.Holes in Block for Nuts In the sketch herewith is shown an appliance for cracking nuts which will prevent many a bruised thumb. --Contributed by Lyndwode. or under the kitchen table where it will be out of danger of being upset. A Jelly-Making Stand [290] Every housewife who makes jelly is only too well acquainted with the inconvenience and danger of upsets when using the old method of balancing a Cheesecloth Strainer on Stand jelly-bag on a couple of chairs stood on the kitchen table. Make the depth of the hole two-thirds the height of the nut and the broken pieces will not scatter. N. Pereira. The device is nothing more than a good block of hardwood with a few holes bored in it to fit the different sized nuts. The accompanying sketch shows how a stand can be made from a few pieces of boards that will help jelly makers and prevent the old-time dangers and disadvantages. The stand can be stood in the corner of the kitchen. with the additional inconvenience of having a couple of chairs on the kitchen table out of commission for such a length of time. -Contributed by Albert O'Brien. Ottawa. Buffalo. and as hard a blow may be struck as desired. To anyone who has ever tried to crack butternuts it needs no further recommendation.

Secure another piece of heavier tin of the same size. Cart Without an Axle [291] The boy who has a couple of cart wheels is not always lucky enough to have an axle of the proper length to fit the wheels. A. as it can be made quickly in any size. above the end of the dasher. --Contributed by W. Jaquythe. Cut a round piece of wood 3 in. An Illuminated Target [291] My youthful nephews some time ago were presented with an air rifle and it worked so . The outer end of the pin is carried on a piece of wood extending the full length of the box and Wheels Fastened to the Box supported by crosspieces nailed to the ends. --Contributed by Thos. each wheel being attached with a short pin for an axle. by means of a flatheaded tack. Cal. and at one end of the stick fasten. which allows the second tin to pass up and down in the opposite direction to the dasher. a piece of tin. This cart has no axle. This beater will do the work in less time than the regular kitchen utensil. as shown. longer than the length of the can. on the side and at the lower edge of the box. Richmond. Put a small nail 2 in. In such a case the cart can be constructed as shown in the illustration.How to Make an Egg-Beater [291] There is no reason why any cook or housewife should be without this eggbeater. De Loof. Grand Rapids. Cut a neat hole in the cover of the can to allow the stick to pass through. All that is needed is an ordinary can with a tight-fitting cover-a baking-powder can will do. cut round. through which several holes have been punched. Mich. and make Made Like a Churn a hole in the center to pass the stick through.

The ends of the wires are set in holes in wood pieces joining the bases of the end pieces. 2. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. of course. 2. The strip of wood is 1/4 in. Doylestown. At night the illuminated interior of the bell could be Fig. Heavy pieces of wire are bent in the form of a semi-circle. The base may be made of a 1/2-in. --Contributed by James M. wide and 1/8 in. can be sawed easily with a hacksaw. Kane. long. thick. board. 1-1/2 in. although any of the dimensions may be varied to suit special requirements. 1 ft. Feed Box for Chickens [292] The sketch shows the construction of a feed box designed to prevent the scattering of feed and give the coward Chicken Feed Box rooster as much chance to fatten as the game cock. The ends are semi-circular pieces with a notch. Fig. La. as shown. Notches 1/8 in. Pa. I reversed a door gong. apart. cut in the center of the rounding edge. 1/4 in. wide and 3 ft. wide and as long as the box. The candles. Sawing Sheet Metal [291] Sheet metal placed between two boards in the jaws of a vise and clamped tightly. 2 in. Target for Night Shooting plainly seen as shown in Fig. 2. The position of the candles and gong are shown in Fig. deep are cut on the under side of this piece of wood.1. The baseboard and top are separable. New Orleans. and fitted two candles on the inside to illuminate the bullseye.well that it became necessary for me to construct a target that would allow the fun to be carried on at night. were below the level of the bullseye. deep and 3 in. wide. A Book Rest [292] A book that does not open flat is rather inconvenient to write in when one of its sides is in the position shown in Fig. notches cut on the under side of the top piece of wood. 1. screwed it on the inside of a store box. The ends are connected together with a piece of wood set in the notches. A wedge-shaped piece of . The wires are set in the 1/8-in.

the shelf could not be put on the window. --Contributed by Nellie Conlon. stone or wood. --Contributed by G. the blade can be pulled out of the groove and the wood shaped to any desired form. This device is very convenient for invalids. Wood. After completing the handle. Needles. The dimensions given in the sketch make a knife of convenient size. After the glue has dried. Place the blade in the groove and glue the two dressed sides of the wood together.Book Back Holders metal. A. dressing one surface of each piece. Cover the block with rubber. A small wood-screw is put through one side of the handle to prevent the blade from sliding. by cutting away the ends. When not in use. as shown in Fig. Magnet for the Work Basket [292] Tie a ribbon or strong string to the work basket and fasten a large magnet to the other end. West Union. as one end must be dropped in place before the other. For the handle. wide into each side of the casing. 3. to prevent its scratching the desk top. wide rubber bands or felt. so that it would fit solidly against the lower window sash to support the weight of the plants. take two pieces of hard wood. 1. I placed a small bracket at each end of the shelf. can be picked up without any trouble. when placed as in Fig. Knife Made from a Hack-Saw Blade [293] A very serviceable knife with excellent cutting qualities can be made easily from a discarded hack-saw blade. Shelf in Window One of the brackets I nailed to the shelf and the other I held in place with a hinge. scissors. Mass. The block can also be used as a paperweight. Ia. it can be removed without marring the casing. will. the reason being that if both were solid. Window Shelf for Flower Pots [292] On the ledge formed by the top part of the lower sash of the window I fitted a board 7 in. etc. Worcester. and cut a groove as wide and thick as the saw blade. the blade is put back into the groove .. raise the sloping half to the level of the other pages. Such a shelf will hold all the plants a person can put on it. The saw teeth are ground off on an emery wheel or grindstone to a smooth edge parallel with the back edge.

long. 1 in. so a piece of wood which has been planed square will fit in it. . Each one is made of a hardwood block. A notch is cut in one side. If desired. --Contributed by Maud McKee. Erie. Cleveland. Two or three of them will be necessary for planing long pieces. Mass. as shown in Fig. Pa. square and 4 in.and sharpened to a cutting edge. Roller Coaster Illusion Traveling Up an Incline [293] A toy car with a paddle wheel and a shaft on both ends traveling upward on a chute in which water is flowing down. a positive upward movement of the car will be obtained. Hutchins. If a rack is used on each side of the chute and a small pinion on the Car Travels Uphill ends of the axles. Ohio. Details of Handle Killing Mice and Rats [293] A simple and inexpensive means for killing mice and rats is to leave yeast cakes lying around where they can eat them. A. Jacobs. to fit a mortise cut in the bench. Put a screw in the end of each piece and fasten it down to the bench. Place the blocks far enough apart so the board to be planed will rest firmly in the notches. S. Malden. 1. thus carrying the car up the incline. is shown in the accompanying sketch. --Contributed by H. 2. as shown in Fig. -Contributed by W. a tenon may be made on the bottom of each block. Block for Planing Octagonal Wood Pieces [293] The little device shown in the illustration will be found very useful in any workshop. The paddle wheels travel in a reverse direction causing the ends of the axles to roll on the edge of the chute.

and an awl and hammer.J. and then get the other parts by folding on the center lines and tracing. N. If one such as is shown is to be used. Gauge 22 will be sufficiently heavy.The Notch Holds the Wood Plane the board square first and then place it in the notches and plane the corners down to the proper dimensions. Prepare a design for the front. The letters can be put on afterward. It can be made of either copper or brass and need not Finished Letter Holder be of very heavy material. A Letter Holder of Pierced Metal [294] The letter holder shown in the illustration will be found convenient for holding outgoing letters that await the postman's coming. Layout for the Metal make one-quarter of it first. --Contributed by Willie Woolsen. One sheet of metal. 6 by 9-1/2 in.. Cape May Point. will be needed. a board on which to work it. . This will insure having all parts alike.

and add sugar of lead as a dryer. which signals the operator in the basement to start the machine. One coat will do. The music is transmitted through the stick from the music box to the violin. File off any sharpness so that the hand may not be injured in handling it. The "fake" work of invoking the "spirit" is performed and ended by stamping the foot. Place the metal on the edge of a table or between two boards. With care you may succeed in getting the paint on quite evenly all over. only the marginal line is to be pierced. 1 part. using tacks and nailing outside of the required space. as shown. or. to right angles. behind or through the center of a table leg. placed on a table. 1/4 part. 1 part sulphate of copper (blue vitriol) and 1 part of gum arabic. If any polishing is required. 3/4 part. Draw before Cutting [294] A detail drawing made of a piece of furniture before starting the work will often save time and mistakes. it should be done before the metal is fastened to the board and pierced. flat brush. With an awl pierce the metal between the marginal line and the design. that can be worked in your own parlor." In all appearance. together with the paper if the latter was pasted to the metal. So impressive are the results. The holes should be uniform along the outlines but should be pierced promiscuously otherwise. Remove the metal. will begin to produce music simply through stamping the foot and a few passes of the hand. a violin.Fasten the metal to the board. The music will not sound natural. that many people really think the spirits of the departed are playing the violin with unseen hands. it may be effected by an application of potash lye. varnish. The stick may be placed by the side of. mandolin or guitar. If it becomes necessary to remove this coating for renewal. or the old may be renewed by a coating of a mixture of 2 parts hydrochloric acid. applied by means of a brush. Be careful not to have any obstruction in the way of the stick. Trace the design on the metal with carbon paper. Imitating Ground Glass [294] Make a mixture of white lead in oil. On the back. if desired. The instrument is placed sideways on the protruding end of the stick. 2 parts white vitriol. and trim off the surplus metal where the tacks had been placed. Make a very thin paint of this and use a broad. The trick is done by placing the end of a small stick on a music box in the basement of the house and allowing the other end to pass up through the floor and table top so it will project about 1/16 in. which is desirable. says Master Painter. but weird and distant. and the violin seemingly produces music without anyone touching it. will produce as much sensation as a fake "medium. A good finish is obtained by just letting the copper age with its natural color. turpentine. in the waste metal. paste the paper design right on the metal. . and bend on the two lines indicated in the drawing. Making "Spirits" Play a Violin [295] A very pretty trick.

after which they are embossed with a ballpeen hammer. 3. With proper tools this is easy. wide. These are welded to the lower end of the uprights. Two pairs of feet. without them. as would be the case with ordinary calipers. London. long and spread about 8 in. The ornamental scrollwork on the frame is simple and effective. Leaded-Glass Fire Screen [295] The main frame of the fire screen shown in Fig. round-head machine screws. thick by 1/2 in. The bottom crosspiece can be either riveted or welded to the uprights. long. which should be about 5-1/2 ft.The Music Produced by the Phonograph is Transmitted to the Viohn on the Second Floor by the Aid of a Long Stick Sizing a Threaded Hole [295] It sometimes becomes necessary to transfer the size of a threaded hole from some out-of-the-way place to the shop in order to make a piece to fit it. . and then shaping out the leaf with' a chisel and files. square bar iron. The scrolls are attached to the frame by means of 3/16in. The leaf ornament is formed by turning over the end of a piece of metal and working it together at a welding heat. each 6 in. Whittle a stick tapering until it starts in the hole. are shaped as shown in Fig. is bent square so as to form two uprights. across the top. 2. The stick can be carried in the pocket without risk of changing the size. each 28 in. The leaf ornament at the termination of the scroll is shaped and embossed as shown in Fig. 1 is made from two pieces of 1/2in. The metal used for the scrolls is 3/16 in. it might be difficult. Then turn it into the hole and a fair thread will be made on the wood. long and measuring 26 in. and is easy to construct. One thing is always at hand and that is wood. The longest piece. says Work. apart.

the latter being tapped to . the work of putting the pieces together with the lead between them is begun. Fig. Fig. on it as shown. Place the corner piece of glass.Completed Fire Screen and Parts The center is made from colored glass of special make for leaded work. After the glass is cut. Secure a board as wide as the screen--several narrow boards put together will do and begin by placing one vertical side border. of which a cross section is shown in Fig. using rosin as a flux. After the joints are soldered. 6. The piece of lead E is cut and a small tenon joint made as shown in Fig. and the leads around it held with brads until the crosspieces are put in and soldered. While the piece of lead D. The soldering is done with a hot soldering iron and wire solder. 5. lead. border and special flux can be purchased from an art glass shop. 4. The glass. cut a long piece of lead. Use care to give the lead a symmetrical outline. The design should be drawn full size on a large sheet of heavy paper and the spaces to be occupied by the lead cut out so as to leave the exact size and shape of each piece of paper the same as wanted for each piece of glass. then the two remaining vertical and top pieces of border are put on and all corners soldered. B. The brads are then removed. 7. The leaded glass is held in the iron frame by means of eight U-shaped clips. The design is formed in the lead. C. the glass piece as shown by the dotted lines put in. The glass is cut the same as ordinary window glass. and hold it in place with two or three brads or glazier's points. the piece of glass F is put in place and the lead held with brads as before until the cross leads are fitted and soldered. A. This method is pursued until the glass is complete. the piece E can be fitted and soldered. A hole is drilled in the frame for the retaining screw. These are used as patterns in marking the glass for cutting. special flux purchased for this purpose. in the grooves of the borders. better still. and the base border. D. or. 5. is held by the brads. as shown in Fig.

plates. H. hole in the end of the post for the center pin to rest in. The block A is fastened to the board with lag screws and should be a working fit between the wo plates where it is held by means of the 5/8-in. --Contributed by W. and round the corners of one end for a ring. wood screws in each washer. Special screws may be made with ornamental heads. The teeter board is made of a 2 by 12-in. lag screws and the upper ends for a 5/8-in. in diameter and about 9 in. Make three washers 3-in. if they are made up as follows: Saw the spool in half as shown. strap iron and it should be shrunk on the post. rounded at the top as shown. then drill a 3/4-in. holes through their centers. thick and drill 3/4-in. It should be slightly tapered from the center to the ends. in diameter and 1/4 in. Fasten the plates to the block B. This bolt should be 11-1/2 in. This ring can be made of 1-in. Drill the lower ends of the plates for four 2-1/2-in. Coarse gravel should be packed tightly about it to make it solid. Jr. bolt. bolt. long. and used for securing the side scrolls and clips together. Bore a 5/8-in. The center pin is 3/4-in. Drill and countersink two smaller holes for 2-in. long. A Revolving Teeter Board [297] Details of Teeter Board The accompanying sketch shows the details of a revolving teeter board for the children's playground that can be constructed in a few hours. J. A and B. N. Two styles of hand holds are shown. The handles are rounded at the ends and are fastened to the board with lag screws or bolts. as shown in Fig. square and of the length given in the drawing.the base of the clip. hole as shown and fasten the two remaining washers to the block. and two wood blocks. Dreier. The post is now ready to be set in the ground. Camden. but the one on the left is the one most generally used. Fasten one of these washers to the top of the post as shown. plank about 12 ft. To make the swivel you will need two 1/4 by 5 by 8-in. 8.. not less than 4 in. Secure a post. Bore a 3/4-in. rocker bolt. one on each side and central with the hole. long. make a hole in the center of the tin and run a screw or nail through the spool and the tin. each 3-1/2 by 5 by 10 in. then flatten its end on the under side. but these can be put to good use as kettle covers. Concrete is much better if it can be secured. hole lengthwise through the block A for the 5/8-in. This . Home-Made Pot Covers [297] Empty thread spools and the tins used as extra inside covers in lard cans are usually thrown away.

long and 1 piece. 4 in. in diameter and 7 in. maple. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak. can make a first class gymnasium. straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans. because it will not stand the weather. by 6-1/2 ft. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood. screws. and some one can swing an axe. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces. bolts and rope. 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. long. long. chestnut or ash. The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. Draw a line on the four 7-in. by 2 ft. 1 by 7 in. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. square by 5 ft. of 1/4-in. a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary Adjustable Horizontal Bar wood. The four 7-in. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned. hickory. La. 1-1/4in. 7 in. Any small crowd of boys--even two--having a few simple tools. square by 9-1/2 ft. 2 by 4 in. 1/2 in. long. long. 4 in. 2-1/2 in. 9 in. but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. from one edge. To substitute small. by 3 ft. which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. New Orleans. 4 filler pieces. 3 in. long. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars. 4 pieces. as shown in the top view of the post Fig. apart for a distance of 3 ft. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts. forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were .will make an excellent cover for a pot. 50 ft. straight-grained hickory. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part I-The Horizontal Bar [298] Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 16 screws. boards along the side of each from end to end. long. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. 3/4 by 3 in. 4 pieces. horse and rings. If trees are convenient. bit. shanks. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. the money outlay will be almost nothing. 1. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two.

2. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped. A common tumbler is mounted on a revolving . Bore a 9/16-in. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft. each 3 ft. The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed. apart. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. deep and remove all loose dirt. and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel. boards coincide. piece of wood.bored. so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. as to do so will strain the posts in the ground.. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown. the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle. Electrostatic Illumination [299] Anyone having the use of a static machine can perform the following experiment which gives a striking result. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. apart. then buried to a depth of 2 ft. Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. so the 1/2-in. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire. at each end. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather. 8 in. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved.. around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar. and once tightened the bar will be rigid. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place. Ground Plan Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. from the end.

On this thread he fastened a cardboard "cutout" of a dirigible. the parts inside and beneath the glass being left undivided. one terminal being connected to one end of the tinfoil strip. about 100 ft. the effect is very striking. it is taken to the edge of the foot. and working the whole crowd up to a frenzy of excitement. If the tumbler is rotated. not even the tumbler. As soon as the current is led into the apparatus. then it passes around the bowl in a sinuous course to the rim. A variety of small and peculiar effects can be obtained by making some of the gaps in the tinfoil larger than others. and ascends the stem. One boy recently took advantage of this state of expectancy to have an evening's harmless amusement. disappearing only to reappear again. after which it descends on the inside and terminates at the bottom.. and under these circumstances when nothing is visible. the "aeronaut" pulled his craft out of sight and let the disillusion come when the light of day laid bare his fraud.platform and a narrow strip of tinfoil is fastened with shellac varnish to the surface of the glass as follows: Starting beneath the foot of the glass from a point immediately below the stem. and similarly the second terminal makes contact with the other end. He caused a whole hotel-full of people to gaze open mouthed at a sort of "Zeppelin XXIII. apart. He stretched the thread between two buildings. . was at its height. which at once gave the suggestion of distance. Current is then led from a static machine to two terminals. in which case larger sparks would be produced at these points. in an endless belt. it follows the edge for about 1 in. but most deceptive at dusk. which it follows for about one-third of its circumference. And all he used was a black thread. The tinfoil on the outside of the glass is divided by cutting with a knife every 1/8 in. which at once gathered. a big piece of cardboard and a pair of field glasses. W. He took the precaution of stretching his thread just beyond a blackberry hedge and thus kept overinquisitive persons at a safe distance. Balloon Ascension Illusion [300] By C. and materially heightened the illusion. just visible against the dark evening sky." which skimmed along the distant horizon. He also saw to it that there was a black background at either end so that the reversing of the direction of the craft would not be noticed. The experiment should be carried out in a darkened room. and then passes in a curve across the base. When the interest of the crowd. the effect will be as shown in the illustration. In attracting the crowd he had a confederate stand looking at the moving ship through a field glass. passing through a screweye at either end. through an illusion which deceived even the most incredulous. not much to look at in daytime. Nieman In these days of startling revelations in air-craft flight we are prepared to see any day some marvelous machine driven bird cutting figure-eights all over the sky above our heads. a spark is seen at each place where the knife has cut through the tinfoil. By pulling one or the other string he moved the "airship" in either direction.

Bevel the ends of . square and 6 ft. 2 and place the end D under the cork and pull up. A wire about No. large spikes. lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. long and 1 doz. 2 bars of straight grained hickory. 8 in. by 10 ft. long. 1. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar. long. long. 8 bolts. 8 in. The material required is as follows: Detail of the Parallel Bars 4 posts. 7 in. 2 by 4 in. as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. 4 in. long. Insert this tool in the bottle as shown in Fig. by 3 ft. Chisel out two notches 4 in. 2 in. square and 51/2 ft. To make the apparatus. 8 in. long. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. 2 by 3 in. 14 gauge is bent as shown at B. deep. 4 bolts. to fit the index finger and the other end filed to a point C. New Orleans. long. 4 knee braces. An Outdoor Gymnasium Part II-Parallel Bars [301] Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles. preferably cedar. Fig. long. 2 by 4 in. 2 cross braces. The cork will come out easily. La. wide and 1 in. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. 2 by 4 in. by 7 ft. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. 6 in. 4 in. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar--a little less than 2 in. 2 base pieces. by 2 ft. long. beginning at a point 9 in. from either side of the center.A Cork Extractor [300] The device shown in the sketch is for removing a cork or stopper from a bottle whether full or empty where the cork has been pushed inside. and turned in a spiral D. so the point will be on top. 4 wood screws. 2 side braces.

and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks. except the bars. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose. It is well to paint the entire apparatus. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. If using mill-cut lumber. screws. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather. from the bottom of the base up along the posts. Richmond. and in the winter they should be removed and stored. additional long. A large sized ladle. which face each other. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. of sodium carbonate and 1 qt. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces. etc. --Contributed by W. equipped with a strainer. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. A convenient article where a ladle and strainer are needed is to swing a cupshaped strainer under the bowl of a ladle as shown in the illustration. Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees. but even unpainted they are very durable. using four of the 7-in bolts.the knee braces. with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts. and countersinking the heads. as shown in the diagram. before burying the lower part of the end pieces. shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. The wood so treated will last for years. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. jellies. leave it undressed. while a small one is of great assistance to the housewife for dipping and straining soups. A. The strainer can be held in place with small bands that fit loosely over the handle and a small tip soldered to the ladle.. save the bars. These will allow the ladle to be turned. leaving the strainer always in position. and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. ( To be Continued. Cleaning Gloves [302] A solution consisting of 1 dr. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes.) Combined Ladle and Strainer [302] When using a strainer in connection with a ladle the operation requires both Ladle and Strainer hands. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. of 7 ft. After the trenches are dug. Jaquythe. . Two endpieces must be made. so the bolts in both will not meet. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. is just the thing for painters to dip and strain paint. Cal. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. of milk makes an excellent cleaner for motorists' gloves.

Oil. it is necessary to place a stick. it will greatly assist in leaving a smooth surface. between the end of the stick on the table and the bottom of the pail. milling machine. A proportion of one-quarter turpentine is good. is used for this purpose and to keep the surface cool. or various cutting compounds of oil.Turpentine in Cutting Oil [302] When cutting steel or wrought iron in a lathe. partly a smooth surface of long and narrow dimensions over and about which the body may slide and swing. thus holding the pail as shown. and partly an artificial back for the purpose of a peculiar style of leap frog. which seems impossible. it is sometimes necessary to leave a smooth surface. Lathe Accuracy [302] A heavy lathe cut will not do accurate work. A. This makes the center of gravity somewhere near the middle of the stick on the table. drill press or planer. An Outdoor Gymnasium PART III-The Horse [303] The German horse is that peculiar piece of apparatus which is partly a horizontal obstruction to leap over. If a little turpentine is added to the oil. . Center of Gravity Experiment [302] This experiment consists of suspending a pail of water from a stick placed upon a table as shown in the accompanying sketch. of sufficient 1ength. partly a barrier for jumps. In order to accomplish this experiment.

by 3 ft. These are well nailed in place. long. beginning 1-1/2 in. two 1/2-in. but 5 ft. bolts. square by 5-1/2 ft. The bases with their posts and knee braces are buried 2 ft. from each end to receive the ends of the knee braces. in the ground. layout the bases as shown in the drawing. and free from knots. Chisel out the wood between the cuts and in the mortises thus made insert the hand holds. and secured with screws put through the top and into the end of the adjusting pieces. 2 by 4 in. from the top and extending down its length for 2 ft. The length may be anywhere from 4 to 7 ft. 1 cross brace. bolt. apart in a central position on the horse. is a good length. piece of 2 by 4-in. It is not as difficult to make as the horizontal and parallel bars. bolts. stud cut rounding on one edge. one-half of a tree trunk from a tree 9 to 15 in. The making of the regular gymnasium horse requires a very elaborate wood-working and leather upholstering plant. bolts. long. holes bored through it parallel to the base at intervals of 3 in. 2 adjusting pieces. apart. Each hand hold is made of a 9-in. making the mortises to receive the bottom ends of the posts exactly in the center. Procure from a saw mill. 2 by 4 in. 7 in. long. The material required is as follows: Two posts. scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth. parallel to each other and the same distance apart as the adjusting pieces are mortised in the . in diameter--the larger the better. The upper end of each post should have 5/8-in. to fasten the knee braces at the top. 2 to fasten the cross brace and 4 to be used in fastening the adjusting pieces to the posts. square by 5 ft. To construct. The body of the horse is to be fastened on top of posts so that it may be adjusted for height. 4 in. long. long.. 2 bases. projections and splinters. and cut a slanting mortise 6 in. 2 by 4 in. straight down in the round surface of the horse until each cut is 9 in. 4 in. 4-1/2 in. These are placed 18 in. Fasten the lower ends to the base with the 7-in. 1 in. by 3 ft. Hand holds must be provided next. Make two parallel saw cuts 2 in.The German Horse To make a horse for the outdoor "gym" requires no difficult work save the preparation of the top or body of the horse. long. Bevel the ends of the knee braces and fasten the upper ends of each pair to the post with one 9-in. long. from each end. 4 knee braces. ten 1/2-in. The round part of this log must be planed. but the one used for outdoor work can be made of a log of wood. 4 in. by 3 ft. The adjusting pieces are to be bored in a similar manner after which they are to be mortised into the under side of the horse top 15 in. long. 3 in. wood yard or from the woods. 4 to fasten the knee braces at the bottom..

it is caused by an overloaded shell. Such a hand sled can be made in a . Jaquythe. water. snow. Much pleasant and healthful gymnastic exercise can be had in competitive horse jumping and leaping. Gun barrels can only burst by having some obstruction in the barrel or by overloading with powder. provided there is no obstruction or foreign substance inside the barrel. Reason for Bursting of Gun Barrels [304] Gun barrels do not burst without a cause and usually that cause is one of which the shooter is entirely ignorant. The cover can be placed on without removing the spoon. but nevertheless. one of the top pieces connecting the rear part to the front part of each runner must be fitted in the same way. such as a dent. then bending to the shape desired. When the ground has been filled in and tamped hard. The height of the horse from the ground is adjusted by changing the bolts in the different holes connecting the two adjusting pieces with the two posts. pipe and fittings. The spring of the metal will make it easy to apply to the kettle. the cross brace should be bolted in position with its lower edge resting on the ground and connecting the two posts. says the Sporting Goods Dealer. This can be accomplished by filling the pipe with melted rosin or lead.--Contributed by W. Hand Sled Made of Pipe and Fittings [305] The accompanying sketch shows how an ordinary hand sled can be made of 3/4-in. A. Cal. The top is fastened to the two crosspieces. no one is responsible but himself. This horse should be located on level ground having smooth space about it for several feet. and when it bursts in the center or near the muzzle. One of the top crosspieces should have right-hand and left-hand threads or be fitted with a union. including not only those made to see who can go over the horse from a standing or running start at the greatest height.horse top. and afterward removing the rosin or lead by heating. but no barrel will burst by using factory loaded ammunition. over and around. it is caused by some obstruction. the handles providing a way to make many different leaps through. etc. Each runner is made of one piece of pipe bent to the proper shape. When a gun barrel bursts at the breech or chamber. Spoon Rest for Kettles [304] A rest for keeping spoons from slipping into kettles can be made from a strip of metal bent as shown in the illustration. Any gun barrel can be burst by misuse or by carelessly loading smokeless powder. Each joint is turned up tightly and well pinned or brazed. The spoon placed in the rest will drain back into the kettle. but who can go over at the greatest height when starting from the "toeing off mark" farthest away from the horse. Richmond. Also.

--Contributed by James E. This material can be obtained from any local hardware dealer who carries bar iron in stock. Emergency Magnifying Glass [305] When in need of a microscope in the study of botany. The part for holding the pipes is shown in Fig. then run a string over each part. The end elevation. --Contributed by Arthur E. Paris. 1/4 or 3/16 in. Boston. Mass. Ontario. The scrolls are bent with a pair of round-nose pliers. are used in making the pipe rack shown in Fig. Toronto. 1.Parts Made of Pipe Fittings few hours' time and. in width and 1/32 in. when straightened out. This temporary device will prove valuable where a strong magnifying glass is not at hand. --Contributed by J. will give the length. . which. Vener. are all the tools necessary. with a pair of flat-nose pliers. These. shows how the rack is fastened to the main frame of the rack. Joerin. at E and F. is much better than a wood sled. when complete. 2. Noble. W. thick. Loop Inclosing a Drop of Water When this is done place a drop of clear water in the loop and the microscope is complete. one may be made in the following manner: Bend a small wire or the stem of a leaf so as to form a small loop not larger than the ordinary drop of water. Bent-Iron Pipe Rack [305] Strips of soft iron. Draw a full-size sketch of the design on paper. France.

4. nor that which is partly oxidized. AA and BB. The skates are clamped on them in the same manner as on a shoe. The device for holding the skates consists of a board on which four blocks. The tarnish is removed by the electrolytic action of the zinc on the aluminum and the silver. . This method of cleaning will not injure oxidized or black silver. It is best to use soft water. A flat file is drawn across both blades of the skates as shown. The piece of metal is held over the file and blade of the skate as the file is worked. Hot water is added and the silver boiled until clean.Design of a Rack To Clean Silver [305] A good method to clean silver of any kind is to place the articles in an aluminum vessel and add a few pieces of zinc. After the roundness is cut down on the edges of the blades the skates are removed and the file is drawn along the sides to remove the burr. These blocks are fastened on the board in the relative positions of the heel and sole on a shoe. 3. Some skaters like a hollow-ground skate and the method shown in Figs. 3 and 4 can be used for filing a slightly curved surface in the blade. A piece of tin or sheet metal is shaped over a round file as shown in Fig. The method shown in Figs. Skates filed in this way have flat surfaces with sharp edges. and the latter will take on a bright luster. 1 and 2 is for filing the blade flat. Sharpening Skates with a File [306 Two methods are shown in the sketches for filing skates-one for hollow filing and the other for filing flat Filing a Flat Surface and straight across the blade. The manner of filing the curves is shown in Fig. are nailed.

Percy Ashley in Rudder. Broad lines can be made. 8 and 9. 3. two parallel lines may be drawn at one stroke. The weight of the persons in the forward cockpit keeps the boat from rearing when in a stiff breeze.Filing a Curved Surface Lines and Letters Made with a Carpenter's Pencil [306] The sketch shows some unusual work made with a carpenter's pencil. If the flat lead is notched with a three-cornered file (Fig. as shown in Fig. Pencil Points and Their Work In Figs. as shown in Fig. 2. 2. Insulating Aluminum Wire [306] Aluminum wire plunged hot into a cold solution of carbonate of soda becomes coated with a strong layer of oxide which forms an excellent insulator to electricity. or unequal widths as in Fig. 4. having a double cockpit to accommodate four persons. . The plans and specifications shown in the illustrations are for making a 400-ft. 1). A little practice with the carpenter's pencil in making these letters will enable the student to finally produce them with the pen used for the purpose. How to Build an Ice-Yacht [307] Condensed from an article by H. or various rulings may be made. Narrow lines are made with points cut as in Figs. The forward cockpit can be removed if necessary. the letters may be first drawn with a carpenter's pencil (Fig. If one lacks the ability to draw old English letters with a pen. 7) and the outlines marked with ink and finally filled in. The materials used are: backbone. class ice-yacht. 5 and 6 are shown lines especially adapted for the bookkeeper or draftsman.

Ice-Yacht Complete white pine; center, clear spruce; sides, white oak caps; runner plank, basswood, butternut or oak; cockpit, oak; runners, chocks, etc., quartered white oak. All the iron work should be first-grade Swedish iron, with the exception of the runners, which are soft cast iron. It is not necessary to go into detail with the measurements as they are plainly shown in the sketches. The backbone is 37-1/2 ft. over all, 12 in. in the center, 5 in. stern, 3-1/2 in. at the nose; width 4-1/2 in. All wood should be selected from the best grades, well seasoned and free from checks. In Fig. 1 is shown the complete ice-yacht with general dimensions for the sail and main parts. Other dimensions are shown in Fig-, 2. The backbone is capped on the upper and lower edges full length with strips of oak, 4-1/4 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick. The lengthwise side strips of spruce are 1-1/4 in. thick. The filling-in pieces placed between the side pieces are of seasoned white pine, leaving the open places as shown in Fig. 2. The parts are put together with hot glue and brass screws. The runner plank should be placed

Details of the Ice-Yacht Parts with the heart of the wood up, so as to give the natural curve from the ice so that it will act as a spring. The plank is 16 in. wide in the center, 14 in. at the ends; 4-1/8 in. thick at the center and 2-3/4 in. at the ends. Details of the runners are shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The cast iron shoes are filed and finished with emery paper, making the angle on the cutting edge 45 deg. on both sides. The runners are 7-1/4 in. wide over all and 2-1/8 in. thick. The soft iron

casting is 2-1/4 in. deep. The shoes are fastened by 5/8-in. machine bolts. These are shown in Figs. 3 and 9. The rudder is 2-3/4 in. thick, 5 in. deep, including wood and iron, and 3 ft. long. The cast iron shoe is 1-7/8 in. deep and fastened on with four 1/2in. machine bolts. A brass plate, 1/4 in. thick, 2 in. wide and 7 in. long, is inserted on each side of the runners as shown in Fig. 9. Three holes are drilled through for a 3/4in. riding bolt that can be shifted as desired for rough or smooth ice. The runner chocks and guides are 1-7/8 in. thick and 4-1/2 in. deep. They are set in the runner plank 1/4 in. and fastened with glue and 1/2-in. lag screws. These are shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The aft cockpit is stationary, while the fore or passenger cockpit can be removed at will. Both cockpits are the same size, 42 in. wide and 7 ft. long over all. Each one has a bent rail, 1-1/2 in. by 4 in., grooved 1/2 in. by 7/8 in. before bending. The flooring is of oak, 1-1/2 in. thick and 4 in. wide, tongue-and grooved. The forward cockpit is made in halves and hung on the backbone with wrought-iron straps and bolts. These are shown in Figs. 41, 43 and 44. Two pieces of oak, 1/2 in, by 4 in. are fastened with screws to the flooring, parallel with the backbone in the forward cockpit. The runner plank which passes under this cockpit gives it stability. The spars should be hollow and have the following dimensions: Mast, 23 ft. 3 in.; heel, 3-3/4 in. ; center, 5-1/4 in.; tip, 4 in. ; boom 23-1/2 ft.; heel, 3-3/4 in.; center, 4 in. ; tip, 2-7/8 in. at ends; gaff, 12-1/2 ft.; center, 3-1/2 in.; ends, 2-1/2 in.; jibboom, 10-1/2 ft.; 1-3/4 in. at the ends, 2-1/8 in. at the center. The gaff is furnished with bent jaws of oak, Fig. 17, and the main boom with gooseneck, Fig. 12. Galvanized cast-steel yacht rigging, 5/16 in. in diameter, is used for the shrouds; jibstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; runner plank guys, 5/16 in. in diameter; bobstay, 3/8 in. in diameter; martingale stay, 1/4 in. in diameter. The throat,and peak halyards are 3/8 in. in diameter; jib halyards, 1/4 in. in diameter. The main sheet rigging is 9/16-in. Russian bolt rope; jibs, 7/16-in. manila bolt rope, 4-strand; jib-sheet, 3/8-in. manila bolt rope. Four 1/2-in. bronze turnbuckles, Fig. 34, are used for the shrouds; one 5/8-in. turnbuckle for the jibstay and one for the bobstay; four 3/8-in. turnbuckles for the runner plank stays, and one for the martingale stay. Two rope blocks for 3/8-in. wire rope, Fig. 10, are used for the peak and throat, and one block for the wire rope 1/4 in. in diameter for the jib halyard. Four 6-in. and one 7-in. cleats, Fig. 18, are used. The blocks shown in Fig. 11 are used for the main and jib sheets. The steering arrangement is shown in Figs. 4 and 5. The tiller is 3-1/2 ft. long; rudder post, 1-1/4 in. in diameter; shoulder to lower end of jaws, 4 in.; depth of jaws, 2-7/8 in.; length of post including screw top, 12 in. The rubber washer acts as a spring on rough ice. In Figs. 13, 14, 15 and 16 are shown metal bands for the nose of the backbone, and Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the saddles that fit over the backbone and hold the runner plank in place. There are two sets of these. A chock should be sunk in the runner plank at each side to connect with the backbone to keep it from slipping sidewise as the boat rises in the air. The martingale spreader is shown in Figs. 24 and 25. Straps through which the ring bolts for the shrouds pass on the ends to fasten the turnbuckles for the runner plank guys are shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The bobstay spreaders are shown in Figs. 28, 29 and 30. In Fig. 31 is shown the top plate for the rudder post and in Figs. 32 and 33, the lower plate for same. The mast step is shown in Figs. 35, 36 and 37. Two positions of the jib traveler are shown in Fig. 38. The anchor plate for the bobstay under the cockpit is shown in Figs. 39 and 40. At the nose and heel the runner plank guys end in a loop. The bobstay has a loop at the nose and ends in a turnbuckle that fastens to the anchor plate under the cockpit, aft. The shrouds, jibstay and martingale have loops at the masthead and are spliced bare over solid thimbles. The loops are finished in pigskin and served with soft cotton twine over the splice and varnished. The parceling is done with insulating tape. Serve the tiller with soft cotton twine and ride a second serving over the first. For the halyards hoisting use a jig shown in Fig. 46. The thimble shown in Fig. 47 is made by splicing the rope to the thimble at running part of halyard and passing back and forth through cleat and thimble. This gives a quick and strong purchase and does away with cumbersome blocks of the old-fashioned jig. The jib-sheet leads aft to the steering cockpit. The main-sheet ends in a jig of a single block and a single block with becket.

Be sure that your sail covers are large enough--the sail maker always makes them too tight. The cockpit covers must fit tightly around the cockpit rail. Many boats have sail and cockpit covers in one piece. The woodwork may be finished as desired by the builder. The dimensions of the sails are given in the general drawing, Fig. 1. Turning Lights On and Off from Any Number of Places [310] This can be done by the use of any number of reversing switches such as

Wiring Diagram those shown at Band C. These are inserted between the two-way switches A and D. Turning such a switch up or down connects the four contact pieces either diagonally as at C, or lengthwise as at B. The diagram shows connection from A to D, when the lamps will be on, but by turning either of these four switches into its alternative position, shown by the dotted lines, the circuit will be broken and the lights extinguished. When this has been done, the circuit may be restored and the lamps lighted again by altering either of the four switches in exactly the same way, and so on. It will be observed that a reversing switch used in this way practically undoes whatever is done by the other switches. In the accompanying diagram only two reversing switches are shown and the lights can be independently controlled from four distinct positions. Any number of reversing switches can be placed between the twoway switches A and D to increase the number of places from which the lights could be turned on and off. --Contributed by J. S. Dow, Mayfield, London. How to Make an Electric Pendant Switch [310] It is often desired to use a pendant switch for controlling clusters of incandescent lamps. When such a switch is not at hand, a very good substitute can be made by screwing a common fuse plug into a key socket and connecting the socket in series with the lamps to be controlled. In this way you get a safe, reliable, fused switch. -Contributed by C. C. Heyder, Hansford, W. Va. Measure [310] Never guess the length of a piece of work--measure it. Home-Made Water Motor [311] The small water motor shown in the illustration is constructed in the same manner as a German toy steam turbine. The wheel, which is made of aluminum 1/16 in. thick and 7 in. in diameter, has 24 blades attached to it. The lugs or extensions carrying the rim must be made from the metal of the wheel, therefore a circle 8 in. in diameter must be first described on the aluminum plate, then another circle 7 in. in diameter within the first and then a circle for the base of the blades, 3-1/2 in. in diameter. Twenty-four radial lines at equal distances apart are drawn between the two smaller circles and a 1/4-in. hole drilled at the intersecting points of the radial lines and the innermost circle.

Centrally between each pair of radial lines and between the two outer circles, 1/2 by 3/8-in. lugs are marked out and the metal cut away as shown in Fig. 1. A 1/8-in. hole is then drilled in the center of each lug. Each division is separated by cutting down each radial line to the 1/4-in. hole with a hacksaw. Each arm is then given a quarter turn, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2, and the lug bent over at right angles to receive the rim. The rim is made of the same material as the disk and contains twenty-four 1/8 in. holes corresponding to those in the lugs to receive brass bolts 1/4-in. long. The disks PP were taken from the ends of a discarded typewriter platen, but if these cannot be readily obtained, they can be turned from metal or a heavy flat disk used instead. The casing was made from two aluminum cake pans whose diameter was 8 in. at the base, increasing to 9 in. at the rim. The centers of these were located and a 1/4 -in. hole drilled for the

shaft. The disks P are the same as used on the wheel. Six holes 1/8-in. in diameter were drilled through the flat part of the rims while the two halves were held together in a vise. Bolts were placed through these holes to join the casing when ready for assembling. One side of the casing was then bolted to two 4-in. ordinary metal shelf brackets which were

Details of Motor screwed to a substantial wood base. This kept one-half of the casing independent of the main structure so that the wheel is easily accessible. The nozzle was made of 1/2-in. brass pipe which was first filled with molten babbitt metal. When the metal was cool, a 1/4-in. hole was drilled halfway through the length of the tube, the hole being continued through to the other end by means of a 1/8-in. drill. The lower orifice was then slightly enlarged with a small taper reamer, and the upper portion of the bore was reamed out almost to the brass to make a smooth entrance for the water. A fixture to hold this nozzle is shown in Fig. 3. It was cast of babbitt metal in a wood mold. The hole for the nozzle was drilled at an angle of 20 deg. to the plate part. An alternative and perhaps easier way would be to insert the nozzle in the mold at the proper angle and cast the metal around it. A hole was then cut in one of the sides of the casing at a point 2-7/8 in. along a horizontal line from the center. The nozzle fixture was then bolted on with the exit orifice of the nozzle pointing downward and through the hole in the casing. Six 1/8-in. holes were drilled through the flat portions of the rims while the two

halves of the casing were held securely together in a vise. Bolts were used in these holes to join the casing. The wheel was used on the dripboard of a kitchen sink and no provision was made to carry off the spent water except to cut two 1/2-in. holes in the bottom of the casing and allowing the waste to flow off directly into the sink. --Contributed by Harry F. Lowe, Washington, D. C. Device for Baseball Throwing Practice [312] Anyone training to be a baseball player will find the device shown in the accompanying illustration a great help

Ball Bounding on Concrete Slabs when practicing alone. It consists of two cement slabs, one flat and upright, the other curved and on the ground. The vertical slab is fastened securely against a fence, barn or shed. The barn or the shed is preferable, for if the slab is fastened to a fence, the ball will bound over a great many times and much time will be lost in finding it. The player stands as far as he cares from the slabs and throws the ball against the lower slab. The ball immediately rebounds to the upright slab and returns with almost as great a force as it was delivered. If the thrower does not throw the ball exactly in the same spot each time, the ball will not rebound to the same place, consequently the eye and muscles are trained to act quickly, especially if the player stands within 15 or 20 ft. of the slabs and throws the ball with great force. This apparatus also teaches a person to throw accurately, as a difference in aim of a few inches on the lower slab may cause the ball to flyaway over the player's head on the rebound. --Contributed by F. L. Oilar, La Fayette, Indiana. How to Mail Photographs [312] Cut a piece of cardboard 1 in. longer and 1 in. wider than the mount of the photograph and lay the picture on it in the center. This allows a 1/2-in. border on all sides of the photograph. Punch two holes 1 in. apart at A, B, C and D, Fig. 1, in the cardboard border close to the edge of the picture. Put a string up through the hole B, Fig. 2, then across the corner of the photograph and down through the hole C and up through hole D, then to E, etc., until the starting point A is reached, and tie the ends. The photograph will not get damaged, if it is covered with tissue paper and placed with the face to the cardboard. The extension border of cardboard prevents the edges of the mount from being damaged and the corners

Back for Mailing Photo from wearing. Both cardboard and photograph are wrapped together in paper, and the package is ready for mailing. --Contributed by Earl R. Hastings, Corinth, Vt. A Mystifying Watch Trick [313] Borrow a watch from one of the audience and allow the owner to place it in the box, as shown in Fig. 1. This box should be about 3 in. long, 4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. deep, says the Scientific American. It should be provided with a hinged cover, M, with a lock, N. The tricky part of this box is the side S, which is pivoted at T by driving two short nails into it, one through the front side and· the other through the back, so that when S is pushed in at the top, it swings around as shown in Fig. 1 and allows the watch to slide out into the performer's hand. The side S should fit tightly when closed, so that the box may be examined without betraying the secret. As the side S extends down to the bottom of the box, it facilitates the use of the fingers in pulling outward at the lower pan while the thumb is pressing inward at the top part. The side of the box opposite S should be built up in the same way, but not pivoted. Use a flat-bottom tumbler, A, Fig. 2, containing an inner cone, B, for the reproduction of the watch. The cone is made of cardboard pasted together so it fits snugly inside of the tumbler. The cone is closed except at the bottom, then bran is pasted on the outside surfaces to make the tumbler appear as if filled with bran when it is in place. Place the tumbler with the cone inside on a table somewhat in the background. Put some loose bran on top of the cone and allow the cork, attached as shown in B, Fig. 2, to hang down on the outside of the tumbler, away from the audience. A large handkerchief should be laid beside the tumbler. After the watch has been placed in the box, Fig. 1, the performer takes the box in his left hand, and while in the act of locking it with his right hand secures possession of the watch as previously explained. Tossing the key to the owner of the watch, the performer places the box on a chair or table near the audience and, with the watch securely palmed, walks back to get the tumbler. Standing directly in front of the tumbler with his back toward the audience, the performer

Parts for the Watch Trick quickly raises the cone with his right hand, lays the watch in the bottom of the tumbler and replaces the cone. The loaded tumbler and the handkerchief are then brought forward, and the former is placed in full view of the audience with the cork hanging down behind it. The performer calls attention to the tumbler being full of bran and picks up some of it from the top to substantiate his statement. He then spreads the handkerchief over the tumbler, commands the watch to pass from the box into the tumbler and the bran to disappear. The box is then handed to the owner of the watch so that he may unlock it with the key he holds. As soon as the box is found to be empty, the performer grasps the handkerchief spread over the tumbler, also the cork tied to the cone. Raising the handkerchief, he carries up the cone within it, leaving the watch in the bottom to be returned to its owner. Locking Several Drawers with One Lock [314] A series or row of drawers can be secured with one lock by using the

device shown in the sketch. This method takes away several dangling locks and the carrying of many keys. A rod is used through the various staples over the hasps. The rod is upset on one end and flattened to make sufficient metal for drilling a hole large enough to insert the bar of a padlock. If the bar is made of steel and hardened, it is almost impossible to cut it in two. --Contributed by F. W. Bentley, Huron, S. Dak. Testing Small Electric Lamps [314] The accompanying sketch shows the construction of a handy device for testing miniature electric lights. The base is made to take in an electric flash lamp battery. Two strips of brass, C and D, are connected to the battery. The lamp is tested by

Lamp Tester putting the metal end on the lower brass strip and the side against the upper one. A great number of lamps can be tested in a short time by means of this device. -Contributed by Abner B. Shaw, North Dartmouth, Mass. How to Make a Pin Ball [314] The pin ball shown in the illustration is made of calfskin modeling leather and saddler's felt. Two pieces of leather are used, and one piece of felt, all three being cut circular to a diameter of about 3 in. The felt may be about 1/2 in. thick, and leather of a deep brown color is recommended. Moisten the leather on the back side with as much water as it will take without showing through the face. Lay it on a sheet of heavy glass or copper, or other hard, smooth, nonabsorbent material. Place the design, which has been previously prepared, over the face of the leather. Indent the outline of the design with a nutpick or any other pointed tool that will not cut the leather. Remove the pattern, and go

Made of Leather and Felt over the outline again to deepen the tool marks. The space between the border and the design is now stamped with a cuppointed nail set, care being taken not to cut the leather, especially if the tool be new. Rubbing the edges of the nail set over a piece of emery paper will serve to dull them, if they are too sharp.

When the designs have been worked on the leather, paste or glue the leather to the two sides of the belt, and punch a hole in the center through which to place a cord for hanging up the ball. Cleaning Woodwork [315] An easy method of removing the dirt and old varnish at the same time around a kitchen sink is told by a correspondent of National Magazine as follows: Make a soft soap from common yellow laundry soap, and when it is almost cold stir in one tablespoonful of concentrated lye and one-half cupful of kerosene. When the mixture becomes a heavy paste, it is ready to be spread over the woodwork with a paint brush. Allow the soap to remain for a day and a half, then wash it off with plenty of hot water. The woodwork will be clean and ready for varnishing when it dries out. Bill File Made of Corkscrews [315] An ordinary corkscrew makes a convenient file for small bills or memoranda. It may be thrown in any position without danger of the papers slipping off. A rack to hold a number of files can be made of a wood strip (Fig. 1) fitted with hooks or screw eyes cut in a hook shape, as shown in Fig. 2,

Bill File Single bills may be separated from the others and will remain separated as in Fig. 3. -Contributed by James M. Kane, Doylestown, Pa. Ornamental Metal Inkstand [315] The metal required for making this stand is 3/16 in. in width and may be

Inkstand and Details of Frame

steel, brass or copper. The shaping is done as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. There are, in all, eight pieces to be bent. The two supports are each formed of one piece of metal with the exception that the end scroll pieces on the under side are made separately. Eight rivets are required to fasten the two horizontal rings to the supports. The glass receptacle can be purchased at a stationery store. Holding Eyeglasses Firm [315] Persons who wear noseglasses and who are troubled with excessive perspiration, should chalk the sides of the bridge of the nose before putting on the glasses. The latter will then never slip, even in the warmest weather. If the chalk shows, use a pink stick, which can be purchased from any art school or supply store. Substitute for Gummed Paper [315] Gummed paper is a great convenience in the home especially for labels, but it is not always found among the household supplies. The gummed portions of unsealed envelopes in which circulars are received can be utilized for this purpose. Quite a large label may be made from these envelope flaps. Repairing a Broken Phonograph Spring [316] As I live a great distance from a railroad station, I did not care to pay the price, and await the time necessary to deliver a new phonograph spring to replace one that broke in my machine, and I repaired the old one in a creditable manner as follows: I forced the two ends of the break out where I could get at them, then heated each end separately with a pair of red hot tongs and turned a hook or lap on them the same as the joints in knock-down stovepipes. When the ends were hooked together, the spring worked as good as new. The heated portion did not affect the strength of the spring. --Contributed by Marion P. Wheeler, Greenleaf, Oregon. Calls While You Are Out [316] If you wish to know whether or not the door or telephone bell rings during your absence, place a little rider of paper or cardboard on the clapper in such a way that it will be dislodged if the bell rings. A Small Bench Lathe Made of Pipe Fittings [316] The most important machine in use in the modern machine or wood-working shop is the lathe. The uses to which this wonderful machine can be put would be too numerous to describe, but there is hardly a mechanical operation in which the turning lathe does not figure. For this reason every amateur mechanic and wood-worker who has a workshop, no matter how small, is anxious to possess a lathe of some

The tee should have a slot cut in it about one-half its length and it should also have one bead filed away so that the clamp will fit tightly over it. The spindle should be of steel and long enough to reach through the bearing and pulley and have enough end left for the center point. 1. The hand rest is made from a tapering elbow. but if it is made much longer. The lower tee should be bored out for a sliding fit on the bed pipe. The spindle has a handle fitted at one end and has the other end bored out for the tail stock center. pipe. A good and substantial homemade lathe. bent and drilled as shown. nipples and flanges arranged as shown. which is suitable for woodturning and light metal work. pins to keep them from turning. out from the collar. a tee and a forging. joined by a standard long nipple as shown in Fig. The upper one should be tapped with a machine tap for the spindle which is threaded to fit it. 1-Details of Lathe sort. It is held together by means of a small machine screw and a knurled nut. It can be made longer or shorter. The end of the spindle should be threaded to receive a chuck. The ends of the bed are fixed to the baseboard by means of elbows. The spindle hole should be drilled and reamed after they are screwed in place in the tee. The collar can be turned or shrunk on the spindle as desired. a larger size of pipe should be used. may be constructed from pipe and pipe fittings as shown in the accompanying sketch.Fig. The bed of this lathe is made of a piece of 1-in. Both the lower . about 30 in. The forging can be made by a blacksmith at a small expense. Both the tail stock and the headstock centerpoints should be hardened. long. The two bearings in the headstock are of brass. A clamp for holding the tail stock spindle is made of a piece of strap iron. The point should extend about 11/2 in. The tailstock is also made of two tees joined by a nipple. All the joints should be screwed up tight and then fastened with 3/16-in. The headstock is made of two tees.

Painting or enameling will improve not only their appearance. Held. It is about 1 in. or a key can be used as well. --Contributed by W. Cal. . Musgrove. The two designs of chucks shown in Figs. UpDeGraff. it should not be a difficult matter for the young mechanic to construct this machine. 2. Support for Double Clotheslines [318] Anyone using a double clothesline over pulleys will find the arrangement shown in Fig. As the details are clearly shown and the general dimensions given on the accompanying sketches. 1. Indiana. The support is made of a piece of 3/4-in. Fruitvale. This will save a great deal of time and trouble and possibly some errors. thick as desired. --Contributed by W. and when the tail stock is set exactly vertical. 4-Chuck on the top of the bed pipe. 3/4 or 1 in. W. else taper turning will result. but also their insulating properties. 2. Care must be taken to get the tailstock center vertically over the bed. To do this. M. long with two notches cut out for the strands of the cord. Laporte. The line is run through these screw-eyes as shown in Fig. Ceiling-Cord Holder Several of them can be used along a line. and will answer for a great variety of work. --Contributed by M. a straight line should be scratched Fig. as shown in Fig. It is fastened to the spindle by means of a screw. 2. Boissevain. square or round wood which has a screw-eye turned into each end. Man.tees of the handrest and the tailstock should be provided with screw clamps to hold them in place. 3 and 4 are very easy to make. 1 for supporting the lower line quite convenient. as shown in Fig. The pulley is made of hardwood pieces. Holder for Flexible Lamp-Cord [317] The holder is made of a round stick--a piece of a broom handle will do--as shown in Fig. a corresponding line made on this. These holders are easily made and will answer the purpose almost as well as the ones made in porcelain.

Holder on a Clothesline Hot Pan or Plate Lifter [318] Unless a person uses considerable caution. In use. I made the device shown in the sketch for lifting hot pie pans and plates. the hinged side of the loop is dropped under one edge of a plate or pan and the rigid loop is then hooked under the opposite side. Ark. long. The handle is of pine about 18 in. The second loop is hinged to swing free on the opposite side of the handle. Cline. Smith. as shown. bad burns may be suffered when taking hot pies from an oven. The weight of the pan or dish draws the loops together and there is little or no danger of a spill. --Contributed by E. the arm is liable to touch the oven door and receive a Lifter on Pie Pan burn. and the two loops are made of heavy wire. Ft. J. Weighting Indian Clubs [318] . The ends of the first loop of wire are put through the handle from the back. To obviate this. If one reaches in and takes hold of the pie pan with a cloth. and then bent so as to stand out at an angle. The same lifter will pick up any size of plate or pan from a saucer to the largest pie plates.

the drill does not need the tool. This can be easily remedied by splitting a match in half and tying the parts on the sides of the stem with thread. Changing the number of washers changes the weight of the club.An ordinary Indian club can be fixed so that different weights may be had without changing clubs. bring it in contact with the drill and keep it firmly so until the drill is in fully up to the lips. A bolt is run through from the handle end and fastened with a round nut. Clamp a tool in the tool-post and. making a true spot at least as big as the diameter of the drill. centering is just one operation too many. Lubricating Woodscrews [318] A screw may be turned into hardwood easily. face off the end of the piece. --Contributed by Walter W. --Contributed by Maurice Baudier. by boring a small hole and lubricating the screw threads with soft soap. Denver. Fountain Pen Cap Used as a Ruler [319] When it is necessary to draw a short line and there is no ruler at hand. White. New Orleans. This serves as a rough guide for placing the drill between the tail stock center and the work as usual. After being entered. To Make "Centering" Unnecessary [319] For drilling a hole in a chucked piece. trouble is usually experienced by the air causing a spill. it cannot change any more than under any other starting conditions. if this method is followed: First. take . Colo. This prevents the drill from wobbling. on starting the lathe. and when once in true up to its size. The lead washers and spring slip over the bolt as shown in the illustration. Each club is bored to receive lead washers which are held in place by a spiral spring. Venting a Funnel [318] When using a tight-fitting funnel in a small-neck bottle. La. Put a center punch mark where the tool lines indicate the center of revolution. which should be backed out of contact.

a long piece of glass tubing. If the cap is fitted with a retaining clip. all the better. and it is found to be gone when the glass tube is taken out of the paper cover.Ruling Lines off the cap of your fountain pen and use it as a ruler. unknown to the spectators. after being shown empty. After the wand is removed. is concealed in the paper tube A before the performance. and a paper tube closed at one end and covered with a cap at the other. the handkerchief and the rod are pushed into the wand. the cap is placed over the paper tube. and this given to someone to hold. The handkerchief is then placed over the opening of the tube and pushed in by means of the wand. The handkerchief rod. The glass tube B. Vanishing Handkerchief Trick [319] The necessary articles used in performing this trick are the handkerchief. and can be varied to suit the performer. as shown in D. is put into the paper tube A. vanishing wand. In doing this. as this will prove a safeguard against slipping. shown at C. says the Sphinx. It can be used in a great number of tricks. shorter t h a n the wand. The command for the handkerchief to vanish is given. a bout 1/2 in. by applying caustic soda or . Removing Glass Letters from Windows [319] Glass letters are removed in the same way as metal letters. so that the handkerchief rod now is within it. This is a novel way of making a handkerchief vanish.

All dimensions for cutting and setting are shown in the sketch. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 9-5/6 in. A drawknife is the proper tool for shaping the neck. ends and bottom are made of hard wood. The dimensioned pieces required are as follows: 1 Top. Glue strips of soft wood. thick. 3/16 by 14 by 17 in. This dimension and those for the frets . and glue it to the neck at F. 1/4 in. and if care is taken in selecting the material. A Guitar That Is Easy to Make [320] A guitar having straight lines. With care and patience. 2 Sides. 3/16. 1 Bottom. and the top should be made of a thoroughly seasoned piece of soft pine. by 14 by 17 in. 1 by 2-5/16 by 18-1/2 in. The brace at D is 1 in. manipulate the point of a pocket knife under the edges of the letter until the caustic works completely under and makes it easy to lift the letters.potash around the edges of the letters. square and 1-7/8 in. can be made by the home mechanic. The sides. and having it thoroughly Details of Guitar seasoned. The back is then glued on and the outside smoothed with sandpaper. Fasten pieces of soft wood in the corners for braces. The neck is cut tapering from G to F and from J to F. 1. preferably hard maple. across the front and back to strengthen them. Glue the neck to the box. cut to any shape desired. End. making it secure by the addition of a carriage bolt at A. As the cement softens. long. Glue the bridge on the top at a place that will make the distance from the bridge F to the bottom bridge E just 24 in. giving it an old-fashioned appearance. The sides are glued together and then the front is glued on them. 1 Fingerboard 5/16 by 2-5/8 by 16 in. 1 End. Place some heavy weights on top and give the glue time to dry. the finished instrument will have a fine tone. Glue the fingerboard to the neck and hold it secure with clamps while the glue sets. A small block C is glued to the end to reinforce it for the bolt. Cut a piece of hard wood. with the back side rounding. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 13-1/8 in. Cut the fingerboard tapering and fasten pieces cut from hatpins with small wire staples for frets. 1 Neck. Make the bottom bridge by using an old hatpin or wire of the same size for E secured with pin staples. 3/16 by 3-5/8 by 16-3/4 in. as shown by K. every letter may be thus taken off without breakage.

Not only will it serve as an ideal fishing boat.Pa. and you will find it in some respects and for some purposes better than the wooden boat. Norwalk. When it is completed you will have a canoe. The Paper Boat Is Light and Easy to Propel Make a frame (Fig. in diameter. O. and is cut tapering for about a third of its length. but when you want to combine hunting and fishing you can put your boat on your shoulders and carry it from place to place wherever you want to go and at the same time carry your gun in your hand. 1) on which to stretch the paper. Continue this operation until the grease is forced between all the bearings and out through the small clearance on the opposite side of the wheels. A board 1 in. long is used for a keel. Dirt cannot enter a well filled bearing as easily as muddy water can enter a dry bearing. Removing Mold [320] Mold on wallpaper can be removed at once by applying a solution of 1 part salicylic acid in 4 parts of 95% alcohol. E. H. HOW TO MAKE A PAPER BOAT [321] A Light Boat That Can Be Easily Carried Now you might think it absurd to advise making a paper boat. Stoddard.should be made accurately. thick and about 1 ft. and beveled . The material used in its construction is inexpensive and can be purchased for a few dollars. probably equal to the Indian's bark canoe. The turning plugs B and strings can be purchased at any music store. --Contributed by Chas. are drilled in the bottom bridge for pins. wide and 11-1/2 ft. Carbondale. This should be done at least once every month to keep bearings well lubricated and free from grit. Greasing the Front Wheels of an Automobile [320] The front wheel bearings of an automobile can be greased without removing the wheels in the following manner: Remove the hub caps and fill them with heavy grease and then screw them in place. but it is not. -Contributed by J. Six holes. Frary. or backbone. 3/16 in. toward each end.

as they are apt to do. are next put in. apart. and the smaller ends to the gunwales. Fig. 2). the rattan becomes very tight and the twigs hard and stiff. by several wrappings of annealed iron wire or copper wire. 13 in. The ribs having all been fastened in place as described. b. the loose strips of ash (b. 3) are withdrawn and the framework will appear somewhat as in Fig. Osiers probably make the best ribs. For the gunwales (a. with long stout screws. and are then bent down until they touch the strips of ash (b. 3. Fig.Detail of Framework Construction on the outer edges (A. by means of a string or wire. 2) are next sawed from a pine board 1 in. Screw the pieces to the bottom-board and bend them. The osiers may average a little more than 1/2 in.) in notches. Fig. two twigs may be used to make one rib. C. The cross-boards (B. procure at a carriage factory. such as is used for making chairbottoms. wide by 26 in. Between the cross-boards the ribs are placed at intervals of 2 or 3 in. 3. some tight strips of ash. because it will retain the shape in which it has been bent better after drying. These are better. because the nails are not apt to loosen and come out. the elasticity of the wood being sufficient to cause them to retain their position. and are not fastened. For fastening the gunwales to the crossboards use nails instead of screws. but before doing this. Fig. but twigs of some other trees. a. Fig. or other place. as shown in Fig. Any tough. b. They are used only temporarily as a guide in putting in the ribs. in such cases. and so. twigs 5 or 6 ft. as before described. in thickness and should be cut. long. and cut away in the center to avoid useless weight. as shown in Fig. Then add the stem and stern pieces (C. after soaking it in water for a short time to render it soft and pliable. 4). long are required. 4. fastening the butts side by side on the bottom-board. when made of green elm. For the ribs near the middle of the boat. Fig. 3). while in other parts they are as much as 5 or 6 in. 3). will answer nearly as well. wind it tightly around the gunwales and ribs where they join. C. such as hazel or birch. probably. and finally cut off even with the tops of the gunwales. The ribs. They are attached to the bottom by means of shingle nails driven through holes previously made in them with an awl. Nail them to the crossboards and fasten to the end pieces (C. two strips of wood (b. Fig. Copper wire is better because it is less apt to rust. and also interweave it among the ribs in other places. 3) should be bent and placed as in Fig. buy some split cane or rattan. It is often quite difficult to get these of sufficient thickness throughout. 2. stripped of leaves and bark and put in place while green and fresh. Green wood is preferable. so as to divide the keel into three nearly equal parts. winding it about them and forming an irregular network over the whole frame.. B. In order to make all firm and to prevent the ribs from changing position. fastened to a nail driven into the bottom. b. 3/8 in. thick. 1. 2). or similar material. which are easily made of long. and notched at the end to receive them (B. In drying. Shape these as shown by A. Fig. Fig. slender switches of osier willow. thick. light wood that is not easily broken when bending will do. 1 and 2. and. Fasten them cross-wise to the bottom board as shown in Fig. .

You may put in . It should be smooth on the surface. varnish inside and out with asphaltum varnish thinned with turpentine. apply a second coat of the same varnish. trimmed and doubled down over the gunwale. after wetting it. If the paper be 1 yd. by lapping them carefully on the under side of the bottom-board and tacking them to it so that the paper hangs down loosely on all sides. sewed at the ends and tacked along the gunwales. 5). Then put a piece of oil-cloth in the boat between the cross-boards. until the inside and outside strips are bound together into one strong gunwale. B. it will require about two breadths to reach around the frame in the widest part. Then the best remedy is to cover the whole boat with unbleached muslin. of very strong wrapping-paper. and light oars. The paper is then trimmed. and very tough. This will doubtless stop the leaking entirely and will add but little to either the weight or cost. Then tighten it by shrinking and finally give it at least three coats of a mixture of varnish and paint. Being made in long rolls. lapped and doubled over as smoothly as possible at the ends of the frame. When the paper is dry. The shrinkage caused by the drying will stretch the paper tightly over the framework. For this purpose buy about 18 yd. Fig.Important Features of Construction The frame-work is now complete and ready to be covered. and as soon as that has soaked in. When thoroughly dry. and steady in the water. wide. if it has been properly constructed of good material. Rig the boat with wooden or iron row locks (B. and held in place by means of small clamps. If not. fastening it along the edge of the boat by replacing the strips as before. Then varnish the whole outside of the boat several times until it presents a smooth shining surface. This is done to protect the bottom of the boat. It should be drawn tight along the edges. Then take some of the split rattan and. however. tacking it to the bottom-board. Now you may already have a canoe that is perfectly water-tight. and finally cover the laps or joints of the paper with pieces of muslin stuck on with thick varnish. Now remove the loose strips of ash and put on another layer of paper. Cut enough of the roll to cover the frame and then soak it for a few minutes in water. passing it through small holes punched in the paper just below the gunwale. b) just inside of the gunwales into notches which should have been cut at the ends of the cross-boards. in a few days you may be disappointed to find that it is becoming leaky. where it is firmly held by slipping the strips of ash (b. cover the laps with muslin as was done with the first covering. but with less turpentine. Then turn the frame upside down and fasten the edges of the two strips of paper to it. it can be obtained in almost any length desired. wind it firmly around both gunwales and inside strip. preferably iron. but neither stiff nor very thick.

1 and the end in . A Home-Made Elderberry Huller [324] As we had only one day to pick elderberries. 5. which brings all the weight upon the shoulders. they will support very heavy weights. Instead of buying hooks use wire nails. and the bottom frame kept the wire mesh and frame from being shaken off the box. we wanted to get as many of them as we could in that time. and make a movable seat (A. Fig. to fit it easily. Fig. We could pick them faster than they could be hulled by hand so we made a huller to take along with us to hull the berries as fast as they were picked. where a hook to hang things on will be a great convenience. and if driven as shown in the cut.Off for a Hunt several extra thwarts or cross-sticks.) With this you will doubtless find your boat so satisfactory that you will make no more changes. For carrying the boat it is convenient to make a sort of short yoke (C. allowing a small portion of the mesh to stick out of the frames. 1. then made another frame the same size and put a piece of wire mesh between them as shown in Fig. Drive the lower nail first. The projecting edges of the mesh would keep the frame on the top edge of the box. 2. We procured a box and made a frame. fore and aft. 5). The top view of the frame is shown in Fig. The top frame would keep the berries from rolling or jumping off. and thus lightens the labor and makes it very handy to carry. Fig. To Hang Heavy Things on a Nail [323] Boys will find many places around the house.

A good way to handle this work. then pull apart and instead of breaking off the long thread thus formed. --Contributed by Albert Niemann. Pittsburg. being softer where the flame has been applied. Details of the Elderberry Huller How to Make a Bulb on a Glass Tube [324] As a great many persons during the winter months are taking advantage of the long evenings to experiment in one way or another. this makes the tube airtight. The actual size of the wire mesh used is shown in Fig. and the glass.Fig. simply hold it in the flame at an angle of 45 deg. This way has its drawbacks. This is an easy . and the result is. as many are not sufficiently familiar with the work to blow a uniform blast. The air inside of the tube becoming heated will expand. 5. as the bulb will burst with a loud report if the heat is applied too long. A common method is to heat the part to be formed and by blowing in one end of the tube gradually expand the glass. will be pushed out in the shape of a bulb. One person could hull with this huller as many berries as two persons would pick. slowly turning the tube to get a uniform heat. and melt it down and close the end at the same time. and the box on which the frame rests in Fig. Gradually heat the tube at the point where the bulb is to be formed. A great deal of care should be taken not to go to extremes. a hole is blown through the side of the tube by uneven heating or blowing. more in length than the finished article is to be and place one end over an alcohol flame. the following method of forming bulbs on glass tubes may be of interest. The best results are obtained by heating the glass slowly and then the bulb can be formed with regularity. Close the other end with the same operation. is to take the tube and 1 or 2 in. Pa. 4. and by holding a spare piece of tubing against the end allow them both to come to a melting heat. 3.

trace upon the brass lines that shall represent the margin of the sconce proper. cut off a piece of brass so that it shall have 1/2 in. apart and large enough to take in a 3/4-in. The tools necessary are a riveting hammer. then reverse. chase or stamp along the border of the design and background using a nail filed to a chisel edge. second. also trace the decorative design. This is to make a clean sharp division between background and design. fourth. or six arms. -Contributed by A. three. thin screw. when the stamping is complete remove the screws and metal from the board and cut off the extra margin with the metal shears. Sixth. drawing out and breaking the thread like glass. at the same time beat it with a round-nosed mallet. After the bulb is formed. The candle holders may have two. at the same time striving to keep its point at 1/4 in. stamp the background of the design promiscuously. fifth. fasten the metal to a thick board by inserting screws in these holes. extra metal all around. This stamping lowers the background and at the same time raises the design. so made that it has a reflector of brass or copper and is to hang upon the wall. with a twenty-penny wire nail that has had the sharpness of its point filed off. File the edges until they are smooth to the touch. screwdriver and sheet brass or copper No. How to Make a Sconce [325] A sconce is a candlestick holder. file. 23 gauge.way to make a thermometer tube. above the work and striking it with the hammer. Oswald. Seventh. The drip cup is a piece of brass cut circular and shaped by placing the brass over a hollow in one end of a block. and are bent to shape by means of the round-nosed . To make the sconce proceed as follows: First. rivet punch. Give the metal a circular motion. By holding the nail about 1/4 in. four. metal shears. flat and round-nosed pliers. Work from the center along concentric rings outward. above the metal. with a nail set make a series of holes in the extra margin about 3/4 in. third. with a piece of carbon paper. very rapid progress can be made. the other end of the tube can be opened by heating.

It will be found easier usually if the holder is not shaped until after the riveting is done. The bracket is then riveted to the back of the sconce. How To Make a Hectograph [326] . Having pierced the bracket. and holder. drip cup. Metal polish of any kind will do. After the parts have been assembled a lacquer may be applied to keep the metal from tarnishing. It is better to polish all the pieces before fastening any of them together. The form of the brackets which support the drip cups may be seen in the illustration.Completed Sconce Shaping the Holders Riveting pliers. Small copper rivets are used. these three parts are riveted together as indicated in the drawing.

A single piece would be better if you can get one long enough. The axle between the rear wheels is an iron bar which cost me 15 cents. Make the copy to be reproduced on ordinary paper with aniline ink. except they had wheels instead of runners. being careful to exclude all air bubbles and not shifting the paper. I steer with the front wheel. I had read of the beach automobiles used on the Florida coast. smooth it down and then remove as before. which is the stick to which the upper end of the sail is fastened. Mother let me have a sheet. of glycerine to about 200 deg. using a steel pen. if it has not absorbed too much ink.Making Copies with the Hectograph A hectograph is very simply and easily made and by means of it many copies of writing can be obtained from a single original. and it will be ready for future use. The gaff. A saw. alcohol 2 parts. winding the ends where they came together with wire. a little larger than the sheet of paper you ordinarily use and about 1/2 in. they were like an ice boat with a sail. hammer. and making the lines rather heavy so they have a greenish color in the light. Cover it so the cover does not touch the surface of the composition and let it stand six hours. Shiloh. When the original copy of the writing is ready moisten the surface of the hectograph slightly with a sponge. lay the copy face down upon it and smooth down. on a water bath. Fifty. and other things as they were needed. the stick at the bottom of the sail. Leave it nearly a minute and raise one corner and strip it from the pad. where will remain a reversed copy of the inscription. the three wheels were cast-off bicycle wheels. Make a tray of either tin or pasteboard. glycerine 4 parts. was made of a rake handle with a broomstick spliced to make it long enough. I found and used seven fence pickets for the frame work. So I set to work to make something to take me over the country roads. How to Make a Sailomobile [326] By Frank Mulford. and in a week . thus it was utilized. Place the tray so that it is perfectly level and pour in the gelatinous composition until it is nearly level with the edge of the tray. The boom. J. all the rest I found. deep. When through using the hectograph wash it off with a moist sponge. Slats made the seat and a cushion from the house made it comfortable. dissolve the sugar in the water and mix both solutions. and the pulley which raises and lowers the sail cost 5 cents. This should give a clear glycerine solution of gelatine. I spliced two rake handles together for the mast. Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine. of gelatine in cold water over night and in the morning pour off the water. The wind was the cheapest power to be found. and brace and bit were the tools used. Repeat the operation until the number of copies desired is obtained or until the ink on the pad is exhausted. If the surface is impaired at any time it can be remelted in a water bath and poured into a tray as before. N. Soak 1 oz. and water 24 parts. when it will be ready for use. Heat 6-1/2 oz. or more copies can be obtained from a single original. F. sugar 1 part. which was the front wheel of an old bicycle with the fork left on. and add the gelatine. It will bear a perfect copy of the original. is a broomstick. Twenty cents was all I spent. which I put down on the floor and cut into the shape of a mainsail. Immediately lay a piece of writing paper of the right size on the pad. A good ink may be made of methyl violet 2 parts.

Once it was started with only my little cousin in it and I had to run fast to catch up. A Home-Made Magic Lantern [328] The essential parts of a magic lantern are a condensing lens to make the beam of light converge upon the slide to illuminate it evenly. a projecting lens .Sailomobile for Use on Country Roads everything was ready for sailing.

Fig. 3. in diameter with such a focal length that will give a picture of the required size. white wood or walnut and the parts fastened together with wood screws. well seasoned pine. battened on both ends to keep the wood from warping. long is fastened to the board C with brackets F and supported at the outer end with a standard. and. The woodwork of the lantern should be of 1/2-in. A table. at a distance of 24 ft. or glue. greater than the corresponding diameters of ring A. at a point 1 in. wire brads. This box should be provided with a reflector located just back of the lamp. slide to about 6 ft. thick. long. focus enlarging a 3-in. but if such a box is not found. high. The best of materials should be used and the parts put together with care to produce a clear picture on the screen. and a projecting lens 2 in. The inside and outside diameters of the ring B are 3/8 in. describe a 9-in. A tin box having dimensions somewhere near those given in the diagrammatic sketch may be secured from your local grocer. one can be made from a piece of tin cut as shown in Fig. yet the same box may be used for gas or an oil lamp. 1/2 to 3/4 in. E. DD. lens with a focal length of from 15 to 20 in.. H. When this metal is bent at right angles on the dotted lines it will form a box as shown in Fig. 1. Procure a plano-convex or a bi-convex 6-in. The board in which to mount the condensing lens is 16 in. as desired. circle with a compass and saw the wood out with a scroll or keyhole saw. wide. This ring is made up from two rings. G. The board is centered both ways. provided the material is of metal. The slide support. and the lens slide. 2 Magic Lantern Details which is placed on a baseboard. wide and 15 in. A and B.Lantern House with which to throw an enlarged picture of the illuminated slide upon a screen and some appliances for preserving the proper relation of these parts to each other. and the work carefully done. so when fastened together concentrically an inner rabbet is formed for the reception of the lens and an outer rabbet to fit against the board C in and against which it rotates being held in place by buttons. Our illustration shows the construction for an electric light. If a small saw is used. are . the circular piece removed will serve to make the smaller portion of the ring for holding the condensing lens. or a lens of 12-in. and 14 in. 8 in. above the center. The first to make is the lamp house or box to hold the light. about 2 ft.

JJ. The wick should be of such a length as to dip into the oil. To reach the water. all lantern slides will produce a clear picture on the screen. The arrangement is quite safe as. -Contributed by Stuart Mason Kerr. are bent as shown and fastened at the top and bottom of the rectangular opening cut in the support G for holding the lantern slides. of safe. the water at once extinguishes the flame. P. The proper light and focus may be obtained by slipping the movable parts on the board E. The upper surface of the cork may be protected from the flame with a small piece of tin bent over the edges and a hole punched in the center for the wick. E. St. The weight of the tin will force the cork down into the oil. A Quickly Made Lamp [329] A very simple lamp can be made from materials which are available in practically every household in the following manner: A cheap glass tumbler is partly filled with water and then about 1/2 in. Cut a thin strip from an ordinary cork and make a hole in the center to carry a short piece of wick. should the glass happen to upset. apply two coats of shellac varnish. B. and when the right position is found for each.constructed to slip easily on the table. placed on the water. The level of the oil should be such as to make the flame below the top of the tumbler and the light then will not be blown out with draughts. the strips II serving as guides.-Contributed by G. Place the lamp house on the bottom board behind the condensing lens and the lantern is ready for use. Paul. A sheet . but not long enough. Minn. All the parts should be joined together snugly and the movable parts made to slide freely and when all is complete and well sandpapered. if the position of the lantern and screen is not changed. Small strips of tin. light burning oil. How to Make a Paper Aeroplane [329] A very interesting and instructive toy aeroplane can be made as shown in the accompanying illustrations.

as it will be needed for balancing purposes as well as for holding the paper together. If one of these clips is not at hand. keeping the paper as level as possible and throwing it as you would a dart. As we did not see our way Made of Bed Mattresses clear to purchase such a mat. 1. and the whole piece finished up and held together with a paper clip as in Fig. then the corners on one end are doubled over. 1) purchased from a second-hand dealer. The bag consisted of two pieces with the seam along . 9 in. Fig. Crawford. The paper clip to be used should be like the one shown in Fig. Schenectady. 3 in. I ordered a canvas bag. Y.H. 12 ft. to cover the mattresses. The aeroplane will make an easy and graceful flight in a room where no air will strike it.. A Wrestling Mat [330] The cost of a wrestling mat is so great that few small clubs can afford to own one. 2. form a piece of wire in the same shape. by 12 ft. I made one of six used bed mattresses (Fig. 4. Bronze Liquid [329] Banana oil or amyl acetate is a good bronze liquid.Folding the Paper of paper is first folded. --Contributed by J. from a tent company. 3. Fig. 3. Grasp the aeroplane between the thumb and forefinger at the place marked A in Fig. N.

1/2 in. White. D. The place where the Voltammeter in a Watch Case indicator comes to rest after disconnecting the current is marked zero. The volt side of the dial may be calibrated in the same manner. Fasten the wire with gummed label. Fig. long and 3/16 in. Warren. through which the indicator works. A Pocket Voltammeter [330] Remove the works and stem from a discarded dollar watch. Glue the coils to the back of the case and connect one wire from each binding-post as shown in Fig. apart. Do not use too strong a rubber. 3/4 in. --Contributed by Edward M. insulating them from the case with cardboard. drill two 3/16 in. A Film Washing Trough [331] . The rubber keeps the pointer at zero or in the middle of the scale. --Contributed by Walter W. to keep it from unwinding.each edge. 1. for amperes and the other post. Denver. 3/4 in. wide. two and three cells and each time mark the place of the pointer on the dial. To calibrate the instrument. 2. open on the edges. so as to form two oblong boxes. An arc is cut in the paper. On one of these forms wind evenly the wire taken from a bell magnet to the depth of 1/8 in. Attach a piece of steel rod. in the center coil. C. as shown in Fig. Fold two strips of light cardboard. 1. first mark the binding-post A. and insert two binding-posts. 1/2 in. Connect the lead and the post marked A to one. thick. 2. Fasten a brass-headed tack to the case at the point F with sealing wax or solder and bend a wire in the shape shown in Fig. using a voltmeter instead of the ammeter. A rubber band. Teasdale. The mattresses were laid side by side and end to end and the bag placed on and laced up as shown in Fig. to the coil of small wire for volts. holes in the edge. A dial may be made by cutting a piece of stiff white paper so it will fit under the crystal of the watch. while the other two wires are connected to an induction coil lead which is inserted in the hole from which the stem was removed. Take corresponding readings on a standard ammeter and mark the figures on the dial. Fig. The ends of the rubber are fastened with sealing wax. Pa. long. V. 2. and on the other wind some 20 gauge wire to the same depth. which is connected to the coil of heavy wire. 3 to swing freely on the tack. Colo. connects the steel rod C with the top of the watch case.

Five minutes' washing with this device is sufficient to remove all traces of the hypo from the film. A common pin stuck through one end of the film and then in the trough close to the can will hold it in position for washing. large enough to admit a fair-sized stream of water from a faucet. board as long as the film and a trifle wider than the film's width. O. as shown. Then solder the cover to the can and punch a number of holes about 1/4 in. Hunting. apart along the opposite side from where the large hole was cut. --Contributed by M. The trough must be made for the size of the film to be washed. Wood Burning [331] . Some heavy wire bent in the shape of a U and fastened to the under side of the trough at the can end will furnish supports to keep that end of the trough the highest and place the opening in the can close beneath the water faucet. Attach strips to the edges of the board to keep the water from spilling over the sides. Place this can on one end of the trough. M.Washing a Negative Film The washing of films without scratching them after they are developed and fixed is very difficult in hot weather. A convenient washing trough for washing full length films is shown in the accompanying sketch. Cut a hole in one side of a baking powder can about half way between the top and bottom. with the large hole up. Cut a 1/4-in. Dayton.

mouth downward. Put a sheet of rubber over the mouth of the large bottle. then into this bottle place. Take a wide-mouthed bottle and fill almost full of water. The Diving Bottle [331] This is a very interesting and easily performed experiment illustrating the transmission of pressure by liquids. a small vial or bottle having just enough air in the bottle to keep it barely afloat. When a finger is pressed on the rubber the small bottle will slowly descend until the pressure is released when the . draw the edge down over the neck and wrap securely with a piece of string thus forming a tightly stretched diaphragm over the top.Burnt wood work done with an ordinary reading glass and the sun's rays.

The moving of the small bottle is caused by the pressure transmitted through the water. Cutting the Wood and Complete Fan Combination Telegraph and Telephone Line [332] The accompanying diagrams show connections for a short line system . or an opaque tube such as the cap of a fountain pen. Whitehouse. Ala. as shown in the sketch. Cut the divisions very thin with a sharp knife down to the point A. thick. wide and 4 in. but not very thick. --Contributed by John Shahan. Upper Troy. thus causing the small bottle to descend and ascend at will. How to Make an Inexpensive Wooden Fan [332] Select a nice straight-grained piece of white pine about 1/4 in. 3/4 in. Auburn. The fan is then finished by placing each piece over the other as in Fig. and then soak the wood in hot water to make it soft and easy to split. many puzzling effects may be obtained. N. long. This experiment can be performed with a narrow-necked bottle.Y. taking care not to split the wood through the part left for the handle. Lay out the design desired and cut as shown in Fig. If the small bottle used is opaque. 1. 2. Place the small bottle in as before. taking care not to have too much air in the bottom.Pressure Experiments small bottle wilt ascend. This will make a very pretty ornament. thus causing the volume of air in the small tube to decrease and the bottle to descend and ascend when released as the air increases to the original volume. If the cork is adjusted properly. --Contributed by Fred W. the bottle may be held in the hand and the sides pressed with the fingers. provided the bottle is wide.

thick. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. --Contributed by D. were constructed of 1-in. The bearing blocks were 3 in. which was nailed to the face plate. K. Fig. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A. high without the upper half. sugar pine on account of its softness. Fig. The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel. The wire L was put . Its smaller parts. 1. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. The shaft C. 2 ft. Fig. wide. The telephone receivers can be used both as receivers and transmitters. 4. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk. 1 in. was 1/4in. The 21/2-in. its batteries may be connected in circuit with a common push button which is held down when using the telephone. Two inches Details of Miniature Windmill Construction were left uncut at the hub end. thick and 3 in. line. four dry cells will be sufficient for the telegraph instruments and two cells for the telephone. 1. as shown in Fig. even in a light breeze. and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. iron rod. or ordinary telephone transmitters. pulley. 1. G. was keyed to shaft C. How to Make a Miniature Windmill [333] The following description is how a miniature windmill was made. to the shaft. long. 2. W. Fig. Both bearings were made in this manner. which extended to the ground. 1. 3. induction coils and battery may be used in the circuit with a receiver. The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. On a 1000-ft. held the shaft from revolving in the hub.Wiring Diagram (metallic circuit) of telegraph where a telephone may be used in combination on the line. such as blades and pulleys. If a transmitter is used. pulley F. which gave considerable power for its size. by the method shown in Fig. A staple. B. 1. Milter. thick. Fig. in diameter and 1 in. I. which was 6 in. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in.

were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases. cut out another piece of tin (X. for instance. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. long and 3 in. Tack these two pieces of tin in front of the coils as shown in the illustration. 6. long and 1/2 in. Fig. with brass headed furniture tacks. but to keep it from rubbing against the board P. which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. providing one has a few old materials on hand. a 1/2-in. Two washers were placed on shaft C. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground. which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. Fig. The power was put to various uses. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. Cut another piece of tin 3 in. G. one may be had at the dealers for a small sum. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. How to Make a Telegraph Instrument and Buzzer [334] The only expenditure necessary in constructing this telegraph instrument is the price of a dry cell. in diameter. strips. 25 ft. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. when the windmill needed oiling. To lessen the friction here. Fig. This completes the receiver or sounder. The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. Fig. This fan was made of 1/4-in. Procure a block of wood about 6 in. pine 18 by 12 in. If you have no bell. long. 1. wide and bend it so the end of the tin Home-Made Telegraph Instrument when fastened to the block will come just above the core of the coil. between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction. Fasten these coils on the blocks at one end as in Fig. Fig. hole was bored for it. R. To make the key. This board was 12 in. Cut a piece of tin 2 in. was tacked. 1. 6. 5. long and bend it as . thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. long and bend it as shown at A. There a 1/4-in. Fig. top down also. The other lid. 2. long. wide and take the coils out of an old electric bell. and was cut the shape shown. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. 0. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. The bed plate D. H. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown. 1.through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley. 3 in. with all parts in place. across the thin edge of a board. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. square to the board P at the top of the tower. as. wide and 1 in. 1. through the latter. washers were placed under pulley F. Fig. in the center of the board P. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N. apart in the tower. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string. 1) 4 in. was 2 ft. was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. so that the 1/4-in. hole for the shaft G was in the center. The smaller one.

Going back to Fig. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. consisting of four pieces of board nailed . like many another device boys make. Bicycle Complete the shaded portion K.shown. cut off the head of a nail and drive it in the board at a point where the loose end of the tin will cover it. connect the wire from the coils to the key to point A and the one connected at the point under the key to B. through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel. adjusting the side pieces to the shafts. -Contributed by John R. 1. probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. McConnell. Thus a center drive is made. When tired of this instrument. Flour barrels will not dothey are not strong enough. as shown at Water. using cleats to hold the board frame. The rear barrels are. as indicated. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood. Before tacking it to the board. although it can be made with but two. fitted with paddles as at M. nor can they be made perfectly airtight. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost. move the coils back and forth until the click sounds just the way you wish and you are ready to begin on the Morse code. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. How to Make a Water Bicycle [335] Water bicycles afford fine sport. the receiver will begin to vibrate rapidly. after the manner of bicycle wheels. leaving the other wire as it is. Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. and. Now. Then tack the key to the board and connect the wires of the battery as in Fig. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle. at the front. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. 2. By adjusting the coils. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. causing a buzzing sound. can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels.

If the journals thus made are well oiled. seat yourself on the bicycle seat. as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. which can Another Type of Float be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. How To Make a Small Searchlight [336] The materials required for a small searchlight are a 4-volt lamp of the loop variety. or even a little houseboat. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting. there will not be much friction. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. To propel it. but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. The speed is slow at first. as shown in Fig. 1. copper piping and brass tubing for base. Another mode of putting together the set of barrels. just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street.Barrel Float for Bicycle and cleated about the circumference of the barrels. feet on the pedals. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. There is no danger. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it. 3. which will give any amount of pleasure. When completed the searchlight may be fitted to a small boat and will afford a great amount . using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig. thin sheet brass for the cylinder. can be built.

The light may then be elevated or lowered as wished. Fig. When hard bend the pipe around a piece of wood which has been sawed to the shape of bend desired. It is best to solder the wire to the trunnions before cementing the side blocks inside the cylinder. A. and so creating a false circuit. C. Shape small blocks of boxwood. Fig. One half inch from the top bore a hole large enough to admit the copper pipe and a larger hole up the center to meet it for the wires to come down. to fit the sides and pass stout pieces of brass wire through the middle of the blocks for trunnions. Place one brass ring in cylinder. or it may be put to other uses if desired. 1. break off odd corners with notches on cutters and grind the edge of the glass on an ordinary red brick using plenty of water. When the wires have been secured to the terminals cover the joint with a piece of very thin . On two ordinary brass terminals twist or solder some flexible wire. trace a circle (inside diameter of cylinder) on a piece of cardboard. 2. Then melt out the rosin or lead. If magnifying glass cannot be had. Painting the wood with white enamel or a piece of brightly polished metal will serve the purpose. Fig. 1. If a piece to fit cannot be obtained. so that it may readily be removed for cleaning. Make a cylinder of wood of the required size and bend a sheet of thin brass around it. and after the lamp has been placed in position by means of the small wood blocks shown in Fig. Exactly through the middle of the sides of the cylinder drill holes just so large that when the blocks containing the trunnions are cemented to the cylinder there is no chance of contact between cylinder and trunnion. Turn a small circle of wood. 2. Make the base of wood as shown in Fig. exactly the same size to serve as a reflector. use plain glass and fit them as follows: Front View Side View Make two rings of brass wire to fit tightly into the cylinder. B. place cardboard on glass and cut out glass with a glass cutter. fit a glass like a linen tester to a small disc of wood or brass to fit the cylinder. The trunnion should project slightly into the cylinder. then the glass disc and then the other ring. 1. the wires from the lamp should be soldered to the trunnions. inside the cylinder to fit exactly and fasten to it a piece of mirror. make the base of two pieces of brass tube--one being a sliding fit in the other and with projecting pieces to prevent the cylinder from going too far. Fig. D. 2. Make an incision with a half-round file in the under side of the tube for the wires to come through. If it is desired to make the light very complete. but before doing so fix a little bone washer on the screws of the terminal so as to insulate it from the tube. In front of cylinder place a piece of magnifying glass for a lens. On the back of the piece of wood fasten a small brass handle.of pleasure for a little work. For the stand fill a piece of copper piping with melted rosin or lead.

or 1/4in. I have found that by putting a piece of cardboard or thick paper with the blade of the screwdriver in the screw head slot. while lying in bed. wide and 1/16 in. Push the switch lever to the right before retiring. X. Swissvale.. Electric Alarm that Rings a Bell and Turns on a Light [337] The illustration shows an alarm clock connected up to ring an electric bell. it turns till it forms a connection by striking the contact post and starts the electric bell ringing. D. and at the same time turn on an electric light to show the time. The advantage of this is that one can control the bell and light. brass strip. The parts indicated are as follows: A. contact post. near the bed. To operate this. Pa. and pulled tight. copper tubing. --Contributed by C. The contact post may be of 1/4-in. 3/8 in. long. 4 in. Chatland. after two turns have been made on the key. point where a splice is made from the light to wire leading to batteries from brass strip under clock. put one trunnion into the terminal as far as it will go and this will allow room for the other trunnion to go in its terminal. To throw on light throw levers to the left. so it can be reached without getting out of bed. wire from batteries to switch. F. To get the cylinder into its carriage. The two wires may now be threaded down the copper tube into the base. T. H. G. the terminals firmly fixed into the tubes. When alarm goes off. after setting alarm. Ogden. In placing clock on shelf. B. Throw lever off from the right to center. the screw may be held and turned into places that it would be impossible with the screwdriver alone. such as is used for cycle valves. set alarm key as shown in diagram. How to Make a Lead Cannon [338] . electric bulb (3-1/2 volts) . some glue will secure them. Utah. brass rod. S. be sure that the legs of clock are on the brass strip and that the alarm key is in position so it will come in contact with the contact post in back of clock. long. which stops bell ringing. C. Brinkerhoff. switch. bell. dry batteries. The bell is then cut out but the light remains on till lever is again thrown in the center. 5-1/4 by 10 in. by having the switch on the baseboard. thick. shelf. if too small. Details of Alarm Construction How to Hold a Screw on a Screwdriver [337] A screw that is taken from a place almost inaccessible with the fingers requires considerable patience to return it with an ordinary screwdriver unless some holding-on device is used. E. C. J. --Contributed by Geo. wire from light to switch. wire from bell to switch. key of alarm clock. 4-1/2 in.india rubber tubing. I. bracket.

Push an ordinary shingle nail through the paper and into the extreme end of the spindle. 1. in diameter. as this is to be the muzzle of the cannon. Make a shoulder. as in Fig. Homemade Electric Bed Warmer [338] The heat developed by a carbon-filament lamp is sufficiently high to allow its use as a heating element of. Make the spindle as in Fig.Any boy who has a little mechanical ability can make a very reliable cannon for his Fourth-of-July celebration by following the instructions given here: Lead Cannon Construction Take a stick--a piece of curtain roller will do--7 in. large enough to slip over the tin can and provided with a neck that can be drawn together by means of a cord. Minn. 1. Chapman. making it as true and smooth as possible. Lanesboro. 2. Having finished this. as at A. 2. but the bed warmer is probably the best example. beyond the end of the spindle. letting it extend 3/4 in. being careful not to get the sand in it. will do the heating. scrape off the paper and the cannon is ready for mounting. place stick and all in a pail of sand. long. Procure a good quality of stiff paper. for instance. which can be made of an old can. There are a number of other small heaters which can be easily made and for which lamps form very suitable heating elements. Pull out the nail and stick. as at B. Fig. 4 in. The top is cut out and the edge filed smooth. as at A. This is to form the fuse hole. and letting the opening at the top extend a little above the surface of the sand. and wrap it around the shoulder of the stick. Then fill the paper cylinder with melted lead and let cool. from one end. 3. Fig. a bed warmer. in diameter. about 3-1/2 in. --Contributed by Chas. A small lamp of about 5 cp. Fig. as . about 6 in. A flannel bag. S. wide. 1/4 in. The lamp-socket end of the flexible cord is inserted in the can and the shade holder gripped over the opening. gives the heater a more finished appearance. All that is required is a tin covering.

3/8 in. wide and 3 ft. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. deep. A piece of oak. will be sufficient to make the trigger. The illustration shows how this is done. --Contributed by Arthur E. 6 in. spring and arrows. but if this wood cannot be procured. good straight-grained pine will do.well as making it more pleasant to the touch. The material must be 1-1/2 in. some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow. With the lens-shaped ice used in the same manner as a reading glass to Forming the Ice Lens direct the sun's rays on paper or shavings you can start a fire. The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides. ash. A piece of tin. and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. this is to keep the edges from splitting. long. How to Make a Crossbow and Arrow Sling [339] In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock. long. long. 11/2 in. wide and 3/8 in. 1 in. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch. Joerin. thick. thick. thick. 5/8 in. Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling . The bow is made from straight-grained oak. wide and 6 ft. 1. or hickory. Making a Fire with the Aid of Ice [338] Take a piece of very clear ice and melt it down into the hollow of your hands so as to form a large lens.

The stick for the bow. To shoot the crossbow. which is 1/4 in. Fig. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. wide at each end. it lifts the spring up. is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back. is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. When the trigger is pulled. or through the necessity of. Fasten one of the pieces to the edge of the bench with a large wood screw and attach the other piece to the first one with a piece of leather nailed across the bottom of both pieces. The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. E. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. and one for the trigger 12 in.A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. the bark removed and a notch cut in one end. Trownes. The trigger. 9. having the latter swing quite freely. --Contributed by O. Ill. A spring. pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight. in diameter. 3. Such a temporary safe light may be . with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice. Temporary Dark Room Lantern [340] Occasionally through some accident to the regular ruby lamp. as shown in Fig. hole through both of them for a common carriage bolt. 6. which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch. and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height. a key filed out of a piece of soft steel to fit the nut. is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. 2. Fig. from the end of the stock. some makeshift of illumination must be improvised. A Home-Made Vise [340] Cut two pieces of wood in the shape shown in the sketch and bore a 3/8-in. The nut on the carriage bolt may be tightened with a wrench. The edges of the jaws are faced with sheet metal which can be copper or steel suitable for the work it is intended to hold. sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun. To throw the arrow. Fig. from the opposite end. 7. The bow is not fastened in the stock. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left. and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger. 8. insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow. thick. place the arrow in the groove. better still. as shown in Fig. it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. 4. Details of a Home-Made Bench Vise or. developing while out of reach of a properly equipped dark room. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow. Wilmette. which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines.

since the flame of the candle is above A. and woven in and out on these poles so as to shed a very heavy rain. C. and nail it in position as shown at A. In woods where there is plenty of bark available in large slabs. Remove one end. and whether these improvised shelters are intended to last until a permanent camp is built. from the ground. while the danger of igniting the paper is reduced to a minimum. The cut should be about 5 ft. a great deal of fun can be had in their construction. Camps and How to Build Them [341] There are several ways of building a temporary camp from material that is always to be found in the woods. Then a number of poles should be laid over them to prevent them from blowing away. make the frame of the wigwam. the bark lean-to is a . only reflected and transmitted light reaches the plate. which offers fairly good protection against any but the most drenching rains. Drive a short wire nail through the center of the opposite end to serve as a seat for the candle. The brush camp is shaped like an ordinary "A" tent. Cedar or hemlock boughs make the best thatch for the brush camp. making lighting and trimming convenient. respectively. long and supported by crotched uprights about 6 ft. The door may be fastened with a nail or piece of wire. it is the easiest camp to make. The ridge pole should be about 8 ft. The hinged cover E. Often the ridge pole can be laid from one small tree to another. Eight or ten long poles are then laid slanting against the ridge pole on each side. There is room for several persons under this sort of shelter. apart. It is well to reinforce the hinge by gluing on a strip of cloth if the lamp is to be in use more than once or twice. Remove the bottom of the box. Branches and brush can easily be piled up. and where there are no suitable trees that can be cut. a serviceable shelter can be quickly provided. or only as a camp on a short excursion. An evergreen tree with branches growing well down toward the ground furnishes all the material. Moreover. Avoid tall trees on account of lightning. The lamp is finished by tacking two or more layers of yellow post-office paper over the aperture D. This lamp is safe. for the projecting edges of A and B form lightshields for the ventilation orifice and the crack at the top of the hinged cover. The Indian camp is the easiest to make. They should be piled up to a thickness of a foot or more over the slanting poles and woven in and out to keep them from slipping. from the ground. Runny Paint [340] The paint will sag and run if too much oil is put in white lead. is used as a door.made from an empty cigar box in a short time. Then the boughs and branches on the under side of the fallen top are chopped away and piled on top. so that when the tree falls the upper part will still remain attached to the stump. and replace as shown at B. bringing the paper well around to the sides and bottom of the box to prevent light leakage from the cracks around the edges. says Photo Era. By chopping the trunk almost through. Three long poles with the tops tied together and the lower ends spaced 8 or 10 ft. The Indian wigwam sheds rain better.

then fasten a crosspiece to hold the ends close together. A bed like this is soft and springy and will last through an ordinary camping season without renewal. thick. Any sort of a stick that is easily handled will serve as a poker. Sheets of bark. Evergreen twigs or dried leaves are piled on this. A portable cot that does not take up much room in the camp outfit is made of a piece of heavy canvas 40 in. Hemlock twigs tied around one end of a stick make an excellent broom. The small boughs and twigs of hemlock. selecting a site for a camp. . spruce. Long poles are then laid crossways of these slanting poles. pole is run through each hem and the ends of the pole supported on crotched sticks. A piece of elm or hickory. Tongs are very useful in camp.quickly constructed and serviceable camp. running spiral-wise from the ground to the peak. long and 2 or 3 ft. and the whole can be covered with brush as in the case of the brush camp or with strips of bark laid overlapping each other like shingles. Where bark is used. In the early summer. and a blanket or a piece of canvas stretched across and fastened down to the poles at the sides. long. a 2-in. The ridge pole is set up like that of the brush camp. For a foot in the middle of the stick. Four-inch hems are sewed in each side of the canvas. and cedar. each of them a foot or more from one end of the fire space. long and 1-1/2 in. nails are necessary to hold it in place. makes a good pair of tongs. If the camp is to be occupied for any length of time. useful implements for many purposes can be made out of such material as the woods afford. wide and 6 ft. a bunk can be made by laying small poles close together across two larger poles on a rude framework easily constructed. wide. the bark can easily be removed from most trees by making two circular cuts around the trunk and joining them with another vertical cut. boring holes in the rounded side of the slab and driving pegs into them to serve as legs. The simplest way to build a crane for hanging kettles over the campfire is to drive two posts into the ground. shape the ends so that anything that drops into the fire can be seized by them. Movable seats for a permanent camp are easily made by splitting a log. The ends of these poles should be pushed into the earth and fastened with crotched sticks. make the best kind of a camp bed. are a convenient size for camp construction. Bark may also be used for a wigwam and it can be held in place by a cord wrapped tightly around the whole structure. 3 ft. piled 2 or 3 ft. deep and covered with blankets. Fresh water close at hand and shade for the middle of the day are two points that should always be looked for in. will dry flat. so that a pole laid from one to the other across the fire will be securely held in the split. A short slab or plank can easily be made into a three-legged stool in the same way. and when the camp is pitched. The bark is easily pried off with an ax. and if laid on the ground under heavy stones. and a serviceable pair of tongs is the result. Three or four other poles are laid slanting to the ground on one side only. For a permanent camp. and split the tops with an ax. 6 ft. cut half of the thickness away and hold this part over the fire until it can be bent easily to bring the two ends together.

Campers usually have boxes in which their provisions have been carried. and affording accommodation for several persons. Such a packing box is easily made into a cupboard. or even a rough lock for the camp larder. . Pieces can be nailed onto the legs of the table to hold other slabs to serve as seats. and it is not difficult to improvise shelves. hinges. A good way to make a camp table is to set four posts into the ground and nail crosspieces to support slabs cut from chopped wood logs to form a top.

but the jug must be refilled with boiling water at least twice a day. about 4 in. B. B. The inside is kept warm by filling a jug with boiling water and setting it within. 1. and as no suitable plug to screw into the elbow after removing the faucet was at hand. be kept at 90 or 100 deg. I drove a small cork. Make a cover for the top and line it in the same manner. to another . Pa. Line the inside of the half barrel with paper and then cover this with old flannel cloth. The cork converted the faucet into an A Tight-Fitting Cork Driven into a Cracked Faucet Converted It into an Emergency Plug emergency plug which prevented leakage until the proper fitting to take its place could be secured.Brooder for Small Chicks [343] A very simple brooder can be constructed by cutting a sugar barrel in half and using one part in the manner Brooder for Young Chicks Kept Warm with a Jug of Boiling Water described. Automatic Electric Heat Regulator [344] It is composed of a closed glass tube. changing the water both morning and night. wide. into the end of the faucet and screwed it back in place. connected by means of a very small lead pipe.. --Contributed by James M. and provide a cover or door. the interior can. Faucet Used as an Emergency Plug [343] A brass faucet split as shown at A during a cold spell. Doylestown. deep and 4 in. At the bottom cut a hole in the edge. Kane. Fig. When the temperature outside is 10 deg. A.

2. This tube is plunged into an ebonite vessel of somewhat larger diameter. Fig. 3. C. fused into one side. 4 and 5). The apparatus operates as follows: The tube is immersed in the matter to be heated. and by filling the tube A with some very volatile substance. The tube C is filled to a certain height with mercury and then petroleum. open at the bottom and having five pieces of platinum wire (1. a liquid. 2. care being taken to have the rubber ring centered. The diagram. if necessary. The petroleum above the mercury prevents sparking between the platinum wire and the mercury when the latter falls below anyone of them. As Wiring Diagram Showing How the Connections to a Source of Current Supply are Made the temperature of this rises. the flow is entirely stopped when the mercury falls below the wire 5. The current is thus compelled. and it can be made much more sensitive by increasing the number of platinum wires and placing them closer together. With this very simple apparatus the temperature can be kept constant within a 10-deg. to pass through an increasing resistance. until. E. which project inside and outside of the tube. shows how the connections to the supply current are made. The outer ends of the five platinum wires are soldered to ordinary copper wires and connections made to various points on a rheostat as shown. which is fastened to the base by a copper screw. Repairing a Washer on a Flush Valve [344] When the rubber washer on the copper flush valve of a soil-basin tank becomes loose it can be set by pouring a small quantity of paraffin between the rubber and the copper while the valve is inverted. limit. for instance. the air expands and exerts pressure on the petroleum in the tube C so that the level of the mercury is lowered. such as ether. This makes .glass tube. as the platinum wires with the fall of the mercury are brought out of circuit. for instance.

cannot be used so often. This removes the black stains caused by sulphur in the air. in diameter. brass or iron. is composed of wrought sheet iron. set at 1/8 in. The points formed by drilling the holes can be filed to the pattern size. Be sure to mark and cut out a sufficient number of plates to make a frame 3/4 in. Before removing the field from the lathe.a repair that will not allow a drop of water to leak out of the tank. drill for removing the unnecessary metal. but merely discolored. When the frame is finished so far. screws. as shown in the left-hand sketch. they should be washed and polished in magnesia powder or with a cloth. How to Make a Small Electric Motor [345] By W. or even 1/16 in. Cleaning Discolored Silver [344] A very quick way to clean silver when it is not tarnished. 1. and for the outside of the frame. This method works well on silver spoons tarnished by eggs and can be used every day while other methods require much time and. drill the four rivet holes. After the template is marked out. for the field core with a sharp-pointed tool. Alpena. on a lathe. as shown in Fig. a slight finishing cut can be taken on the face. clamp the template. The bore can be marked with a pair of dividers. 3-3/8 in. Fig. After cleaning them with the solution. These lugs are made of a piece of 1/8-in. This will mark a line for the center of the holes to be drilled with a 1/4-in. If the thickness is sufficient. is to wash the articles in a weak solution of ammonia water. assemble and rivet them solidly. It is necessary to layout a template of the frame as shown. brass. 3. tap. thicker. to allow for filing to shape after the parts are fastened together. A. which may be of any thickness so that. Fig. which are fitted on the studs in the frame. to the sheet iron and mark carefully with a scriber. in diameter. Then the field can be finished to these marks. --Contributed by Frank Jermin. between centers. These holes are for the bearing studs. they will make a frame 3/4 in. then bore it out to a diameter of 2-3/4 in. A 5/8in. which will make it uniform in size. Two holes are also drilled and tapped for 1/4-in. two holes. After the plates are cut out and the rivet holes drilled. and turned into the threaded holes in the frame. therefore. The bearing studs are now made. 3-3/8 in. thick. hole is . 4-1/2 in. thick. or pattern. larger than the dimensions given. The bearing supports are made of two pieces of 1/8-in. making it 1/16 in. ROBERTSON The field frame of the motor. bent at right angles as shown. when several pieces are placed together. to allow for finishing. Michigan. by turning the lathe with the hand. 2. are drilled and tapped with a 3/8in. which fasten the holding-down lugs or feet to the frame. mark off a space.

and build up the solder well. The manner of doing this is to wrap a piece of paper on the outside of the finished armature ring and place it through the opening in the field. The shaft of the armature. or otherwise finished. The armature core is made up as The Assembled Bearing Frame on the Field Core and the Armature Shaft Made of Machine Steel . is turned up from machine steel. then slip the bearings on the ends of the shaft. and drilled to receive the armature shaft.The Field-Coil Core is Built Up of Laminated Wrought Iron Riveted Together drilled in the center of each of these supports. 4. leaving the finish of the bearings until the armature is completed and fastened to the shaft. file them out to make the proper adjustment. The supports are then removed and the solder turned up in a lathe. Remove the paper from the armature ring and see that the armature revolves freely in the bearings without touching the inside of the field at any point. into which a piece of 5/8-in. soldered into place. solder them to the supports. brass rod is inserted. The Bearing Studs are Turned from Machine Steel Two of Each Length being Required If the holes in the bearing support should be out of line. Fig. When the bearings are located. These bearings should be fitted and soldered in place after the armature is constructed.

3. which is made as follows: Procure a piece of brass. as shown m Fig. the same thickness as the width of the saw cut made between the segments. The commutator is turned from a piece of brass pipe. deep and 7/16 in. inside diameter. solder the arms of the spider to the metal of the armature core. After they . When annealed. Be sure to have the inside of the armature core run true. Make a slit with a small saw blade in the end of each pin for the ends of the wires coming from the commutator coils. 3/4 in. When this is accomplished. Divide the surface into 12 equal parts. turned into place and the ends turned in a lathe to an outside diameter of 1-1/4 in. 7. with a hole cut in them to fit over the insulation placed on the cores. until they become flexible enough to be put in place. Slip the spider on the armature shaft and secure it solidly with the setscrew so that the shaft will not turn in the spider when truing up the armature core. in diameter and fit in a brass spider. 5. or segments. washers. wide. Armature-Ring Core. and turn it up to the size shown and file out the metal between the arms. 1/8 in. are cut out a little larger than called for by the dimensions given in Fig. and held with a setscrew. in length and both ends chamfered to an angle of 60 deg. thick. The shaft with the core is then put in a lathe and the outside turned off to the proper size. 3. clamp them together and drill six 1/8-in. and then they are soaked in warm water. Its Hub and the Construction of the Commutator and Its Insulation The brush holder is shaped from apiece of fiber. thick. Place them on the fiber hub and slip the hub on the shaft. sheet fiber. The sides are also faced off and finished. 8. Procure 12 strips of mica. The piece is placed on a mandrel and turned to 3/4 in. 1-1/8 in. as shown in Fig. being formed for the ends. holes through them for rivets. 6. Rivet them together. thick are cut like the pattern. The holder is slipped on the projecting outside end of the bearing.. then clamp the whole in place with the nut. File grooves or slots in the armature ring so that it will fit on the arms of the spider. A slit is cut through from the hole to the outside. by 1-1/2 in. The brushes consist of brass or copper wire gauze. The pins are made of brass. The two insulating ends for holding these segments are made of fiber turned to fit the bore of the brass tubing. and use them as a filler and insulation between the commutator bars. 24 gauge sheet iron to fill up the part between until the whole is over 3/4 in. threaded. After the pieces are cut out. 6.follows: Two pieces of wrought sheet iron. hole and tap it for a pin. as shown in Fig. then allowing it to cool in the ashes. The studs for holding the brushes are cut from 5/16-in. brass rod. Remove the core from the lathe and file out slots 1/4 in. Saw the ring into the 12 parts on the lines between the pins. Find the centers of each segment at one end. thick and 1/4 in. Make the core 3/4 in. 3/4 in. then drill a 1/8-in. 9. wide. as shown in Fig. thick. and anneal the whole piece by placing it in a fire and heating the metal to a cherry red. as shown in Fig. These are used for the outside plates and enough pieces of No. bore out the inside to 1-11/16 in. The field core is insulated before winding with 1/64-in. True up the commutator in a lathe to the size given in Fig. rolled up and flattened out to 1/8 in. as shown in Fig. one end being soldered to keep the wires in place. to allow for finishing to size.

Connect a wire from the other brush stud. of No. and wind on four layers. sheet fiber. sheet fiber. long. yet it shows a series of . but a resistance must be placed in series with it. or side. The armature ring is insulated by covering the inside and brass spider with 1/16-in. Two terminals are fastened at one side on the base and a switch at the other side. The whole motor is fastened with screws to a wood base. Fig. then wind the coil in one of the slots as shown. To connect the wires. and bring the end of the wire out at B. shown at A. using the same number of turns and the same length of wire. after the motor is on the stand. 18 gauge double-cotton-covered magnet wire. After the coil is completed in one slot allow about 2 in. run it through a small hole in the base and cut a groove for it on the under side so that it can be connected through the switch and the other terminal. Be sure to have the ring and spider covered so the wire will not touch the iron or brass. All connections should be securely soldered. of the end to protrude. are soldered together. In starting to wind. about 100 ft. they are glued to the core insulation. 8 in.have dried. shown at B. thick. by bending the end around one of the projections. cut out the part within the slot ends and make 12 channel pieces from 1/64-in. wide and 1 in. The source of current is connected to the terminals. Fig. Two rings of 1/16-in sheet fiber are cut and glued to the sides of the ring. of the wire. The two ends are joined at B. 1. to The Insulated Brush Holder and Its Studs for Holding the Brushes on the Commutator fasten to the commutator segment. Run one end of the field wire. until the 12 slots are filled. 6 in. 1. The protruding ends of the coils are connected to the pins in the commutator segments after the starting end of one coils is joined to the finishing end of the next adjacent. 5. making 40 turns or four layers of 10 turns each shellacking each layer as it is wound. The winding is started at A. insert the end of the wire through the hole from the inside at A Fig. Protecting Tinware [347] New tinware rubbed over with fresh lard and heated will never rust. After one coil. Another Optical Illusion [348] After taking a look at the accompanying illustration you will be positive that the cords shown run in a spiral toward the center. the two ends of the wire. This winding is for a series motor. The motor can be run on a 110-volt direct current. Each slot of the armature is wound with about 12 ft. When the glue is set. Drill a small hole through each of the lower end insulating washers. which will take 50 ft. through a small hole in the base and make a groove on the under side so that the wire end can be connected to one of the terminals The other end of the field wire C is connected to the brass screw in the brass brush stud. The field is wound with No. being required. is wound start at C in the same manner as at A. Wind the next slot with the same number of turns in the same manner and so on. which are glued in the slots and to the fiber washers. 21 gauge double-cottoncovered magnet wire.

as in the case of a spiral. Electrically Operated Indicator for a Wind Vane [348] The accompanying photograph shows a wind vane connected with electric wires to an instrument at considerable distance which indicates by means of a magnetic needle the direction of the wind. Nine wires run from the timer. When the timer is held in this position the brush will make connections with each of the contacts as the vane revolves. alarms and telephones as well as experimental work the use of common felt gun wads make a very good cleat for the wires. Substitute for Insulating Cleats [348] In wiring up door bells. is fastened to the metallic body.The Cord Is Not a Spiral perfect circles of cords placed one inside the other. A 1/2-in. you will find the pencil returning to the point from which it started. the brush of the timer makes a connection in the middle of a contact. put on two wads behind and one in front of the wire and fasten in the same manner as described. If one wad on the back is not thick enough to keep the wire away from the support. The insulated wire is placed between two wads and fastened with two nails or screws. Instead of approaching or receding from the center in a continuous line. still more simply. which serves as the ground wire. You can test this for yourself in a moment with a pair of compasses. The indicating device which is placed in a convenient place in the house consists of . by laying a point of a pencil on any part of the cord and following it round. iron pipe extends from the vane and is held in place by the clamp originally used to secure the handle bar of the bicycle. or. and when pointing between two contacts connects them both. and one. one from each of the eight contacts. The timer is set at such a position that when the vane points directly north. In place of the forks is attached an eight-cylinder gas engine timer which is slightly altered in such a manner that the brush is at all times in contact. The bearings of the vane consist of the head of a wornout bicycle. They are used in the manner illustrated in the accompanying sketch.

Magnets and Indicator eight 4-ohm magnets fastened upon a l-in. wood board upon which is fastened a neatly drawn dial resembling a mariner's compass card. one end of which extends down to about 1/32 in. This is placed over the magnets in such a manner that there will be a magnet under each of the eight principal points marked on the dial. thus giving 16 different directions. two magnets will be magnetized and the needle will point midway between the two lines represented on the dial.The Wind Vane. perfectly balanced on the end of a standard and above all is placed a cover having a glass top. 45 deg. The pointer end of the needle is painted black. the magnet causing the needle to "dip" will bring the wire in contact with the paper dial. long. Covering these is a thin. If the vane points in such a direction that the timer brush connects two contacts. Over this dial is a magnetic needle or pointer. circle. of the dial. apart and with their faces pointing toward the center. Around the pointer end of the needle is wound a fine copper wire. A wire is then connected from the metal brace to a push button. The vane itself is easily constructed as can be seen in the illustration. two or three cells of dry battery and to the ground wire in connection with the timer The wires are connected in such a manner that when the vane is pointing in a certain direction the battery will be connected in series with the coil under that part of the dial representing the direction in which the vane is pointing. the needle would swing a few seconds before coming to a standstill. 6 in. These magnets are placed in a 10-in. The eight wires from the timer contacts connect with the outside wires of the eight magnets separately and the inside wires from the magnets connect with the metal brace which holds the magnets in place. It should be . This wire holds the needle in place when the pointer end is directly over the magnet attracting it. Without this attachment. thus magnetizing the core of the magnet which attracts the opposite pole of the needle toward the face of the magnet and indicating the way the wind is blowing. board.

and securely nail on the top of the box. or. A piece of plush 1-1/4 by 6 in. Allow a little margin at the top and bottom. 14 by 18 in. will be sufficient. The easiest way is to place the paper pattern on the leather and mark on the paper. long to give the best results. The one shown in the accompanying picture was made of a rich tan ooze of light weight and was lined with a grey-green goat skin. and about 6 in. the needle will instantly point to the part of the dial from which the wind is blowing. A piece 4-1/2 by 5 in. The handle can be made from an old broom handle the whole of which will be none too long. Fill the box with any handy ballast. It is called a modeling tool for leather and may be purchased. The box is pushed or pulled over the floor and the padded side will produce a fine polish. squares out of the four corners of the carpet and place the box squarely on it. A tool having a point shaped as in the illustration is commonly used. however. will answer the purpose just as well. to permit trimming the edges slightly after the parts have been sewed together. called a chip carving knife. is most satisfactory. secure a piece of "ooze" calf skin leather 4-1/2 by 10-1/2 in. The outfit is valuable to a person who is situated where a vane could not be placed so as to be seen from a window and especially at night when it is hard to determine the direction of the wind. Before tacking the fourth side.about 6 ft. A knife or a pair of scissors will do to cut the leather with. To work these outlines. though a special knife. The size of the box given here is the best although any size near that. Begin work by shaping the larger piece of leather as shown in the drawing. . making it heavy or light. nonabsorbent surface and with the tool--and a straightedge on the straight lines--indent the leather as shown. Place the leather on some level. Drive a heavy screw eye into the big end of the handle and fasten to the polisher by a staple driven through the eye into the center of the cover. How to Make a Lady's Card-Case [350] A card-case such as is shown here makes a very appropriate present for any lady. By simply pressing the push button on the side of the cover. The design was stenciled and the open parts backed with a green silk plush having a rather heavy nap. Cut 3-in. Buffalo. if not too high." Any automobile garage can supply the timer and an old valueless bicycle frame is not hard to find. fold a couple of newspapers to the right size and shove them in between the carpet and the bottom of the box for a cushion. will be enough for the two sides. Y. -Contributed by James L. Blackmer. first moisten the leather on the back with as much water as it will take and still not show through on the face side. also a piece of new carpet. To make it. Turn three of the flaps of the carpet up and tack them securely to the sides of the box. The indentations will be transferred without the necessity of putting any lines on the leather. The cover is easily made from a picture frame with four small boards arranged to take the place of the picture as shown. thus making a universal joint. one can be made from an ordinary nut pick by taking off the sharpness with fine emery paper so that it will not cut the leather. The next thing is to put in the marks for the outline of the designs and the borders. The lining of goat skin need not cover more than the central part-not the flies. The magnets used can be purchased from any electrical store in pairs which are called "instrument magnets. high. A Home-Made Floor Polisher [350] An inexpensive floor polisher can be made as follows: Secure a wooden box with a base 8 by 12 in. according to who is going to use it. N.

An ordinary sewing-machine . Hold the parts together and stitch them on a sewing-machine.Design for the Cover of Lady's Card-Case With the knife cut out the stencils as shown. A good leather paste will be required. Leather Tools Complete Card Case Next place the lining. being careful not to get any of the paste so far out that it will show. fold the flies along the lines indicated in the drawing. Paste the silk plush to the inner side.

and fasten the feathers inside of it. Such a crutch does not heat the arm pit and there is an elasticity about it not to be had in the wooden crutch. Crutch Made of an Old Broom [352] An emergency crutch made of a worn-out broom is an excellent substitute for a wood crutch. or break off the neck and scatter the contents on the fire. or a hip that has been wrenched. Keep the ooze side of the lining out so that it will show. Toy Darts and Parachutes [352] A dart (Fig. Syracuse. N. --Contributed by Katharine D. a needle and some feathers. can be thrown away when no longer needed. and put the solution in thin glass bottles. of sal ammoniac in 7 gal. away from it.will do if a good stout needle is used. The bottles should hold about 1 qt. If a fire breaks out. Fasten the cap on the cork and the dart is ready for use. as in cases of a sprained ankle. Shorten and hollow out the brush of the broom and then pad the hollow part with cotton batting. 1) is made of a cork having a tin cap. of common salt and 10 lb. cork tightly and seal to prevent evaporation. The crutch can be made to fit either child or adult and owing to its cheapness. and tie them together securely at the bottom. throw one of the bottles in or near the flames. Bore a hole in the center of the cap C. It may be necessary to use several bottles to quench the flames. especially when one or more crutches are needed for a short time. Morse. The parachute is made by cutting a piece of paper 15 in. Home-Made Fire Extinguisher [351] Dissolve 20 lb. temporary lameness. covering it with a piece of cloth sewed in place. The needle is run through the center of the cork A and a pin or piece of steel is put through the eye of the needle. Y. of water. When throwing the dart at a target stand from 6 to 10 ft. Take a quantity of small Dart Parts and Paper Parachute feathers. square and tying a piece of . rather than the smooth side. With the knife and straightedge trim off the surplus material at the top and bottom and the book is ready for use. A silk thread that will match the leather should be used. B.

I devised a simple and effective method to prevent them from doing harm. Wis. . the corners being wired.. There is a 1-in. The strings should be about 15 in. but prevents the chickens from digging holes. long. The nail with the coil is then put into the hole of the spool as shown. made up of four layers of No. This can be accomplished by moving the nail and magnet in the hole of the spool. The diaphragm is placed between the flanges on the spool and the end D that was sawed off. When the distance to produce the right sound is found. and the outside part tapered toward the hole as shown.J. and the receiver is ready for use. Take hold of the parachute by the cork and run it through the air with the wind. the nail and magnet can be made fast by filling the open space with melted sealing wax. should be made as carefully as possible from ferrotype tin. 1/8 in. commonly called tintype tin. openings and formed it into the shape of a large tray with edges 6 in. and a coil of wire. A. N. 22 gauge copper magnet wire. Y. Gordon Dempsey. The end piece and diaphragm are both fastened to the spool with two or three slender wood screws. Albany. I used wire mesh having 1/2-in. The proper distance must be found between the diaphragm and the head of the nail. This not only keeps the rats out. is fitted with two binding posts which are connected to the ends of the wire left projecting from the magnet winding. etc. syrup and similar can covers car be made from an old fork filed down Made of an Old Fork to the shape shown in the illustration. The end is filed to an edge. It is best to be as high as possible when flying the parachute as the air currents will sail it high and fast. B. Homemade Telephone Receiver [353] The receiver illustrated herewith is to be used in connection with the transmitter described elsewhere in this volume.string to each corner. is made of a large wooden ribbon spool. the other sawed in two on the line C and a flange. high. letting it go at arm's length. A flange the same size is made on the end D that was sawed off. allowing the ends to extend out about 6 in. -Contributed by Ben Grebin. A Tool for Lifting Can Covers [352] A handy tool for prying up varnish paint. F. is cut on the wood. long. --Contributed by John A. Tie all four strings together in a knot at the end and fasten them in the top of a cork with a small tack. deep. thus helping the rats to enter. E. Keeping Rats from a Chicken Coop [352] After trying for months to keep the rats from tunneling their way into my chicken coop by filling in the holes. My roosting coop is 5 by 15 ft. Paterson. as shown. wide and 1/16 in. The coil is 1 in. cut to the length of the spool. The binding posts are attached to the line and a trial given. but not sharp. setting traps. The end G is now fastened to the end of the spool. and tacked it to the boards. A small wooden or fiber end. --Contributed by J. N. Ashland. board all around the bottom on the inside. The diaphragm C. laying poisoned meat and meal. which is the essential part of the instrument. Hellwig. G. One end is removed entirely. wound on the head end. The body of the receiver. The magnet is made of a 30-penny nail.

The shape of the scrolls forming each support should be drawn on the paper The Stand with Vase around the shape of the vase. but care must be taken to get the shapes of the scrolls true. using the flat-nose pliers when necessary to keep the iron straight. placing it on the sketch from time to time to see that the scrolls are kept to the shape required. The vase is to have three supports. it can be cut in the right lengths with a pair of tinner's shears. This stand can be made by first drawing an outline of the vase on a heavy piece of paper. Take a piece of string or. Larger articles are cleaned by rubbing the surface with a small tuft of cotton saturated in the solution. As cyanide of potassium is a deadly poison. The supports are fastened together with rings of strip iron 3/8 in. and pass it around the scroll shape on the paper. and bend each strip in shape. This will give the exact length of the iron required to make the scroll. dip each one into the solution and rinse immediately in hot water. The scrolls are riveted and bolted together. to . better still. gold. then dry and polish with a linen cloth. bronze and brass use a saturated solution of cyanide of potassium. As sheet metal is used for making the scrolls. begin with the smallest scrolls. Take a pair of round-nose pliers. care must be taken not to have it touch any sore spot on the flesh. A single line will be sufficient. a piece of small wire. wide. To clean small articles.How to Clean Jewelry [353] To cleanse articles of silver. Ornamental Iron Flower Stand [353] The illustration shows an ornamental iron stand constructed to hold a glass or china vase.

and does not require coloring. After taking off the pattern. thus raising it. Have the design drawn or traced on the pattern. and after putting the wrong sides of the leather together. from E to F. stitch in a strip of leather about 1/4 in. Do not make this piece come quite up to the line EF. Cut out the leather to the size of the pattern. This solution will also prevent a glass from sweating in warm weather. using a duller point of the tool. making it as smooth as possible with the round side of the tool. stitch around the edge as designated by the letters above mentioned. A shade of brown is best as it does not soil easily. as shown in the sketch. Russian calf modeling leather is the material used. through which to slip the fly AGH.. sharp pencil.000 parts of 60 per cent alcohol. Then lay the pattern on the smooth side of the leather and trace over the design with the small end of the leather tool or a hard.. and Leather Design for a Purse from G to H. Trace also the line around the purse. The odor may be improved by adding a little oil of amber. from C to D. Be careful not to moisten the leather too much or the water will go through to the smooth side. The metal can be covered with any desired color of enamel paint. Work down the outside line of the design. 3-1/4 in. Fold the leather on the line EF. wide when stitching up the purse. so that the coins may be more easily put in and taken out. 3-1/2 in. retrace the design directly on the leather to make it more distinct. How to Make a Coin Purse [354] The dimensions for a leather coin purse are as follows: from A to B. Cut another piece of leather the size of the side ECBD of the purse. 4-1/4 in. then moisten the surface on the rough side with a sponge soaked in water. Dampen the leather as often as is necessary to keep it properly moistened. from the lines EF on the piece. .which the supports are fastened with rivets. Press or model down the leather all around the design. 6-3/8 in. Window Anti-Frost Solution [354] A window glass may be kept from frosting by rubbing over the inner surface a solution of 55 parts of glycerine and 1. About 1 in.

and. 1 was cut. Make the lug 1/4 in. around the wheel. as well as useful. Now take another piece of wood. with the largest side down. First. Fit this to the two . place it on one of the square pieces of wood. 1/2 in. leaving the lug a. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn. deep. then place the square piece out of which Fig. thick.How to Make a Turbine Engine [355] In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make. and which will be very interesting. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves--a fact which must be kept in mind. and a model for speed and power. It is neat and efficient. square. Then nail the wheel down firmly. This also should be slightly beveled.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. 3. being cast in wooden molds. deep. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction. 1. with the open side down. long. b. 2. and cut out a wheel. on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. with a compass saw. When it is finished. procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. The entire cut should be slightly beveled. and tack the other piece slightly. and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. Cut off six pieces 12 in. the "open" side. and the projections B. with pins or small nails. by 12 ft. cut out one piece as shown in Fig. all the way around. or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. then nail it. and cut it out as shown in Fig. following the dotted lines. Procure a thin board 1/4 in. as shown in Fig. It can be made without the use of a lathe.

Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise. and cut it out as shown in Fig. then bolt it together. as shown by the black dots in Fig. Now put mold No. with the thin wheel down--but first boring a 3/4-in. hole bored through its center. place it between two of the 12-in. square pieces of wood. and lay it away to dry.pieces just finished. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. hole 1/4 in. in the center of it. 1. as shown by the . one of which should have a 3/8-in. deep. and clean all the shavings out of it. and boring a 3/8-in. holes through it. bolts. After it is finished. Now take another of the 12-in. hole entirely through at the same place. and bore six 1/4-in. square pieces of wood. 4. slightly beveled. Take the mold apart.

where the casting did not fill out. from the one end. only the one is left-handed. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings. wide and 16 in. put the top of the brace through this hole. Pour metal into mold No. After it is fitted in. Using the Brace . screw down. instead of the right-handed piece. Then bolt the castings together. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. Put this together in mold No. then loosen the bolts and remove the casting. long. A piece of mild steel 5 in. and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. until it is full. and drill them in the same manner. and lay it away to dry. one in the lug. take an ordinary brace. This is the same as Fig. and the other in the base. and pour babbitt metal into it. and pouring metal in to fill it up.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. and two 1/4-in. 5. If there should happen to be any holes or spots. lay it on a level place. and bore three 1/4-in. with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. as shown by the black dots in Fig. and the exhaust hole in projection b. the other right-handed. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made. b.black dots in Fig. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft. one in the projections. Now cut out one of the 12-in. Commencing 1-1/2 in. This will cast a paddle-wheel. Fig. which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles. file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. Now take mold No. true it up with a square. 6. in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing.1. 4. If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press.2. as shown in illustration. Also bore the port-hole in projection B. see that the bolts are all tight. place the entire machine in a vise. Find the center of the paddle-wheel. and run in babbitt metal again. so that it will turn easily. long. B. in diameter must now be obtained. d. over the defective part. and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel. and connect to the boiler. 1. Let it stand for half an hour. and 3/8-in. The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. This is mold No. fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it. and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench. drill in it. and drill it entirely through. holes at d. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel. fasten a 3/8-in. holes.1. 6.2. This is for a shaft. place it under the drill.

. and with three small screw holes around the edge. bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in. and the other 8 ft. piece and at right angles to it. Painting A Car [357] When painting the automobile body and chassis be sure to stuff the oil holes with felt or waste before applying the paint. while it is running at full speed. one 6 ft. with a boss and a set screw. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. At each end of the 6ft. and the pleasure many times repays the effort. and if instructions have been carefully followed. fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Then take a knife or a chisel. Plan of Ice Boat . long. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it. or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned. Your turbine engine is now ready for work. turn the wheel to the shape desired. will do good service.The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can A Four-Runner Ice Yacht construct such a craft. If this caution is not observed the holes will become clogged with paint which will prevent any oil reaching the bearing. and. How To Build An Ice Boat [357] The ice boat is each year becoming more popular.

which may come in handy in heavy winds. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. 8 a reef point knot. Run the seam on a machine. A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in. long. Over the middle of the 6-ft. 3. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. at the butt and 1 in. Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. bolt the 8-ft. at the top. 1. Fig. To the under side of the 8-ft. boards to make the platform. should be of hardwood. where they often did considerable damage. so much the better will be your boat. projecting as in Fig. Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. in front of the rudder block. in diameter at the base. as the runners were fastened. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. distant. plank nail 8-in. The spar should be 9 ft. Details of Ice Boat Construction should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. 1. in diameter in the center. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. and about 8 in. in diameter. This fits in the square hole.These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used. at the end. particularly in a storehouse about 100 ft. leaving 1 ft. plank. piece and at right angles to it. being careful that none of the fastening nails made an electrical connection between the zinc pl